JP6189603B2 - Fire extinguisher - Google Patents

Fire extinguisher Download PDF

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JP6189603B2
JP6189603B2 JP2013029564A JP2013029564A JP6189603B2 JP 6189603 B2 JP6189603 B2 JP 6189603B2 JP 2013029564 A JP2013029564 A JP 2013029564A JP 2013029564 A JP2013029564 A JP 2013029564A JP 6189603 B2 JP6189603 B2 JP 6189603B2
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fire extinguishing
fire
storage device
power storage
agent
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JP2014158508A (en
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博 茨木
博 茨木
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ホーチキ株式会社
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  The present invention relates to a fire extinguishing apparatus that is provided in a power storage device that houses a plurality of lithium ion batteries and extinguishes fire.

In recent years, hybrid vehicles equipped with engines and motors are rapidly increasing in addition to vehicles powered by engines powered by gasoline or light oil. This is due to the increase in demand for fuel-efficient vehicles due to the rise in crude oil prices and the increase in demand for hybrid vehicles with low CO 2 emissions due to the increased awareness of reducing environmental impact. Furthermore, in addition to such hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles that use only electric motors as the power source and have zero CO 2 emissions during travel are gradually becoming popular.

  A high-voltage and large-capacity power storage device in which a plurality of single cells are arranged and connected in series and in parallel is mounted on the body of a hybrid vehicle or an electric vehicle. The power storage device is composed of an assembled battery in which a plurality of unit cells called cells are connected, and is housed in a sealed container. In addition, the unit cell mounted in the power storage device has shifted from a conventional nickel-hydrogen battery to a lithium ion battery that can be charged even in a general home, and it is expected that the unit cell will have higher performance in the future.

  Also, in the field of aircraft, an aircraft equipped with a power storage device using a lithium ion battery that is small in size and has a large capacity and contributes to weight reduction has been put into practical use and has started operation.

  Furthermore, in recent years, power storage devices using stationary lithium ion batteries for general homes, offices, public facilities, etc. are also rapidly spreading. By using lithium ion batteries, several hundred Wh to 2-3 kWh A small power storage device that can be easily installed and used in a building having a certain level of power storage capacity has been realized.

  A stationary power storage device is connected to an outlet of a commercial AC system drawn into a building, etc., and converts AC power input to DC power to store it, and is used in daily life such as electronic equipment such as TVs and personal computers, and lighting equipment. By connecting loads of high importance in life, so-called important loads, the stored AC power is converted into AC power and output as needed, not only during a commercial AC power outage To make it work.

  Also, the DC power stored in the power storage device during the daytime power peak time when the power consumption is maximized is stored in the midnight time when the electricity bill is reduced, and the AC power from the commercial AC system is stored. Is converted into AC power and supplied to the load, reducing the power consumption from the commercial AC system and making it possible to save power and use economical power.

JP 2012-129209 A JP 2011-254906 A JP 2011-165628 A JP 2007-295707 A

  However, in such a power storage device using a lithium ion battery, a large capacity is realized by connecting a plurality of lithium ion batteries. However, the lithium ion battery has various causes such as an internal short circuit or overcharge. When the thermal runaway occurs, the battery temperature rises significantly and the pressure inside the battery rises. As a result, the lithium ion battery may rupture or ignite, which may cause an electric fire with the power storage device as the source of fire.

  A lithium ion battery housed in a power storage device uses a flammable liquid such as dimethyl carbonate or diethyl carbonate as an electrolytic solution. As long as there is a flammable liquid, it ignites when conditions are met. The ignition mechanism of lithium-ion batteries is thermal runaway, and the internal temperature of the cell increases due to internal short circuit, abnormal heating inside the cell, external short circuit, external abnormal overheating, excessive current, excessive voltage, etc. When this exotherm exceeds a certain limit value, the behavior cannot be controlled and the temperature rising reaction is caused in a continuous manner, and the temperature rising phenomenon occurs. This is a thermal runaway.

  The behavior of a lithium-ion battery during thermal runaway shows a rapid temperature rise reaction in a short time, the electrolyte is heated suddenly, expands, gasifies and ejects, and the safety valve provided in the cell is activated (ruptured). The electrolyte is ejected, and the flame is ejected from the cell because the electrolyte is a flammable liquid.

  It has been reported as a result of various fire experiments that the degree of flame erupted from the cell differs depending on the charge amount of the lithium ion battery. The amount of oxygen released at the time of exothermic decomposition of a lithium ion battery differs depending on the state of charge, and it is said that the amount of released oxygen is greatest when fully charged (SOC 100%). For this reason, there is a difference in the amount of oxygen released between a battery with a large amount of charge and a battery with a small amount of charge. The larger the amount of charge, the stronger the flame is emitted from the cell, and the full charge causes an explosive flame. ing.

  If any of the multiple lithium-ion batteries stored in a power storage device that uses a sealed container ignites due to thermal runaway, the flame erupted from the cell spreads into the empty space in the container and fills the container with the flame. Even if the oxygen in the inside is no longer consumed by the flame, the oxygen flame from the cell itself does not fade because the oxygen release from the cell continues, the internal temperature of the power storage device rises rapidly, and the adjacent lithium ion The battery may be heated, causing thermal runaway in a chain. In addition, the electrolyte sprayed from the cell has high electrical conductivity. Therefore, if it is sprayed inside the battery, if it adheres between the electrode terminals of the lithium ion battery or between the connection bars, an external short circuit will occur and an excessive short circuit current will flow. As a result, adjacent lithium ion batteries may cause thermal runaway in a chained manner.

