JP6694294B2 - Work machine - Google Patents

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JP6694294B2
JP6694294B2 JP2016029381A JP2016029381A JP6694294B2 JP 6694294 B2 JP6694294 B2 JP 6694294B2 JP 2016029381 A JP2016029381 A JP 2016029381A JP 2016029381 A JP2016029381 A JP 2016029381A JP 6694294 B2 JP6694294 B2 JP 6694294B2
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monitor
driver
cab
seat
operation
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JP2017145649A5 (en
JP2017145649A (en
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武田 康弘
康弘 武田
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日立建機株式会社
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Description

  The present invention relates to a special work machine that uses work implements outside the field of view of the front window of the cab.

  There are various types of work machines based on hydraulic excavators, which are swing-type work machines. Among them, there is a working machine in which the main work target area is located below or above the driver's cab and the work arm is extended below or above the driver's cab to work. In this type of work machine, the work target area cannot be visually recognized from the front window of the driver's cab while sitting in the driver's seat. Therefore, although a peep window is provided in the driver's cab in addition to the front window, an operator may lean out of the driver's cab and operate in an unreasonable posture without using the peep window.

  On the other hand, there is also a working machine in which a work target area below the driver's cab is photographed by a camera and an operator can operate it while watching the video on a monitor in the driver's cab (see Patent Document 1, etc.).

JP, 2009-35905, A

  In the work machine of Patent Document 1, a monitor is arranged in the front part of the cab (see the drawings of the document). In this case, for the operator sitting in the driver's seat, the work target area and the monitor exist in different directions, and since the direction in which the work arm is extended and the line-of-sight direction do not match, there is a sensory deviation from the image displayed on the monitor. Can happen.

  An object of the present invention is to provide a work machine that can be operated while monitoring a work target area that cannot be visually recognized from the front window of a driver's cab without feeling discomfort, that is, as if looking directly.

In order to achieve the above-mentioned object, the present invention provides a basic structure, a revolving structure having a driver's cab containing a driver's seat and provided on the basic structure, and a work arm connected to the revolving structure. , A work tool attached to the work arm, a lever and an operation lever device arranged at the front side of the driver's seat, which has an operation signal output device for outputting an operation signal according to the operation of the lever, and a display surface. The camera is provided with a monitor that is a pseudo window provided on the inner wall of the driver's cab toward the inside of the driver's cab, and a camera arranged to capture an area on the back side of the monitor from the driver's cab side. In a work machine in which a captured image is displayed on the monitor, the monitor is arranged in front of the driver's seat on the floor of the operator's cab, and an operation signal output device of the operation lever device is arranged under the monitor. versus the position and the monitor Is arranged under the floor of the cab so as to overlap the lower Te, lever of the operating lever device, past the monitor from the linked base to the operation signal output device extends forward underneath the monitor , Standing up through the front side of the monitor and extending to a grip located in front of the driver's seat, wherein the camera provides a rear side region of the monitor provided on the floor of the driver's cab from the driver's seat compartment. It is characterized in that it is installed on the lower side of the operator's cab with the optical axis facing downward so that the viewed image can be taken.

  According to the present invention, it is possible to operate the work target area that cannot be visually recognized from the front window of the operator's cab without any discomfort, that is, while monitoring the person as if he / she was directly watching the work area.

It is a left side view showing the whole construction of the work machine concerning a 1st embodiment of the present invention. It is a perspective left side view showing typically the internal structure of the operator's cab with which the working machine concerning a 1st embodiment of the present invention was equipped. It is a top view which represents typically the structure inside the driver's cab with which the working machine which concerns on 1st Embodiment of this invention was equipped. It is a schematic diagram of the pseudo window system with which the working machine which concerns on 1st Embodiment of this invention was equipped. It is a left side view showing the whole working machine structure concerning a modification of a 1st embodiment of the present invention. It is a left side view showing the whole structure of the work machine concerning other modifications of a 1st embodiment of the present invention. It is a left side view showing the whole structure of the work machine concerning other modification of a 1st embodiment of the present invention. It is a figure showing the state which the operator's cab of the working machine shown in FIG. 7 slid forward. It is a left side view showing the whole structure of the working machine concerning a 2nd embodiment of the present invention. It is a perspective left side view showing typically the internal structure of the operator's cab with which the working machine concerning a 2nd embodiment of the present invention was equipped. It is a top view of the operator's cab with which the working machine concerning a 2nd embodiment of the present invention was equipped. It is a figure showing the state which opened the front part of the operator's cab shown in FIG.

  Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.

(First embodiment)
1. Working Machine FIG. 1 is a left side view showing the overall structure of the working machine according to the first embodiment of the present invention. Thereafter, the front side (the left side in FIG. 1), the rear side (the right side in FIG. 1), the left side (the front side in the direction orthogonal to the plane of FIG. 1), the right side (the back side in the direction orthogonal to the plane of FIG. 1) of the operator seated in the driver's seat The front, rear, left, and right of the work machine are referred to simply as front, rear, left, and right. Further, a driver's cab to be described later is shown by seeing through the inside.

  The working machine 100A illustrated in FIG. 1 is a machine used for peeling off a refractory brick attached to the inner wall of a ladle W used for transporting molten steel in a steel mill or the like or a metal adhered to the refractory brick. .. The ladle W is a container having a bottomed cylindrical shape with an open top, and in the figure, the contour line of the cross section passing through the center line is represented by a two-dot chain line. This ladle W is placed on the ground via a support member S. The work machine 100A uses a hydraulic excavator as a base machine, and includes a foundation structure 10, a revolving structure 20, and a work device 30.

