JP6439229B2 - Electrode structure, air battery single cell structure, and air battery stack structure - Google Patents

Electrode structure, air battery single cell structure, and air battery stack structure Download PDF

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JP6439229B2
JP6439229B2 JP2015023850A JP2015023850A JP6439229B2 JP 6439229 B2 JP6439229 B2 JP 6439229B2 JP 2015023850 A JP2015023850 A JP 2015023850A JP 2015023850 A JP2015023850 A JP 2015023850A JP 6439229 B2 JP6439229 B2 JP 6439229B2
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positive electrode
electrode layer
air battery
negative electrode
structure
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JP2016149187A (en
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柴田 格
格 柴田
佳子 塚田
佳子 塚田
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日産自動車株式会社
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The present invention relates to an electrode structure, a single cell structure of an air battery, and a stack structure of an air battery.
More specifically, the present invention relates to an electrode structure capable of realizing a reduction in current collecting resistance and a uniform current density distribution on the positive electrode side, a single cell structure of an air battery having the same, and a stack structure of an air battery. .

An air battery is a battery using oxygen in the air as a positive electrode active material and a metal such as aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), or zinc (Zn) as a negative electrode active material.
And since an air battery does not need to provide a positive electrode active material in a battery container, it has high energy density, can be reduced in size and weight, and can be used as a power source for portable devices, and further for driving electric vehicles and the like. Use as a power source is also expected.
In addition, by storing the electrolyte separately from the battery body, there is no battery reaction during storage, so there is almost no consumption or alteration of the active material or electrolyte, and semipermanent storage is possible. In particular, the use as a standby power source for emergency and emergency is drawing attention.

  Such an air battery has a structure in which a positive electrode is installed on one side of a substantially frame-shaped member and a negative electrode is installed on the other side so as to face the positive electrode. A battery (preliminary battery) that generates electric power by injecting an electrolytic solution into a formed space has been proposed (see Patent Document 1).

JP 2005-527069 A

  However, in the air battery stack having the bi-cell structure described in Patent Document 1, in order to collect current at the positive electrode, current is passed in the surface direction of the positive electrode, and further in one direction. In addition, since a thin plate current collector is applied, there is a problem that when a large current is passed, loss due to Joule heat increases, current density distribution becomes uneven, and battery performance decreases. .

The present invention has been made in view of such problems of the prior art.
And this invention provides the electrode structure which can implement | achieve reduction of current collection resistance and the uniformization of the current density distribution in a positive electrode side, the single cell structure of an air battery, and the stack structure of an air battery which has this With the goal.

  The inventors of the present invention have made extensive studies in order to achieve the above object. As a result, two predetermined first positive electrode units, a predetermined negative electrode layer, and a predetermined conductive frame member are provided, and the conductive frame member includes the negative electrode layer in the frame, and adjacent positive electrodes. A structure in which the positive electrode layer and the negative electrode layer adjacent to each other are separated and joined so that the negative electrode layer and the negative electrode layer face each other, and an electrolyte container is formed together with the two first positive electrode units, or two predetermined A first positive electrode unit; at least one predetermined second positive electrode unit; a predetermined number of predetermined negative electrode layers; and a predetermined number of predetermined conductive frame members, wherein the conductive frame member is disposed in the frame. The first positive electrode unit and the second positive electrode unit, or the first positive electrode unit and the first positive electrode unit, the first positive electrode unit and the second positive electrode unit are provided. Positive electrode unit, second positive electrode unit and two second positive electrode units With the structure that forms the electrolyte liquid storage unit with preparative, it found that the above object can be attained, thereby completing the present invention.

That is, the first electrode structure of the present invention includes two first positive electrode units, an air battery negative electrode layer, and a conductive frame member.
The first positive electrode unit includes a substantially plate-shaped housing having a ventilation space inside and a structure in which the front surface and the back surface are electrically insulated, and at least one of the front surface and the back surface of the substantially plate-shaped housing. An air battery positive electrode layer disposed on the outer surface.
The negative electrode layer for the air battery is disposed between the two first positive electrode units.
Further, the conductive frame member holds the air battery negative electrode layer in a state of being electrically insulated from the air battery positive electrode layer. The conductive frame member includes an air battery negative electrode layer in the frame, and the adjacent air battery positive electrode layer and the air battery negative electrode layer are adjacent to each other such that the adjacent air battery positive electrode layer and the air battery negative electrode layer face each other. The air battery negative electrode layer is separated and joined, and together with the two first positive electrode units, an electrolyte solution storage portion is formed.

In addition, the second electrode structure of the present invention includes two first positive electrode units, at least one second positive electrode unit, a number of air battery negative electrode layers one more than the number of second positive electrode units, and air. It has the same number of conductive frame members as the number of battery negative electrode layers.
The first positive electrode unit includes a substantially plate-shaped housing having a ventilation space inside and a structure in which the front surface and the back surface are electrically insulated, and at least one of the front surface and the back surface of the substantially plate-shaped housing. An air battery positive electrode layer disposed on the outer surface.
Further, the second positive electrode unit is disposed between the two first positive electrode units, has a ventilation space inside, and has a substantially plate-like housing having a structure in which the front surface and the back surface are electrically insulated, An air battery positive electrode layer disposed on the outer surface of both the front and back surfaces of the substantially plate-shaped housing.
Furthermore, the negative electrode layer for an air battery is disposed between the first positive electrode unit and the second positive electrode unit, or between the first positive electrode unit and the second positive electrode unit and between the second positive electrode units.
The conductive frame member holds the air battery negative electrode layer in a state of being electrically insulated from the air battery positive electrode layer. The conductive frame member includes an air battery negative electrode layer in the frame, and the adjacent air battery positive electrode layer and the air battery negative electrode layer are adjacent to each other such that the adjacent air battery positive electrode layer and the air battery negative electrode layer face each other. An air battery negative electrode layer is separated and joined, and together with the first positive electrode unit and the second positive electrode unit, or the first positive electrode unit and the second positive electrode unit and the two second positive electrode units, an electrolyte container is formed. Yes.