  Various safety measures are taken against the problem of ignition due to such thermal runaway, and safety is improved every day. In this regard, “It is true that the safety of the battery can be improved. However, the probability of a fire / explosion is reduced, and it does not mean that there will be no fire / explosion”. The views of those who have academic experience are also shown.

  However, conventionally, there are no fire extinguishing devices and fire extinguishing equipment that suppress fire extinguishing in response to a fire that occurred outside a sealed container against an electric fire when a power storage device containing a lithium ion battery is installed in a car, an aircraft, or a building. Various proposals have been put to practical use, but no effective fire extinguishing device or fire extinguishing equipment has been realized to directly control fire extinguishing in response to ignition caused by thermal runaway of a lithium ion battery that has occurred in a sealed container. .

  In addition, when an electrical fire of a power storage device occurs, the fire extinguishing activity by the conventional water-based fire extinguishing equipment has a high risk of inducing a secondary disaster such as an electric shock accident as well as extinguishing or suppressing the fire.

  It is an object of the present invention to provide a fire extinguishing apparatus that can directly suppress a fire associated with an abnormality of a lithium ion battery occurring in a container of a power storage device and prevent the spread of a chain fire. Objective.

(Fire extinguishing equipment)
The present invention provides a fire extinguishing device provided in a power storage device containing a plurality of lithium ion batteries.
Insulating material storage means filled with a predetermined amount of powdered insulating material corresponding to the internal empty space of the power storage device;
A pressurizing means for pressurizing the powder insulating agent filled in the insulating agent storage means;
Fire extinguishing control means that pressurizes the powder insulating agent filled in the insulating material storing means by the operation of the pressurizing means and releases the powder insulating material as fire extinguishing sand in the power storage device when a fire due to abnormality of the lithium ion battery is detected When,
With
The pressurizing means includes a discharge pipe having one end opened in the insulating material storing means and the other end opened in the power storage device, and pressurizes the powder insulating agent by burning the solid digestive agent .

(Fire extinguishing equipment using a solid fire extinguisher as a pressure source)
The pressurizing means is
A solid fire extinguisher storage portion containing a solid fire extinguisher that closes one end and opens the other end to the insulating agent storage means side and generates a fire extinguishing aerosol by combustion;
A flame ejection preventing member disposed on the opening side of the solid fire extinguishing agent storage unit;
Is provided.

(Pressurizing means and fire extinguishing control means)
The pressurizing means includes a sealing member that seals the discharge tube and is broken by pressurization of the powder insulating agent.
Fire extinguishing control means
An activation circuit that activates the pressurizing means and outputs a fire extinguishing activation detection signal to the outside when a fire is detected;
A connector that is connected to the starter circuit with a signal line;
A plug that is detachably provided on the connector, and that connects a signal line for outputting a fire extinguishing start detection signal to the outside;
Is provided.

The starting circuit unit burns the solid fire extinguisher by energization heating of the heater.

(Thermal sensing cable)
The fire extinguishing control means includes a heat sensing cable that brings a pair of signal wires into a short-circuited state by melting the insulation coating when receiving heat from a fire, and the heat sensing cable includes all the lithium batteries stored in the power storage device. Ru is laid so as to pass through the vicinity of the safety valve provided in the ion cell.

(Location of fire extinguishing equipment)
The fire extinguishing device is arranged on the outer side of the upper part of the lid member of the battery storage container in which a plurality of lithium ion batteries are stored , or on the inner side of the lid member .

(Basic effect)
The fire extinguishing apparatus of the present invention is a free space in a power storage device when any of a plurality of lithium ion batteries housed in the power storage device is ruptured or ignited due to thermal runaway due to various causes such as internal short circuit or overcharge. An amount of powder insulation suitable for the battery is discharged into the power storage device, so that the empty space in the power storage device is filled with the discharged powder insulation and the electrolysis ejected from the thermally runaway lithium ion battery Enclose the liquid flame with the powder insulation and adsorb the atomized electrolyte, and the powder insulation functions as so-called fire extinguishing sand to suppress the fire extinction and suppress the heating of other lithium ion batteries The thermal runaway can be prevented, and even in the worst case, it is possible to keep the fire inside the power storage device and prevent the fire from spreading to the outside.

  Also, by discharging the powder insulation from the thermal runaway lithium-ion battery into the empty space where the electrolyte is jetting, the atomized electrolyte and the powder insulation are mixed, and the electrolyte mixed with the powder insulation is mixed. The electrical conductivity is lowered and the insulation resistance is increased, and the electrical conductivity is lowered even if the electrolyte mixed with the powder insulation adheres between the electrode terminals and bus bars (electrode connection bars) of other lithium ion batteries. By suppressing the short circuit current, it is possible to reliably prevent chain thermal runaway due to an external short circuit.

(Effects of powder insulation)
In addition, by using mica powder as a powder insulation agent, high insulation resistance can be secured, high heat resistance can be secured, and cost can be reduced by using commercially available dry pulverized mica powder. Can do.

  Moreover, by mixing a predetermined amount of powder fire extinguishing agent with a powder insulating agent such as mica powder agent, in addition to the function as fire extinguishing sand by the powder insulating agent, the powder fire extinguishing agent is directly applied to the flame ejected from the lithium ion battery. Injecting can suppress fire extinguishing.

(Effect when solid fire extinguishing agent is used as pressure source)
In addition, since the fire extinguishing aerosol generated by the combustion of the solid fire extinguisher is used as the pressure source of the powder insulating agent, it is only necessary to store the solid fire extinguisher separately from the powder insulating agent under normal conditions, and no pressure resistance is required. A small pressure source can be used, and if a fire is detected, powder insulation can be continuously released into the electricity storage device by pressurization due to the generation of fire-extinguishing aerosol by burning solid extinguisher. it can.