1-1. Foundation Structure The foundation structure 10 includes a pedestal 11 and posts 12. The gantry 11 is grounded and is firmly fixed to the ground with bolts (not shown) or the like. The position and size of the gantry 11 are such that the tip of the work device 30 reaches at least the bottom surface L2 and the rear surface L3 of the U-shaped inner wall surfaces L1-L3 of the ladle W shown in FIG. The height and position are set according to the size of. The post 12 is firmly fixed to the upper part of the pedestal 11 with bolts (not shown) or the like.

1-2. Revolving structure The revolving structure 20 includes a revolving frame 21, a driver's cab 22, a counterweight 23, a power chamber 24, and the like.

  The revolving frame 21 is a base frame of the revolving structure 20, and is provided above the post 12 via a revolving wheel 25, and the revolving structure 20 is centered on the revolving center C of FIG. 1 with respect to the substructure 10. It can turn. A swivel motor (not shown) is mounted on the swivel frame 21 near the swivel wheel 25, and the output shaft of the swivel motor meshes with a gear provided on the swivel wheel 25 to swivel with respect to the basic structure 10. The body 20 turns. Although an electric motor can be used as the swing motor, a hydraulic motor is used in this embodiment. The cab 22 is arranged at a position offset to the front side with respect to the turning center C, and is raised on the turning frame 21 via a pedestal portion 26. In this example, the lower surface of the cab 22 is higher than the upper surface of the power room 24. Details of the cab 22 will be described later. The counter weight 23 is a weight for balancing the weight with the working device 30, and is provided at the rear end of the revolving frame 21. The power chamber 24 is located between the pedestal portion 26 and the counterweight 23, and although not particularly shown, a prime mover (engine or electric motor), a hydraulic pump driven by this prime mover, a heat exchanger such as a radiator or an oil cooler, It houses a switching valve unit that controls the flow of pressure oil supplied to the hydraulic actuator, a hydraulic oil tank, a fuel tank, and the like.

1-3. Working Device Working device 30 includes a working arm 31 and a breaker 32. The work arm 31 includes a boom 33, an arm 34, a boom cylinder 35 (see FIG. 5, etc.), an arm cylinder 36, and an attachment cylinder 37. The boom 33 is rotatably connected to the front part of the revolving structure 20 in the vertical direction, the arm 34 is rotatably connected to the tip of the boom 33, and the breaker 32 is rotatably connected to the tip of the arm 34. The boom cylinder 35 is connected to the revolving unit 20 and the boom 33, and the arm cylinder 36 is connected to the boom 33 and the arm 34 at both ends. The base end of the attachment cylinder 37 is connected to the base side of the arm 34, while the front end is connected to the front end of the arm 34 and the breaker 32 via links 38 and 39, respectively. The boom cylinder 35, the arm cylinder 36, and the attachment cylinder 37 are all hydraulic cylinders, but electric cylinders may be used.

1-4. Driver's cab FIG. 2 is a perspective left side view schematically showing the internal structure of the driver's cab 22, and FIG. 3 is a plan view thereof. As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, the driver cab 22 includes a body 201, a driver's seat 202, operation lever devices 203L, 203R and 204L, 204R, an operation panel 205 (see FIG. 3), console boxes 206L, 206R, and pseudo. The window system 300 (see FIG. 4) and the like are provided.

  The body 201 is an outer shell of the driver's cab 22 surrounding the driver's seat 202, and surrounds the driver's seat 202 front, rear, left, right, and up and down by pillars 201a-201d, windows 201e-201h, a floor 201i, and a ceiling 201j. The pillar 201a connects the floor 201i and the ceiling 201j at each corner at the left front of the cab 22, the pillar 201b at the right front, the pillar 201c at the right rear, and the pillar 201d at the left rear. At least a part of the windows 201e-201h is formed of a material (glass, acrylic, etc.) that allows visible light to pass therethrough, and the inside of the cab 22 can be optically seen through the inside of the cab 22. There is. The window 201e is a front window, the window 201f is a right window, the window 201g is a rear window, and the window 201h is a left window. One of the right window 201f and the left window 201h, which is the left window 201h in the present embodiment, is not shown in the figure but is appropriately partitioned by a frame and partly serves as an opening / closing door. Further, a ladder is attached to the above-mentioned pedestal portion 26, and an operator goes up and down the ladder from the pedestal 11 or the like and gets on and off the operator's cab 22 via the opening / closing door.

  The driver's seat 202 is a seat on which an operator sits, and includes a pedestal 202a, a seat cushion 202b, a backrest 202c, a headrest 202d, and an armrest 202e. The pedestal 202a is fixed on the floor 201i. The base 202a may include a suspension. The seat cushion 202b is a seating portion on which an operator sits, and is fixed on the pedestal 202a. The backrest 202c is a backrest on which the operator sitting on the seat cushion 202b leans his back, and stands up from the rear portion of the seat cushion 202b. The headrest 202d is a pillow-shaped portion on which the operator leans his / her head, and is provided on the upper portion of the backrest 202c. The armrests 202e are armrests on which the operator rests his / her elbows, and are provided on both the left and right sides of the driver's seat 202. For example, the armrests 202e are located above the console boxes 206L and 206R, for example, in the vertical middle position of the backrest 202c. It is attached in an extended posture.