  Furthermore, the stack structure of the air battery of the present invention has the first electrode structure or the second electrode structure.

  Furthermore, the single cell structure of the air battery of the present invention has the first electrode structure.

According to the present invention, two predetermined first positive electrode units, a predetermined negative electrode layer, and a predetermined conductive frame member are provided, the conductive frame member includes a negative electrode layer in the frame, and A configuration in which the adjacent positive electrode layer and the negative electrode layer are separated and joined so that the adjacent positive electrode layer and the negative electrode layer face each other, and the electrolyte container is formed together with the two first positive electrode units, or 2 One predetermined first positive electrode unit, at least one predetermined second positive electrode unit, a predetermined number of predetermined negative electrode layers, and a predetermined number of predetermined conductive frame members. The negative electrode layer is provided in the frame, and the adjacent positive electrode layer and the negative electrode layer are joined separately so that the adjacent positive electrode layer and the negative electrode layer face each other, and the first positive electrode unit and the second positive electrode unit, Alternatively, the first positive electrode unit and the second positive electrode unit and the two second positive electrodes It has a configuration which forms the electrolytic solution containing portion with the unit.
Therefore, it is possible to provide an electrode structure capable of realizing a reduction in current collecting resistance and a uniform current density distribution on the positive electrode side, a single cell structure of an air battery having this, and a stack structure of an air battery.

FIG. 1 is an exploded perspective view schematically showing an electrode structure according to Embodiment 1-1. FIG. 2 is a perspective view schematically showing the electrode structure according to the 1-1 embodiment. 3 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the electrode structure shown in FIG. 2 taken along the line III-III. FIG. 4 is an exploded perspective view schematically showing the electrode structure according to the first to second embodiments. FIG. 5 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the electrode structure shown in FIG. FIG. 6 is an exploded perspective view schematically showing the electrode structure according to the first to third embodiments. FIG. 7 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the electrode structure shown in FIG. FIG. 8 is an exploded perspective view schematically showing an electrode structure according to the 2-1 embodiment. FIG. 9 is a perspective view schematically showing an electrode structure according to the 2-1 embodiment. FIG. 10 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along line XX of the electrode structure shown in FIG. FIG. 11 is an exploded perspective view schematically showing a main part of the electrode structure according to the 2-2 embodiment. FIG. 12 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a main part of the electrode structure shown in FIG. FIG. 13 is an exploded perspective view schematically showing a main part of the electrode structure according to the 2-3 embodiment. 14 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the main part of the electrode structure shown in FIG.

  Hereinafter, an electrode structure, an air battery single cell structure, and an air battery stack structure according to an embodiment of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings. In the present specification and claims, for convenience of explanation, one surface of the substantially plate-shaped housing is described as “front surface” and the other surface as “back surface”, but these are equivalent elements, It goes without saying that configurations substituted for each other are also included in the scope of the present invention. Moreover, the dimension ratio of drawing quoted by the following embodiment is exaggerated on account of description, and may differ from an actual ratio.

[First Embodiment]
First, an electrode structure and a single cell structure of an air battery according to a first embodiment will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.

(1-1 embodiment)
FIG. 1 is an exploded perspective view schematically showing an electrode structure according to Embodiment 1-1. FIG. 2 is a perspective view schematically showing the electrode structure according to the 1-1 embodiment. Further, FIG. 3 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along line III-III of the electrode structure shown in FIG.

As shown in FIGS. 1 to 3, the electrode structure 1 of the present embodiment includes two first positive electrode units (10, 10), an air battery negative electrode layer 30, and a conductive frame member 40. Is.
The first positive electrode unit 10 includes a substantially plate-shaped housing 12 having a ventilation space 10a therein and a structure in which the front surface 12a and the back surface 12b are electrically insulated, and the surface of the substantially plate-shaped housing 12. And an air battery positive electrode layer 14 disposed on the outer surface 12c of 12a.
The air battery negative electrode layer 30 is disposed between the two first positive electrode units (10, 10).
Further, the conductive frame member 40 holds the air battery negative electrode layer 30 in a state of being electrically insulated from the air battery positive electrode layer 14. The conductive frame member 40 includes the air battery negative electrode layer 30 in the frame 40a, and the adjacent air battery positive electrode layer 14 and the air battery negative electrode layer 30 face each other. The battery positive electrode layer 14 and the air battery negative electrode layer 30 are joined to be separated from each other, and together with the two first positive electrode units 10, an electrolyte solution containing portion E is formed.
In addition, the electrode structure 1 of this embodiment turns into the single cell structure of the air battery which can produce electric power, when electrolyte solution is supplied to the electrolyte solution accommodating part E. FIG.