  In addition, fire extinguishing aerosol generated by burning solid fire extinguishing agent to pressurize powder insulation is fine particles of about 2 μm, mainly composed of potassium chloride, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, etc., and nitrogen. It is suitable for electric fires that contain carbon dioxide, water vapor, etc., and water-based extinguishing agents cannot be used.For this reason, the fire extinguishing device mixes and discharges the powder insulating agent and the fire extinguishing aerosol into the power storage device, It becomes possible to perform higher fire suppression for a fire of a lithium ion battery.

(Effects when inert gas is used as a pressure source)
Further, since an inert gas such as nitrogen gas or carbon dioxide gas pressurized and filled in the gas cylinder is used as a pressure source for the powder insulating agent, the gas cylinder is required to have a pressure resistance, but the volume of the empty space of the power storage device is small. Therefore, the amount of the inert gas required is small, and a small pressure source can be obtained.

  In addition, when nitrogen gas or carbon dioxide gas is used as the inert gas, the powder insulating agent and nitrogen gas or carbon dioxide gas are mixed and released into the power storage device. By adding suffocation fire extinguishing, it becomes possible to perform higher fire extinguishing suppression against a fire of a lithium ion battery.

  In addition, when the powder insulating agent is released into the power storage device by pressurizing with an inert gas, the internal pressure of the power storage device increases, but the atmosphere accompanying the increase in the internal pressure of the power storage device is introduced and discharged to the outside through the filter. By providing the discharge unit in the fire extinguishing device, an increase in the internal pressure of the power storage device is suppressed and the power storage device is prevented from bursting.

(Effect of heat sensing cable)
In addition, detection of an electric fire accompanying abnormality of a lithium ion battery stored in a power storage device is performed by, for example, a pair of signal lines due to melting of an insulation coating when a heat sensing cable receives heat from a flame accompanying thermal runaway of a lithium ion battery. The battery is detected in contact with the short-circuited state, and it is not necessary to set a threshold temperature to detect a necessary fire when using a temperature sensor, or to compare and judge the threshold and the detected temperature. Fires associated with ion battery abnormalities can be detected and extinguished.

  In addition, since the heat sensing cable is laid so as to cross the vicinity of the safety valve provided in all the lithium ion batteries housed in the power storage device, each of the lithium ion batteries is provided with a simple configuration of the heat sensing cable. On the other hand, it is possible to reliably detect fires associated with abnormalities and suppress fire extinguishing.

Explanatory drawing showing a power storage device with an external fire extinguisher Sectional view showing a longitudinal section of a fire extinguisher using a solid fire extinguisher as a pressure source The top view which removed the cover of the electrical storage apparatus of FIG. 1, and showed the inside of an apparatus main body The top view which removed the cover of the fire extinguisher of FIG. 1, and showed the inside of a main body Circuit diagram showing an embodiment of a start-up circuit unit built in a fire extinguisher Explanatory drawing which showed operation of fire extinguishing device Sectional view showing a longitudinal section of a fire extinguisher using an inert gas as a pressurized source FIG. 7 is a plan view showing the inside of the apparatus main body with the lid of the power storage apparatus removed.

[Configuration of fire extinguishing device]
FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing a power storage device with an external fire extinguishing device according to the present invention. FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view showing a longitudinal section of the fire extinguishing device and power storage device of FIG. 3 is a plan view showing the inside of the apparatus main body with the lid of the power storage device removed, and FIG. 4 is a plan view showing the inside of the main body with the lid of the fire extinguishing apparatus removed.

(Outline of power storage device)
As shown in FIGS. 1, 2, and 3, the power storage device 10 is for aircraft, for example. The storage container lid 14 is provided, and the storage container body 12 and the storage container lid 14 constitute a storage container of the power storage device 10. The power storage device 10 is also called a battery module or a battery pack.

  A connector 18 that connects the positive output terminal 16 a and the negative output terminal 16 b of the power storage device 10 and signal lines for inputting and outputting various control signals and detection signals is attached to the front side wall of the storage container body 12.

  For example, eight lithium ion batteries 20 are stored in the storage container body 12 as assembled batteries. The lithium ion battery 20 is a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery known as a single battery (battery cell). For example, an electrode body together with a non-aqueous electrolyte is placed on a rectangular box-shaped outer container formed of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. Stored.

  The electrode body of the lithium ion battery 20 is formed in a rectangular shape by, for example, winding a positive electrode plate and a negative electrode plate in a spiral shape with a separator interposed therebetween. A pair of electrode terminals 22 serving as a positive electrode and a negative electrode are taken out from the upper end of the outer casing of the lithium ion battery 20. A safety valve 25 is provided on one side wall of the lithium ion battery 20. The safety valve 25 has an opening provided in the outer container closed with a thin aluminum plate. When the internal pressure increases due to thermal runaway or the like, the safety valve 25 operates (ruptures) at a predetermined pressure to prevent the outer container from bursting.

  Here, the external size of the lithium ion battery 20 is, for example, about (height = 170 mm to 180 mm) × (width = 130 mm to 140 mm) × (depth = 50 mm to 60 mm). The external size of the power storage device is, for example, about (height = 200 mm to 220 mm) × (width = 270 mm to 290 mm) × (depth = 320 mm to 340 mm).

Inside the storage container body 12, eight lithium batteries 20 are stored in two rows, and are stored so that the positive and negative electrode terminals 22 face each other alternately. A plate-shaped bus bar (electrode connection bar) 24 is mounted between the positive electrode terminal 22 and the negative electrode terminal 22, and eight lithium ion batteries are connected in series. Are connected to one of the circuit boards 28 stored vertically by the bus bar 24 .

