JP6262784B2 - Compositions, optical components, systems, devices and other products containing optical components - Google Patents

Compositions, optical components, systems, devices and other products containing optical components Download PDF

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JP6262784B2
JP6262784B2 JP2016041098A JP2016041098A JP6262784B2 JP 6262784 B2 JP6262784 B2 JP 6262784B2 JP 2016041098 A JP2016041098 A JP 2016041098A JP 2016041098 A JP2016041098 A JP 2016041098A JP 6262784 B2 JP6262784 B2 JP 6262784B2
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quantum confined
certain embodiments
semiconductor nanoparticles
confined semiconductor
light
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JP2016167451A (en
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セス・コー−サリバン
ジヨン・アール・リントン
クライグ・ブリーン
ジヨナサン・エス・ステツケル
マーク・コマーフオード
ロヒツト・モデイ
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三星電子株式会社Samsung Electronics Co.,Ltd.
三星電子株式会社Samsung Electronics Co.,Ltd.
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Priority to US94609007P priority Critical
Priority to US60/946,090 priority
Priority to US94638207P priority
Priority to US60/946,382 priority
Priority to US94930607P priority
Priority to US60/949,306 priority
Priority to US95059807P priority
Priority to US60/950,598 priority
Priority to US97188507P priority
Priority to US60/971,885 priority
Priority to US60/973,644 priority
Priority to US97364407P priority
Priority to US61/016,227 priority
Priority to US1622707P priority
Application filed by 三星電子株式会社Samsung Electronics Co.,Ltd., 三星電子株式会社Samsung Electronics Co.,Ltd. filed Critical 三星電子株式会社Samsung Electronics Co.,Ltd.
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/0001Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems
    • G02B6/0011Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems the light guides being planar or of plate-like form
    • G02B6/0033Means for improving the coupling-out of light from the light guide
    • G02B6/0035Means for improving the coupling-out of light from the light guide provided on the surface of the light guide or in the bulk of it

Description

Priority Claims This application is filed in US Application No. 60 / 946,090 filed June 25, 2007; US Application No. 60 / 949,306 filed July 12, 2007; June 26, 2007. U.S. Application No. 60 / 946,382, filed on the same day; U.S. Application No. 60 / 971,885 filed on Sep. 12, 2007; U.S. Application No. 60/973, filed on Sep. 19, 2007. 644; and US Application No. 61 / 016,227, filed December 21, 2007, each of which is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

  The present invention relates to the technical field of optical components, systems including optical components, devices including optical components, and compositions useful in the above.

  According to one aspect of the invention, an optical component is provided that includes a waveguide component, the waveguide component including from about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the waveguide component. . In certain embodiments, the waveguide component is transparent to light coupled from the light source to the waveguide component and to light emitted by the nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, the optical component further includes a filter layer disposed over and / or under the nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, the waveguide component further includes scatterers in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent of the weight of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles are comprised of a core / shell structure. In certain embodiments, the waveguide component is adapted to have a light source optically coupled to the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles are included in a layer disposed over a predetermined region of the waveguide component surface. In certain embodiments, the layer comprising nanoparticles has a thickness of about 0.1 to about 200 microns. In certain embodiments, the layer comprising nanoparticles is thick enough to absorb light incident on the layer comprising nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, the layer further comprises a host material in which the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are distributed. In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are included in a composition further comprising a host material, the composition comprising from about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the host material. . Preferably, the host material is composed of a solid material (relative to the liquid). In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles are included in a predetermined arrangement disposed over a predetermined region of the surface of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the composition is included in a predetermined arrangement disposed over a predetermined region of the waveguide component surface. In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles are embedded in a predetermined array in a predetermined region of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the predetermined array has a thickness of about 0.1 to about 200 microns.

  According to another aspect of the invention, there is provided an optical component comprising a waveguide component comprising a composition comprised of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles and a host material, the composition being about 0.001 based on the weight of the host material. To about 15 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, the composition further comprises scatterers. In certain embodiments, scatterers are included in the composition in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent of the weight of the host material. Preferably, the host material is composed of a solid material (relative to the liquid). In certain embodiments, the composition is disposed in a predetermined arrangement over a predetermined region of the waveguide component surface. In certain embodiments, the predetermined array has a thickness of about 0.1 to about 200 microns. In certain embodiments, the composition is embedded in a predetermined array in a predetermined region of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the optical component further includes means for coupling light from the light source into the waveguide component.

  According to another aspect of the invention, there is provided an optical component that includes a waveguide component that includes a layer composed of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles and a host material, the layer based on the weight of the host material. Contains 15 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. Preferably, the host material is composed of a solid material (relative to the liquid). In certain embodiments, the layer further comprises scatterers. In certain embodiments, scatterers are included in the layer in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent of the weight of the host material. In certain embodiments, the optical component further includes means for coupling light from the light source into the waveguide component.

  According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided an optical component comprising a film comprising a carrier substrate comprising quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles in a predetermined arrangement over a predetermined region of the surface, the film being a surface of a waveguide component. To be attached to. In certain embodiments, the optical component further includes means for coupling light from the light source into the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the film includes about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the film. In certain embodiments, the film is comprised of the films taught herein. In certain embodiments, the film comprises a decal.

  According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided an optical component comprising a film comprising a carrier substrate comprising a composition composed of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles and a host material, the composition overlying a predetermined region of the surface. Arranged in a predetermined arrangement, the film is attached to the surface of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the composition comprises from about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the host material. Preferably, the host material is composed of a solid material (relative to the liquid). In certain embodiments, the composition further comprises scatterers. In certain embodiments, scatterers are included in the composition in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent of the weight of the host material. In certain embodiments, the film comprises a decal.

  In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, an optical component comprising a waveguide component comprising from about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles, based on the weight of the waveguide component, and optical in the waveguide component A system with an optically coupled light source is provided. In certain embodiments, the light source is optically coupled to the edge of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the light source is optically coupled to the surface of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles are included in a predetermined arrangement disposed on the surface of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the nanocrystals are included in a layer disposed on the surface of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles contained in the layer are arranged in one or more predetermined arrangements. In certain embodiments, the layer further comprises a host material in which the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are distributed. In certain embodiments, the layer further comprises scatterers. In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles are included in the layer in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent of the weight of the host material. Preferably, the host material is composed of a solid material (relative to the liquid).

  In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a system comprising an optical component comprising a film as taught herein disposed on a waveguide component, and a light source optically coupled to the waveguide component. The In certain embodiments, the film comprises a decal.

  In accordance with another aspect of the invention, a waveguide component comprising a composition comprised of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles and a host material, wherein the layer is about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the host material There is provided a system comprising an optical component comprising a waveguide component comprising a plurality of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles, and a light source optically coupled to the waveguide component. Preferably, the host material is composed of a solid material (relative to the liquid). In certain embodiments, the composition further comprises scatterers.

  In certain embodiments, the system can include two or more optical components and one or more light sources as taught herein. In some such embodiments, the optical components are preferably such that each waveguide component is parallel to the waveguide component of each other optical component, and each optical component is coupled to an independent light source. Is placed. In some such embodiments, the optical components are preferably optically separated from each other so that there is no “optical communication” or “crosstalk” between the optical components. In some such embodiments, such separation can be achieved by air gaps due to physical spacing between parts, or by a layer of low refractive index material. Other suitable techniques for optical separation can also be used. In certain embodiments, each optical component is coupled to an independent light source.

  In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, a device is provided that includes an optical component as taught herein.

  According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a device comprising a film as taught herein.

  In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, a device is provided that includes the system taught herein.

  In certain embodiments, the device comprises a display. In certain embodiments, the device comprises a solid state lighting device or other lighting unit. In certain embodiments, the device comprises a sign. In certain embodiments, the device comprises a photovoltaic device. In certain embodiments, the device comprises another electronic or optoelectronic device.

  According to another aspect of the invention, a composition useful for changing the wavelength of visible or invisible light is provided, the composition being composed of a host material and quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein the nanoparticles are in the weight of the host material. Contained in the composition in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent. Preferably, the host material is composed of a solid material (relative to the liquid). In certain embodiments, the composition further comprises scatterers in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the host material. In certain embodiments, at least some of the nanoparticles include a ligand on the surface, the ligand having an affinity for the host material.

  According to another aspect of the invention, there is provided a film comprising a carrier substrate comprising a predetermined arrangement of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles on a predetermined portion of the surface of the carrier substrate. In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles are included in a layer disposed on the film surface. In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles contained in the layer are arranged in one or more predetermined arrangements. In certain embodiments, the carrier substrate is comprised of a substantially optically transparent material. In certain embodiments, the film includes about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the film. In certain embodiments, the predetermined array further includes scatterers. In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles are included in the host material. In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles are included in the composition in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent, based on the weight of the host material. Preferably, the host material is composed of a solid material (relative to the liquid). In certain embodiments, the composition further comprises scatterers. In certain embodiments, the film comprises a decal. In certain embodiments, the film is adapted to be fixedly attached to the surface. In certain embodiments, the film is adapted to be removably attached to a surface. In certain embodiments, the film is included in an optical component and the film is attached to the surface of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, additional layers and / or features (including but not limited to filters, reflective layers, coupling means, etc.) are also included. In certain embodiments, a film is included in the device.

  According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a kit comprising a light source and one or more films adapted to be optically coupled to a waveguide component, wherein at least one film comprises a carrier substrate, The substrate includes quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles disposed on the surface of the carrier substrate. In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles are arranged in a predetermined arrangement on a predetermined region of the carrier substrate. In certain embodiments, the film includes about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the film. In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles are included in the host material. In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles are included in the host material in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent, based on the weight of the host material. Preferably, the host material is composed of a solid material (relative to the liquid). In certain embodiments, the host material further comprises scatterers. In certain embodiments, the film comprises a decal. In certain embodiments, the film is adapted to be fixedly attached to the surface. In certain embodiments, the film is adapted to be removably attached to a surface. In certain embodiments, the kit includes a light source adapted to be optically coupled to the waveguide component and one or more films, the at least one film comprising nanoparticles disposed on a surface of the carrier substrate. Comprising the film taught herein. In certain embodiments, the kit further includes a waveguide component.

  In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, the film taught herein is applied to the surface of a member having optical waveguide capability, such that light is guided through the member and directly or onto the carrier substrate. Coupling the light to the surface or edge of the member to optically excite the indirectly contained quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles is provided. In certain embodiments, the member comprises a window or other structural, decorative, architectural or other structure or element made from a material with waveguiding capabilities. In certain embodiments, the film comprises a decal. The film can be permanently adhered to the surface of the member by use of an optical adhesive, or can be repositionable by utilizing a non-persistent adhesive or “electroadhesive” film.

  In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, a thin film electroluminescent lamp is provided, the lamp comprising quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles disposed on the surface of the lamp. In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles are arranged in a predetermined arrangement over a predetermined region of the lamp surface. In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles are included in the host material. In certain embodiments, the host material further comprises scatterers. In certain embodiments, the host material includes from about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the host material. Preferably, the host material is composed of a solid material (relative to the liquid). In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles are included in a layer disposed on the lamp surface. In certain embodiments, the layer further comprises a host material in which the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are distributed. In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles contained in the layer are arranged in one or more predetermined arrangements. In certain embodiments, the layer further comprises scatterers. In certain embodiments, the layer further comprises a host material, and the layer comprises from about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the host material. In certain embodiments, the host material further comprises scatterers. In certain embodiments, scatterers are included in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent, based on the weight of the host material. In certain embodiments, scatterers are included in an amount in the range of about 0.1 to 2 weight percent, based on the weight of the host material. In certain embodiments, the weight ratio of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles to scatterers is from about 1: 100 to about 100: 1. In certain embodiments, the lamp can further include one or more filter layers. Such filters can be placed above and / or below the nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, the lamp can further include one or more reflective layers. In certain embodiments, the lamp further includes a removal mechanism on the surface of the lamp on which the nanoparticles are disposed. In certain embodiments, the lamp further includes a removal mechanism on the nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, additional layers and / or features (including but not limited to filters, reflective layers, coupling means, brightness enhancement films, etc.) are also included. In certain embodiments, the TFEL lamp includes a film as taught herein on the surface of the lamp. In certain embodiments, the film comprises a decal.

  In another aspect according to the present invention, an ink composition comprising quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles and a liquid medium is provided, wherein the liquid medium is composed of a composition comprising one or more functional groups that can be crosslinked. . In certain embodiments, the functional units can be crosslinked by UV treatment. In certain embodiments, the functional units can be crosslinked by heat treatment. In certain embodiments, the functional units can be cross-linked by other cross-linking techniques that are readily ascertainable by one skilled in the art. In certain embodiments, a composition comprising one or more functional groups that can be cross-linked can itself be a liquid medium. In certain embodiments, the composition can be a co-solvent. In certain embodiments, the composition can be a component of a mixture with a liquid medium. In certain embodiments, the ink can further include scatterers.

  In some embodiments, the transition from ink liquid to solid occurs simply by evaporation of the solvent and no crosslinking occurs.

  Another aspect of the invention provides an ink composition comprised of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles, a liquid medium, and a scatterer.