Thus, a conductive frame member that is relatively thick and can easily pass a large current can be used as a current collector (collection bus bar) on the positive electrode layer side for an air battery, and the conductive frame member is used for an air battery. To provide an electrode structure capable of realizing a reduction in current collecting resistance and a uniform current density distribution on the positive electrode side, and a single cell structure of an air battery having the same, because the structure is arranged around the positive electrode layer side. Can do.
Thereby, battery performance, such as extending the discharge time of the single cell structure of an air battery and improving an output, can be improved.

  In other words, in the conventional case where only a thin plate current collector is applied, if a large current is passed, the loss due to the Joule heat due to the current collecting resistance increases, and the temperature of the electrolyte in the battery rises. There is a problem in that the electrolytic solution evaporates, the liquid is more easily dried up, and the discharge time is shortened. Therefore, the current collecting resistance can be reduced by adopting a configuration in which a conductive frame member that has a relatively large thickness and is easy to pass a large current is used as a current collector (current collection bus bar) on the positive electrode layer side. It is possible to suppress or prevent a rise in the temperature of the electrolyte solution, evaporation of the electrolyte solution, and liquid drainage associated therewith. As a result, the discharge time can be lengthened.

  Further, in the conventional case where current is collected in one direction, the current density distribution becomes non-uniform, and accordingly, the battery reaction becomes non-uniform and the discharge time is shortened. Therefore, by adopting a configuration in which the conductive frame member is disposed around the positive electrode layer side, the current density distribution on the positive electrode side can be made more uniform, and the battery reaction can be made more uniform. As a result, the discharge time can be lengthened.

  Furthermore, in the conventional case, there is a problem that a low output battery is obtained when the discharge current is suppressed in order to suppress the heat generation amount. Therefore, even when a large current is passed as described above, the output can be improved by applying an electrode structure that can reduce the current collection resistance and make the current density distribution uniform on the positive electrode side.

  In addition, as shown in FIGS. 1-3, in this embodiment, the substantially plate-shaped housing | casing 12 has the ventilation space 10a formed with the insulating rib 12A inside, and clamps the insulating rib 12A. It is preferable from the viewpoint that the front surface 12a and the back surface 12b formed of the porous metal support plates (12B, 12B) have a structure that is electrically insulated, and can be easily manufactured with a simple configuration.

  Moreover, as shown in FIGS. 1-3, in this embodiment, the electroconductive frame member 40 is the frame part 42 formed from the conductor which functions as a collector on the positive electrode layer side, and the negative electrode for air batteries. It is preferable from a viewpoint that it is easy to produce with the simple structure that it is provided with the insulation part 44 which ensures electrical insulation with the layer 30.

  Further, as shown in FIGS. 1 to 3, in this embodiment, the conductive frame member 40 is provided with a part of the insulating portion 44, and the air battery negative electrode layer 30 is electrically connected to the air battery positive electrode layer 14. It is preferable from the standpoint that it is easy to manufacture with a simple structure that has a loading / unloading port 40b that can be loaded and unloaded while being electrically insulated.

  In addition, as shown in FIGS. 1 to 3, in the present embodiment, it is possible to obtain a predetermined discharge current or discharge voltage that a part of the air battery negative electrode layer 30 protrudes from the loading / unloading port 40 b. When it is no longer possible, after removing the remaining negative electrode layer for air battery, it is preferable from the viewpoint that a new negative electrode layer for air battery can be attached and discharge can be started again. In addition, although not shown in figure, it is good also as a structure which the current collection member attached to the negative electrode layer for air batteries protrudes from the loading / unloading port.

Furthermore, as shown in FIGS. 1-3, in this embodiment, the electroconductive frame member 40 has a level | step-difference part (40c, 40c) with which a 1st positive electrode unit (10,10) fits. Is preferable because it can be firmly joined by fitting.
In addition, by applying the one having a step portion, there is also a secondary advantage that the first positive electrode unit and the conductive frame member can be easily aligned in the production.

  Although not shown in the drawings, in this embodiment, the conductive frame member supplies a supply port for supplying the electrolyte solution to the electrolyte solution storage portion and a gas such as air in the electrolyte solution storage portion when supplying the electrolyte solution. It is preferable from the viewpoint that it is possible to supply and discharge the electrolytic solution as needed, having a discharge port for discharging the used electrolytic solution.

  Furthermore, as shown in FIGS. 1 to 3, in this embodiment, the conductive frame member has a loading / unloading port that can be loaded and unloaded while the negative electrode layer for the air battery is electrically insulated from the positive electrode layer for the air battery. However, if a part of the negative electrode layer for the air battery protrudes from the loading / unloading port, the remaining negative electrode layer for the air battery can be removed if necessary when a predetermined discharge current or discharge voltage cannot be obtained. After that, a new negative electrode layer for an air battery can be mounted and the discharge can be started again. At this time, sludge that may be generated in the electrolytic solution storage part can be removed using the loading / unloading port.

  Here, each configuration will be described in detail.

As said 1st positive electrode unit 10, it has the ventilation space formed with the insulating rib inside, and the structure where the surface and back surface formed of the porous metal support plate which pinches | interposes an insulating rib was electrically insulated Having a substantially plate-shaped housing whose outer shape is a rectangular plate shape, and a positive electrode layer for an air battery disposed on the outer surface of the surface (in other words, the outer surface of the surface). However, the present invention is not limited to this.
That is, the first positive electrode unit 10 is disposed on the outer surface of the substantially plate-shaped housing having a ventilation space inside and having a structure in which the front surface and the back surface are electrically insulated, and the surface of the substantially plate-shaped housing. If it is provided with the provided positive electrode layer for air batteries, it will not specifically limit.