  A battery management unit (MBU) is mounted on the circuit board 28. The battery voltage and internal temperature are monitored, and when an abnormality is detected, a signal is output to a charger installed outside so as to stop charging. I have.

  The safety valve 25 of the lithium ion battery 20 is provided, for example, on the side surface of the positive electrode terminal 22 side. When the safety valve 25 is incorporated in the storage container body 12, as shown in the plan view of FIG. Located on the opposite center side.

  If the average cell voltage of the lithium ion battery 20 is, for example, 3.5 volts, the voltage of the assembled battery becomes 28 volts due to the series connection of the eight lithium ion batteries 20 shown in FIG. 3, and the positive output terminal 16a of the power storage device 10 The voltage at the negative output terminal 16b is also 28 volts. Note that the number of lithium ion batteries 20 corresponds to the required voltage of the assembled battery. The plurality of lithium ion batteries 20 may be connected to a battery pack in which a predetermined number of lithium ion batteries are connected in parallel, and a plurality of battery packs may be connected in series.

[Outline of fire extinguishing equipment]
As shown in FIGS. 1, 2, and 4, a fire extinguishing device 30 is fixedly arranged on the upper portion of the storage container lid 14 in the power storage device 10 by external attachment.

When the fire extinguishing device 30 detects a fire associated with thermal runaway of the lithium ion battery 20 stored in the storage container of the power storage device 10, the fire extinguishing device uses the fire extinguishing aerosol generated by the combustion of the solid fire extinguishing agent as a pressurizing source. The powder insulating agent filled in 30 is discharged into the power storage device 10 to suppress fire extinguishing.

The fire extinguishing device 30 is a sealed container composed of a device main body 30a and a lid member 30b, and has a box shape with the same width and depth as the power storage device 10. As shown in the plan view of FIG. 4, the inside of the apparatus main body 30a is divided into three sections by a partition plate 41 , and the insulating container storing means and the pressurizing means of the fire extinguishing apparatus 30 are provided in the sections on both sides, and the fire extinguishing is performed in the central section. Control means are provided.

(Configuration of insulating agent storage means)
An insulating agent storage portion 32 serving as an insulating agent storage means of the fire extinguishing apparatus 30 is filled with a mica powder agent 34 as a powder insulating agent. As the mica powder agent 34, dry pulverized mica powder commercially available for industrial use can be used. For example, ultrafine mica powder having an average particle diameter of 5 to 10 μm is suitable. Mica powder has a high electrical insulation with a volume resistivity of 10 8 Ω-m or more, and a high heat resistance of about 900 to 1000 ° C.

  The amount of the mica powder agent 34 to be filled in the insulating material storage unit 32 is set to a predetermined amount corresponding to the internal free space of the power storage device 10, for example, the same amount as the volume of the internal free space. When any one of the lithium ion batteries 20 housed in the power storage device 10 undergoes thermal runaway and the safety valve 25 is activated (exploded) to eject the ignited electrolytic solution, the flame caused by the ejection of the electrolytic solution causes the power storage device 10 to It is possible to fill the internal free space of the electricity storage device 10 with the mica powder agent 34 by releasing the amount of mica powder agent 34 of the same volume as that volume into the internal empty space. And

  Moreover, you may make it further improve a fire-extinguishing suppression effect by mixing a predetermined amount of powder fire-extinguishing agents with the mica powder agent 34 as a powder insulating agent. As this powder fire extinguisher, an ABC type powder fire extinguisher corresponding to a normal fire A such as wood, paper, and fiber, a fire B of oil such as kerosene and gasoline, and an electric fire C such as a switchboard and an outlet is used.

(Configuration of pressurizing means)
The pressurizing means of the fire extinguishing apparatus 30 includes a solid fire extinguishing agent storage unit 40, a flame ejection preventing member 50, a discharge pipe 36 and a sealing member 38.

  The solid fire extinguisher storage unit 40 closes one end by a partition member 44 and opens the other end to the insulating agent storage unit 32 side to store the solid fire extinguishing agent 42.

  The solid fire extinguisher 42 has a through hole in the central lateral direction, and an igniter 46 using explosive or the like is embedded in the opening side of the through hole, and a heater 48 used for ignition is placed in the igniter 46. Embedded. The through hole provided in the solid fire extinguishing agent 42 plays a role in efficiently burning the solid fire extinguishing agent 42 from the through hole to the outside when the solid extinguishing agent 42 is ignited by the ignition agent 46.

  When explosive is used as the igniting agent 46, the blast generated by the explosion of the igniting agent 46 by energization heating of the heater 48 is used as a pressurizing source, and the mica powder agent 34 accommodated in the insulating agent accommodating portion 32 is rapidly agitated by the blast. In addition, the sealing member 38 of the discharge pipe 36 is broken by a strong pressure generated by the blast, and the mica powder agent 34 can be discharged from the discharge pipe 36 into the power storage device 10 in a short time.

  The solid fire extinguisher 42 generates a fire extinguishing aerosol by combustion and functions as a pressure source for releasing the mica powder 34 filled in the insulating material storage portion 32 into the power storage device 10 and as a fire extinguisher. Function. The fire-fighting aerosol is ultrafine particles of about 2 μm, and the main component thereof contains a metal oxide, carbonate or phosphate or a mixture thereof.

  Specifically, potassium chloride, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate and the like are the main components, and nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and the like are contained therein. In the fire extinguishing aerosol having such a main component, the fire extinguishing aerosol itself is not toxic and can be said to be an environmentally friendly generated gas.

  The fire extinguishing action by the fire extinguishing aerosol generated by the combustion of the solid fire extinguisher 42 is to extinguish the fire by the action of extinguishing and suppressing the active center of the combustion by the occurrence of the fire, and use a water-based fire extinguisher. Fire extinguishing action suitable for electric fires that cannot be performed is obtained.