  The operation lever devices 203L and 203R are cruciform operation type lever devices that are tilted forward, backward, leftward and rightward, and are respectively arranged on the left and right sides of the driver's seat 202. The operation lever devices 203L and 203R instruct the operation of the work device 30 and the swing body 20. The operation lever devices 204L and 204R are lever devices that are tilted back and forth, and are arranged side by side on the front side of the driver's seat 202. Since these operation lever devices 204L and 204R are for traveling operation, they are not necessary in this embodiment and can be omitted, but other types of work machines having a traveling body as a basic structure (FIGS. 5 to 9). Reference)) is used to operate the vehicle.

  In addition, the console boxes 206L and 206R are arranged on the left and right of the driver's seat 202 below the armrests 202e. These console boxes 206L and 206R are appropriately provided with indicators such as hydraulic oil temperature and remaining amount of fuel, switches for setting a work mode and a target engine speed, an air conditioner unit, and a radio. The operation panel 205 includes a monitor and an operation device, is arranged so as not to obstruct the field of view of the operator sitting in the driver's seat 202, and may be provided near the right console box 206R. It is attached to the pillar 201b. On the monitor of the operation panel 205, for example, the positional relationship (distance etc.) between the work implement (the breaker 32 in this example) and the target, the angle of the work implement, etc. are displayed.

  The pseudo window system 300 includes a monitor unit 310, a camera 320, and an operating device 330 (see FIG. 4). The pseudo window system 300 will be described next.

2. Pseudo window system 2-1. Monitor Unit The monitor unit 310 includes a monitor 311, a protective cover 312, and a display control device 314 (see FIG. 4).

  The monitor 311 is a pseudo window composed of an LCD, an organic EL display, or the like, and has a display surface facing upward, and an inner wall of the body 201 (in this embodiment, the front side of the driver seat 202 on the floor 201i) via a bracket (not shown). It is provided. As described above, the operation panel 205 and the like also have a monitor inside the driver's cab 22, but the monitor 311 is provided on the floor 201i in addition to this, imitating a peep window looking down from the driver's cab 22. The shape of the display surface of the monitor 311 is not limited, but in the present embodiment, it is a rectangular shape that is long in the left and right directions. The width of the monitor 311 in the left-right direction may be the same as the width of the seat surface of the driver seat 202 (that is, the width of the seat cushion 202b in the left-right direction) or the space between the console boxes 206L and 206R, or slightly narrower than that. In the embodiment, the width of the seat surface of the driver seat 202 and the distance between the console boxes 206L and 206R are made wider.

  The protective cover 312 is a protective member that covers the upper side of the monitor 311. In the present embodiment, the upper surface of the protective cover 312 is flush with the upper surface of the floor 201i (the height is the same), and the protective cover 312 is the same as the floor surface. It constitutes a part. The protective cover 312 may be attached to the monitor 311 with bolts or the like to be integrated with the monitor 311, but in this embodiment, it is fixed to the floor 201i. The protective cover 312 is a transparent and high-strength member that transmits visible light, and is made of, for example, tempered glass. There is no obstacle between the protective cover 312 and the display surface of the monitor 311, and the image displayed on the monitor 311 can be visually recognized from inside the cab 22 through the protective cover 312. The protective cover 312 is located at the feet of the operator sitting in the driver's seat 202, and it is assumed that the operator puts his / her foot on the driver's foot or steps on when getting on / off the vehicle, and at least the operator can stand upright. Has sufficient strength.

  In this embodiment, the operation valve device 204a (see FIG. 2) is installed under the floor so as to be located on the back side of the display surface of the monitor 311 (overlapped downward). The operation valve device 204a is a component of the operation lever devices 204L and 204R, and is an operation signal output device that outputs an operation signal (hydraulic pressure signal) according to the operation direction and operation amount of the operation lever devices 204L and 204R. The lever portions of the operation lever devices 204L and 204R connected to the operation valve device 204a extend forward a short distance from the base to bypass the monitor 311, and stand up through the front side of the monitor 311 and the protective cover 312 to stand upright in the driver's seat 202. It extends to the front grip. When an electric lever device is used for the operation lever devices 204L and 204R, an operation signal output device such as a potentiometer that outputs an electric signal is substituted for the operation valve device 204a.

2-2. Camera The camera 320 captures an image displayed on the monitor 311, and is arranged so that an image of the area on the back side of the monitor 311 viewed from the cab 22 side can be captured. The camera 320 is attached to the revolving unit 20 and has an optical axis directed downward (strictly, the optical axis is inclined downward and frontward), for example, as shown in FIG. Alternatively, as shown in FIG. 2, it is attached to the lower portion of the cab 22 via a bracket (not shown). The optical axis of the camera 320 is preferably aligned with the set coordinate O in the cab 22 and the line X passing through, for example, the center of the display surface of the monitor 311 as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, but the work target area is photographed. The optical axis does not need to be exactly aligned with the line X as long as it is within the range (angle of view α). The set coordinates O in the present embodiment are assumed coordinates of the position of the eyes of the operator who sits in the driver's seat 202 and leans forward with his upper body looking down. An example of the set coordinate O is a coordinate in a vertical plane that equally divides the driver's seat 202 into right and left, and is a coordinate located on the front side in the horizontal direction of the headrest 202d and above the front edge of the seat cushion 202b in the vertical direction. Be done. The work target area is a range within which the tip of the work implement (the breaker 32 in this example) can reach, and is a specific area out of the view from the driver seat 202 through the windows 201e-201h, and in the present embodiment, These are the inner wall surfaces L2, L3, etc. of the ladle W described above. Therefore, the monitor 311 and the camera 320 are arranged between the work target area and the set coordinates O with the display surface and the optical axis facing each other. The focal length of the lens of the camera 320, the aperture value, the size of the image sensor, and the like are set so that the entire work target area is within the depth of field.