  In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, there are provided devices comprising the compositions and / or ink compositions taught herein. In certain embodiments, the ink and / or composition is included in a component of the device. In certain embodiments, the ink and / or composition is included on the surface of the part. In certain embodiments, the ink and / or composition can be included as a layer in the device. In certain embodiments, the ink and / or composition is included on the top and / or bottom surface of the device. The ink and / or composition can be included in a predetermined arrangement over a predetermined area of the surface where the ink and / or composition is disposed. Such an array can be patterned or unpatterned according to the particular application. In certain embodiments, more than one predetermined arrangement is included. In certain embodiments, the device comprises a display, a solid state lighting device, another light emitting device, a photovoltaic device, or other electronic or optoelectronic device.

  The above-described and other aspects and embodiments described herein and contemplated by this disclosure constitute all embodiments of the present invention.

  It should be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory only and are not restrictive of the invention as claimed. Other embodiments will be apparent to those skilled in the art from consideration of the specification and practice of the invention disclosed herein.

In the drawing
1 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example of an embodiment of a system including an optical component according to the present invention. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example of an embodiment of a system including an optical component according to the present invention. It is the schematic which shows the example of embodiment of this invention. 1 shows a spectrum to illustrate a method for measuring quantum efficiency. It is the schematic which shows the example of embodiment of this invention. FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example of an embodiment of a TFEL lamp according to the present invention.

  The accompanying drawings are simplified representations shown for purposes of illustration only; the actual structure may differ in many ways, including in particular the illustrated article and the relative scale of this embodiment.

  For a better understanding of the present invention, together with other advantages and features, refer to the following disclosure and appended claims in conjunction with the drawings set forth above.

  According to one aspect of the present invention, a composition comprising a host material and quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles is provided, wherein the nanoparticles are in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the host material. Included in the composition.

  In certain preferred embodiments, the composition comprises about 0.01 to about 10 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the host material. In certain more preferred embodiments, the composition comprises from about 0.01 to about 5 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the host material. In certain most preferred embodiments, the composition comprises about 0.1 to about 3 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the host material. In some of such most preferred embodiments, the composition comprises from about 0.1 to about 2 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the host material.

  In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are comprised of semiconductor nanocrystals. In some embodiments, the semiconductor nanocrystal is composed of a core / shell structure.

  In certain embodiments, the composition further comprises scatterers. In certain embodiments, scatterers are also included in the composition in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent, based on the weight of the host material. In certain embodiments, the scatterer concentration is about 0.1 to 2 weight percent based on the weight of the host material. In certain embodiments, the weight ratio of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles to scatterers is from about 1: 100 to about 100: 1.

Examples of scatterers (also referred to herein as light scattering particles) that can be used in the embodiments and aspects of the invention contemplated by this disclosure include, but are not limited to, metals or metal oxides Includes particles, bubbles, and glass and polymer beads (solid or hollow). Other scatterers can be readily identified by those skilled in the art. In certain embodiments, the scatterer has a spherical shape. Preferred examples of scattering particles include, but are not limited to, TiO 2 , SiO 2 , BaTiO 3 , BaSO 4 , and ZnO. Particles of other materials that are non-reactive with the host material and that can extend the absorption path length of the excitation light in the host material can be used. In addition, scatterers that assist in the extraction of the downconverted light can be used. This scatterer may or may not be the same as the scatterer used to extend the absorption path length. In certain embodiments, the scatterer may have a high refractive index (eg, TiO 2 , BaSO 4, etc.) or a low refractive index (bubbles). Preferably, the scatterer is not luminescent.

The choice of scatterer size and size distribution can be readily determined by one skilled in the art. The size and size distribution is preferably based on the refractive index mismatch of the host material in which the scattering particles and scatterers are dispersed, and a preselected wavelength that is scattered according to Rayleigh scattering theory. The surface of the scattering particles can be further treated to improve dispersibility and stability in the host material. In one embodiment, the scattering particles are comprised of 0.2 μm particle size TiO 2 (R902 + by DuPont) at a concentration in the range of about 0.001 to about 20% by weight. In certain preferred embodiments, the scatterer concentration range is 0.1 to 10% by weight. In certain further preferred embodiments, the composition comprises scatterers (preferably composed of TiO 2 ) in the range of about 0.1 to about 5% by weight, most preferably about 0.3 to about 3% by weight. Include in the concentration.

  Examples of host materials useful in the various embodiments and aspects of the invention described herein include polymers, monomers, resins, binders, glasses, metal oxides, and other non-polymeric materials. In certain embodiments, the host material is non-photoconductive. In certain embodiments, the host material further includes an additive capable of dissipating charge. In certain embodiments, the charge dissipation additive is included in an amount effective to dissipate any trapped charge. In certain embodiments, the host material is non-photoconductive and further includes an additive capable of dissipating charge, wherein the additive is included in an amount effective to dissipate any trapped charge. Preferred host materials include polymeric and non-polymeric materials that are at least partially transparent and preferably completely transparent for preselection of visible and invisible light wavelengths. In certain embodiments, the preselected wavelengths include light wavelengths in the visible (eg, 400 to 700 nm), ultraviolet (eg, 10 to 400 nm), and / or infrared (eg, 700 nm to 12 μm) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Is possible. Preferred host materials include cross-linked polymers and solvent cast polymers. Examples of preferred host materials include, but are not limited to glass or transparent resins. In particular, a resin such as a non-curable resin, a thermosetting resin, or a photocurable resin is preferably used from the viewpoint of workability. Specific examples of such resins include melamine resin, phenolic resin, alkyl resin, epoxy resin, polyurethane resin, maleic acid resin, polyamide resin, polymethyl methacrylate, polyacrylate in either oligomer or polymer form. Polycarbonate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, hydroxyethyl cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, copolymers containing monomers that form these resins, and the like. Other suitable host materials can be identified by those skilled in the art.

  In certain embodiments and aspects of the inventions contemplated by this disclosure, the host material is comprised of a photocurable resin. A photocurable resin may be a preferred host material in certain embodiments in which the composition is patterned. As the photocurable resin, a photopolymerizable resin such as an acrylic acid or methacrylic acid base resin containing a reactive vinyl group, or a photocrosslinkable resin generally containing a photosensitizer such as polyvinyl cinnamate or benzophenone can be used. . When no photosensitizer is used, a thermosetting resin can be used. These resins can be used individually or in combination of two or more.

  In certain embodiments and aspects of the inventions contemplated by this disclosure, the host material is comprised of a solvent cast resin. Polymers such as polyurethane resin, maleic resin, polyamide resin, polymethyl methacrylate, polyacrylate, polycarbonate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, hydroxyethyl cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, copolymers containing monomers that form these resins, etc. are known to those skilled in the art. It is possible to dissolve in a known solvent. Upon evaporation of the solvent, the resin forms a solid host material for the semiconductor nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, a composition comprising quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles and a host material can be formed from an ink composition comprised of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles and a liquid medium, and the liquid medium can be crosslinked. It is composed of a composition containing one or more functional groups. The functional units can be crosslinked, for example, by UV treatment, heat treatment, or other crosslinking techniques that can be readily identified by one skilled in the relevant art. In certain embodiments, a composition comprising one or more functional groups that can be cross-linked can itself be a liquid medium. In certain embodiments, the composition can be a co-solvent. In certain embodiments, the composition can be a component of a mixture with a liquid medium. In certain embodiments, the ink can further include scatterers.

  In certain embodiments of the invention contemplated by this disclosure, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles (eg, semiconductor nanocrystals) are dispersed as individual particles in a host material.

  In certain embodiments of the invention contemplated by this disclosure, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles dispersed in the host material may include flocculent (or aggregated) particles.

  In certain embodiments of the present invention contemplated by this disclosure, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can be included in or adsorbed on the host particles. These host particles can be polymeric or inorganic. These host particles can be dispersed in or on the host material.

  According to another aspect of the invention, a film is provided comprising a carrier substrate comprising a predetermined array of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles over a predetermined region of the surface. In certain embodiments, the film includes about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the film.

  In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are included directly or indirectly in a predetermined arrangement in a predetermined region of the surface of the carrier substrate.

  In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are included in the host material in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent of the weight of the host material. Preferably, the host material is composed of a solid material (relative to the liquid). In certain embodiments, scatterers are included with the nanoparticles.

  In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are included in a layer disposed over the film surface. In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles contained in the layer are arranged in one or more predetermined arrangements. In certain embodiments, the layer is further comprised of a host material in which quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are distributed.

  In certain embodiments, additional layers and / or features (including but not limited to filters, reflective layers, coupling means, etc.) are also included. Examples of various additional layers and / or features discussed herein for inclusion in an optical component or by a waveguide component can also be included in the film. In certain embodiments, the film comprises a decal.

  According to another aspect of the invention, an optical component comprised of a waveguide component and quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles is provided. In certain embodiments, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can be included in a host material. In certain embodiments, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are included in the composition according to the invention.

  In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are included directly or indirectly in a predetermined arrangement in a predetermined region of the surface of the waveguide component.

  In various aspects and embodiments of the inventions contemplated by this disclosure, the predetermined arrangement can be any arrangement or content arrangement. For example, the predetermined arrangement may include any type of image (eg, logo, design, picture, other graphics, text (eg, letters, words, numbers, letters, words and / or combinations of numbers), and / or combinations thereof ( It is also possible to display for example logos, designs, pictures, other graphics and / or text combinations)). Alternatively, the predetermined arrangement may be a layer covering all or part of the predetermined area. In certain embodiments, the second predetermined array can be further disposed above and / or below the first predetermined array. In certain embodiments, the second predetermined array is comprised of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. In certain embodiments that include more than one predetermined array, the predetermined array can be composed of opaque or other non-emissive materials that can be useful, for example, the brightness of the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticle background layer is 1 One or more other predetermined array details, contrast or other visibility aspects can be improved. The predetermined arrangement is usually on the surface of the part or device that the part or device is visible in use, whether or not contained in or on another device, product, or other article Be placed.

  In certain embodiments that include two or more predetermined arrays, the arrays can be positioned to have different orientations. For example, one array can be positioned with a view intended to be viewed in a first orientation, and another array can be positioned with a second orientation, such as rotated 90 degrees from the first orientation. Is done.

  Quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can confine electrons and holes and have photoluminescence properties that absorb light and re-emit light of different wavelengths. The color characteristics of the light emitted from the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles depend on the size of the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles and the chemical composition of the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles.

  In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles comprise at least one quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticle with respect to chemical composition and size. The type of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles included in one of the aspects or embodiments of the present invention contemplated by this disclosure is determined by the wavelength of light to be converted and the wavelength of the desired light output. As discussed herein, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles may or may not include a shell and / or ligand on this surface. The shell and / or ligand of the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can act to passivate non-luminescent defect sites and prevent flocculence or aggregation to overcome van der Waals bonding forces between the nanoparticles. Is possible. In certain embodiments, the ligand can include a material that has an affinity for any host material that can include quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. As discussed herein, in certain embodiments, the shell is comprised of an inorganic shell.

  The size and composition of the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can be selected such that the nanoparticles emit photons of a predetermined wavelength.

  For example, the predetermined arrangement can include quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles that emit light of the same or different wavelengths.

  In monochromatic embodiments, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are selected that emit at a predetermined wavelength or wavelength band of the desired color upon absorption of the excitation light.

  In multicolor or polychromatic embodiments, for example, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles that emit two or more different predetermined wavelengths at a desired light output when excited by light energy from one or more light sources. Selected. The quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can be further arranged according to the wavelength or wavelength band of this emission according to a predetermined arrangement.

  The quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles included in the various aspects and embodiments of the present invention contemplated by this disclosure are preferably members of a collection of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles having a narrow size distribution. More preferably, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are composed of a monodispersed or substantially monodispersed collection of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles.

  The quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles included in the various aspects and embodiments of the invention contemplated by this disclosure are preferably greater than 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% It has such a high emission quantum efficiency.

  In certain embodiments, the optical component of the present invention has one or more illuminations corresponding to one or more predetermined arrays of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles included in the optical component when optically coupled to a light source. This is useful for displaying rendered patterns.

  In certain embodiments and aspects of the invention contemplated by this disclosure, under ambient light conditions (eg, when not optically excited by guided light from one or more light sources), the predetermined array is visible It is not luminescent and is substantially transparent (<0.1 Abs units in the visible spectrum, or transmittance> 90% in the visible spectrum).

  Quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles included in certain embodiments of the present invention contemplated by this disclosure change the wavelength of at least a portion of light emitted from a light source when optically coupled to the light source. Useful for.

  For these applications, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are selected that have a band gap that is less than the energy of at least a portion of the original light emitted from the light source. In certain embodiments, more than one light source can be optically coupled to an optical component.

  In certain embodiments, the optical component comprises a waveguide component that includes at least one mechanism, the mechanism being composed of a composition composed of a host material for quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. Optionally, scatterers and / or other additives can also be included in the composition.

  In certain embodiments, the optical component includes at least one layer comprising quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles contained in the layer are arranged in one or more predetermined arrangements. Examples of compositions for inclusion in layers that can include quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are described herein.