  The amount of the solid fire extinguisher 42 is determined according to, for example, the free space inside the power storage device 10. The weight of the solid fire extinguishing agent 42 for generating a fire extinguishing aerosol necessary for extinguishing per cubic meter of fire extinguishing target area to be a closed space is about 80 g to 200 g, and based on this, power storage to be extinguished An amount of the solid fire extinguisher 42 corresponding to the free space inside the apparatus 10 is accommodated.

  The internal volume of the power storage device 10 to be extinguished by the fire extinguishing device 30 of the present embodiment is about 0.02 cubic meters, for example, and accommodates an assembled battery, a circuit board, a bus bar, and the like configured by a plurality of lithium ion batteries 20 As a result, the actual internal free space becomes even smaller. For example, when the internal free volume of the power storage device 10 is set to 0.01 cubic meter, the weight of the solid fire extinguisher necessary is about 8 grams to 20 grams.

  Conventionally, gas fire extinguishing equipment and powder fire extinguishing equipment are generally used as fire extinguishing equipment used for electric equipment and the like, but these fire extinguishing equipment requires a large amount of high-pressure gas to release a fire extinguishing agent. For this reason, if fire extinguishing gas or powder is released in a highly sealed storage container, the storage container may burst, reducing the fire-extinguishing effect and expanding the spread of fire. In the fire extinguishing apparatus 30 of the present embodiment, the pressurization in the storage container is a short time when the igniter 46 is ignited, and thereafter, the pressurization in the storage container is a slight pressurization due to aerosol release generated by the combustion of a small amount of the solid fire extinguishing agent 42. Compared with the gas fire extinguishing equipment and powder fire extinguishing equipment, the pressure rise in the power storage device 10 is very small, and the burst of the power storage device 10 can be avoided.

A flame ejection preventing member 50 is disposed on the opening side of the solid fire extinguisher storage portion 40 that stores the solid fire extinguishing agent 42. Specific examples of the flame ejection preventing member 50 include a structure in which a plurality of small-diameter pipes such as glass and porcelain are arranged to suppress the ejection of flame, a structure in which a plurality of wire meshes are separately arranged to suppress the ejection of flame, glass, A structure in which a plurality of balls, such as porcelain, are arranged to suppress the ejection of flame, and a structure in which a plurality of balls, such as glass and porcelain, are arranged between a plurality of wire meshes, to suppress the ejection of flame.

A partition member 52 having a plurality of nozzle holes 54 is disposed following the flame ejection preventing member 50, and a thin sealing member 56 that is torn by a blast generated by the initiation of the ignition agent 46 is provided on the insulating agent storage portion 32 side. It is closed so that the mica powder agent 34 filled in the insulating agent storage portion 32 does not enter. The sealing member 56 that closes the nozzle hole 54 uses an aluminum foil, a synthetic resin thin film, or the like, and is bonded and fixed to the outside of the nozzle hole 54.

  One end of the discharge tube 36 opens to the insulating material storage portion 32, the other end passes through the storage container lid 14, opens into the power storage device 10, and sealed at the inlet side by being pressurized by the powder mica 34. The member 38 is disposed and sealed so that the powder mica 34 does not fall into the power storage device 10. As with the sealing member 56, the sealing member 38 that seals the discharge tube 36 uses an aluminum foil, a synthetic resin thin film, or the like, and is bonded and fixed to the inlet side of the discharge tube 36.

  The power storage device 10 side of the discharge tube 36 has a bottom, and an opening is formed in the bottom and the periphery thereof, so that the pressurized and supplied mica powder 34 can be diffused and released downward and laterally.

(Configuration of fire extinguishing control means)
The fire extinguishing control means of the fire extinguishing apparatus 30 includes a fire detection unit using a heat sensing cable 64, a starting circuit unit 60, a connector 62, and a plug 63 .

The starter circuit unit 60 is accommodated in the central section of the fire extinguishing apparatus 30 shown in FIG. It is pulled out and wired. The heat sensing cable 64 is two twisted signal wires insulated with a resin such as vinyl, and a voltage is applied from the starting circuit unit 60 between the two signal wires to receive heat from a fire. When the insulation coating melts, the pair of signal lines come into contact with a short circuit, and a sense current flows to detect a fire.

  The heat sensing cable 64 drawn into the power storage device 10 is wired so as to pass through the vicinity of the safety valve 25 of the lithium ion battery 20 housed in the power storage device 10, and is connected to the safety valve 25 of the lithium ion battery 20 that is thermally runaway. The fire can be detected by receiving the flame of the electrolyte that is blown out during operation (rupture).

In addition, the activation circuit unit 60 connects a heater 48 provided on the ignition agent 46 of the solid extinguishing agent 42 through a signal line. When a fire is detected or when a fire extinguishing activation instruction signal is received from the outside, the heater 48 is energized. The solid fire extinguishing agent 42 is ignited by the igniting agent 46 , and a fire extinguishing aerosol is generated by the combustion, and the mica powder agent 34 is pressurized and released into the power storage device 10.

  Further, a connector 62 is provided in the apparatus main body 30a in the vicinity of the activation circuit section 60 so that the plug 63 can be connected from the outside, and the signal lines 72 and 74 are drawn out through the plug 63. The signal line 72 inputs a fire extinguishing start instruction signal from the outside, and operates the fire extinguishing apparatus 30 remotely. The signal line 74 outputs a fire extinguishing start detection signal to the outside when the fire extinguishing apparatus 30 is operated. For this reason, by connecting the signal lines 72 and 74 from the external device side (not shown) to the connector 62 by the plug 63, the operation of the fire extinguishing device 30 by the fire extinguishing start fire instruction signal from the external device side is enabled. The activation of the fire extinguishing device 30 can be displayed on a display panel or the like on the external device side.