  Further, in the present embodiment, when the virtual window frame having the same inner dimension as the display surface of the monitor 311 is replaced with the monitor 311, the display of the monitor 311 is displayed in the field of view seen from the above-mentioned set coordinate O through the virtual window frame. The focal length of the lens of the camera 320, the size of the image sensor, the size and the field of view of the monitor 311 are matched (so that the size of the target displayed through the virtual window frame and the size of the target displayed on the monitor 311 match). The ratio (the ratio of the range of the image displayed on the monitor 311 to the range of the image actually captured by the image sensor) is set. The lens of the camera 320 may be a single focus lens, but may be a zoom lens. The display of the monitor 311 that fits the visual field through the virtual window frame is referred to as "basic display". When a zoom lens is used in the camera 320, the basic display is included in the zoom range from the wide-angle end to the telephoto end. To do. It is preferable that the basic display can be zoomed in (enlarged) and zoomed out (reduced), and if a zoom lens is used, at least zooming can be performed.

  It is needless to say that “matching the visual field seen through the virtual window frame” includes the case where the display of the monitor 311 matches the visual field seen through the virtual window frame. The layout and size of the monitor 311 and the camera 320 may be constrained due to the positional relationship, manufacturing convenience, etc., and deviation of the optical axis and field of view based on these constraints is allowed.

2-3. Operating Device FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of the pseudo window system. In brief, an operation signal is output from the operation device 330 to the display control device 314 in accordance with the operation of the operator, and a command signal is output from the display control device 314 to the monitor 311 or the camera 320 in accordance with the operation signal, so that the monitor 311 or the camera. 320 operates. Further, a video signal is input from the camera 320 to the display control device 314, a display signal based on the video signal and the operation signal is output from the display control device 314 to the monitor 311, and a video image captured by the camera 320 is displayed on the monitor 311. To be done. Here, the operation device 330 will be described.

  Although not shown in FIG. 2 and the like, the operating device 330 is mounted on, for example, a console (right console box 206R on the right side in this embodiment) opposite to the entrance / exit, or hung on a window (right window 201f in this embodiment). Then, it is provided in the cab 22. As shown in FIG. 4, the operation device 330 includes a power switch 331a, a zoom-in switch 331b, a zoom-out switch 331c, a display enlargement switch 331d, a display reduction switch 331e, a front switch 331f, a rear switch 331g, a left switch 331h, and a right switch. The switch 331i and the like are provided. When each switch is operated, an operation signal corresponding to the operation is output from the operation device 330 to the display control device 314.

2-4. Display Control Device The display control device 314 may be integrally attached to the monitor 311, or may be arranged apart from the monitor 311. When an operation signal is input from the operation device 330 in accordance with the operation of the power switch 331a, the display control device 314 outputs a command signal to the monitor 311 and the camera 320 to turn on / off the power of the monitor 311 and the camera 320. In the present embodiment, the monitor 311 and the camera 320 are switched on and off by one power switch 331a, but the power switches of the monitor 311 and the camera 320 may be separated. When an operation signal is input from the operation device 330 according to the operation of the zoom-in switch 331b, the display control device 314 outputs a command signal to the camera 320 and extends the focal length of the camera 320 (zooms in). When an operation signal is input from the operation device 330 in accordance with the operation of the zoom-out switch 331c, the display control device 314 outputs a command signal to the camera 320 to reduce the focal length of the lens of the camera 320 (zoom out). To go).

  Further, when an operation signal is input from the operation device 330 in accordance with the operation of the display enlargement switch 331d, the display control device 314 outputs a command signal to the monitor 311 and enlarges the display of the monitor 311 (photographed). Narrow the display range in the image). When an operation signal is input from the operation device 330 in accordance with the operation of the display reduction switch 331e during the display enlargement, the display control device 314 outputs a command signal to the monitor 311 to reduce the display on the monitor 311 (display Expand the range). When the operation signal is input from the operation device 330 in accordance with the operation of the front switch 331f, the rear switch 331g, the left switch 331h, or the right switch 331i when the display is enlarged, the display control device 314 outputs a command signal to the monitor 311. Move the display range forward, backward, left or right. Although not particularly shown, a reset button may be provided, and when the reset button is operated, the monitor 311 and the camera 320 may be driven to return to the above-described basic display.

3. Operation After the work machine 100A and the ladle W are set as shown in FIG. 1, the operator gets into the operator cab 22, arrives at the driver's seat 202, puts the work apparatus 100 in a state in which the operator can drive the work apparatus 100 according to a predetermined procedure, and operates the power switch 331a. Then, the pseudo window system 300 is activated. As a result, the video (moving image) captured by the camera 320 is displayed on the monitor 311, and the current state of the work target area can be visually recognized on the monitor 311. While sitting in the driver's seat 202, the operator looks down at his / her feet and, while watching the work target area on the monitor 311, operates the operation lever devices 203L and 203R to rotate the revolving structure 20 or drive the work device 30. The refractory bricks and attached metal on the inner wall surface of the ladle W are peeled off by the breaker 32. At this time, for example, when the work requires careful operation, the operation device 330 may be appropriately operated to use the zoom function, the display enlargement, the position adjustment of the display range, and the like.