The substantially plate-shaped housing 12 is not particularly limited as long as it has a ventilation space inside and has a structure in which the front surface and the back surface are electrically insulated.
For example, it is preferable to apply a substantially plate-shaped housing having a function of supporting the positive electrode layer for an air battery and an air flow path function capable of supplying an oxygen-containing gas such as air to the positive electrode layer for the air battery. . Note that the outer shape of the substantially plate-shaped housing is not limited to a rectangular plate shape, and may be, for example, a circular plate shape. The ventilation space can be formed, for example, by dispersing and arranging a plurality of insulating ribs made of resin or the like. And a substantially plate-shaped housing | casing can be formed by pinching these with a porous metal support plate, for example. As the porous metal support plate, for example, a foam metal plate having a plurality of fine holes, an etching metal plate, a punching metal plate, or the like can be suitably used.

Furthermore, the positive electrode layer 14 for an air battery includes oxygen as a positive electrode active material, and includes, for example, a conductive carrier that includes an oxygen redox catalyst and supports a catalyst that is added as necessary. It can be applied.
Although not shown, the air battery positive electrode layer has a liquid-tight ventilation layer that suppresses or prevents leakage of the electrolyte filled in the electrolyte container on the ventilation space side. In the present embodiment, an air battery positive electrode layer is disposed on the outer surface of a substantially plate-shaped housing via a liquid-tight ventilation layer (not shown) such as a conductive water repellent layer. The conductive water-repellent layer has liquid-tightness (for example, water-tightness) with respect to the electrolyte and air permeability, and suppresses or prevents the electrolyte from leaking to the outside, while supplying oxygen to the positive electrode For example, a material composed of a water-repellent porous resin such as a polyolefin resin such as polypropylene or polyethylene or a fluorine resin such as polytetrafluoroethylene and a conductive material such as graphite is preferably used. Can do.

  Examples of the catalyst include metal oxides such as manganese dioxide and tricobalt tetroxide, carbon (C), platinum (Pt), ruthenium (Ru), iridium (Ir), rhodium (Rh), and palladium. (Pd), osmium (Os), tungsten (W), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), vanadium (V), molybdenum It can be selected from metals such as (Mo), gallium (Ga), and aluminum (Al), alloys and oxides thereof.

  Further, the shape and size of the catalyst are not particularly limited, and the same shape and size as those of conventionally known catalysts can be adopted. However, the shape of the catalyst is preferably granular, and the average particle size of the catalyst particles is preferably 1 to 30 nm. When the average particle diameter of the catalyst particles is within such a range, it is possible to appropriately control the balance between the catalyst utilization rate related to the effective electrode area where the electrochemical reaction proceeds and the ease of loading.

  Further, the carrier functions as a carrier for supporting the catalyst and as an electron conduction path involved in the transfer of electrons between the catalyst and other members. Any carrier may be used as long as it has a specific surface area for supporting the catalyst component in a desired dispersion state and sufficient electron conductivity, and the main component is preferably carbon. Specific examples of the carrier include carbon particles made of carbon black, activated carbon, coke, natural graphite, artificial graphite and the like.

  Also, the size of the carrier is not particularly limited, and from the viewpoint of controlling the ease of loading, the catalyst utilization, the thickness of the catalyst layer within an appropriate range, the average particle size is about 5 to 200 nm, The thickness is preferably about 10 to 100 nm.

  Further, the amount of the catalyst supported on the carrier is preferably 10 to 80% by mass, more preferably 30 to 70% by mass, based on the total amount of the catalyst and the carrier supporting the catalyst. When the supported amount of the catalyst is within such a range, the balance between the degree of dispersion of the catalyst on the support and the catalyst performance becomes appropriate.

  It should be noted that the above-described catalyst and the type of the carrier supporting the catalyst are not limited to those described above, and it goes without saying that conventionally known materials applicable to air batteries can be used as appropriate.

  For the air battery negative electrode layer 30, for example, a single metal whose standard electrode potential is lower than hydrogen or an alloy containing these metals is preferably used. Examples of such a simple metal include zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and magnesium (Mg). Examples of the alloy include those obtained by adding one or more metal elements or non-metal elements to these metal elements. However, the material is not limited to these, and a conventionally known material applied to the air battery can be applied.

Furthermore, the conductive frame member 40 includes a frame portion formed of a conductor functioning as a current collector on the positive electrode layer side, and an insulating portion that ensures electrical insulation between the negative electrode layer for the air battery. A part of the insulating portion is provided, and the air battery negative electrode layer is electrically insulated from the air battery positive electrode layer in a state of being removable, and the first positive electrode unit is fitted. Although it has been described that it is preferable to apply one having a stepped portion, the present invention is not limited to this.
That is, the conductive frame member 40 holds the air battery negative electrode layer 30 in a state of being electrically insulated from the air battery positive electrode layer 14, and includes the air battery negative electrode layer 30 in the frame and is adjacent thereto. Adjacent air battery positive electrode layer 14 and air battery negative electrode layer 30 are joined apart so that air battery positive electrode layer 14 and air battery negative electrode layer 30 face each other, and two first positive electrode units 10 is not particularly limited as long as it forms an electrolytic solution containing portion E that holds the electrolytic solution together. For example, although not illustrated, in the present embodiment, it is not essential that the conductive frame member has a stepped portion into which the first positive electrode unit is fitted.