(Configuration of startup circuit)
FIG. 5 is a circuit diagram showing an embodiment of the activation circuit unit 60 arranged in the central section of the fire extinguishing apparatus 30 of FIG. As shown in FIG. 5, the activation circuit unit 60 connects a wired heat sensing cable 64 in the power storage device 10, and inputs a fire extinguishing activation instruction signal via a plug 63 and a connector 62, and A signal line 74 for outputting a fire extinguishing start detection signal is connected. The signal line 72 for inputting the fire extinguishing start instruction signal is in an open state in the normal monitoring state, and when the fire extinguishing start instruction signal is input, it is in a short circuit state.

  The starting circuit unit 60 is provided with a heater drive circuit including a transistor 84, a relay 86, resistors 78, 80 and 82, and a battery power source 76. The battery power source 76 is a primary battery such as a button battery and does not require external power supply.

  The transistor 84 applies the divided voltage of the resistors 78 and 80 to the base via the resistor 82, and the power supply voltage from the battery power source 76 is always applied to the heat sensing cable 64 via the resistors 78 and 80. doing. Here, in the normal monitoring state, the transistor 84 is off, and only the power supply voltage is applied to one signal line of the heat sensing cable 64 and no current flows, and the power consumption of the starting circuit unit 60 is as follows. Only a very small amount of current consumption is caused by leakage current or the like, and even if a primary battery is used as the battery power source 76, a sufficient battery life can be secured if necessary.

  The transistor 84 is a PNP transistor, and a relay 86 is connected as a load on the collector side. In the normal monitoring state, the heat sensing cable 64 is in an open state with an insulation covering of two signal lines such as vinyl. No current flows from the battery power source 76, and the transistor 84 is off because the voltage between the emitter and the base is 0 volts.

The relay 86 is connected to a pair of heaters 48 through the normally open relay contacts 90a and 90b. Further, the normally open relay contact 88 of the relay 86 is connected between the emitter and collector of the transistor 84 to form a latch circuit. Further, a relay contact 92 for outputting a fire extinguishing start detection signal is connected to a terminal of the connector 62.

  The insulation coating of the heat sensing cable 64 is melted by the heat of the electrolyte solution sprayed from the safety valve 25 activated by the thermal runaway of the lithium ion battery 20 housed in the power storage device 10, and the two signal lines are in contact with each other. Then, a current flows through the heat sensing cable 64 via the resistors 78 and 80. For this reason, a bias voltage is applied between the emitter and base of the transistor 84 by the voltage generated in the resistor 78, whereby the transistor 84 is turned on and the relay 86 is operated.

When the relay 86 is actuated, the normally open relay contacts 90a and 90b are closed, energized to each of the pair of heaters 48 , the ignition agent 46 is detonated by heating by energization of the heater 48 , and the solid fire extinguishing agent 42 is ignited accordingly. The fire-extinguishing aerosol is generated by combustion, the mica powder 34 is stirred and pressurized by the blast and the fire-extinguishing aerosol, and the mica powder 34 is discharged together with the fire-extinguishing aerosol from the discharge pipe 36 into the power storage device 10.

Further, when the normally open relay contact 88 is closed by the operation of the relay 86, the relay 86 is latched to the operating state, thereby preventing the malfunction due to the fluctuation of the short circuit state of the heat sensing cable 64.

  Further, when the relay contact 92 is closed, a fire extinguishing start detection signal indicating that a fire extinguishing operation has been performed is output to the outside via the signal line 74, and an external device that has received the fire extinguishing start detection signal as necessary. Display and notify activation of fire extinguishing device for battery fire.

On the other hand, when a fire extinguishing start instruction signal is input as necessary from the external device side, the signal line 72 is short-circuited, and the signal line is connected via the resistors 78 and 80 as in the case where a fire is detected by the heat sensing cable 64. 72, the transistor 84 is turned on by the operation of the relay 86, the normally open relay contacts 90a and 90b are closed, the heater 48 is energized, the ignition agent 46 is detonated, and the solid extinguishing agent 42 is burned to extinguish the fire. The mica powder 34 is agitated and pressurized by the blast and the fire-extinguishing aerosol , and the mica powder 34 is discharged together with the fire-extinguishing aerosol from the discharge pipe 36 into the power storage device 10.

(Operation of fire extinguishing device)
FIG. 6 is an explanatory view showing the operation of the fire extinguishing apparatus 30. In FIG. 6, any of the lithium ion batteries 20 housed in the power storage device 10 undergoes thermal runaway, the battery temperature rises remarkably, and the safety valve 25 is actuated (ruptured) due to the pressure rise, so that the filled non-water In the event of a fire in which the electrolyte is ignited and the flame is blown out violently, the start-up circuit unit 60 of the fire extinguishing device 30 detects a short circuit state due to the fire of the heat sensing cable 64 laid in the power storage device 10 and the heater 48 is energized and heated. Then, the ignition agent 46 is detonated, and the solid fire extinguishing agent 42 is ignited and combusted along with this to generate a fire extinguishing aerosol.

The blast generated by the initiation of the igniter 46 is ejected through the flame ejection preventing member 50, and then the blast is ejected by breaking the sealing member 56 of the nozzle hole 54 of the partition member 52. Then, the mica powder agent 34 filled in the container is stirred, and the fire extinguishing aerosol generated by the combustion of the solid fire extinguishing agent 42 is continuously fed into the insulating agent storage portion 32. When the internal pressure of the insulating material storage portion 32 reaches a predetermined pressure, the sealing member 38 that closes the discharge pipe 36 is broken, and the mica powder 34 passes through the discharge pipe 36 together with the fire-extinguishing aerosol and is free in the power storage device 10. It is released into the space and fills the empty space in a short time.