4. Effect (1) Improvement of workability A monitor 311 is provided on the inner wall of the cab 22 (floor 201i in this embodiment) as a pseudo window, and the state of the work target area photographed by the camera 320 can be displayed on the monitor 311 in real time. .. The work target area is located at a position beyond the monitor 311 as seen from the operator sitting in the driver seat 202, and the image is captured by the camera 320 from the line-of-sight direction of the operator seated in the driver seat 202. Therefore, even when the work target area (in this example, the inner wall surfaces L2 and L3) cannot be seen from the optical window when the operator is seated in the driver's seat 202, the operator sits in the driver's seat 202 and looks in the direction of the work target area. It is possible to operate with a sense of incongruity as if the user directly looks at the work target area via the monitor 311. In this way, the work target area that cannot be visually recognized from the front window 201e of the driver's cab 22 can be operated while monitoring without feeling discomfort, that is, as if the person is looking directly. Further, since it is possible to operate in a natural posture in which the operator sits in the driver's seat 202 and looks in the direction of the work target area, it is not necessary to operate in an uncomfortable posture such as standing up and leaning out of the driver's seat 202. Therefore, workability can be improved.

  As described above, by setting the basic display according to the focal length of the lens of the camera 320 and the like, it is possible to visually recognize the work target area in the same size as that directly viewed from the driver's seat 202 through the viewing window. This can contribute to a comfortable operation.

(2) Improvement in structural strength of the body If a peep window that overlooks the work target area (inner wall surfaces L2, L3, etc.) below the cab 22 is provided, the floor 201i is opened, and the body of the cab 22 is accordingly opened. The rigidity of 201 may be reduced. In the present embodiment, it is not necessary to open the viewing window, and the space is filled with the monitor 311 even when the space for housing the monitor 311 and the like is provided on the floor 201i. Therefore, the structural strength of the body 201 can be improved as compared with the case where the viewing window is opened.

(3) Ensuring a wide field of view If the viewing window is to be opened, the area of the viewing window cannot be increased so much from the viewpoint of the strength of the body 201, even if there is room in the installation space. In addition, it is necessary to provide a member such as a grid for reinforcement or protection, which hinders the visibility. On the other hand, in the case of the present embodiment, since the strength of the body 201 does not decrease as in the case of opening the viewing window, a large monitor 311 can be installed according to the margin of the installation space. There is no need for structures that obstruct visibility. Therefore, as shown in FIG. 3 and the like, it is possible to install a large monitor 311 which is wider than the seating surface of the driver seat 202 and occupies a large area in front of the driver seat 202 on the floor 201i. It is also advantageous in securing a wider field of view than when a viewing window is provided below.

  Even when the traveling operation lever devices 204L and 204R are arranged in front of the driver's seat 202, the operation signal output device (the operation valve device 204a or the like) is arranged behind the monitor 311 as in the present embodiment. Therefore, it is possible to devise to secure a large front-rear dimension of the monitor 311. In the case of a peep window, if the operation signal output device is arranged so as to overlap with this, the operation signal output device and its piping or wiring become an obstacle that obstructs the field of view. Therefore, the operation valve device 204a is arranged as in this embodiment. It is not possible. The fact that the operation valve device can be arranged behind the monitor 311 also contributes to the expansion of the field of view. Further, depending on the size of the operator's cab 22, if the structure of the driver's seat of a general hydraulic excavator is followed, the operation valve device may interfere and it may be difficult to install the monitor 311 of a required size. On the other hand, by arranging the operation valve device 204a behind the monitor 311 as in the present embodiment, there is an advantage that the monitor 311 having a required size can be installed in a narrow driver's cab.

(4) Protection of Monitor In this embodiment, the monitor 311 is arranged at the feet of the operator. Therefore, when it is not desirable to directly apply a load to the monitor 311, do not step on the monitor 311 during driving or getting on / off the vehicle. It also forces the operator to be cautious and can be a burden. Therefore, in this embodiment, by covering the monitor 311 with the protective cover 312, there is no problem even if the monitor unit 310 is stepped on, and the operator's burden can be reduced.

(5) Improvement of work accuracy For the ladle W shown in FIG. 1, the work of hanging only the refractory bricks and the adhering metal with the breaker 32 without damaging the main body more than necessary requires high accuracy. In the present embodiment, the zoom function of the camera 320 and the display enlarging function of the monitor 311 allow a specific portion of the work target area to be appropriately enlarged, so that a contribution to improvement in work accuracy can be expected. Further effects can be expected by making a large copy on the large monitor 311.

5. Application Target In the first embodiment, the case where the monitor 311 is provided on the floor 201i of the cab 22 of the work machine 100A for disassembling the ladle W has been described as an example, but the application target is the work machine for disassembling the ladle W. Not limited to. The work target area is below the driver's cab, and the same can be applied to all work machines in which the operator cannot see the work area from the front window of the driver's cab while sitting in the driver's seat. Some application examples will be described below as modified examples.