  Moreover, it is preferable to form the said frame part 42 with the metal excellent in electroconductivity and corrosion resistance, for example. As such a metal, for example, stainless steel (SUS) or nickel can be preferably used.

  Furthermore, the insulating portion 44 is preferably formed of, for example, a resin, rubber, or inorganic material that is excellent in insulation and corrosion resistance. Among these, it is preferable to apply resin or rubber from the viewpoint of the retention of the negative electrode layer for an air battery and the sealing performance of the electrolyte. As such a resin or rubber, for example, polypropylene, polyethylene, polytetrafluoroethylene, or the like can be suitably used. Moreover, as such an inorganic substance, for example, alumina, zirconia, soda glass, or the like can be suitably used.

  Moreover, as said electrolyte solution, aqueous solutions, such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium hydroxide (KOH), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), are used, for example, However, It is not limited to these. In addition, a conventionally known electrolytic solution applied to an air battery can be applied.

  Also, regarding the supply timing of the electrolyte solution, the electrolyte solution storage section is kept empty until it becomes necessary to operate the single cell structure of the air battery, and the single cell structure of the air battery is stored. It is desirable to use a liquid injection method in which an electrolytic solution is injected during use. By using such a liquid injection system, it is possible to avoid the consumption, deterioration, and deterioration of the electrolyte and electrodes during storage, and the semi-permanent storage becomes possible. be able to. Further, at this time, the electrolytic solution can be stored in a state where it is divided into a solvent and an electrolyte, whereby the restrictions on the material of the electrolytic solution tank can be relaxed.

(1-2 embodiment)
FIG. 4 is an exploded perspective view schematically showing the electrode structure according to the first to second embodiments. FIG. 5 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the electrode structure shown in FIG. FIG. 5 shows a cross section of the electrode structure having the appearance as shown in FIG. 2 at the same position as in FIG. Moreover, about the thing equivalent to what was demonstrated in said form, the code | symbol same as them is attached | subjected and description is abbreviate | omitted.

  As shown in FIGS. 4 and 5, in the electrode structure 1 </ b> A of the present embodiment, the conductive frame member 40 includes a beam portion 46 electrically connected to the inside 40 a of the frame, and the beam portion 46 is air. The configuration in contact with the battery positive electrode layer 14 is different from the above-described configuration (electrode structure 1).

Thus, a conductive frame member that has a relatively thick thickness and has a beam portion that improves current collecting performance and that can easily pass a large current can be used as a current collector (current collecting bus bar) on the positive electrode layer side. Since the conductive frame member is arranged around the positive electrode layer side, the electrode structure that can further reduce the current collecting resistance and further uniformize the current density distribution on the positive electrode side, and the air having the same A single cell structure of a battery can be provided.
Thereby, battery performance, such as making the discharge time of the single cell structure of an air battery longer, and improving an output more, can be improved more.

  In addition, if the beam portions are disposed on both sides of the portion of the conductive frame member where the air battery negative electrode layer is held, the mounting work becomes easier when the air battery negative electrode layer is mounted. There are also the following advantages.

  Although not particularly limited, in the present embodiment, the beam portion 46 is preferably integrally formed of the same kind of material as the frame portion 42 from the viewpoint of reducing current collection resistance. Needless to say, the beam portion may be made of the same or different material and then joined to the frame portion so as to be electrically connected.

  Although not shown, in the present embodiment, from the viewpoint that forming an insulating coating on the surface of the beam portion facing the negative electrode layer for the air battery can reliably prevent a short circuit between the positive electrode and the negative electrode. preferable. The insulating coating can be formed by a conventionally known method such as coating the insulating resin only on the surface of the beam portion facing the negative electrode layer for the air battery.

(Embodiment 1-3)
FIG. 6 is an exploded perspective view schematically showing the electrode structure according to the first to third embodiments. FIG. 7 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the electrode structure shown in FIG. FIG. 6 shows a cross section of the electrode structure having the appearance as shown in FIG. 2 at the same position as in FIG. Moreover, about the thing equivalent to what was demonstrated in said form, the code | symbol same as them is attached | subjected and description is abbreviate | omitted.

  As shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, in the electrode structure 1 </ b> B of the present embodiment, the conductive frame member 40 includes a beam portion 46 electrically connected to the inside 40 a of the electrode frame 1 </ b> B. Are divided into a plurality (four in this example) of the positive part 12d for air battery layer formed according to the beam part 46, and the beam part 46 is provided with the air battery. The configuration in contact with the surface 12a of the substantially plate-shaped housing 12 exposed in the positive electrode layer non-forming portion 12d is different from the above-described configuration (electrode structure 1A).

Thus, it is possible to use a conductive frame member that has a relatively thick thickness and further has a beam portion that further improves the current collecting performance and is easy to pass a large current as a current collector (current collecting bus bar) on the positive electrode layer side. In addition, since the conductive frame member is arranged around the positive electrode layer side, an electrode structure that can further reduce the current collecting resistance and further uniformize the current density distribution on the positive electrode side is provided. A single cell structure of an air battery can be provided.
Thereby, it is possible to further improve the battery performance such as further extending the discharge time of the single cell structure of the air battery and further improving the output.

  As shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, in this embodiment, the current collecting resistance is such that the beam portion 46 is in contact with the surface 12 a of the substantially plate-like housing 12 and the positive electrode layer 14 for the air battery. Although it is preferable from the viewpoint of reduction, the present invention is not limited to this. For example, although not shown, the beam portion may be in contact with only the surface of the substantially plate-shaped housing.

