JP6339534B2 - Robot control method and robot control device having hand holding maximum two works - Google Patents

Robot control method and robot control device having hand holding maximum two works Download PDF

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JP6339534B2
JP6339534B2 JP2015142898A JP2015142898A JP6339534B2 JP 6339534 B2 JP6339534 B2 JP 6339534B2 JP 2015142898 A JP2015142898 A JP 2015142898A JP 2015142898 A JP2015142898 A JP 2015142898A JP 6339534 B2 JP6339534 B2 JP 6339534B2
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limit value
upper limit
robot
speed
workpiece
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JP2017024095A (en
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井上 俊彦
俊彦 井上
俊介 安孫子
俊介 安孫子
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ファナック株式会社
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/16Programme controls
    • B25J9/1628Programme controls characterised by the control loop
    • B25J9/1651Programme controls characterised by the control loop acceleration, rate control
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/30Nc systems
    • G05B2219/40Robotics, robotics mapping to robotics vision
    • G05B2219/40454Max velocity, acceleration limit for workpiece and arm jerk rate as constraints

Description

  The present invention relates to a robot control method for controlling a robot having a hand that grips two workpieces at the maximum, and a robot control apparatus that implements such a method.

  Industrial robots are used to perform various operations such as assembly operations and welding operations. In such work, the robot accelerates from a stopped state to a predetermined speed, or decelerates from the predetermined speed and stops. Patent Document 1, Patent Document 2 and Patent Document 3 disclose robots that operate in such a manner.

  By the way, Patent Literature 4 discloses a hand having a so-called double hand configuration including a first gripping portion and a second gripping portion. A robot equipped with such a hand approaches the machine tool in a state in which an unmachined workpiece is gripped by the first gripping portion, for example. Then, the processed workpiece processed by the machine tool is gripped and taken out by the second gripping portion, and the unprocessed workpiece gripped by the first gripping portion is attached to the machine tool. Further, the processed workpiece gripped by the second gripping portion is placed on the work feeder, and the unprocessed workpiece is gripped from the work feeder by the first gripping portion.

Patent No. 2838428 specification JP 2007-66001 Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 7-244520 JP 10-083211 A

  When exchanging such unprocessed workpieces and processed workpieces, the robot hand needs to grip two workpieces simultaneously. For this reason, it is necessary to select a robot that satisfies the load so that two workpieces can be gripped simultaneously. On the other hand, when the robot's hand is not holding a workpiece or holding a single workpiece, it is possible to work with a small robot that can handle smaller load loads. When the robot operates at a predetermined speed upper limit value and / or acceleration upper limit value, an excessive load may be applied to the robot.

  The present invention has been made in view of such circumstances, and a robot capable of controlling a robot without excessive load acting on the robot even when the number and types of workpieces to be gripped change. It is an object of the present invention to provide a control method and a robot control apparatus that implements such a method.

In order to achieve the above-described object, according to the first invention, in a robot control apparatus for controlling a robot having a hand that holds two workpieces at the maximum, depending on the type and number of workpieces held by the hand. An upper limit changing unit that changes at least one of the upper speed limit and acceleration upper limit value of the robot, and at least one of the speed and acceleration of the robot is changed by the upper limit changing unit. And an operation control unit that controls the operation of the robot so as not to exceed the acceleration upper limit value, and the upper limit value changing unit, when the hand is gripping only one workpiece, At least one of the robot speed upper limit value and the acceleration upper limit value is set as the first speed upper limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value. When the hand gripping a grip further grips an additional workpiece, at least one of the upper speed limit value and acceleration upper limit value of the robot is determined from the first speed upper limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value. Change to a second speed upper limit value and a second acceleration upper limit value that are smaller than the first speed upper limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value, respectively, and the hand releases only the one workpiece and grips only the additional workpiece. At least one of the upper speed limit value and acceleration upper limit value of the robot is determined from the second speed upper limit value and the second acceleration upper limit value, the first speed upper limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value or the first acceleration upper limit value. A robot control device is provided that changes to a third speed upper limit value and a third acceleration upper limit value that are larger than the first speed upper limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value, respectively .
According to a second invention, in the first invention, the one workpiece is a workpiece before machining, and the additional workpiece is a workpiece after machining.
According to a third aspect of the present invention, in the robot control method for controlling a robot having a hand that holds two workpieces at the maximum, when the hand is holding only one workpiece, the upper speed limit value of the robot And at least one of the acceleration upper limit values is set as a first speed upper limit value and a first acceleration upper limit value , the hand holding the one workpiece further holds an additional workpiece, and the hand holds the one workpiece. And when holding the additional workpiece, at least one of the upper speed limit value and the upper acceleration limit value of the robot is determined from the first upper speed limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value, and the first speed upper limit value and Change the second acceleration upper limit value and the second acceleration upper limit value, which are smaller than the first acceleration upper limit value, respectively, and change the one workpiece and the additional workpiece. When the holding hand releases only the one workpiece and the hand holds only the additional workpiece, at least one of the upper speed limit value and the upper acceleration limit value of the robot is set to the second speed. From the upper limit value and the second acceleration upper limit value, the first speed upper limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value or the third speed upper limit value and the third acceleration upper limit value which are larger than the first speed upper limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value, respectively. A robot control method is provided in which the robot is moved to .
According to a fourth invention, in the third invention, the one workpiece is a workpiece before machining, and the additional workpiece is a workpiece after machining.