  In certain embodiments, the optical component includes at least one such layer disposed directly or indirectly on the surface of the waveguide component.

  In certain embodiments, the optical component includes at least one such layer disposed between the waveguide component and any other layer that may be included on the waveguide component.

  In certain embodiments, the optical component includes at least one such layer disposed between two separate waveguide components. (Other optional layers may also be included).

  In certain embodiments of the optical component, a layer composed of the composition according to the invention is also included. In certain embodiments, at least one feature is disposed on the surface of the waveguide component.

  In certain embodiments, at least one mechanism is embedded in the waveguide component.

  In certain embodiments, a feature can have dimensions selected such that the feature covers all or a predetermined portion of the surface of the waveguide component.

  In certain embodiments, a plurality of features are disposed on the waveguide component.

  In some embodiments, multiple features are embedded in the waveguide component.

  In certain embodiments, the waveguide component includes one or more recesses and at least one feature is included in one of the recesses.

  In certain embodiments including multiple mechanisms, a portion of the mechanism can be disposed on the surface of the waveguide component, and a portion of the mechanism can be embedded in the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the features are arranged in a predetermined arrangement.

  In certain embodiments including multiple features, each feature can be composed of the same or different types of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles.

  In certain embodiments that include multiple features, the multiple features can be arranged in a pattern. In some such embodiments, each mechanism can have a shape that is the same or similar to the shape of the other mechanism. In some of such embodiments, not all features of the mechanism need be the same or similar.

  In certain embodiments that include multiple features, each feature can have a size dimension (eg, length, width, and thickness) that is the same as or similar to the size dimension of the other mechanism. In certain embodiments, the size of all features need not be the same or similar.

  In certain embodiments, the features can have a thickness of about 0.1 to about 200 microns.

  In certain embodiments, the mechanism can be dithered spatially.

  Dithering or spatial dithering is a term used in digital image processing that describes, for example, the use of small areas of a predetermined palette of colors to give the illusion of color depth. For example, white is often generated from a mixture of small red, green and blue areas. In certain embodiments, a dither of a composition comprising different types of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles disposed and / or embedded on the surface of a waveguide component (each type being capable of emitting light of a different color) Using rings it is possible to generate different color illusions. In certain embodiments, waveguide components that appear to emit white light can be generated from a dithered pattern of features including quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles that emit, for example, red, green, and blue. Dithered color patterns are well known. In certain embodiments, the blue light component of white light can be composed of extracted invariant blue excitation light and / or excitation light downconverted by quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles included in the waveguide component. The nanoparticles include a preselected composition and size to downconvert the excitation light to blue.

  In certain embodiments, white light can be obtained by layering (based on composition and size) a composition comprising different types of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles, each type having light of a predetermined color. Selected to get.

  In some embodiments, white light can be obtained by including different types of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles (based on composition and size) in the host material, each type to obtain light having a predetermined color. Selected.

  In certain embodiments, the composition comprised of the host material and quantum confined semiconductor nanocrystals is preferably cured after the composition is applied or embedded in the surface of the waveguide component. For example, in certain embodiments, the composition can be applied in a molten state and can be cured upon cooling; the composition can be cured by UV curing, thermal curing, chemical curing or other methods, or It can be cured after being applied or embedded in a surface such as a waveguide component.

  In certain embodiments, the optical component is comprised of a film that includes a carrier substrate that includes quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles disposed on the surface, the film being attached to the surface of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the film comprises a decal.

  The description herein regarding quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles, compositions comprising quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles, and its application to waveguide components (eg, alignment, thickness, multicolor, etc.) is provided by the carrier substrate and the present disclosure. It also applies to other aspects and embodiments of the invention that are contemplated.

  In certain embodiments, the carrier substrate can transmit any one or more of the additional layers, structures, components, or other features described herein or otherwise described herein, according to the present invention. Additional features with waveguide components in various aspects and embodiments of the components can be further included.

  In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are arranged in a predetermined arrangement over a predetermined region of the surface of the carrier substrate. In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are included in a layer disposed over a predetermined region of the support substrate surface. In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles contained in the layer are arranged in one or more predetermined arrangements.

  In certain embodiments, the carrier substrate can be composed of a rigid material, such as glass, polycarbonate, acrylic, quartz, sapphire, or other known rigid materials with features of waveguide components.

  In certain embodiments, the carrier substrate is composed of a flexible material, such as a polymer material such as plastic or silicone (eg, but not limited to thin acrylic, epoxy, polycarbonate, PEN, PET, PE). It is possible.

  Preferably, at least one, more preferably two of the major surfaces of the carrier substrate are smooth.

  Preferably, the carrier substrate is substantially optically transparent, more preferably with a waveguide path length of 1 mm and at least 99% optically transparent to the light source.

  In certain embodiments, the geometry and dimensions of the carrier substrate can be selected based on the particular end use application. In certain embodiments, the thickness of the carrier substrate is substantially uniform. In certain embodiments, the thickness of the carrier substrate is non-uniform (eg, tapered).

  Preferably, the carrier substrate is composed of thin flexible parts. In certain embodiments, the thickness of the carrier substrate is about 1000 microns or less. In certain embodiments, the thickness of the carrier substrate is about 500 microns or less. In certain embodiments, the thickness of the carrier substrate is in the range of 10 to about 200 microns.

  In certain embodiments, the film comprises a decal. In some embodiments, the decal can be fixedly attached to the surface. Examples of techniques for securing and attaching the decal to the surface include, but are not limited to, permanent adhesion, lamination, or other fixed attachment techniques. In certain embodiments, the decal can be removably attached or repositioned to the surface. Examples of techniques for removably attaching a decal to a surface include the use of a low tack adhesive (eg, 3M Post-it Note green), the use of an electroadhesive material such as a carrier substrate, or other removable attachment Including techniques. Preferably, the technique or material used to attach the decal to the surface is optically transparent or substantially optically transparent.

  In certain embodiments, the lower layer filter is disposed between the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles (whether or not included in the host material) and the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the lower layer filter covers all or at least a predetermined area of the waveguide component under one or more features. Preferably, the lower layer filter can pass one or more predetermined wavelengths of light and can absorb or optionally reflect other wavelengths.

  In certain embodiments, the upper layer filter material is disposed on one or more surfaces of the feature opposite the waveguide component. Preferably, the upper layer filter can pass one or more predetermined wavelengths of light and can absorb or optionally reflect other wavelengths.

  In certain embodiments, the optical component includes a plurality of filter layers on various surfaces of the waveguide component.

  In certain embodiments, the optical component can further include one or more coupling members or structures that optically couple at least a portion of the light emitted from the light source into the waveguide component from the light source. is there. Such a member or structure may be, for example, without limitation, a waveguide component that is attached to the surface of the waveguide component and that protrudes from the surface of the waveguide component (eg, prism, grating, etc.). A member or structure that is at least partially embedded or at least partially positioned within a cavity of the waveguide component.

  In certain embodiments, the coupling member or structure can be composed of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. In such embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can improve the coupling of light to the waveguide component. In such embodiments, the coupling of light to the waveguide component can be particularly improved when such nanoparticles are placed on the surface of the waveguide component, preferably the main surface. An example of such an embodiment is shown schematically in FIG. In certain embodiments, such nanoparticles can be included in the compositions according to embodiments of the invention described herein.

  In certain embodiments of the invention taught herein, for example, a retrieval member or structure may also be included. In certain embodiments, the retrieval member or structure can be distributed on the surface of the waveguide component or on top of the optical component or film. In certain preferred embodiments, such distribution is uniform or substantially uniform. In certain embodiments, the coupling members or structures can differ in shape, size and / or frequency to achieve a more uniform light distribution. In certain embodiments, the coupling member or structure may be positive, i.e., located above the surface of the waveguide, or negative, i.e., pushed down into the surface of the waveguide, or both. It can be a combination of In certain embodiments, one or more features comprised of a composition comprising a host material and quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are placed on the surface of a positive binding member or structure and / or in a negative binding member or structure. It is possible to apply.

  In certain embodiments, the coupling member or structure is formed by techniques including, but not limited to, molding, embossing, lamination, (eg, spraying, lithography, printing (screen, ink jet, flexographic printing, etc.), etc. ) Can be formed by application of a curable formulation.

  In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are included in the waveguide component in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent, based on the weight of the waveguide component. In certain preferred embodiments, the waveguide component includes from about 0.01 to about 10 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the waveguide component. In certain further preferred embodiments, the waveguide component includes from about 0.01 to about 5 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the waveguide component. In certain most preferred embodiments, the waveguide component includes from about 0.1 to about 2 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can be distributed within the waveguide component.

  In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanocrystals can be distributed in a predetermined region of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the distribution of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can be substantially uniform throughout a given region of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the concentration of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can be non-uniform throughout a predetermined region of the waveguide component (eg, stepwise).

  In certain embodiments, quantum confined semiconductor nanocrystals can be distributed throughout the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the distribution of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can be substantially uniform throughout the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the concentration of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can be non-uniform throughout the waveguide component (eg, stepwise).

  In certain embodiments, scatterers are also distributed within the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the scatterer is included in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent of the weight of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, additional additives can be included in the waveguide component (eg, without limitation, additional surfactants, antifoaming agents).

  In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are included in a layer disposed over the surface of the waveguide component.

  In certain embodiments, the layer has a thickness of about 0.1 to about 200 microns.

  In certain embodiments, the layer further comprises a host material in which the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are distributed.

  In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are included in the layer in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent of the weight of the host material. In certain preferred embodiments, the layer comprises from about 0.01 to about 10 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the host material. In certain further preferred embodiments, the layer comprises about 0.01 to about 5 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the host material. In certain most preferred embodiments, the layer comprises from about 0.1 to about 2 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the host material.

  In certain embodiments, the host material can be composed of a polymer, monomer, resin, binder, glass, metal oxide, or other non-polymeric material. Other examples of host materials are described herein. In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in the layer. In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are heterogeneously dispersed in the layer.

  In some embodiments, scatterers are also included in the layer. In certain embodiments, scatterers are included in the layer in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent of the weight of the host material.

  In certain embodiments, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are contained or dispersed in host material particles, vesicles, microcapsules, and the like. Such microcapsules can also be prepared using techniques such as those described in “Preparation of lipophilic dye-loaded poly (vinyl alcohol) microcapsules and the charactaristics, by Budryene, et al., 2002”. In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles can be obtained from John R., et al., Which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. It may also be included in particles as described in Linton, U.S. Patent Application No. 61 / 033,729, filed March 4, 2008, "Particles Inclusion Nanoparticles, Uses Thereof, and Methods". Other techniques can be used that can be readily ascertained by one skilled in the art. Examples of preferred encapsulant systems include PVA and squalane solvents. Microencapsulation can be a preferred technique for dispersing semiconductor nanoparticles in a host material to improve packaging (gas permeation properties) or material properties (refractive index, scattering, etc.). Microencapsulation may be preferred, for example, when it is not desirable to handle individual nanoparticles during processing. These host material particles, vesicles, microcapsules and the like can have various shapes from spherical to indeterminate, and can range in size from 100 nm to 100 μm in diameter. These particles can then be dispersed uniformly or non-uniformly through the host material.

  Optionally, other additives (including but not limited to UV absorbers) can be included in the layer.

  In certain embodiments, multiple layers composed of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are disposed on the surface of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, additional additives can be included in the waveguide component (eg, without limitation, additional surfactants, antifoams, scatterers).

  In certain embodiments, the waveguide component includes a layer composed of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles disposed as a patterned layer over a predetermined region of the surface of the waveguide component. In certain preferred embodiments, the layer composed of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles is selected and tuned such that the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles emit one or more predetermined wavelength photons in response to light absorption. Arranged in a predetermined pattern.

  In certain embodiments, the waveguide component includes a layer composed of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles disposed as an unpatterned layer over a predetermined region of the surface of the waveguide component.

  In certain embodiments, films or layers composed of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can be made separately from the waveguide component. The film or layer can then be attached or laminated to the surface of the waveguide. The film or layer containing the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can then be cut into a predetermined shape. In certain embodiments, the shape of the layer can be achieved by die cutting. Such a film or layer may further include a filter above and / or below as part of the film or layer, or as another part of the waveguide or optical component.

  In certain embodiments and aspects of the inventions contemplated by this disclosure, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles have an average particle size in the range of about 1 to about 100 nanometers (nm). In certain embodiments, the quantum confined nanoparticles have an average particle size in the range of about 1 to about 20 nm. In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles have an average particle size in the range of about 2 to about 10 nm.

  Preferably, the ligand is attached to the surface of at least a portion of the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles.

  In certain embodiments and aspects of the invention contemplated by this disclosure that include quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles, at least a portion of the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are at least a portion of the light coupled from the light source into the waveguide component. Can be converted into one or more predetermined wavelengths.

  In certain embodiments and aspects of the invention contemplated by this disclosure that include quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are comprised of semiconductor nanocrystals. In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are comprised of semiconductor nanocrystals that include a core / shell structure.

  In certain preferred embodiments and aspects of the invention contemplated by this disclosure that include a waveguide component, the waveguide component is for light coupled from the light source to the waveguide component, and for quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. Is transparent to the light emitted by.