[Second Embodiment]
Next, an electrode structure and an air battery stack structure according to the second embodiment will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.

(Second Embodiment)
FIG. 8 is an exploded perspective view schematically showing an electrode structure according to the 2-1 embodiment. FIG. 9 is a perspective view schematically showing an electrode structure according to the 2-1 embodiment. Further, FIG. 10 is a schematic cross-sectional view along the line XX of the electrode structure shown in FIG. In addition, about the thing equivalent to what was demonstrated in said form, the code | symbol same as them is attached | subjected and description is abbreviate | omitted.

As shown in FIGS. 8 to 10, the electrode structure 100 of the present embodiment includes two first positive electrode units (10, 10), two second positive electrode units (20, 20), and three air batteries. Negative electrode layer (30, 30, 30) and three conductive frame members (40, 40, 40).
The first positive electrode unit 10 includes a substantially plate-shaped housing 12 having a ventilation space 10a therein and a structure in which the front surface 12a and the back surface 12b are electrically insulated, and the surface of the substantially plate-shaped housing 12. And an air battery positive electrode layer 14 disposed on the outer surface 12c of 12a.
The second positive electrode unit 20 is disposed between the two first positive electrode units (10, 10), has a ventilation space 20a therein, and the front surface 22a and the back surface 22b are electrically insulated. And a positive electrode layer 24 for an air battery disposed on the outer surface 22c of both the front surface 22a and the rear surface 22b of the substantially plate-shaped housing 22.
Furthermore, the negative electrode layer 30 for an air battery is disposed between the first positive electrode unit 10 and the second positive electrode unit 20 and between the second positive electrode units 20.
The conductive frame member 40 holds the air battery negative electrode layer 30 in a state of being electrically insulated from the air battery positive electrode layer (14, 24). And the electroconductive frame member 40 is equipped with the negative electrode layer 30 for air cells in the frame, and the positive electrode layer (14, 24) for air cells and the negative electrode layer 30 for air cells which adjoin each other are opposed, Adjacent the positive electrode layers for air cells (14, 24) and the negative electrode layer for air cells 30 are joined separately, and the first positive electrode unit 10, the second positive electrode unit 20, and the two second positive electrode units (20, 20). ) And an electrolytic solution containing portion E.
In addition, the electrode structure 100 of this embodiment becomes a stack structure of an air battery capable of generating power by supplying the electrolyte solution to the electrolyte container E.

Thus, a conductive frame member that is relatively thick and can easily pass a large current can be used as a current collector (current collection bus bar) on the positive electrode layer side, and the conductive frame member is placed around the positive electrode layer side. Due to the arrangement, it is possible to provide an electrode structure capable of realizing a reduction in current collecting resistance and a uniform current density distribution on the positive electrode side, and a single stack structure of an air battery having the electrode structure.
Thereby, battery performance, such as extending the discharge time of the stack structure of an air battery and improving an output, can be improved.

  8 to 10 show an electrode structure having six positive electrodes and three negative electrodes, the number of two first positive electrode units, at least one second positive electrode unit, and the number of second positive electrode units. It is particularly limited as long as it has one more air battery negative electrode layer and the same number of conductive frame members as the number of air battery negative electrode layers and has a predetermined laminated structure. is not. For example, it is needless to say that the number of stacks can be increased by additionally stacking the second positive electrode unit and the conductive frame member holding the air battery negative electrode layer in a predetermined position between the first positive electrode units. Yes. Although not shown, each unit cell is used not only by being connected as appropriate, but also by additionally sandwiching a conductive frame member holding the second positive electrode unit and the negative electrode layer for the air battery in a predetermined position in this way. Output performance can be adjusted according to the purpose.

  In the present embodiment, the configuration of the second positive electrode unit 20 is that the positive electrode layer 24 for an air battery is disposed on the outer surface 22c of both the front surface 22a and the back surface 22b of the substantially plate-shaped housing 22. A configuration similar to the configuration of the first positive electrode unit 10 is preferable from the viewpoint of easy manufacture with a simple configuration. That is, it is preferable that the substantially plate-shaped housing 22 and the substantially plate-shaped housing 12, the air battery positive electrode layer 24, and the air battery positive electrode layer 14 have the same configuration. Of course, the specification and the detailed shape may be changed according to the arrangement position in the electrode structure.

  Moreover, although not shown in figure, also in this embodiment, it is good also as a structure which the current collection member attached to the negative electrode layer for air batteries protrudes from the loading / unloading port.

  Furthermore, although not shown in the figure, also in this embodiment, the conductive frame member has a supply port for supplying the electrolyte solution to the electrolyte solution storage portion and a gas such as air in the electrolyte solution storage portion when supplying the electrolyte solution. It is preferable from the viewpoint that it is possible to supply and discharge the electrolytic solution as needed, having a discharge port for discharging the used electrolytic solution.

  Moreover, although not shown in figure, also in this embodiment, it is not essential that an electroconductive frame member has a level | step-difference part which a 1st positive electrode unit and a 2nd positive electrode unit fit.

(Second embodiment)
FIG. 11 is an exploded perspective view schematically showing a main part of the electrode structure according to the 2-2 embodiment. FIG. 12 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a main part of the electrode structure shown in FIG. FIG. 12 shows a cross section of the electrode structure having the appearance shown in FIG. 9 at the same position as in FIG. Moreover, about the thing equivalent to what was demonstrated in said form, the code | symbol same as them is attached | subjected and description is abbreviate | omitted.