  For this reason, the flame of the electrolyte sprayed from the lithium ion battery 20 that has caused thermal runaway is wrapped in the discharged mica powder agent 34 and adsorbs the atomized electrolyte solution, and the mica powder agent 34 functions as fire extinguishing sand. , Suppressing the extinguishing of the flame from the lithium ion battery 20. In addition, the fire extinguishing aerosol generated by the combustion of the solid fire extinguishing agent 42 is also continuously released into the power storage device 10 to suppress the fire that is ejected from the lithium ion battery 20.

  On the other hand, the mica powder agent 34 discharged into the power storage device 10 is mixed with the atomized electrolyte ejected from the lithium ion battery 20 that has caused thermal runaway, and the electrolyte mixed with the mica powder agent 34 is electrically conductive. Even if the electrolytic solution mixed with the mica powder agent 34 adheres between the electrode terminals 22 of the other lithium ion batteries 20 or between the bus bars 24, the electrical conductivity is reduced, so that the short circuit current is reduced. It is possible to prevent chain runaway due to external short circuit.

[Fire extinguishing equipment using inert gas as a pressurized source]
(Configuration of fire extinguishing device)
FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view showing a longitudinal section of the fire extinguishing apparatus and power storage apparatus of FIG. 1 using an inert gas as a pressurizing source, and FIG. It is.

  As shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, the fire extinguisher 30 of the present embodiment is provided with a cylinder 94 serving as a gas storage unit, a gas discharge head 98, and a gas discharge valve 96 in the pressurizing means. The cylinder 94 is pressurized and filled with nitrogen gas or carbon dioxide gas as an inert gas.

The gas discharge head 98 discharges the inert gas pressurized and filled in the cylinder 94 to the insulating agent storage unit 32. The gas release valve 96 is provided between the cylinder 94 and the gas discharge head 98 and is normally closed. When the gas release valve 96 receives an opening control signal from the starting circuit unit 60, the gas release valve 96 is opened and pressurized. The inactive gas is discharged from the gas discharge head 98 to the insulating material storage section 32, and the mica powder agent 34 is pressurized and discharged from the discharge pipe 36 into the power storage device 10.

  In addition, a plurality of communication holes 100 communicating with the inside of the power storage device 10 are opened in the central section where the activation circuit unit 60 is arranged, and an exhaust port 102 communicating with the outside is opened. A filter 104 is arranged.

The starting circuit unit 60 is basically the same as that in FIG. 5 except that a drive unit for the gas release valve 96 is provided as a load for the normally open relay contacts 90a and 90b instead of the heater 48, and the relay contacts 90a and 90b are closed. The open control signal is output at.

  Other configurations are the same as those in the case where the solid fire extinguishing agent shown in FIGS.

(Operation of fire extinguishing device)
The operation of the fire extinguishing apparatus 30 shown in FIGS. 7 and 8 will be described as follows. One of the lithium ion batteries 20 housed in the power storage device 10 caused a thermal runaway and the safety valve 25 was activated (exploded), causing a fire that ignited the flame by igniting the filled nonaqueous electrolyte. In this case, the activation circuit unit 60 of the fire extinguishing device 30 detects a short-circuit state due to a fire of the heat sensing cable 64 installed in the power storage device 10, opens the gas release valve 96, and pressurizes and fills the cylinder 94 with pressure. The active gas is discharged from the gas discharge head 98 to the insulating material storage section 32, and the mica powder agent 34 filled therein is stirred and pressurized.

  When the internal pressure of the insulating material storage portion 32 reaches a predetermined pressure, the sealing member 38 that closes the discharge pipe 36 is broken, and the mica powder 34 passes through the discharge pipe 36 together with the inert gas, and is free in the power storage device 10. It is released into the space and fills the empty space in a short time.

  For this reason, the flame of the ignited electrolyte discharged from the lithium ion battery 20 that has caused thermal runaway is wrapped in the released mica powder 34 and adsorbs the atomized electrolyte, and the mica powder 34 functions as fire extinguishing sand. Then, the flame ejected from the lithium ion battery 20 is suppressed from being extinguished, and the flame ejected from the lithium ion battery 20 is also suppressed from being extinguished by the inert gas released from the cylinder 94.

  On the other hand, the mica powder agent 34 released into the power storage device 10 is mixed with the atomized electrolytic solution ejected from the lithium ion battery 20 that has caused thermal runaway to increase the insulation resistance, and the electrolytic solution becomes another lithium. It is possible to prevent a chain thermal runaway due to an external short-circuit when adhering between the electrode terminals 22 of the ion battery 20 or between the bus bars 24.

In addition, when the mica powder agent 34 is released from the fire extinguishing device 30 to the power storage device 10 by pressurization with an inert gas, the internal pressure of the power storage device 10 increases due to the inert gas. The internal pressure in the power storage device 10 does not exceed a predetermined pressure without being in communication with the central compartment of the fire extinguishing device 30 and the exhaust port 102 through the filter 104. Rupture can be avoided. Moreover, the atmosphere discharged | emitted from the electrical storage apparatus 10 outside passes the filter 104, and the atomized electrolyte solution, combustible gas, discharge | released mica powder agent, etc. are removed and the discharge | emission to the exterior is suppressed .

[Modification of the present invention]
(Arrangement of fire extinguishing equipment)
In the above embodiment, the case where the fire extinguishing device is arranged on the storage container lid in the power storage device is taken as an example, but it may be arranged inside the storage container lid of the power storage device. In this case, the container storage lid structure of the power storage device may be provided on the bottom plate of the fire extinguishing device.