  In certain embodiments and aspects of the invention contemplated by this disclosure that include a waveguide component, the waveguide component is characterized by a rigid material such as glass, polycarbonate, acrylic, quartz, sapphire, or a waveguide component. It can be composed of other known rigid materials provided.

  In certain embodiments and aspects of the invention that are contemplated by this disclosure, including waveguide components, the waveguide components may also be flexible materials such as plastics or silicones (eg, but not limited to, Thin acrylic, epoxy, polycarbonate, PEN, PET, PE) and other polymeric materials can be used.

  In certain embodiments and aspects of the invention contemplated by this disclosure that include a waveguide component, the waveguide component is planar.

  In certain embodiments and aspects of the invention contemplated by this disclosure that include a waveguide component, at least the texture of the surface of the waveguide component from which light is emitted is a pattern, angle, or other pattern of light that passes through it. Selected to enhance or otherwise change the characteristics of the. For example, in certain embodiments, the surface can be smooth; in certain embodiments, the surface can be non-smooth (eg, the surface is roughened or the surface includes one or more raised and / or depressed features). In certain embodiments, the surface can include both smooth and non-smooth regions.

  In certain embodiments and aspects of the inventions contemplated by this disclosure, the geometry and dimensions of the waveguide components and / or optical components can be selected based on the particular end use application. In certain embodiments, the thickness of the waveguide component can be substantially uniform. In certain embodiments, the waveguide thickness can be non-uniform (eg, tapered).

  In certain embodiments and aspects of the inventions contemplated by this disclosure, at least 0.1% of the light coupled from the light source to the waveguide component is absorbed and reemitted by the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, at least 10% of the light coupled from the light source to the waveguide component is absorbed and reemitted by the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, at least 20% of the light coupled from the light source to the waveguide component is absorbed and re-emitted by the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, at least 30% of the light coupled from the light source to the waveguide component is absorbed and reemitted by the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, at least 40% of the light coupled from the light source to the waveguide component is absorbed and reemitted by the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, at least 50% of the light coupled from the light source to the waveguide component is absorbed and reemitted by the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, at least 60% of the light coupled from the light source to the waveguide component is absorbed and reemitted by the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, at least 70% of the light coupled from the light source to the waveguide component is absorbed and reemitted by the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, at least 80% of the light coupled from the light source to the waveguide component is absorbed and reemitted by the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, at least 90% of the light coupled from the light source to the waveguide component is absorbed and re-emitted by the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles.

  In certain embodiments and aspects of the inventions contemplated by this disclosure, the optical component is comprised of a thin flexible component. In certain embodiments, the thickness of the optical component is about 1000 microns or less. In certain embodiments, the thickness of the part is about 500 microns or less. In certain embodiments, the thickness of the part is in the range of 10 to about 200 microns.

  In certain embodiments, the optical component further includes coupling means for coupling light from the light source through the edges of the waveguide component. Examples of light sources include, but are not limited to, those listed below. In certain embodiments, more than one coupling means may be included to couple more than one light source to the waveguide component.

  According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a system comprising a light source optically coupled to an optical component and a waveguide component according to the present invention. In certain embodiments, the waveguide component includes about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the waveguide component includes from about 0.01 to about 10 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the waveguide component includes about 0.01 to about 5 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the waveguide component includes from about 0.1 to about 2 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are included in the host material. In certain embodiments, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are included in the composition according to the invention. In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are included in one or more predetermined arrays over a predetermined region of the surface of the waveguide component intended as the viewing surface.

  Examples of light sources include, but are not limited to, solid state light emitting devices (e.g., electroluminescent devices or thin film electroluminescent devices TFEL (known, e.g., Durel and Luminus Films http://www.luminousfilm.com/el_lamp. available from many vendors including but not limited to htm), LEDs (eg, inorganic LEDs such as inorganic semiconductor LEDs that are well known in the art and available from many vendors), solid state lasers, or Other known solid state lighting devices), gas discharge lamps (eg fluorescent lamps CCFL, sodium lamps, metal halide lamps, high pressure mercury lamps, CRTs) and other laser devices. The above light sources are well known and are available from many vendors. The light source can emit in the visible or invisible (eg, infrared, ultraviolet, etc.) region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  In certain embodiments, the system can include a single light source.

  In certain embodiments, the system can include multiple light sources.

  In certain embodiments that include multiple light sources, the individual light sources can be the same or different.

  In certain embodiments including multiple light sources, each individual light source can emit light having the same or different wavelength as the light emitted by each of the other light sources.

  In certain embodiments including multiple light sources, the individual light sources can be arranged as an array.

  In certain embodiments that include multiple light sources, the individual light sources can be optically coupled to introduce light into the same or different areas of the waveguide component.

  In some embodiments, the light source is comprised of a blue LED (eg, (In) GaN blue) or a UV LED.

  In certain embodiments, the light source or light source array is optically coupled to the edge of the waveguide component.

  In one embodiment, the system can include more than one optical component of the present invention. Such optical components are such that each waveguide component (preferably constructed of glass or other optically transparent material) is parallel to the waveguide component of each other optical component, Are preferably arranged so that they are coupled to separate light sources. The optical components are preferably separated from each other so that there is no “optical communication” between the optical components. Such separation can be achieved by air gaps due to physical spacing between parts or by low refractive index material layers. It is possible to attach two or more optical components to a single base or frame, or to multiple bases or frames. Each waveguide can include one or more predetermined arrays of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles having predetermined emission characteristics. The arrangement of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles contained in or on each optical component can be the same as or different from the arrangement of another optical component. The light sources can be programmed to be illuminated at the same time or based on time series, or otherwise adapted to be illuminated. For example, in signage applications, each optical component included in the system can have a different image (eg, logo, text, drawing, picture, various combinations as described above, or other predetermined arrangements). Preferably, the amount and thickness of the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles contained in this array in one or all of the optical components is such that when the light source optically coupled to the optical component cannot be used, the array Selected to be substantially transparent. In certain embodiments that include two or more optical components, the optical components can be positioned to have different orientations. For example, one array can be positioned to be viewed in a first orientation, and another array is intended to be viewed in a second orientation, for example rotated 90 degrees from the first orientation. Positioned.

  In certain embodiments of the label, the waveguide component is applied such that a predetermined array comprising quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles is contemplated by the present disclosure in accordance with the present disclosure, and light is transmitted as contemplated herein. It can be composed of a window or other structural, decorative, architectural, or other structure or element made from a material with waveguiding capability coupled in from a light source. As particularly advantageous in certain applications, a given array is not visually luminescent when substantially unexcited under ambient conditions when not optically excited by light guided from one or more light sources. Transparent (<0.1 Abs units).

  In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, a kit is provided comprising a light source and one or more films adapted to be optically coupled to a waveguide component, wherein at least one film is disposed on the surface. A carrier substrate comprising a quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticle is provided. In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are arranged in a predetermined arrangement. In certain embodiments, the film includes about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles based on the weight of the film. In certain embodiments, one or more of the films comprises a decal. In certain embodiments, the kit further includes a waveguide component.

  In certain embodiments, the geometry and dimensions of the decal or other film carrier substrate can be selected based on the particular end use application. In certain embodiments, the thickness of the carrier substrate is substantially uniform. In certain embodiments, the thickness of the carrier substrate can be non-uniform (eg, tapered).

  Preferably, the carrier substrate is composed of thin flexible parts. In certain embodiments, the thickness of the carrier substrate is about 1000 microns or less. In certain embodiments, the thickness of the carrier substrate is about 500 microns or less. In certain embodiments, the thickness of the carrier substrate is in the range of 10 to about 200 microns.

  In certain embodiments, the light source is adapted to couple light into the waveguide component. For example, one or more light sources (eg, one or more lamps, LEDs, or other lighting devices) are fixed to or removable from the surface of the waveguide component to couple the light to the waveguide component. It can be included in a structural member that is adapted to be attached to. In certain embodiments, the structural member is such that substantially none of the light coupled to the waveguide component passes directly from the surface of the waveguide component on which the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are disposed. One or more light sources contained within the structural member are positioned. In such embodiments, the light emitted from the surface is light absorbed and re-emitted by the nanoparticles. In certain embodiments where light is coupled to the surface of the waveguide component on which the nanoparticles are disposed, the angle at which light is directed to such a surface of the waveguide component is the critical angle of the member (eg, glass / It is not greater than 42 degrees in air. In certain embodiments, the structural member is comprised of a prism having a triangular, preferably 30-60-90 triangular cross section, optically coupled to the waveguide component.

  FIG. 5 schematically illustrates examples of various embodiments of the present invention. The light guide or waveguide (which can be a waveguide component or member having waveguiding capability) includes quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles disposed on this surface. In certain embodiments, nanoparticles can be included in the compositions taught herein. In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles can be included on a film taught herein that is attached to a light guide. In the illustrated example, the light source is positioned to couple light to the surface of the light guide on which the nanoparticles are disposed. In the illustrated example where access to the edge of the light guide may be inaccessible, a structural member composed of prisms is critical for being coupled to the light guide to avoid light passing directly through the light guide. Used as a means of positioning the light source at an angle that does not exceed the angle.

  In certain embodiments, nanoparticles or films can be placed on the surface of the light guide. In certain embodiments, other layers or structures can be positioned between the nanoparticles or film and the surface of the light guide.

  In certain embodiments, the kit can include other light sources, films, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles, waveguide components, compositions, etc. described herein.

  According to another aspect of the present invention, the step of applying a film according to the present invention to the surface of a member and so as to optically excite quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles in which light is contained directly or indirectly on a carrier substrate. Coupling the light into the member is provided. In certain embodiments, the member comprises a window (any type of building, vehicle) or other structural, decorative, architectural, or other structure or element made from a material with waveguiding capability. I have. In certain embodiments, the film comprises a decal.

  In an embodiment, the method comprises applying a film according to the invention to the surface of an optically transparent material having light guiding capability, and the surface or edge of the member so that light is guided in the member. Coupling light therein and optically exciting quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles contained directly or indirectly on the carrier substrate. In some embodiments, the member is a window (any type of building, vehicle) or other structural, manufactured from an optically transparent or substantially optically transparent material with waveguiding capability, Decorative, architectural, or other articles or elements are provided. The predetermined arrangement on the film can consist of a patterned or non-patterned arrangement. In certain embodiments, the film comprises a decal.

  According to another aspect of the invention, a TFEL lamp is provided that includes quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles disposed on the surface of the lamp. In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are arranged in a predetermined arrangement. In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are included in a layer disposed over the surface of the lamp. In certain embodiments, the layer covers the entire light emitting surface of the lamp.

  In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles contained in the layer are arranged in one or more predetermined arrangements. In certain embodiments, the layer further comprises a host material in which the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are distributed.

  In certain embodiments, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are included in the host material in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent of the weight of the host material. Preferably, the host material is composed of a solid material (relative to the liquid).

  In certain embodiments, scatterers are further included in the host material.

  In certain embodiments, the TFEL lamp includes a film according to the present invention. In certain embodiments, the film comprises a decal attached to the surface of the lamp. In some embodiments, the decal is laminated to the lamp structure. In certain embodiments, the decal is included in the lamp structure before the lamp is packaged or encapsulated. In certain embodiments, one or more filter layers are included below and / or above the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. Other layers and / or features can also be included on the lamp and / or in the film. In certain embodiments, the film comprises a decal. In certain embodiments, the lower layer filter is disposed between the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles (whether or not included in the host material) and the surface of the TFEL lamp. In certain embodiments, the lower layer filter covers all or at least a predetermined area of the TFEL lamp under one or more features. Preferably, the lower layer filter can pass one or more predetermined wavelengths of light and can absorb or optionally reflect other wavelengths.

  In certain embodiments, the upper layer filter material is disposed on one or more surfaces of the mechanism opposite the TFEL lamp. Preferably, the upper layer filter can pass one or more predetermined wavelengths of light and can absorb or optionally reflect other wavelengths.

  In some embodiments, multiple filter layers are included.

  In certain embodiments, the TFEL lamp can further include one or more coupling members or structures that optically couple at least a portion of the light emitted from the lamp from the lamp into the nanoparticles. Such a member or structure may be, for example, without limitation, on the surface of a lamp with nanoparticles placed thereon, protruding from the surface of a TFEL lamp (eg, prism) attached to the surface of the TFEL lamp. Includes a member or structure that is at least partially embedded. In certain embodiments, for example, the coupling members or structures can be distributed on the lamp surface. In certain preferred embodiments, such distribution is uniform or substantially uniform. In certain embodiments, the coupling members or structures can be different in shape, size and / or frequency to achieve a more uniform light distribution extracted from the surface. In certain embodiments, the coupling member or structure is positive, i.e. can be located above the surface of the lamp, or negative, i.e. it can be pushed down into the surface of the lamp, or a combination of both. obtain. In certain embodiments, one or more features comprised of a composition comprising a host material and quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are placed on the surface of a positive binding member or structure and / or in a negative binding member or structure. It is possible to apply.