5-1. High Cab Specification Machine FIG. 5 is a left side view showing the overall structure of the working machine according to a modification of the first embodiment of the present invention. Elements corresponding to those already described in this figure are designated by the same reference numerals as in the previous drawings, and description thereof will be omitted.

  The working machine 100B shown in FIG. 5 is a machine that performs scrap processing with the grapple 32A, and raises the operator's cab 22 by raising it through the pedestal portion 26 so that the pile of scraps and the cargo bed of the truck for loading the scraps can be easily seen. It is a high cab specification machine placed in a high position.

  The working machine 100B is different from the working machine 100A in that the basic structure 10A is a traveling body and is movable and movable, and the work implement is not the breaker 32 but the grapple 32A. The basic structure 10A may be a wheel type, but is a crawler type traveling body in the present embodiment, and includes a track frame 13, driven wheels (idlers) 14, drive wheels 15, crawlers (tracks) 16 and a traveling motor 17. .. Although not shown, the track frame 13 is formed in an H shape when viewed from above, and rotatably supports the driven wheels 14 near the front ends on the left and right sides and the drive wheels 15 near the rear ends. The output shaft of the traveling motor 17 is connected to the shafts of the left and right drive wheels 15, respectively. The crawler 16 is wound around the driven wheel 14 and the drive wheel 15 on both left and right sides. In addition, a turning frame 21 is turnably provided on the center of the track frame 13 via a turning wheel 25 at the upper part. Although an electric actuator can be used for the traveling motor 17, a hydraulic actuator is used in this embodiment. The traveling motor 17 is driven according to the operation of the operation lever devices 204L and 204R (see FIG. 3, etc.). In other respects, the work machines 100A and 100B have substantially the same configuration.

  Since the cab 22 of the work machine 100B is at a high position, it is difficult to see the vicinity of the foundation structure 10A from the driver seat 202 through the front window 201e. Therefore, when the area near the basic structure 10A is set as the work target area, the camera 320 is installed so that the work target area is included in the shooting range, and the monitor 311 is arranged as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. By doing so, the same effect as that of the embodiment described in FIGS. 1 to 4 can be obtained.

5-2. High Post Specification Machine FIG. 6 is a left side view showing the overall structure of a work machine according to another modification of the first embodiment of the present invention. Elements corresponding to those already described in this figure are designated by the same reference numerals as in the previous drawings, and description thereof will be omitted.

  Like the working machine 100B, the working machine 100C shown in FIG. 6 is also a machine for performing scrap processing with the grapple 32A, and the operator's cab 22 is arranged at a high position so that the pile of scraps and the cargo bed of the truck for loading the scraps can be easily seen. It is a high post machine. The working machine 100C is different from the working machine 100B in that, instead of providing the driver's cab 22 on the revolving frame 21 without a pedestal part, a post 26A is provided on the upper part of the truck frame 13 of the foundation structure 10A, and a post 26A is provided. The point is that the revolving frame 21 is provided on the upper part of the above through the revolving wheel 25. In other words, the post 26A has a structure in which the entire revolving structure 20 is raised. In other respects, the work machines 100B and 100C have substantially the same configuration.

  Like the working machine 100B, it is difficult for the working machine 100C to see the vicinity of the basic structure 10A from the driver's seat 202 through the front window 201e. Therefore, when the area near the basic structure 10A is set as the work target area, the camera 320 is installed so that the work target area is included in the shooting range, and the monitor 311 is arranged as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. By doing so, the same effect as that of the embodiment described in FIGS. 1 to 4 can be obtained.

5-3. Slide Cab Specification Machine FIG. 7 is a left side view showing the overall structure of a working machine according to still another modification of the first embodiment of the present invention. Elements corresponding to those already described in this figure are designated by the same reference numerals as in the previous drawings, and description thereof will be omitted.

  The work machine 100D shown in FIG. 7 is a machine for performing deep excavation work using the telescopic arm 34A and the clam bucket 32B. Since the work target area cannot be seen in a normal operator's cab, the operator's cab 22A is operated by an actuator such as a cylinder. It is a slide cab type machine that can be slid forward.

  In the work machine 100D, the driver's cab 22A is provided on the revolving frame 21 without the pedestal portion, and the driver's cab 22A can slide forward and backward to move to the front side of the revolving frame 21 as shown in FIG. is there. Further, a telescopic arm 34A is connected to the boom 33 in place of a normal arm, and a clam bucket 32B as a working tool is connected to the tip of the telescopic arm 34A. The telescopic arm 34A telescopes by a built-in cylinder. The clam bucket 32B is suspended by a universal joint at the end of the telescopic arm 34A, and is opened / closed by the extension / contraction of the cylinder 34Aa. In other respects, the work machine 100D has substantially the same configuration as the work machine 100B.

  Generally, a work machine with a slide cab specification has a part of the floor of the driver's cab as a glass window, and the operator's cab is slid forward so that the work area can be seen from the glass window on the floor. Due to restrictions it is not possible to provide large glass windows. The pseudo window system 300 can be provided instead of this glass window. By installing the monitor 311 on the floor 201i of the cab 22A and providing the camera 320 at the bottom of the cab 22A, for example, when the cab 22A is slid forward as shown in FIG. It is possible to work while watching the bottom of G) on the monitor 311. Therefore, the same effect as that of the embodiment described with reference to FIGS. 1 to 4 can be obtained.