(Insulating powder)
In the above embodiment, a mica powder agent is used as a powder insulating agent. However, an appropriate powder insulating agent such as a ceramic type or a glass type having high insulation and heat resistance may be used.

(Structure of fire extinguishing equipment)
In the above embodiment, the fire extinguishing apparatus is divided into three sections, and the reliability is improved by providing the insulating container storing means and the pressurizing means separately in the two sections and duplicating them. The apparatus may be divided into two sections, and one of the sections may be provided with an insulating material storing means and a pressurizing means.

(Fire extinguishing device power supply)
In the above embodiment, the battery circuit power source using the primary battery is incorporated in the fire extinguisher and the starter circuit unit is operated. However, the lithium ion battery (in the storage container of the power storage device) ( A power source may be supplied from the secondary battery.

(Fire detection part)
In the above embodiment, a heat detection cable is provided as a fire detection unit for detecting a fire due to an abnormality of the lithium ion battery. In addition to this, a temperature sensor such as a thermocouple or a thermistor, laser pulse light is incident. An appropriate fire detection unit such as an optical fiber sensor for measuring the temperature from the intensity of the backscattered light may be provided.

(Use of fire extinguishing equipment)
In addition, the above embodiment is an example of an aircraft power storage device, but it can be similarly provided as a fire extinguishing device for a power storage device containing lithium-ion batteries for automobiles and houses. The present invention can be similarly applied to a fire extinguishing device for a power storage device using a lithium ion battery installed in any appropriate device, apparatus, facility, or facility.

(Other)
The present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiment, includes appropriate modifications without impairing the object and advantages thereof, and is not limited by the numerical values shown in the above-described embodiment.

10: Power storage device 20: Lithium ion battery 25: Safety valve 30: Fire extinguishing device 32: Insulating agent storage part 34: Mica powder agent 36: Release pipe 38, 56: Sealing member 40: Solid fire extinguishing agent storage part 42: Solid fire extinguishing agent 46: Ignition agent 48: Heater 50: Flame ejection prevention member 60: Start-up circuit unit 64: Heat sensing cable 94: Cylinder 96: Gas release valve 98: Gas release head

Claims (8)

  1. In a fire extinguishing device provided in a power storage device containing a plurality of lithium ion batteries,
    Insulating agent storage means filled with a predetermined amount of powder insulating agent corresponding to the internal empty space of the power storage device;
    A pressurizing unit that pressurizes the powder insulating agent filled in the insulating agent storage unit;
    When a fire associated with an abnormality of the lithium ion battery is detected, the powder insulating agent filled in the insulating material storing means is pressurized by the operation of the pressurizing means, and the powder insulating agent is extinguished in the power storage device. Fire extinguishing control means to be released as,
    With
    The pressurizing means is
    A fire extinguishing apparatus comprising a discharge pipe having one end opened in the insulating agent storage means and the other end opened in the power storage device, and pressurizing the powder insulating agent by burning solid digestive agent .
  2. The fire extinguishing apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the pressurizing means is
    A solid fire extinguisher storage section containing a solid fire extinguisher that closes one end and opens the other end to the insulating agent storage means side and generates a fire extinguishing aerosol by combustion;
    A flame ejection preventing member disposed on the opening side of the solid fire extinguishing agent storage unit;
    A fire extinguisher characterized by comprising:
  3. 2. The fire extinguishing apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the pressurizing means includes a sealing member that seals the discharge pipe and is broken by pressurization of the powder insulating agent.
  4. The fire extinguishing apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the fire extinguishing control means includes:
    An activation circuit unit that activates the pressurizing means and outputs a fire extinguishing activation detection signal to the outside when the fire is detected;
    A connector connected with a signal line between the starter circuit unit,
    A plug that is detachably provided on the connector and that connects the signal line for outputting the fire-extinguishing start detection signal to the connector;
    A fire extinguisher characterized by comprising:
  5. The fire extinguishing apparatus according to claim 4 ,
    The fire-extinguishing apparatus , wherein the starting circuit unit burns the solid fire extinguisher by energization heating of a heater.
  6. 2. The fire extinguishing apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the fire extinguishing control means includes a heat sensing cable that contacts a pair of signal wires in a short-circuited state by melting the insulating coating when receiving heat from the fire. Special fire extinguishing device.
  7. 7. The fire extinguishing apparatus according to claim 6, wherein the heat sensing cable is laid so as to pass in the vicinity of safety valves provided in all lithium ion batteries housed in the power storage device.
  8.   2. The fire extinguishing apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the fire extinguishing apparatus is disposed on an upper outer side of a lid member of a battery housing container in which the plurality of lithium ion batteries are housed or on an inner side of the lid member.
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CN105169586A (en) * 2015-09-29 2015-12-23 上海博笃实业有限公司 Fire extinguishing system
US20170237054A1 (en) * 2016-02-16 2017-08-17 Thomas Michael Mast System and method for a reinforced container associated with battery handling
JP6586524B2 (en) * 2016-06-10 2019-10-02 ヤマトプロテック株式会社 Electrochemical equipment using aerosol fire extinguishing device
CN106693234A (en) * 2017-02-07 2017-05-24 上海蔚来汽车有限公司 Battery isolation device, charging and battery swap station with device and battery isolation method
KR102050140B1 (en) * 2017-12-12 2019-11-28 주식회사 파이어푸로코리아 Hybrid extinguishing system for fire suppression of bus engine room

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JPH06269509A (en) * 1993-03-17 1994-09-27 Hatsuta Seisakusho:Kk Sprikler for fire extinguishing agents
JPH06290813A (en) * 1993-04-01 1994-10-18 Hitachi Ltd Non-aqueous system secondary battery
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