  FIG. 6 schematically shows examples of various embodiments of TFEL lamps according to the present invention. A TFEL lamp with quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles located on this surface is shown. In certain embodiments, nanoparticles can be included in the compositions taught herein. In certain embodiments, the nanoparticles can be included on a film as taught herein that is attached to the surface of the lamp. In the illustrated example, the top filter is disposed over a portion of the nanoparticle layer. In the figure, the uncoated portion of the lamp is shown to generate blue light emission; the light of the lamp passing through the portion of the nanoparticle layer not covered by the top filter contains red and blue light emission; and The lamp light passing through the part of the nanoparticle layer covered by the top filter contains red emission. Different color light outputs can be achieved by different filter choices and nanoparticle size and composition.

  According to still further aspects of the present invention, various applications and devices including optical components and / or systems according to the present invention are provided. Examples include, without limitation, user interface lighting, solid state lighting devices, and displays. Some examples of user interface lighting are described in US Pat. No. 6,422,712, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

  Quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles include various devices including but not limited to light emitting devices, solid state lighting, displays, photodetectors, other lighting components, non-volatile memory devices, solar cells, sensors, photovoltaic devices, etc. And features and characteristics that make it particularly suitable for end use applications.

  Certain aspects and embodiments of the invention taught herein are disclosed in Peter T. et al., Filed Jul. 18, 2007, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Convenient for inclusion in solid-state lighting devices, including but not limited to those disclosed in Kazlas, US Patent Application No. 60 / 950,598, “Quantum Dot-Based Light Sheets Use For Solid State Lighting” obtain. Certain aspects and embodiments of the invention taught herein may be found in Seth Coe-Sullivan, et al., Filed Jun. 26, 2007, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. U.S. Patent Application No. 60 / 946,382, "Solar Cells Inclusion Quantum Dot-Conversion Materials for Photovoltaics And Materials Quantum Quantum Dot" Can be convenient for. Certain aspects and embodiments of the invention taught herein may be advantageous for inclusion in other types of electronic or optoelectronic devices.

  In certain embodiments, the display includes an optical component according to the present invention and a light source coupled to the optical component. Examples of light sources include, but are not limited to, EL lamps, TFEL lamps, LEDs, fluorescent lamps, high pressure discharge lamps, tungsten halogen lamps, lasers, and any of the arrays described above. In some embodiments, the optical component is back illuminated (front light), front illuminated (front light), edge illuminated (edge light), or the light from the light source is generated to produce a display image or indicia. Other configurations are provided that are directed through the optical components. In certain aspects and embodiments of the inventions contemplated by this disclosure, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are comprised of semiconductor nanocrystals, at least a portion of the semiconductor nanocrystals including one or more ligands attached to the surface. .

  In certain aspects and embodiments of the present invention contemplated by this disclosure, the compositions according to embodiments of the present invention comprise UV absorbers, dispersants, leveling agents, viscosity modifiers, colorants (eg, dyes), phosphors. It may further comprise particles, humectants, fillers, extenders and the like and mixtures thereof.

  In certain aspects and embodiments of the inventions contemplated by this disclosure, the compositions according to embodiments of the invention do not include phosphor particles.

  In certain preferred embodiments, it is possible to prepare a composition according to the invention from, for example, an ink composed of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles and a liquid medium, which is polymerized (eg, crosslinked) to form a host material. It is possible to have one or more functional groups. In certain embodiments, the functional units can be crosslinked by UV treatment. In certain embodiments, the functional units can be crosslinked by heat treatment. In certain embodiments, the functional units can be cross-linked by other cross-linking techniques that are readily ascertainable by one skilled in the art. In certain embodiments, a composition comprising one or more functional groups that can be cross-linked can itself be a liquid medium. In certain embodiments, the host is solidified from the liquid medium by solvent removal from the resin in solution.

  Linton, et al., Filed June 25, 2007. U.S. Patent Application No. 60 / 946,090, “Methods For Depositioning Nanomaterials, Methods For Fabricating A Device, Methods For Fabricating on 7th of February, Co., Ltd. U.S. Patent Application No. 60 / 949,306, “Compositions, Methods For Depositioning Nanomaterial, Methods For Fabrication A Device, And Methods For Fabric,” also referred to in this specification. It has been. Optionally, the ink further includes scatterers and / or other additives.

  In certain embodiments, the optical component can be the top or bottom surface, or other component such as a light emitting device, a display, another type of lighting device or unit, a waveguide, and the like.

  In certain embodiments, the film, waveguide component, or optical component can optionally include one or more additional layers and / or elements. In one embodiment, for example, the optical component may further include one or more independent layers that include scatterers. The layer containing the scatterer is disposed on and / or below any layer or other arrangement of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles included directly or indirectly within the film or waveguide component or within the optical component. (Whether or not the layer or other arrangement of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles further comprises scatterers and / or other additives or materials). In certain embodiments of films, waveguides, or optical components that include two or more stacks or other arrays that include quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles, the one or more layers that include scatterers are of a layer that includes nanoparticles. It can be placed between any or all. Examples of scatterers are described elsewhere in this specification. In certain embodiments, the layer comprising scatterers can be patterned or unpatterned. In various embodiments and aspects of the inventions contemplated by this disclosure, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are comprised of semiconductor nanocrystals. Semiconductor nanocrystals appear to be particularly suitable for various devices and other end use applications including, but not limited to, light emitting devices, displays, photodetectors, non-volatile memory devices, solar cells, sensors, photovoltaic devices, and the like. It has the characteristics and characteristics to become.

  In certain aspects and embodiments of the invention contemplated by this disclosure, reflective components such as reflective films, aluminized coatings, surface relief mechanisms, brightness enhancement films, and others that are capable of redirecting or reflecting light Can be further included. The waveguide component or film may also contain non-scattering regions such as a substrate.

  Examples of optical coupling methods include coupling methods in which two regions bonded together have similar refractive indices, or optical adhesives having a refractive index substantially close to or intermediate between the region or layer. Including, but not limited to, methods used. Optical coupling can also be achieved by an air gap between the light source and the waveguide component. Other non-limiting examples of optical coupling include lamination using a refractive index matching optical adhesive, coating a region or layer over another region or layer, or two having a refractive index that is substantially close Includes high temperature lamination using applied pressure to join the above layers or regions. Thermal transfer is another method that can be used to optically couple two regions of material.

  1 and 2 provide a schematic diagram of an example embodiment of a system including an optical component and a light source according to the present invention.

  In the illustrated example, the optical component includes a waveguide component 1 and a layer composed of semiconductor nanocrystals disposed on the main surface of the waveguide component. In certain embodiments, the layer composed of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles (preferably semiconductor nanocrystals) can optionally further comprise a host material in which the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are dispersed. Such dispersion can be uniform or non-uniform. In the illustrated example, the light source is optically coupled to the waveguide component by abutting the edge of the waveguide component. Other methods of coupling the light source to the waveguide component include embedding the light source within the waveguide component, or coupling the light source to the surface of the waveguide through a mechanism, grating, or prism.

  Since semiconductor nanocrystals have a narrow emission linewidth, high photoluminescence efficiency, and the emission wavelength can be adjusted by the size and / or composition of the nanocrystal, the semiconductor nanocrystals of the present invention contemplated by this disclosure Preferred for use in various aspects and embodiments.

  Since semiconductor nanocrystal sizes range from 1.2 nm to 15 nm, a coating containing semiconductor nanocrystals and no scattering particles can be substantially transparent. Coatings containing other downconverted particles such as phosphors having a particle size of 1 to 50 microns are opaque to cloudy (depending on particle concentration).

  The size and composition of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles (including, for example, semiconductor nanocrystals) allows the semiconductor nanocrystals to emit photons at a predetermined wavelength or wavelength band in the far-visible, visible, infrared, or other desired portion of the spectrum. It is possible to choose. For example, the wavelength can be 300 to 2,500 nm or more, such as 300 to 400 nm, 400 to 700 nm, 700 to 1100 nm, 1100 to 2500 nm, or more than 2500 nm.

  Quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can be dispersed in a liquid medium and are therefore suitable for thin film deposition techniques such as spin casting, drop casting, phase separation, and dip coating. > Quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can be deposited or deposited by ink jet printing, silk screening, and other liquid film techniques available to form patterns on the surface.

  Ink containing quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid medium can also be deposited on the surface of a waveguide or other substrate or surface by screen printing, spin coating, gravure techniques, inkjet printing, roll printing, etc. It is possible to make it. The ink can be applied in a predetermined arrangement. For example, the ink can be applied in a patterned or non-patterned array. For additional information that may be useful for depositing ink on a substrate, see, for example, Seth A., filed Jun. 25, 2007. Coe-Sullivan's “Methods For Depositioning Nanomaterial, Methods For Fabricating A Device, And Methods For Fabricing 7 US Patents on the 7th / April of the 7th Application of the United States of the United States. . Coe-Sullivan, et al. "Methods For Depositioning Nanomaterials, Methods For Fabricating A Device, Methods For Fabricating Anthology United States 7th Application No. 7 / Application No. Coe-Sullivan, et al. International Patent Application No. PCT / US2007 / 014706 entitled “Methods And Articles Inclusion Nanomaterial”, filed April 9, 2007. Coe-Sullivan, et al. International Patent Application No. PCM / C13 / 200, filed on March 7, International Patent Application No. 7 of the International Patent Application No. 7 of the International Patent Application No. 7/200, filed on the J7 / 200, filed on the 7th year of the International Patent Application No. 7/200, filed on the 7th month of the title of “Composation Inclusion Material, Methods Of Depositional Material, Articles al. International Patent Application No. 7 of the International Patent Application No. 7 of the International Patent Application No. 7 of the International Patent Application No. 7 of the International Patent Application No. 7 of the United States Application No. 7 of the United States Application No. 7 of the United States Application No. 7 of the United States Application No. 7/95 of the Methods of Manufacturing A Device , Et al. International Patent Application No. PCT / US2007 / 08705 entitled “Methods And Articles Inclusion Nanomaterial”, Marshall Cox, et al. International Patent Application No. PCT / US2007 / 08721 entitled “Methods Of Depositioning Nanomaterials & Methods Of Making A Device”, Seth Coe-Sullivan, et al. US Patent Application No. 11 / 253,612, entitled “Method And System For Transfering A Patterned Material”, and Seth Coe-Sullivan, et al. Each of the above-mentioned patent applications, referred to U.S. Patent Application No. 11 / 253,595, entitled “Light Emitting Device Inclusion Semiconductor Nanocrystals”, is incorporated herein by reference.

  For further information related to contact printing, see, for example, A. Kumar and G.K. Whitesides, Applied Physics Letters, 63, 2002-2004 (1993); Santhanam and R.A. P. See Andres, Nano Letters, 4, 41-44, (2004), each of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

  Ink-based deposition techniques can be used to deposit various thicknesses of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. In certain embodiments, the thickness is selected to achieve the desired% absorption by thickness. Examples of desired% absorption include, but are not limited to, about 0.1% to about 99%, about 10% to about 90%, about 10% to about 50%, about 50% to about 90% Is possible. Preferably, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles absorb at least a portion of the impinging light and re-emit at least a portion of the absorbed light energy as one or more photons of a predetermined wavelength. Most preferably, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles do not absorb any reemitted photons, or absorb only a negligible amount of reemitted photons.

  In certain embodiments, the composition comprising quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles is applied to a predefined region (also referred to herein as a predetermined region) of a waveguide or other substrate. The predefined area is the area of the substrate to which the composition is selectively applied. The composition and substrate can be selected such that the material remains substantially entirely within a given area. By selecting predefined regions that form a pattern, the composition can be applied to the substrate such that the material forms the pattern. The pattern can be a regular pattern (such as an array or a series of lines) or an irregular pattern. Once the pattern of the composition is formed on the substrate, the substrate can have regions that include material (predefined regions) and regions that are substantially free of the composition. In some situations, the composition forms a monolayer thickness of nanoparticles on the substrate. The predefined region can be a discontinuous region. In other words, when the composition is applied to a predefined region of the substrate, the site containing the composition can be separated by other sites that are substantially free of the composition.

  Due to the mechanism or layer positioning of the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles from these deposition techniques, not all surfaces of the nanoparticles can be utilized to absorb and emit light.

  Alternatively, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles may be a light transmissive material (eg, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles, deposited as a full or partial layer, or in a patterned array, by any of the above listed or other known techniques. Polymer, resin, silica glass, or, preferably, at least partially light transmissive to the light emitted by, and more preferably transparent, capable of dispersing quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles For example, silica gel). Suitable materials include many inexpensive and commonly available materials such as polystyrene, epoxy, polyimide, and silica glass.

  In certain embodiments, such materials may contain a dispersion of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles in which the size of the nanoparticles is selected to produce light of a given color under optical excitation. Other configurations of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles disposed in the material are also contemplated, such as, for example, a two-dimensional layer on a substrate overcoated with a polymer.

  In certain embodiments where the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are dispersed in the host material and applied as a layer on the surface of the waveguide component, the refractive index of the layer containing the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles is the refractive index of the waveguide component. It is possible to have a refractive index that is greater than or equal to the refractive index.