In the first and second inventions, the speed upper limit value and / or acceleration upper limit value is changed according to the number and type of workpieces, so even if the number and types of workpieces to be gripped change. The robot can be controlled without an excessive load acting on the robot. Furthermore, since the robot changes to a relatively small second speed upper limit value and / or second acceleration upper limit value while holding one workpiece and an additional workpiece, an excessive load acts on the robot. The robot can be controlled without any trouble. Further, even a robot having a smaller load capacity than the conventional one can perform the same operation without applying an excessive load.
In the third and fourth inventions, when the robot is gripping one workpiece and an additional workpiece, the second speed upper limit value and / or the second acceleration upper limit value is changed to a relatively small value. The robot can be controlled without an excessive load acting on the robot. Further, even a robot having a smaller load capacity than the conventional one can perform the same operation without applying an excessive load.

  These and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the detailed description of exemplary embodiments of the present invention illustrated in the accompanying drawings.

1 is a schematic diagram of a robot controller according to the present invention. It is a 1st flowchart which shows the exchange operation | work of the workpiece | work by the robot control apparatus based on this invention. It is a 2nd flowchart which shows the exchange operation | work of the workpiece | work by the robot control apparatus based on this invention.

Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the accompanying drawings. In the following drawings, the same members are denoted by the same reference numerals. In order to facilitate understanding, the scales of these drawings are appropriately changed.
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a robot controller according to the present invention. As shown in FIG. 1, the system 1 includes a robot 10, a machine tool 40, and a control device 20 that controls the robot 10.

  The robot 10 shown in FIG. 1 is an articulated robot, but may be a robot having another configuration. A hand 30 is provided at the tip of the arm of the robot 10. The hand 30 includes a first grip portion 31 and a second grip portion 32. The first gripping portion 31 and the second gripping portion 32 can grip the workpieces W1 and W2 by opening and closing. These works W1 and W2 are the same as each other. However, in FIG. 1, the workpiece W <b> 1 is an unmachined workpiece before being machined by the machine tool 40, and the workpiece W <b> 2 is a machined workpiece after being machined by the machine tool 40.

  The machine tool 40 includes a holding portion 41 that holds one of the workpieces W1 and W2. When the work, that is, the work W2 in FIG. 1 is held by the holding unit 41, the machine tool 40 performs a predetermined machining operation on the work W2.

  In FIG. 1, the first gripping portion 31 faces the direction away from the machine tool 40, and the second gripping portion 32 faces the direction facing the machine tool 40. As can be seen from FIG. 1, the directions of the first gripping portion 31 and the second gripping portion 32 can be changed by rotating the most distal axis of the robot 10, for example, the sixth axis.