(Second embodiment)
FIG. 9 is a left side view showing the overall structure of the work machine according to the second embodiment of the present invention. Similar to the first embodiment, the front side (the left side in FIG. 9), the rear side (the right side in FIG. 9), the left side (the front side in the direction orthogonal to the plane of FIG. 9), the right side (the right side of the plane in FIG. 9) of the operator sitting in the driver's seat. The front side, the rear side, the left side, and the right side of the work machine are referred to simply as the front side, the rear side, the left side, and the right side, respectively. Elements corresponding to those already described in this figure are designated by the same reference numerals as in the previous drawings, and description thereof will be omitted.

  The working machine 100E shown in FIG. 9 has a configuration in which a crusher 32C having a scissor-shaped cutter is attached as a working tool to the tip of a working arm 31 that is longer than a hydraulic excavator of a normal specification. The work machine 100E is a machine used for disassembling an object in a work target area at a high place (for example, a position exceeding 12-18 m from the ground plane of the machine body), and the object is pinched by a cutter of the crusher 32C and crushed. Crush. The operator's cab 22 is provided on the revolving frame 21 without being raised through a pedestal portion or the like. The revolving structure 20 itself is also provided on the foundation structure 10A that is a traveling structure without raising it via posts or the like. The main difference between the pseudo window system 300 and the first embodiment is that the monitor 311 is provided on the ceiling 201j of the operator cab 22.

  10 is a perspective left side view schematically showing the internal structure of the cab 22 of FIG. 9, and FIG. 11 is a plan view of the cab 22 of FIG. The pseudo window system 300 is composed of the same components as in the first embodiment, but in the present embodiment, since the work target area is diagonally above and in front of the cab 22, as shown in FIGS. 10 and 12. A monitor 311 and a camera 320 are installed on the ceiling 201j. The monitor 311 is installed in the front part of the ceiling 201j (for example, the front side of the backrest 200c) with the display surface facing the inner space of the driver's cab 22 (that is, facing down), and sits in the driver's seat 202 to perform the work target area. The display surface is arranged so that you can see it when you look up. The size of the monitor 311 is as described in the first embodiment. In this embodiment, since the interference between the operation valve device 204a and the monitor 311 does not pose a problem, the operation valve device 204a is arranged on the floor 201i in a general configuration.

  Further, in order to capture an image of the area on the back side of the monitor 311 viewed from the driver's cab 22 side, in the present embodiment, the posture in which the optical axis is directed upward (strictly speaking, the optical axis is inclined upward and frontward). A camera 320 is installed above the driver's cab 22 in a posture. The set coordinates O in the present embodiment are assumed coordinates of the position of the eyes of the operator who looks up in the direction of the work target area in a posture in which the upper body is leaning against the backrest 202c while sitting in the driver's seat 202. An example of the set coordinate O is a coordinate in a vertical plane that equally divides the driver's seat 202 left and right, and is a coordinate positioned on the front side in the horizontal direction of the headrest 202d and above the seat cushion 202b. The optical axis of the camera 320, the focal length and aperture value of the lens, the size of the image pickup device, the size of the monitor 311, and the field of view are set under the same meaning as in the first embodiment.

  As shown in FIG. 12, the front window 201e is slid to a position overlapping the lower side of the ceiling 201j in the cab 22 by guiding with a rail 207 provided from the front part to the upper part of the cab 22 as shown in FIG. In some cases, the front part of the cab 22 may be opened. In this case, it is necessary to provide the monitor 311 so as not to interfere with the front window 201e that slides as the front portion of the cab 22 opens and closes. In this embodiment, a monitor 311 is provided on the ceiling 201j together with the camera 320, and the camera 320 and the monitor 311 are covered with a cover 321 while looking into the objective lens of the camera 320. In this case, it is necessary to provide an opening in the ceiling 201j so as not to obstruct the visibility of the display surface of the monitor 311, but this opening is closed by the monitor 311 and the strength of the body 201 is increased compared to the case where a simple opening is provided. Has little effect. A protective cover 312 (see FIG. 2 and the like) can be fitted in the opening, but the protective cover 312 may be omitted. Even if there is a front window 201e between the driver's seat 202 and the monitor 311, the monitor 311 can be seen through the front window 201e.

  Other points are the same as in the first embodiment.

  In the present embodiment, the work target area deviates to the upper side from the view from the driver's seat 202 through the front window 201e, but it is possible to capture the situation in the direction from the driver seat 202 to the work target area using the monitor 311 as a pseudo window. it can. Therefore, the operator can operate in a comfortable posture without any discomfort as if he or she were looking directly at the work target area. Also in this embodiment, the same effect as that of the first embodiment can be obtained.

  In the second embodiment, the case in which the monitor 311 is provided on the ceiling 201j of the operator's cab 22 of the work machine 100E that performs dismantling work at a high place has been described as an example, but the application target is not limited to this type of dismantling machine. The work target area is above the driver's cab, and the same can be applied to all work machines in which the operator cannot see the work area from the front window of the driver's cab while sitting in the driver's seat. For example, the pseudo window system 300 can be applied to a working machine or the like that sprays water to a high place in order to suppress dust scattering at a dismantling site or the like by a water spray nozzle attached to the tip of a work arm in the same manner as this embodiment. ..