  In certain embodiments where the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are dispersed in the host material and applied as a layer on the surface of the waveguide component, the refractive index of the layer containing the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles is determined by the waveguide component. It is possible to have a refractive index that is less than the refractive index.

  In certain embodiments, a reflective material can be applied to the edge of the waveguide component to improve the internal reflection of light within the waveguide component.

  In certain embodiments, the reflective material emits light from the semiconductor nanoparticles to the observer, of course, a layer comprising quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles is disposed to improve the internal reflection of light within the waveguide component. Can also be applied to the surface of the waveguide component opposite the reflecting surface.

  In embodiments of the invention comprising a layer composed of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles on the surface of the waveguide component, the optical component optionally further comprises a cover, coating or layer on at least a portion of the surface. On top of the cover, coating or layer, a layer composed of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles is placed for protection from the environment (eg dust, moisture, etc.) and / or scratches or wear .

  In certain embodiments, the optical component can further include a lens, a prism surface, a grating, etc. on the surface of the optical component from which light is emitted. Antireflection, polarization, and / or other coatings can optionally be included on such surfaces.

  The invention will be further clarified by the following examples which are intended to be exemplary of the invention.

Preparation of semiconductor nanocrystals capable of emitting green light Synthesis of ZnSe core: 0.69 mmol diethylzinc was dissolved in 5 mL of tri-n-octylphosphine and mixed with 1 mL of 1M TBP-Se. A 3 neck flask was charged with 28.9 mmol of oleylamine and dried and degassed at 90 ° C. for 1 hour. After degassing, the flask was heated to 310 ° C. under nitrogen. Once the temperature reached 310 ° C., Zn solution was injected and a portion of the solution was removed periodically to monitor nanocrystal growth while heating the reaction mixture at 270 ° C. for 15-30 minutes. . Once the first absorption peak of the nanocrystals reached 350 nm, the reaction was stopped by reducing the flask temperature to 160 ° C. and used without further purification for the preparation of CdZnSe cores.

  Synthesis of CdZnSe core: 1.12 mmol of dimethylcadmium was dissolved in 5 mL of tri-n-octylphosphine and mixed with 1 mL of 1M TBP-Se. In a 4-neck flask, 41.38 mmol of trioctylphosphine oxide and 4 mmol of hexylphosphonic acid were charged, dried and degassed at 120 ° C. for 1 hour. After degassing, the oxide / acid was heated to 160 ° C. under nitrogen, 8 ml of ZnSe core growth solution was transferred into the flask at 160 ° C., and the Cd / Se solution was added immediately by syringe pump during 20 minutes. . Then, while the reaction mixture was heated at 150 ° C. for 16-20 hours, a portion of the solution was removed periodically to monitor nanocrystal growth. Once the nanocrystal emission peak reached 500 nm, the reaction was stopped by cooling the mixture to room temperature. By adding a 2: 1 mixture of methanol and n-butanol, CdZnSe cores were precipitated from the growth solution in a glove box under a nitrogen atmosphere. The isolated core was then dissolved in hexane and used to make the core-shell material.

  Synthesis of CdZnSe / CdZnS core-shell nanocrystals: 25.86 mmol of trioctylphosphine oxide and 2.4 mmol of benzylphosphonic acid were charged into a 4-neck flask. The mixture was then dried and degassed in a reaction vessel by heating to 120 ° C. for 1 hour. The flask was then cooled to 75 ° C. and a hexane solution (0.1 mmol Cd content) containing the isolated CdZnSe core was added to the reaction mixture. Hexane was removed under reduced pressure. Dimethylcadmium, diethylzinc, and hexamethyldisilathian were used as Cd, Zn, and S precursors, respectively. Cd and Zn were mixed at an equimolar ratio, but S was in a 2-fold excess with respect to Cd and Zn. Cd / Zn and S samples were each dissolved in 4 mL of trioctylphosphine in a glove box under a nitrogen atmosphere. Once the precursor solution was prepared, the reaction flask was heated to 150 ° C. under nitrogen. The precursor solution was added dropwise at 150 ° C. for 2 hours using a syringe pump. After shell growth, the nanocrystals were transferred to a glove box under a nitrogen atmosphere and precipitated from the growth solution by adding a 3: 1 mixture of methanol and isopropanol. The isolated core-shell nanocrystals were then dissolved in hexane and used to make a composition comprising quantum confined semiconductor nanocrystals and a host material.

Preparation of semiconductor nanocrystals capable of emitting red light Synthesis of CdSe core: 1 mmol of cadmium acetate was dissolved in 8.96 mmol of tri-n-octylphosphine at 100 ° C. in a 20 mL vial, then dried and degassed for 1 hour did. Trioctylphosphine oxide (15.5 mmol) and octadecylphosphinic acid (2 mmol) were added to a three-necked flask, followed by drying and degassing at 140 ° C. for 1 hour. After degassing, the Cd solution was added to the oxide / acid flask and the mixture was heated to 270 ° C. under nitrogen. Once the temperature reached 270 ° C, 8 mmol of tri-n-butylphosphine was injected into the flask. The temperature was returned to 270 ° C. and 1.1 mL of 1.5M TBP-Se was then rapidly injected. Then, while the reaction mixture was heated at 270 ° C. for 15 to 30 minutes, solution aliquots were removed periodically to monitor nanocrystal growth. Once the first absorption peak of the nanocrystals reached 565 to 575 nm, the reaction was stopped by cooling the mixture to room temperature. By adding a 3: 1 mixture of methanol and isopropanol, CdSe cores were precipitated from the growth solution in a glove box under a nitrogen atmosphere. The isolated core was then dissolved in hexane and used to make the core-shell material.

  Synthesis of CdSe / CdZnS core-shell nanocrystals: 25.86 mmol of trioctylphosphine oxide and 2.4 mmol of octadecylphosphonic acid were charged into a 4-neck flask. The mixture was then dried and degassed in a reaction vessel by heating to 120 ° C. for 1 hour. The flask was then cooled to 75 ° C. and a hexane solution (0.1 mmol Cd content) containing the isolated CdSe core was added to the reaction mixture. Hexane was removed under reduced pressure and then 2.4 mmol of 6-amino-1-hexanol was added to the reaction mixture. Dimethylcadmium, diethylzinc, and hexamethyldisilathian were used as Cd, Zn, and S precursors, respectively. Cd and Zn were mixed at an equimolar ratio, but S was in a 2-fold excess with respect to Cd and Zn. Cd / Zn and S samples were each dissolved in 4 mL of trioctylphosphine in a glove box under a nitrogen atmosphere. Once the precursor solution was prepared, the reaction flask was heated to 155 ° C. under nitrogen. The precursor solution was added dropwise at 155 ° C. over 2 hours using a syringe pump. After shell growth, the nanocrystals were transferred to a glove box under a nitrogen atmosphere and precipitated from the growth solution by adding a 3: 1 mixture of methanol and isopropanol. The isolated core-shell nanocrystals were then dissolved in hexane and used to make a composition comprising quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles and a host material.

Preparation of a layer containing semiconductor nanocrystals A sample containing semiconductor nanocrystals substantially prepared according to one of the above-described examples was added to hexane (the sample is usually about 40 mg of solid dispersed in 10 to 15 ml of hexane. Equivalent to.). Hexane was removed from the dots under vacuum at room temperature. Care is taken not to dry excessively or to completely remove the solvent. A dedicated low viscosity reactive diluent, 0.5 ml (RD-12, from Radcur Corp, 9 Audrey Pl, Fairfield, NJ 07004-3401. United States) was added to the semiconductor nanocrystals while magnetically stirring. After pre-dissolving the semiconductor nanocrystals in a reactive diluent, 2 ml of a dedicated UV curable acrylic formulation (also from Radcure) was added dropwise with vigorous stirring. The mixing vial was heated from time to time to reduce viscosity and aid in agitation. After the addition was complete, a vacuum was pulled to remove entrained air and residual solvent. The vial was then placed in an ultrasonic bath (VWR) for 1 hour to overnight and a clear colored solution was obtained. Care is taken to avoid temperatures above 40 ° C. while the sample is in the ultrasonic bath.

  Multiple batches of semiconductor nanocrystals of the same color in UV curable acrylic were mixed together. In the lower sample, three red batches shown in Table 1 were added together; and four green batches shown in Table 1 were added together.

Samples were coated with Mayer rods on pre-washed glass slides and cured with a 5000-EC UV light curing flood lamp (225 mW / cm 2 ) from a DYMAX Corporation system equipped with an H bulb for 10 seconds.

  Samples containing multiple layers were cured between the layers to achieve the desired thickness. A sample that includes a filter above (or below) a layer containing host material and quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles has a filter coated with a Mayer rod in an independent step. Filters were made by blending UV curable pigment ink formulations from Coates / Sun Chemical (examples include but are not limited to DXT-1935 and WTN99). The filter composition is formulated by adding together the weighted absorptions of the individual colors to achieve the desired transmission characteristics.

The film was characterized by the following method: Thickness: Measured with a micrometer Luminescence was measured on each type of sample 1 with Cary Eclipse.

  Excitation at 450 nm, 2.5 nm excitation slit, 5 nm emission slit.

  Absorption was measured at 450 nm for each type of sample 1 on a Cary 5000. The glass slide was blanked with the baseline corrected.

  CIE coordinates were measured on each type of sample 1 using a CS-200 chromameter. The sample was excited by a 450 nm LED and the camera collected off-axis color data.

External photoluminescence (PL) quantum efficiency is reported by Mello, et al., Which is incorporated herein by reference. , Advanced Materials 9 (3): 230 (1997). (1). The method uses a parallel 450 nm LED source, integrating sphere and spectrometer. Three measurements are obtained. Initially, the LED is labeled L1 (representing the emission intensity (au) as a function of wavelength (nm)) for illustrative purposes to illustrate the method, giving the spectrum shown in FIG. Directly illuminate the integrating sphere. The PL sample is then placed in an integrating sphere so that only diffuse LED light illuminates the sample, giving the (L2 + P2) spectrum shown for illustrative purposes in FIG. Finally, the PL sample is placed in an integrating sphere so that the LED directly illuminates the sample (simply non-normal incidence), giving the (L3 + P3) spectrum shown for illustrative purposes in FIG. After collecting the data, the contribution of each spectrum (L and P) was calculated. L1, L2 and L3 correspond to the sum of the LED spectra in each measurement, and P2 and P3 are sums related to the PL spectra in the second and third measurements. The following equation then gives the external PL quantum efficiency: EQE = [(P3 · L2) minus (P2 · L3)] / (L1 · (L2 minus L3))

  Quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles (including, for example, semiconductor nanocrystals) are nanometer-scale inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles. Semiconductor nanocrystals are, for example, from about 1 nm to about 1000 nm in diameter, preferably from about 2 nm to about 50 um, more preferably from about 1 nm to about 20 nm (eg, about 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 , 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, or 20 nm).

  Semiconductor nanocrystals included in various aspects and embodiments of the present invention most preferably have an average nanocrystal diameter of less than about 150 angstroms (Å). In certain embodiments, semiconductor nanocrystals having an average nanocrystal diameter in the range of about 12 to about 150 angstroms may be particularly desirable.

  However, depending on the composition of the semiconductor nanocrystals and the desired emission wavelength, the average diameter may be outside these preferred size ranges.

  Semiconductors forming nanoparticles and nanocrystals are Group IV elements, Group II-VI compounds, Group II-V compounds, Group III-VI compounds, Group III-V compounds, Group IV-VI compounds. A Group I-III-VI compound, a Group II-IV-VI compound, or a Group II-IV-V compound, such as CdS, CdO, CdSe, CdTe, ZnS, ZnO, ZnSe, ZnTe, MgTe, GaAs, GaP, GaSb, GaN, HgS, HgO, HgSe, HgTe, InAs, InP, InSb, InN, AlAs, AlP, AlSb, AIS, PbS, PbO, PbSe, Ge, Si, ternary and quaternary mixtures and / or alloys Can be composed of alloys thereof, and / or mixtures thereof.

  Examples of nanoparticle and nanocrystal shapes include spheres, rods, disks, other shapes or mixtures thereof.

  In certain preferred aspects and embodiments of the present invention, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles (eg, including semiconductor nanocrystals) include one or more “cores” of a first semiconductor material, wherein the “core” is a surface of the core. An overcoating or “shell” of a second semiconductor material may be included on at least a portion. In certain embodiments, the shell surrounds the core. A quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticle (eg, including semiconductor nanocrystal) core that includes a shell on at least a portion of the surface of the core is also referred to as a “core / shell” semiconductor nanocrystal.

  For example, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles (eg, including semiconductor nanocrystals) can include a core composed of a Group IV element or a compound represented by Formula MX, where M is cadmium, Zinc, magnesium, mercury, aluminum, gallium, indium, thallium, or a mixture thereof, and X is oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, or a mixture thereof. Examples of materials suitable for use as the core are CdS, CdO, CdSe, CdTe, ZnS, ZnO, ZnSe, ZnTe, MgTe, GaAs, GaP, GaSb, GaN, HgS, HgO, HgSe, HgTe, InAs, InP, InSb, InN, AlAs, AlP, AlSb, AIS, PbS, PbO, PbSe, Ge, Si, including ternary and quaternary mixtures and / or alloys thereof, and / or their mixtures It is not limited to. Examples of materials suitable for use as the shell include CdS, CdO, CdSe, CdTe, ZnS, ZnO, ZnSe, ZnTe, MgTe, GaAs, GaP, GaSb, GaN, HgS, HgO, HgSe, HgTe, InAs, InP, InSb, InN, AlAs, AlP, AlSb, AIS, PbS, PbO, PbSe, Ge, Si, including ternary and quaternary mixtures and / or alloys thereof, and / or their mixtures It is not limited to.