  The control device 20 is a digital computer, and controls the robot 10 and the machine tool 40 so as to interlock with each other. As illustrated in FIG. 1, the control device 20 includes a load setting changing unit 21 that changes a load setting related to the robot 10, and a speed upper limit value of the robot 10 according to the type and number of workpieces gripped by the hand 30. And an upper limit changing unit 22 that changes at least one of the acceleration upper limit values, and at least one of the speed and acceleration of the robot 10 does not exceed the speed upper limit value and the acceleration upper limit value changed by the upper limit value changing unit 22. As described above, an operation control unit 23 that controls the operation of the robot is included.

  Although not shown in the drawings, a position detector, for example, an encoder is attached to each motor that operates the robot 10. It is assumed that the speed and acceleration of the robot 10 are appropriately calculated based on a plurality of positions of the robot 10 detected every predetermined time by the position detector.

  FIG. 2 is a first flowchart showing a work replacement operation by the robot control apparatus according to the present invention. Hereinafter, the operation of the control device 20 of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2. Before carrying out the contents of FIG. 2, it is assumed that the hand 30 of the robot 10 does not hold any of the workpieces W1 and W2, and the workpiece W2 is processed in the machine tool 40.

  First, in step S10, the load setting changing unit 21 sets the load of the robot 10 to a state where no workpiece is gripped. Next, in step S11, the robot 10 is operated so that the first gripping portion 31 of the hand 30 grips the unprocessed workpiece W1. Next, in step S12, the upper limit value change unit 22 of the control device 20 is used to set the upper speed limit value and acceleration upper limit value of the robot 10 to the first speed upper limit value V1 and the first acceleration upper limit value A1, respectively. The first speed upper limit value V1 and the first acceleration upper limit value A1 are optimized values when the robot 10 grips one workpiece. These first speed upper limit value V1, first acceleration upper limit value A1, other speed upper limit values, which will be described later, and other acceleration upper limit values are determined in advance by experiments or the like. Or you may obtain | require by calculation using the method etc. which are disclosed by Japanese Patent Publication No.8-20893, for example.

  In step S <b> 13, the hand 30 of the robot 10 holding the unprocessed workpiece W <b> 1 is moved to the front of the machine tool 40. Thereafter, when the machine tool 40 receives a machining end signal obtained by machining the workpiece W2, the robot 10 is caused to enter the machine tool 40.

  Next, in step S <b> 15, the second grip portion 32 of the hand 30 grips the processed workpiece W <b> 2 held by the holding portion 41 of the machine tool 40. In step S15, the second gripping part 32 only grips the processed workpiece W2, and the processed workpiece W2 is not lifted. In step S12 to step S15, the motion control unit 23 operates the robot 10 so that the speed and acceleration of the robot 10 do not exceed the first speed upper limit value V1 and the first acceleration upper limit value A1, respectively. For this reason, an excessive load does not act on the robot 10.

  In step S16, the load setting changing unit 21 switches the load setting of the robot 10. Specifically, the load setting for one workpiece is changed to the load setting for two workpieces. Next, in step S17, the upper limit value changing unit 22 is used to set the upper speed limit value and the acceleration upper limit value of the robot 10 from the first speed upper limit value V1 and the first acceleration upper limit value A1 to the second speed upper limit value V2 and the second speed upper limit value, respectively. Change to the two acceleration upper limit A2. The second speed upper limit value V2 and the second acceleration upper limit value A2 are optimized values when the robot 10 grips two workpieces, and the first speed upper limit value V1 and the first acceleration upper limit value described above. Each is smaller than A1.

  Next, in step S18, the robot 10 lifts the processed workpiece W2 and removes it from the machine tool 40. At this time, the hand 30 of the robot 10 is operating while gripping both the unprocessed workpiece W1 and the processed workpiece W2. In step S <b> 19, the robot 10 releases the unprocessed workpiece W <b> 1 from the first grip portion 31 and holds it on the holding portion 41 of the machine tool 40.

  In steps S18 and S19, the motion control unit 23 operates the robot 10 so that the speed and acceleration of the robot 10 do not exceed the second speed upper limit value V2 and the second acceleration upper limit value A2, respectively. For this reason, an excessive load does not act on the robot 10.

  Next, in step S20, the load setting changing unit 21 switches the load setting of the robot 10. Specifically, the load setting for two workpieces is changed to the load setting for one workpiece. Next, in step S21, the upper limit value changing unit 22 is used to change the upper speed limit value and acceleration upper limit value of the robot 10 from the second speed upper limit value V2 and the second acceleration upper limit value A2, respectively, to the first speed upper limit value V1 and the second speed upper limit value A2. Return to the one acceleration upper limit A1.