As shown in FIGS. 11 and 12, the main part 101 of the electrode structure of the present embodiment includes a beam portion 46 in which a conductive frame member 40 is electrically connected to the inside 40 a of the conductive frame member 40. However, the configuration in contact with the positive electrode layer 24 for an air battery is different from the above-described configuration (electrode structure 100).
Although not shown, in the present embodiment, it is preferable that the positive electrode for an air battery of the first positive electrode unit is in contact with the beam portion.

Thus, a conductive frame member that has a relatively thick thickness and has a beam portion that improves current collecting performance and that can easily pass a large current can be used as a current collector (current collecting bus bar) on the positive electrode layer side. Since the conductive frame member is arranged around the positive electrode layer side, the electrode structure that can further reduce the current collecting resistance and further uniformize the current density distribution on the positive electrode side, and the air having the same A stack structure of a battery can be provided.
Thereby, it is possible to further improve the battery performance, such as making the discharge time of the stack structure of the air battery longer and improving the output.

  In addition, if the beam portions are disposed on both sides of the portion of the conductive frame member where the air battery negative electrode layer is held, the mounting work becomes easier when the air battery negative electrode layer is mounted. There are also the following advantages.

  Although not particularly limited, also in the present embodiment, it is preferable that the beam portion 46 is integrally formed of the same kind of material as that of the frame portion 42 from the viewpoint of reducing the current collecting resistance. Needless to say, the beam portion may be made of the same or different material and then joined to the frame portion so as to be electrically connected.

  Although not shown, also in this embodiment, from the viewpoint that an insulating film is formed on the surface of the beam portion facing the negative electrode layer for an air battery, so that a short circuit between the positive electrode and the negative electrode can be reliably prevented. preferable. The insulating coating can be formed by a conventionally known method such as coating the insulating resin only on the surface of the beam portion facing the negative electrode layer for the air battery.

(Embodiment 2-3)
FIG. 13 is an exploded perspective view schematically showing a main part of the electrode structure according to the 2-3 embodiment. FIG. 14 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the main part of the electrode structure shown in FIG. FIG. 13 shows a cross section at the same position as in FIG. 9 in the electrode structure having the appearance as shown in FIG. Moreover, about the thing equivalent to what was demonstrated in said form, the code | symbol same as them is attached | subjected and description is abbreviate | omitted.

As shown in FIGS. 13 and 14, the main part 102 of the electrode structure of the present embodiment includes a beam portion 46 in which a conductive frame member 40 is electrically connected to the inside 40 a of the conductive frame member 40. The positive electrode layer 24 is divided into a plurality (four in this example) by the air battery positive electrode layer non-forming portion 22d formed according to the beam portion 46, and the beam portion 46 is provided. The configuration in contact with the surface 22a of the substantially plate-shaped housing 22 exposed at the air cell positive electrode layer non-forming portion 22d is different from the above-described configuration (electrode structure 101).
Although not shown in the drawings, in the present embodiment as well, the air battery positive electrode of the first positive electrode unit and the beam portion are preferably in contact with each other.

Thus, it is possible to use a conductive frame member that has a relatively thick thickness and further has a beam portion that further improves the current collecting performance and is easy to pass a large current as a current collector (current collecting bus bar) on the positive electrode layer side. In addition, since the conductive frame member is arranged around the positive electrode layer side, an electrode structure that can further reduce the current collecting resistance and further uniformize the current density distribution on the positive electrode side is provided. An air battery stack structure can be provided.
Thereby, it is possible to further improve the battery performance such as further extending the discharge time of the stack structure of the air battery and further improving the output.

  As shown in FIGS. 13 and 14, also in the present embodiment, the current collecting resistance is such that the beam portion 46 is in contact with the surface 22 a of the substantially plate-like housing 22 and the positive electrode layer 24 for the air battery. Although it is preferable from the viewpoint of reduction, the present invention is not limited to this. For example, although not shown, the beam portion may be in contact with only the surface of the substantially plate-shaped housing.

  As mentioned above, although this invention was demonstrated by some embodiment, this invention is not limited to these, A various deformation | transformation is possible within the range of the summary of this invention.

  For example, although not shown, a stack structure of an air battery can be obtained by combining a plurality of electrode structures according to the first embodiment.

  Further, for example, the configuration described in each embodiment described above is not limited to each embodiment. For example, the configuration of the first positive electrode unit, the second positive electrode unit, the negative electrode layer for the air battery, and the conductive frame member. It is also possible to change the details of these and the joining state thereof, or to make the configuration of each embodiment a combination other than the above-described embodiments.

1,1A, 1B Electrode structure (single cell structure of air battery)
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 1st positive electrode unit 10a, 20a Ventilation space 12, 22 Substantially plate-shaped housing | casing 12a, 22a Front surface 12b, 22b Back surface 12c, 22c Outer surface 12d, 22d The positive electrode layer non-formation part 12A, 22A Insulating rib 12B, 22B Porous metal support plate 14, 24 Air battery positive electrode layer 20 Second positive electrode unit 30 Air battery negative electrode layer 40 Conductive frame member 40a In-frame 40b Loading / unloading port 40c Stepped portion 42 Frame portion 44 Insulating portion 46 Beam portion 100 Electrode Structure (Air battery stack structure)
101,102 Main part of electrode structure E Electrolyte container

Claims (10)