  In certain embodiments, the surrounding “shell” material can have a band gap that is larger than the band gap of the core material and is selected to have an atomic spacing close to the atomic spacing of the “core” substrate. Is possible. In another embodiment, the surrounding shell material can have a band gap that is smaller than the band gap of the core material. In a further embodiment, the shell and core material can have the same crystal structure. Shell materials are discussed further below. For a further example of a core / shell semiconductor structure, see US Application No. 10/638, entitled “Semiconductor Nanocrystalline Heterostructures” filed on August 12, 2003, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. See 546.

  The quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are preferably members of a collection of semiconductor nanoparticles having a narrow size distribution. More preferably, the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles (including, for example, semiconductor nanocrystals) are composed of a monodisperse or substantially monodisperse collection of nanoparticles.

  In certain embodiments, the absorption% of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles included in various aspects and embodiments of the invention is, for example, from about 0.1% to about 99%; preferably at least about 10% to about 99%. is there. In a preferred example, the% absorption is from about 10% to about 90% absorption. In another preferred example, the% absorption is from about 10% to about 50%; in another example, the% absorption is from about 50% to about 90%.

  Quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles exhibit strong quantum confinement effects that can be used to design bottom-up chemistry approaches to produce optical properties that can be tuned by the size and composition of the nanoparticles.

  For example, the preparation and manipulation of semiconductor nanocrystals is described in Murray, et al., Which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. (J.Am.Chem.Soc, 115:. 8706 (1993)); Christopher Murray thesis, "Synthesis and Characterization of II-VI Quantum Dots and Their Assembly into 3-D Quantum Dot Superlattices", Massachusetts Institute of Technology, September, 1995; and US patent application Ser. No. 08 / 969,302, entitled “Highly Luminescent Color-selective Materials”. Other examples of semiconductor nanocrystal preparation and manipulation are described in US Pat. No. 6,322,901 and US Pat. No. 6,576,291, and US Patent Application No. 60 / 550,314, each of which is incorporated by reference. The entirety of this is described herein.

  One example of a method for producing semiconductor nanocrystals is a colloidal growth process. Colloidal growth occurs by injection of M and X donors into a hot coordinating solvent. One example of a preferred method for preparing monodisperse semiconductor nanocrystals involves the thermal decomposition of an organometallic reagent such as dimethylcadmium injected into a hot coordinating solvent. This pyrolysis allows independent nucleation and causes growth control of macroscopic amounts of semiconductor nanocrystals. The implantation produces nuclei that can be grown in a controlled manner to form semiconductor nanocrystals. The reaction mixture can be gently heated to grow and anneal the semiconductor nanocrystals. Both the average size and size distribution of the semiconductor nanocrystals in the sample depend on the growth temperature. The growth temperature required to maintain stable growth increases with increasing average crystal size. Semiconductor nanocrystals are members of a collection of semiconductor nanocrystals. As a result of independent nucleation and growth control, the resulting collection of semiconductor nanocrystals has a narrow monodisperse distribution. The monodisperse distribution of diameters can also be called size. Preferably, the monodisperse collection of particles comprises a collection of particles in which at least 60% of the particles in the collection are within a specific size range. The collection of monodisperse particles preferably has a deviation of less than 15% rms (root mean square) diameter, more preferably less than 10% rms, and most preferably less than 5%.

  The narrow size distribution of semiconductor nanocrystals gives the possibility of light emission with a narrow spectral width. Monodispersed semiconductor nanocrystals are described in Murray et al., Which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. (J.Am.Chem.Soc, 115:. 8706 (1993)); Christopher Murray thesis, "Synthesis and Characterization of II-VI Quantum Dots and Their Assembly into 3-D Quantum Dot Superlattices", Massachusetts Institute of Technology, September, 1995; and US patent application Ser. No. 08 / 969,302, entitled “Highly Luminescent Color-selective Materials”.

The process of semiconductor nanocrystal growth control and annealing in a coordinating solvent, and subsequent nucleation, can also result in homogeneous surface derivatization and regular core structures. When the size distribution becomes clear, the temperature can be raised to maintain stable growth. By further adding an M donor or an X donor, the growth period can be shortened. The M donor can be an inorganic compound, an organometallic compound, or an elemental metal. M is cadmium, zinc, magnesium, mercury, aluminum, gallium, indium or thallium. An X donor is a compound that can react with an M donor to form a material having the general formula MX. Typically, the X donor is a chalcogenide donor or pnictide donor, such as a phosphine chalcogenide, bis (silyl) chalcogenide, dioxygen, ammonium salt, or tris (silyl) pnictide. Suitable X donors are dioxygen, tris such as bis (trimethylsilyl) selenide ((TMS) 2 Se), (tri-n-octylphosphine) selenide (TOPSe) or (tri-n-butylphosphine) selenide (TBPSe). Alkylphosphine selenides, trialkylphosphine tellurides such as (tri-n-octylphosphine) telluride (TOPTe) or hexapropyl phosphorus triamide telluride (HPPTe), bis (trimethylsilyl) telluride ((TMS) 2 Te), bis (trimethylsilyl) sulfide ((TMS) 2 S), (tri -n- octyl phosphine) ammonium salts such as sulfides (TOPS) trialkyl phosphine sulfide such as ammonium halide (e.g. NH 4 Cl), tris (trimethylene Including silyl) phosphide ((TMS) 3 P), tris (trimethylsilyl) arsenide ((TMS) 3 As), or tris (trimethylsilyl) antimonide ((TMS) 3 Sb). In certain embodiments, the M donor and X donor can be moieties within the same molecule.

  Coordinating solvents can help control the growth of semiconductor nanocrystals. A coordinating solvent is a compound having a donor lone pair, for example, having a lone pair that can be used to coordinate to the surface of the growing semiconductor nanocrystal. Solvent coordination can stabilize the growing semiconductor nanocrystals. Typical coordination solutions include alkyl phosphines, alkyl phosphine oxides, alkyl phosphonic acids, or alkyl phosphinic acids, but other coordination solvents such as pyridine, furan, and amines are also suitable for the production of semiconductor nanocrystals. obtain. Examples of suitable coordinating solvents include pyridine, tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP), tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and trishydroxylpropylphosphine (tHPP). Technical grade TOPO can be used.

  The size distribution during the growth stage of the reaction can be estimated by monitoring the absorption or emission linewidth of the particles. By changing the reaction temperature in response to changes in the absorption spectrum of the particles, it is possible to maintain a sharp particle size distribution during growth. In order to grow larger crystals during crystal growth, it is possible to add reactants to the nucleation solution. For example, in CdSe and CdTe, by stopping growth at a specific semiconductor nanocrystal average grain size and selecting the proper composition of the semiconductor material, the emission spectrum of the semiconductor nanocrystal is between 300 nm and 5 microns, or between 400 nm and 800 nm. It can be tuned continuously over the wavelength range.

  As mentioned above, preferably the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles (eg comprising semiconductor nanocrystals) have a core / shell structure in which the core includes an overcoating on the surface of the core. The overcoating (also referred to as the shell) can be a semiconductor material that has the same or different composition as the core. The overcoat of semiconductor material on the core surface is made up of Group II-VI compounds, Group II-V compounds, Group III-VI compounds, Group III-V compounds, Group IV-VI compounds, Group I-III. Group VI compounds, Group II-IV-VI compounds, and Group II-IV-V compounds such as ZnO, ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdO, CdS, CdSe, CdTe, MgS, MgSe, GaAs, GaN, GaP , GaSe, GaSb, HgO, HgS, HgSe, HgTe, InAs, InN, InP, InSb, AlAs, AlN, AlP, AlSb, TlN, TIP, TlAs, TlSb, PbO, PbS, PbSe, PbTe, and alloys thereof It is possible to include / or mixtures thereof. For example, ZnS, ZnSe or CdS overcoatings can be grown on CdSe or CdTe nanocrystals. The overcoating process is described, for example, in US Pat. No. 6,322,901. By adjusting the temperature of the reaction mixture during overcoating and monitoring the absorption spectrum of the core, it is possible to obtain overcoat materials with high emission quantum efficiency and narrow size distribution. The overcoating can include one or more layers. The overcoating is composed of at least one semiconductor material that is the same as or different from the composition of the core. In certain embodiments, the overcoating has a monolayer thickness of about 1 to about 10.

  The particle size distribution of the semiconductor nanocrystals can be further purified by size selective precipitation using a poor solvent for semiconductor nanocrystals such as methanol / butanol as described in US Pat. No. 6,322,901. Is possible. For example, semiconductor nanocrystals can be dispersed in 10% butanol in hexane. Methanol can be added dropwise to the stirred solution until the opalescence persists. Separation of the supernatant and flocculent by centrifugation produces a precipitate that is rich in the largest microcrystals in the sample. This procedure can be repeated until no further sharpening of the optical absorption spectrum is observed. Size selective precipitation can be performed with a variety of solvent / non-solvent pairs including pyridine / hexane and chloroform / methanol. The size-selected collection of semiconductor nanocrystals preferably has a deviation from the average diameter not exceeding 15% rms, more preferably a deviation of 10% rms or less, most preferably a deviation of 5% rms or less.

  Further examples of methods for preparing semiconductor nanocrystals can be found in Bawendi, et al., Filed Feb. 15, 2006. Coe-Sullivan, et al., Filed Oct. 21, 2005; US Patent Application No. 11/354185, entitled “Light Emitting Devices Inclusion Semiconductor Nanocrystals”. US Patent Application No. 11/253595, entitled “Light Emitting Device Inclusion Semiconductor Nanocrystals”, filed on August 12, 2003 and referred to above, Kim, et al. U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10 / 638,546, entitled “Semiconductor Nanocrystalline Heterostructures”; Murray, et al. , J .; Am. Chem. Soc, Vol. 115, 8706 (1993); Kortan, et al. , J .; Am. Chem. Soc, Vol. 112,1327 (1990); and Christopher Murray of paper, "Synthesis and Characterization of II-VI Quantum Dots and Their Assembly into 3-D Quantum Dot Superlattices", Massachusetts Institute of Technology, September, 1995, 6 May 4, 2007 Coe-Sullivan, et al. International Patent Application No. PCT / US2007 / 13152, “Light-Emitting Devices and Displays With Improved Performance,” filed September 12, 2007, Breen, et al. US Patent Application No. 60 / 971,887, entitled “Functionalized Semiconductors Nanocrystals And Methods”, filed Nov. 21, 2006, Clowh, et al. US Application No. 60/866, 822, 2006 1111, filed on November 11, 2006, entitled “Nanocrystals Inclusion A Group IIIA Element And A Group VA Element, Method, Composition, Device and Other Products” Craig Breen, et al., Filed Nov. 21, 2006, US Provisional Patent Application No. 60 / 866,828 entitled “Semiconductor Nanomaterials And Compositions And Devices Inclusion Same”. The United States that was filed on November 21, 2006, of Dorai Ramprasad "Semiconductor Nanocrystal And Compositions And Devices Including Same"; of "Semiconductor Nanocrystal Materials And Compositions And Devices Including Same," that the US Provisional Patent Application No. 60 / 866,832 Provisional Patent Application No. 60 / 866,833; Dorai Ramprasad's “Semiconductor Nanocyclics And Devices Inclusions Inclusion Same” filed on November 21, 2006 National Provisional Patent Application No. 60 / 866,834; United States Provisional Patent Application No. 60 / 866,839, “Semiconductor Nanocyclics And Devices Inclusion Same” filed November 21, 2006, by Dorai Ramprasad; It is described in US Provisional Patent Application No. 60 / 866,843 entitled “Semiconductor Nanocyclical Compositions And Devices Inclusion Same” filed Nov. 21 by Dorai Ramprasad. Each of the above is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

  In various aspects and embodiments of the inventions contemplated by this disclosure, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles (including but not limited to semiconductor nanocrystals) can be ligands bound to quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. Have.

  In one embodiment, the ligand is derived from the coordination solution used during the growth process. The surface can be modified by repeated exposure to excess competing coordination groups to form an upper layer. For example, a dispersion of capped semiconductor nanocrystals is treated with a coordinating organic compound such as pyridine to produce microcrystals that immediately disperse in pyridine, methanol, and aromatics, but no longer in aliphatic solvents. Is possible. Such a surface exchange process can be performed with any compound that can coordinate or bind to the outer surface of a semiconductor nanocrystal, including, for example, phosphine, thiol, amine, and phosphate. Semiconductor nanocrystals can be exposed to short chain polymers that have an affinity for the surface and terminate in a moiety that has an affinity for the suspension or dispersion medium. Such an affinity improves the stability of the suspension and prevents the fluffing of the semiconductor nanocrystals. In other embodiments, semiconductor nanocrystals can be prepared alternatively by use of non-coordinating solvents.