  Thereafter, in step S22, the robot 10 is withdrawn from the machine tool 40 while holding only the processed workpiece W2. Then, the processed workpiece W2 is placed at a predetermined position, and the process ends. In step S22, the motion control unit 23 operates the robot 10 so that the speed and acceleration of the robot 10 do not exceed the first speed upper limit value V1 and the first acceleration upper limit value A1, respectively. An excessive load does not act on the robot 10.

  Thus, in the present invention, when the robot 10 grips only one workpiece W1 or workpiece W2, the relatively large first speed upper limit value V1 and first acceleration upper limit value V1 are used. When the robot 10 grips the two workpieces W1 and W2, the second speed upper limit value V2 and the second acceleration upper limit value A2 are changed to relatively small values.

  In other words, in the present invention, the speed upper limit value and the acceleration upper limit value are changed according to the number of workpieces. For this reason, it is possible to prevent an excessive load from acting on the robot even when an operation in which the number of workpieces to be gripped is changed, for example, when a workpiece replacement operation is performed.

  Therefore, as described above, if control is performed so that the speed of the robot 10 does not exceed the second speed upper limit value V2, etc., even if the load actually acting on the robot exceeds the allowable value defined in the robot specifications. The robot 10 can be used. That is, in the present invention, it will be understood that the same operation can be performed without applying an excessive load even with the robot 10 having a small payload.

  By the way, in 1st embodiment demonstrated with reference to FIG. 2, the operation | work which replace | exchanges the unprocessed workpiece | work W1 with the processed workpiece | work W2 was demonstrated. In the first embodiment, it is assumed that the weight of the unprocessed workpiece W1 and the weight of the processed workpiece W2 are substantially equal to each other. For this reason, in the first embodiment, the speed upper limit value V1 and acceleration upper limit value A1 (step S11) when gripping only the unmachined workpiece W1, and the speed upper limit value V1 when gripping only the processed workpiece W2 are used. Also, the acceleration upper limit value A1 (step S21) is made equal to each other.

  However, the weight of the workpiece may be significantly reduced by cutting, for example. In such a case, even if values larger than the first speed upper limit value V1 and the first acceleration upper limit value A1 are adopted in step S21 in FIG. There is a possibility that the work can be performed without acting.

  Here, FIG. 3 is a second flowchart showing the operation of the robot control apparatus according to the present invention. Steps S11 to S20 and S22 shown in FIG. 3 are the same as those described with reference to FIG.

  In step S21 ′ of FIG. 3, the upper limit value changing unit 22 is used to change the speed upper limit value and acceleration upper limit value of the robot 10 from the second speed upper limit value V2 and the second acceleration upper limit value A2 to the third speed upper limit value V3, respectively. The third acceleration upper limit value A3 is changed. The third speed upper limit value V3 and the third acceleration upper limit value A3 are optimized values when the robot 10 grips only one processed workpiece, and the first speed upper limit value V1 and the first speed upper limit value V1 described above. Each is larger than the acceleration upper limit A1.

  Therefore, when the weight of the processed workpiece W2 is significantly smaller than the weight of the unprocessed workpiece W1, the robot 10 can be operated at higher speed while avoiding an excessive load acting on the robot 10 that holds only the processed workpiece W2. 10 is operated.

  In an embodiment not shown, for example, the robot 10 that grips a certain type of workpiece WA by the first gripping unit 31 further grips another type of workpiece WB having a different weight by the second gripping unit 32, and then the workpiece Only the WA is released. That is, in the embodiment not shown, there is a first situation where the robot 10 grips only the workpiece WA, a second situation where only the workpiece WB is gripped, and a third situation where both the workpieces WA and WB are gripped. To do.

  Then, a speed upper limit value and an acceleration upper limit value corresponding to each of the first situation to the third situation are set in advance, and the speed upper limit value and the acceleration upper limit value are switched by the load setting changing unit 21 according to each situation. . Therefore, it will be understood that the robot 10 can be controlled in the same manner without an excessive load acting on the robot 10 even when the type of workpiece to be gripped changes.