  1. A substantially plate-shaped housing having a ventilation space inside and having a structure in which the front surface and the back surface are electrically insulated, and disposed on the outer surface of at least one of the front and back surfaces of the substantially plate-shaped housing Two first positive electrode units comprising a positive electrode layer for an air battery;
    An air battery negative electrode layer disposed between the two first positive electrode units;
    A conductive frame member that holds the negative electrode layer for the air battery in a state of being electrically insulated from the positive electrode layer for the air battery,
    The conductive frame member includes the air battery negative electrode layer in the frame, and the adjacent air cell positive electrode layer and the air battery negative electrode layer are adjacent to each other. An electrode structure characterized in that a positive electrode layer and the negative electrode layer for an air battery are joined apart from each other, and an electrolyte solution containing portion is formed together with the two first positive electrode units.
  2. The conductive frame member includes a beam portion electrically connected in the frame,
    The electrode structure according to claim 1, wherein the beam portion is in contact with the positive electrode layer for an air battery.
  3. The conductive frame member includes a beam portion electrically connected in the frame,
    The air battery positive electrode layer is divided into a plurality of air battery positive electrode layer unformed portions formed according to the beam portions, and is arranged.
    3. The electrode structure according to claim 1, wherein the beam portion is in contact with at least one of a front surface and a back surface of the substantially plate-shaped casing exposed in the air cell positive electrode layer unformed portion. .
  4. The conductive frame member has a loading / unloading port that can be loaded / unloaded in a state where the negative electrode layer for the air battery is electrically insulated from the positive electrode layer for the air battery,
    The electrode structure according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein a part of the negative electrode layer for an air battery protrudes from the loading / unloading port.
  5. A substantially plate-shaped housing having a ventilation space inside and having a structure in which the front surface and the back surface are electrically insulated, and disposed on the outer surface of at least one of the front and back surfaces of the substantially plate-shaped housing Two first positive electrode units comprising a positive electrode layer for an air battery;
    A substantially plate-like housing disposed between the two first positive electrode units, having a ventilation space inside, and having a structure in which a front surface and a back surface are electrically insulated; At least one second positive electrode unit comprising a positive electrode layer for an air battery disposed on the outer surface of both the front surface and the back surface;
    Between the first positive electrode unit and the second positive electrode unit or between the first positive electrode unit and the second positive electrode unit and between the second positive electrode units; A negative electrode layer for the air battery, one more than the number,
    The same number of conductive frame members as the number of air cell negative electrode layers that hold the air battery negative electrode layer in an electrically insulated state from the air battery positive electrode layer,
    The conductive frame member includes the air battery negative electrode layer in the frame, and the adjacent air cell positive electrode layer and the air battery negative electrode layer are adjacent to each other. The positive electrode layer and the negative electrode layer for the air battery are joined separately, and the first positive electrode unit and the second positive electrode unit, or the first positive electrode unit and the second positive electrode unit, and the two second positive electrode units. And an electrolytic solution housing part.
  6. The conductive frame member includes a beam portion electrically connected in the frame,
    The electrode structure according to claim 5, wherein the beam portion is in contact with the positive electrode layer for an air battery.
  7. The conductive frame member includes a beam portion electrically connected in the frame,
    The air battery positive electrode layer is divided into a plurality of air battery positive electrode layer unformed portions formed according to the beam portions, and is arranged.
    7. The electrode structure according to claim 5, wherein the beam portion is in contact with at least one of a front surface and a back surface of the substantially plate-shaped casing exposed in the air cell positive electrode layer unformed portion. .
  8. The conductive frame member has a loading / unloading port that can be loaded / unloaded in a state where the negative electrode layer for the air battery is electrically insulated from the positive electrode layer for the air battery,
    A part of said negative electrode layer for air batteries protrudes from the said loading / unloading port, The electrode structure as described in any one of Claims 5-7 characterized by the above-mentioned.
  9.   A stack structure for an air battery comprising the electrode structure according to any one of claims 1 to 8.
  10.   A single cell structure of an air battery comprising the electrode structure according to any one of claims 1 to 4.
JP2015023850A 2015-02-10 2015-02-10 Electrode structure, air battery single cell structure, and air battery stack structure Active JP6439229B2 (en)

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US5360680A (en) * 1990-07-19 1994-11-01 Electric Fuel Limited Mechanically rechargeable electric batteries and anodes for use therein
IL100625A (en) * 1992-01-10 1995-03-30 Electric Fuel Ltd Electrically and mechanically rechargeable zinc/air battery
US5458988A (en) * 1993-08-10 1995-10-17 Matsi, Inc. Metal-air-cells having improved anode assemblies
JP3677787B2 (en) * 1994-03-28 2005-08-03 ソニー株式会社 Lamp lighting device and video display device
US20050238949A1 (en) * 2002-01-08 2005-10-27 Morris William F Reserve battery
US7645543B2 (en) * 2002-10-15 2010-01-12 Polyplus Battery Company Active metal/aqueous electrochemical cells and systems
CN1918741A (en) * 2004-02-16 2007-02-21 株式会社Meet Collapsible metal air battery
KR100977018B1 (en) * 2010-03-19 2010-08-19 이정용 Zinc-air fuel cell reaction cell structure
US10181625B2 (en) * 2012-08-06 2019-01-15 Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. Air battery and air battery stack using same
US9742048B2 (en) * 2013-03-25 2017-08-22 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Metal-air battery
JP6344028B2 (en) * 2014-04-16 2018-06-20 日産自動車株式会社 Air battery stack

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