For example, coordinating ligands are of the formula (Y-) k-n - ( X) - (- L) n
Can have
Where k is 2, 3 or 5 and n is 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5; X is O, S, S═O, such that k−n is greater than or equal to zero. , SO 2 , Se, Se═O, N, N═O, P, P═O, As, or As═O; Y and L are each independently aryl, heteroaryl, or at least one A double bond, at least one triple bond, or a straight or branched C2-12 hydrocarbon chain optionally containing at least one double bond and one triple bond. The hydrocarbon chain is one or more C1-4 alkyl, C2-4 alkenyl, C2-4 alkynyl, C1-4 alkoxy, hydroxyl, halo, amino, nitro, cyano, C3-5 cycloalkyl, 3 to 5 membered hetero It can be optionally substituted by cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, C1-4alkylcarbonyloxy, C1-4alkyloxycarbonyl, C1-4alkylcarbonyl, or formyl. The hydrocarbon chain is -O-, -S-, -N (Ra)-, -N (Ra) -C (O) -O-, -O-C (O) -N (Ra)-, -N. (Ra) -C (O) -N (Rb)-, -O-C (O) -O-, -P (Ra)-, or -P (O) (Ra)- Is possible. Each of Ra and Rb is independently hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkoxy, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyl, or haloalkyl. An aryl group is a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic aromatic group. Examples include phenyl, benzyl, naphthyl, tolyl, anthracyl, nitrophenyl, or halophenyl. A heteroaryl group is an aryl group with one or more heteroatoms in the ring, such as furyl, pyridyl, pyrrolyl, phenanthryl.

  Suitable coordinating ligands can be purchased commercially or are described, for example, in J. Org. It can be prepared by conventional synthetic organic techniques as described in March, Advanced Organic Chemistry.

  See also US patent application Ser. No. 10 / 641,292 filed Aug. 15, 2003, entitled “Stabilized Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

  When electrons and holes are localized on quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles (including but not limited to semiconductor nanocrystals), light emission can occur at the emission wavelength. The light emission has a frequency corresponding to the band gap of the quantum confined semiconductor material. The band gap is a function of the size of the nanoparticles. Quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles having a small diameter can have intermediate properties between the molecular and bulk forms of matter. For example, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles with small diameters can exhibit both electron and hole quantum confinement in all three dimensions, which is an effective band of material with reduced crystallite size. Increases the gap. As a result, for example, the optical absorption and emission of semiconductor nanocrystals shifts to blue or higher energy as the crystallite size decreases.

  For examples of blue-emitting semiconductor nanocrystal materials, see US patent application Ser. No. 11 / 071,244, filed Mar. 4, 2005, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

  Emission from quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can change the size of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles, the composition of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles, or both, through the full range of wavelengths in the ultraviolet, visible, or infrared region of the spectrum. It can be a narrow Gaussian emission band that can be adjusted by For example, CdSe can be adjusted in the visible region, and InAs can be adjusted in the infrared region. A narrow size distribution of a collection of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can produce light emission in a narrow spectral range. The collection is monodisperse exhibiting a deviation of less than 15% rms (root mean square), more preferably less than 10%, most preferably less than 5% in the diameter of the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles. It is possible to observe a narrow range of spectral emission that does not exceed about 75 nm, preferably 60 nm, more preferably 40 nm, and most preferably 30 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM) of quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles emitting in the visible range. Infrared emitting quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles can have a FWHM not exceeding 150 nm or not exceeding 100 nm. Expressed in terms of luminescence energy, the luminescence can have a FWHM that does not exceed 0.05 ev or does not exceed 0.03 ev. The emission width decreases as the diameter dispersion of the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles decreases.

  Narrow FWHM of semiconductor nanocrystals can produce saturated color emission. Neither class of organic chromophores is compatible with widely tunable saturated emission over the visible spectrum of a single material system (see, eg, Dabbousi et al., J. Phys. Chem. 101, 9463 (1997)). A monodisperse set of semiconductor nanocrystals emits light over a narrow wavelength range. A pattern including two or more sizes of semiconductor nanocrystals can emit light in two or more narrow wavelength ranges. The color of luminescence perceived by the observer can be controlled by selecting an appropriate combination of semiconductor nanocrystal size and material. The reduction of the band edge energy level of the semiconductor nanocrystals facilitates all possible exciton capture and luminescent recombination.

  Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can provide information about the size, shape, and distribution of semiconductor nanocrystal assemblies. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns can provide the most complete information regarding the type and quality of the crystal structure of semiconductor nanocrystals. Since the particle size is inversely proportional to the peak width depending on the X-ray coherence distance, the size can be estimated. For example, the diameter of a semiconductor nanocrystal can be measured directly by transmission electron microscopy or can be estimated from X-ray diffraction data using, for example, Scherrer's equation. The diameter of the semiconductor nanocrystal can also be estimated from the ultraviolet / visible absorption spectrum.

  The quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are preferably handled in a controlled (oxygen-free and moisture-free) environment to prevent suppression of luminescence efficiency during the manufacturing process.

  As used herein, “above”, “below”, “above”, and “below” are relative position terms based on position from a reference point. More specifically, “up” means furthest away from the reference point, while “lower” means closest to the reference point. For example, if a layer is described as being disposed or deposited “on” a component or substrate, the layer is disposed remotely from the component or substrate. There may be other layers between the layer and the component or substrate. As used herein, “cover” is also a relative position term based on a position from a reference point. For example, if a first material is described as covering a second material, the first material is disposed over the second material but is not necessarily in contact with the second material.

  As used herein, the singular forms “a”, “an”, and “the” include the plural unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to an emissive material includes reference to one or more such materials.

  Applicants specifically incorporate the entire contents of all cited references in this disclosure. Further, when an amount, concentration, or other value or parameter is given as either a range, a preferred range, or a list of preferred upper and lower limits, this is whether the ranges are disclosed separately. Regardless, it is to be understood as specifically disclosing all ranges formed from any pair of any upper range limit or preferred upper limit value and any lower range limit or preferred lower limit value. When numerical ranges are cited herein, the ranges are intended to include this endpoint, as well as all integers and fractions within the range, unless explicitly stated otherwise. It is not intended that the scope of the invention be limited to the specific values recited when defining a range.

  Other embodiments of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from consideration of the specification and practice of the invention disclosed herein. It is intended that the specification and examples be considered as exemplary only, with a true scope and spirit of the invention being indicated by the following claims and their equivalents.

Claims (33)

  1. Quantum confinement that is an optical component comprising a waveguide comprising a layer comprising a composition comprising a semiconductor nanoparticle and a solid host material that is a photoluminescent quantum confinement composed of a core / shell structure The semiconductor nanoparticles are dispersed in a solid host material, the composition does not contain a phosphor, and the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticle is about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent photoluminescent based on the weight of the host material. look-containing particles, quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles is the photoluminescent absorbs light and re-emit light of a different wavelength involving spectral emissions in a narrow range not exceeding 40 nm, the optical component.
  2. The composition further seen contains scatterers, dissipating runtime prolongs the absorption path length of the excitation light used to excite the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are photoluminescent in the host material, and the nano The optical component according to claim 1 , which assists extraction of light down-converted by particles .
  3. The optical component of claim 2 , wherein the scatterer is included in the composition in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent of the weight of the host material.
  4. Further comprising means for coupling light from the light source into the waveguide, the optical component according to claim 1.
  5. A quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles and light Faculty article Ru with a film comprising an optically transparent carrier substrate comprising a composition comprising a solid host material is a photoluminescent configured with a core / shell structure, photoluminescence Quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles that are cents are dispersed in a solid host material, and quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles that are photoluminescent absorb light and have different wavelengths of light with a narrow spectrum emission not exceeding 40 nm. and re-emit, the composition is free of phosphor particles, and are arranged in a predetermined arrangement over a predetermined region of the surface of the carrier substrate, a film is deposited on the surface of the waveguide, Optical component.
  6. 6. The optical component of claim 5 , wherein the composition comprises quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles that are about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent photoluminescent based on the weight of the host material.
  7. The composition further seen contains scatterers, dissipating runtime prolongs the absorption path length of the excitation light used to excite the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are photoluminescent in the host material, and the nano The optical component according to claim 5 , which assists extraction of light down-converted by particles .
  8. The optical component of claim 7 , wherein the scatterer is included in the composition in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent of the weight of the host material.
  9. An optical component comprising a waveguide and a layer disposed over the surface of the waveguide;
    Wherein the layer comprises a composition comprising a solid host material and quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles from about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent photoluminescent based on the weight of the host material, wherein the photoluminescent Certain quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are composed of a core / shell structure, the composition does not contain phosphor particles, and the photoconfined quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles absorb light and have a narrow range not exceeding 40 nm Re-emit light of different wavelengths with a spectral emission of
    And a light source optically coupled to the waveguide, wherein the light source comprises a blue LED, system.
  10. The system of claim 9 , wherein the light source is optically coupled to the edge of the waveguide.
  11. The composition further seen containing a further scatterers, wherein the diverging runtime prolongs the absorption path length of the excitation light used to excite the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are photoluminescent in the host material , And the system of claim 9 , which assists in extracting light down-converted by the nanoparticles .
  12. The system of claim 11 , wherein the scatterers are included in the composition in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent of the weight of the host material.
  13. The system of claim 9 , wherein the light source is optically coupled to the surface of the waveguide.
  14. A thin film electroluminescent lamp comprising a layer comprising a composition comprising quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles, a scatterer and a host material that is a photoluminescent composed of a core / shell structure ,
    The photoluminescent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are dispersed in a solid host material, the composition is phosphor- free , the layer is disposed on the surface of the thin film electroluminescent lamp , and the photoluminescent The cent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles absorb light and re-emit light of different wavelengths with a narrow range of spectral emissions not exceeding 40 nm .
  15. Composition comprises a quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles are photoluminescent from about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the host material, a thin film electroluminescent lamp of claim 14.
  16. 15. The thin film electroluminescent lamp of claim 14 , wherein scatterers are included in the composition in an amount in the range of about 0.001 to about 15 weight percent, based on the weight of the host material.
  17. 15. The thin film electroluminescent lamp of claim 14 , wherein scatterers are included in the composition in an amount in the range of about 0.1 to 2 weight percent, based on the weight of the host material.
  18. 15. The thin film electroluminescent lamp of claim 14 , wherein the weight ratio of photoconfined quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles to scatterers is from about 1: 100 to about 100: 1.
  19. The thin film electroluminescent lamp of claim 14 further comprising one or more filter layers.
  20. The thin film electroluminescent lamp of claim 14 further comprising one or more reflective layers.
  21. 15. The thin film electroluminescent lamp of claim 14 , further comprising a removal mechanism on the surface of the lamp on which the nanoparticles are disposed.
  22. The optical component further includes at least one of a cover, coating, and layer, and includes quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles that are photoluminescent on at least a portion of the surface of the cover, coating, and / or layer. 6. Optical component according to claim 1 or 5, wherein the layer is arranged for protection from at least one of environment, scratch and wear.
  23. And a layer comprising quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles that are photoluminescent on at least a portion of the surface of the cover, coating, and / or layer, comprising at least one of a cover, a coating, and a layer. The system of claim 9, wherein the system is arranged for protection from at least one of environment, scratch and wear.
  24. And further comprising an underlayer filter disposed between the waveguide and a layer comprising a composition comprising quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles and a solid host material that is a photoluminescent composed of a core / shell structure, wherein The optical component of claim 1, wherein the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles that are luminescent are dispersed in a solid host material.
  25. The optical component according to claim 1 or 5, wherein the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles that are photoluminescent include a core containing CdSe and a shell containing CdZnS.
  26. The optical component according to claim 5, wherein the carrier substrate comprises a flexible polymer material.
  27. 27. The optical component of claim 26, wherein the flexible polymeric material comprises acrylic, epoxy, polycarbonate, PEN, PET or PE.
  28. Quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles that are photoluminescent are selected to emit two or more different predetermined wavelengths at a desired light output when excited by light energy from one or more light sources. Item 6. The optical component according to Item 1 or 5.
  29. 30. The optical component of claim 28, wherein the one or more light sources comprise blue LEDs.
  30. A layer comprising a composition comprising a photoluminescent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticle configured with a core / shell structure and a solid host material has a polymer overcoating, wherein the photoluminescent quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticle is The optical component according to claim 1, wherein the optical component is dispersed in a solid host material.
  31. The optical component according to claim 1, wherein the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles that are photoluminescent are semiconductors containing a Group III-V compound.
  32. 6. The optical component of claim 1 or 5, wherein the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles that are photoluminescent include a core comprising CdSe and a shell comprising CdZnS, with a narrow range of spectral emission not exceeding 30 nm.
  33. 6. Optical component according to claim 1 or 5, wherein the quantum confined semiconductor nanoparticles that are photoluminescent absorb light and re-emit light of different wavelengths with a narrow range of spectral emission not exceeding 30 nm.
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