  In the above-described embodiment, the robot 10 is operated so that both the speed and acceleration of the robot 10 do not exceed the speed upper limit value and the acceleration upper limit value. However, the robot 10 may be operated so that at least one of the speed and acceleration of the robot 10 does not exceed the speed upper limit value and the acceleration upper limit value, and such a case is also included in the scope of the present invention.

  Although the present invention has been described using exemplary embodiments, those skilled in the art can make the above-described changes and various other changes, omissions, and additions without departing from the scope of the invention. You will understand.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 System 10 Robot 20 Control apparatus 21 Load setting change part 22 Upper limit change part 23 Operation control part 30 Hand 31 1st holding part 32 Second holding part 40 Machine tool 41 Holding part

Claims (4)

  1. In a robot controller (20) for controlling a robot (10) having a hand (30) for gripping at most two workpieces,
    An upper limit value changing unit (22) that changes at least one of the upper speed limit value and acceleration upper limit value of the robot according to the type and number of workpieces gripped by the hand;
    An operation control unit (23) for controlling the operation of the robot so that at least one of the speed and acceleration of the robot does not exceed the speed upper limit value and the acceleration upper limit value changed by the upper limit value changing unit; , comprising a,
    The upper limit changing unit
    When the hand is gripping only one workpiece, at least one of the upper speed limit value and acceleration upper limit value of the robot is set as the first speed upper limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value,
    When the hand that grips the one workpiece is gripping an additional workpiece, at least one of the upper speed limit value and the acceleration upper limit value of the robot is the first speed upper limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value. To the second speed upper limit value and the second acceleration upper limit value, which are smaller than the first speed upper limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value, respectively.
    When the hand releases only the one workpiece and grips only the additional workpiece, at least one of the upper speed limit value and acceleration upper limit value of the robot is set to the second speed upper limit value and the second speed upper limit value. The robot changes from the acceleration upper limit value to the first speed upper limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value, or the third speed upper limit value and the third acceleration upper limit value which are larger than the first speed upper limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value, respectively. Control device.
  2. The robot control apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the one workpiece is a workpiece before machining, and the additional workpiece is a workpiece after machining .
  3. In a robot control method for controlling a robot (10) having a hand (30) for gripping at most two workpieces,
    When the hand is gripping only one workpiece, at least one of the upper speed limit value and acceleration upper limit value of the robot is set as the first speed upper limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value ,
    The hand holding the one workpiece further holds an additional workpiece;
    When the hand is gripping the one workpiece and the additional workpiece, at least one of a speed upper limit value and an acceleration upper limit value of the robot is determined from the first speed upper limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value. Change to a second speed upper limit value and a second acceleration upper limit value that are smaller than the first speed upper limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value, respectively.
    The hand holding the one workpiece and the additional workpiece releases only the one workpiece;
    When the hand is holding only the additional workpiece, at least one of the upper speed limit value and the acceleration upper limit value of the robot is determined from the second speed upper limit value and the second acceleration upper limit value. The upper limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value or the third speed upper limit value and the third acceleration upper limit value, which are larger than the first speed upper limit value and the first acceleration upper limit value, respectively,
    A robot control method for moving the robot.
  4. The robot control method according to claim 3 , wherein the one workpiece is a workpiece before machining, and the additional workpiece is a workpiece after machining.
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JP2015142898A JP6339534B2 (en) 2015-07-17 2015-07-17 Robot control method and robot control device having hand holding maximum two works
CN201610423270.2A CN106346469B (en) 2015-07-17 2016-06-15 Robot controller and robot control method
DE102016008360.3A DE102016008360B4 (en) 2015-07-17 2016-07-08 Method for controlling a robot with a hand to grab two workpieces and a robot control device
US15/208,607 US10052762B2 (en) 2015-07-17 2016-07-13 Method of controlling robot with hand gripping two workpieces and robot control apparatus

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JP2017024095A (en) 2017-02-02
US20170014999A1 (en) 2017-01-19
DE102016008360B4 (en) 2018-12-27
DE102016008360A1 (en) 2017-01-19
CN106346469A (en) 2017-01-25
US10052762B2 (en) 2018-08-21

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