(Other)
As described above, in the first embodiment and the modified example thereof, the example in which the monitor 311 is installed on the floor 201i of the operator's cab 22, 22A has been described. The installation mode of the monitor 311 on the floor 201i is described above with reference to FIGS. 2 and 3. It is not limited to the above embodiment. For example, instead of covering the monitor 311 with the transparent protective cover 312, the monitor 311 may be covered with an opening / closing door or a lid, and when not in use, the opening / closing door or the lid may be closed to protect the monitor 311. Although the configuration in which the protective cover 312 is flush with the floor 201i is illustrated, a configuration in which a thin monitor is installed on the floor 201i without digging the floor 201i (the upper surface of the monitor 311 or the protective cover 312 is higher than the upper surface of the floor 201i). Configuration).

  In the second embodiment, an example in which the monitor 311 is installed on the ceiling 201j of the operator's cab 22 has been described, but the installation mode of the monitor 311 in this case is not limited to the example shown in FIGS. 10 and 11. For example, when the ceiling 201j is thicker than the monitor 311, a recess may be formed on the inner wall surface (lower surface) of the ceiling 201j and the monitor 311 may be fitted therein. When it is not necessary to take measures against interference with the front window 201e, the thin monitor 311 may be attached to the lower surface of the ceiling 201j with bolts or the like.

  Further, in all the examples, the monitor 311 may be configured by one monitor, but a configuration in which a plurality of monitors are arranged and handled as one monitor is also conceivable. When there are a plurality of work target areas to be monitored, a plurality of pairs of cameras 320 and monitors 311 can be provided. The camera 320 may be a fixed type, but the camera 320 is attached to the revolving structure 20 through a supporting member having a swing mechanism, a shift mechanism, and the like, and a swing or shift operation switch is provided on the operation device 330 to change the optical axis of the camera 320. It may be possible to adjust the position and angle at hand.

  Further, not only the image is displayed on the monitor 311, but also a microphone is provided on the camera 320 if necessary, and the sound received by the microphone from the existing speaker in the driver's cab 22, 22A or the speaker provided on the monitor 311 is received. You may make it output in real time. Moreover, if a recording device for recording video and audio data acquired by the camera 320 is provided, it can be used for recording the work situation.

10, 10A ... Foundation structure, 20 ... Revolving structure, 22, 22A ... Driver's cab, 31 ... Working arm, 32 ... Breaker (work implement), 32A ... Grapple (work implement), 32B ... Clam bucket (work implement), 32C ... Crusher (work implement), 100A-100E ... Work machine, 201i ... Floor (driver's cab inner wall), 201j ... Ceiling (driver's cab inner wall), 202 ... Driver's seat, 202b ... Seat cushion (driver's seat) Surface), 204a ... Operation valve device (operation signal output device), 204L, 204R ... Operation lever device, 311 ... Monitor, 312 ... Protective cover, 320 ... Camera

Claims (4)

  1. A basic structure, a revolving structure provided on the basic structure having a driver's cab accommodating a driver's seat, a working arm connected to the revolving structure, and a work tool attached to the working arm, An operation lever device having an operation signal output device that outputs an operation signal corresponding to the operation of the lever and the lever, and an operation lever device arranged on the front side of the driver's seat, and a display surface of the operation room with the display surface facing the inside of the operator's cab. A work machine that includes a monitor that is a pseudo window provided on an inner wall and a camera that is arranged so as to capture an image of a region on the back side of the monitor from the driver's cab side, and an image captured by the camera is displayed on the monitor. At
    The monitor is arranged in front of the driver's seat on the floor of the cab,
    An operation signal output device of the operation lever device is arranged under the floor of the operator's cab so as to be located below the monitor and overlap downward with the monitor ,
    A lever of the operation lever device extends forward below the monitor from a base connected to the operation signal output device, bypasses the monitor, stands up through the front side of the monitor, and stands in front of the driver's seat. It extends to the grip located,
    The camera is positioned on the lower side of the driver's cab with the optical axis facing downward so that an image of the rear side of the monitor provided on the floor of the driver's cab viewed from the driver's cab can be captured. A working machine characterized by being installed.
  2.   The work machine according to claim 1, further comprising a protective cover that covers the monitor.
  3.   The work machine according to claim 1, wherein a width of the monitor is equal to or larger than a width of a seat surface of the driver's seat.
  4.   The work machine according to claim 1, wherein when a monitor replaces a window frame having the same inner dimension as the display surface of the monitor, the display of the monitor is displayed in the field of view seen through the window frame from the set coordinates in the cab. The working machine, wherein the focal length of the lens of the camera, the size of the image pickup device, the size of the monitor, and the field of view are set so as to match.
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH1037252A (en) * 1996-07-22 1998-02-10 Shin Caterpillar Mitsubishi Ltd Displaying method and device of peripheral sides of vehicle
JP3351984B2 (en) * 1997-04-22 2002-12-03 国土交通省関東地方整備局長 Apparatus and method for improving visibility of working vehicle
JP2002316789A (en) * 2001-04-20 2002-10-31 Sumitomo Heavy Industries Construction Crane Co Ltd Operator cab of construction machinery
JP2009035905A (en) * 2007-07-31 2009-02-19 Sumitomo (Shi) Construction Machinery Manufacturing Co Ltd Cab lower area checking device of work machine
US8172312B2 (en) * 2009-09-03 2012-05-08 Caterpillar Global Mining Llc Excavator cab with an improved field of view
JP6287488B2 (en) * 2014-03-31 2018-03-07 株式会社Jvcケンウッド Object display device

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