JP6150531B2 - Terrain information acquisition device, terrain information acquisition system, terrain information acquisition method and program - Google Patents

Terrain information acquisition device, terrain information acquisition system, terrain information acquisition method and program Download PDF

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JP6150531B2
JP6150531B2 JP2013008564A JP2013008564A JP6150531B2 JP 6150531 B2 JP6150531 B2 JP 6150531B2 JP 2013008564 A JP2013008564 A JP 2013008564A JP 2013008564 A JP2013008564 A JP 2013008564A JP 6150531 B2 JP6150531 B2 JP 6150531B2
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terrain
area
gradient
dimensional map
unfinished
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JP2014139538A (en
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知浩 松本
知浩 松本
黒田 淳
淳 黒田
宅原 雅人
雅人 宅原
成寿 亀尾
成寿 亀尾
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三菱重工業株式会社
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Description

  The present invention relates to a terrain information acquisition apparatus, a terrain information acquisition system, a terrain information acquisition method, and a program using an unmanned land vehicle, an unmanned aircraft, and the like.

  A technology is known that creates a terrain information (three-dimensional map) in a disaster area where a person cannot step in by sending a drone remotely to acquire imaging data. ing. As such unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned land vehicles (hereinafter “UGV”), unmanned aerial vehicles (hereinafter “UAV”), and the like have been developed.

Here, for example, in a situation where it is necessary to quickly grasp the situation immediately after the disaster, first, the UGV travels as a first team in an area where the UGV can move, and the overall rough situation can be confirmed quickly but incompletely. The method of acquiring the imaging data is taken.
And about the area | region which UGV was not able to drive | run and cannot acquire imaging data, as a 2nd team, UAV is made to fly by remote operation and the said UAV acquires all the imaging data about an unacquired area from the sky. Finally, the imaging data acquired by the UGV and the imaging data acquired by the UAV are integrated to create a complete three-dimensional map.

FIG. 10 is a diagram showing a processing flow for acquiring terrain information using a conventional terrain information acquisition method.
The process flow described above will be described in detail with reference to FIG. First, the UGV travels in an area (ground) from which three-dimensional data is to be acquired (step S10). Then, the UGV captures the surroundings of the device with a dedicated camera while traveling in the area (step S11). At this time, the UGV stores the image data while associating the image data with information such as the position and shooting direction of the device itself when the image is taken. Then, a three-dimensional map is created with reference to each imaging data and position information (step S12).

  Next, the operator of UGV and UAV specifies an area (an unacquired area) from which the 3D map has not been acquired while confirming the 3D map created in step S12 (step S13). Then, the UGV and UAV operators create a UAV flight plan in order to acquire imaging data in the unacquired area (step S14). The processes in step 13 and step S14 are performed while a person (operator himself) sees and determines the three-dimensional data acquired in step S12.

  Next, the UAV flies over the three-dimensional data unacquired area based on the flight plan of step S14 (step S15). The UAV captures the ground with a dedicated camera while flying in the unacquired area (step S16). The UAV further creates a three-dimensional map from the acquired imaging data (step S17).

  Finally, the operator integrates the UGV 3D map and the UAV 3D map to create a complete 3D map (step S18). The operator can combine the three-dimensional data from a plurality of unmanned aircraft as described above to obtain a three-dimensional map with reduced blind spots.

  As a technique related to the present invention, a technique for acquiring information on an observation target while appropriately adjusting the self-position and posture angle of the UAV in flight using a UAV (information collecting rocket) is disclosed. (Patent Document 1).

JP 2012-101672 A

  Here, as a technique for creating a three-dimensional map, “motion stereo” is known which is obtained by calculating three-dimensional coordinate information while combining a plurality of two-dimensional images (imaging data). When using this motion stereo, it is difficult in principle to calculate the depth of the subject surface from the image data acquired from the direction in which the optical axis of the sensor (camera) is horizontal to the subject surface. Is not obtained correctly. Therefore, it is preferable that the optical axis of the camera is oriented as perpendicular as possible to the object plane, that is, the gradient of the terrain.

  On the other hand, in the creation of a UAV flight plan determined by a person (operator) (FIG. 10, step S14), the UAV is often made to fly by hand so that there is no omission in the acquisition of imaging data in an unacquired area. However, in this case, the operator does not consider whether or not the optical axis of the camera mounted on the UAV is oriented in a direction perpendicular to the terrain gradient, so the image data is acquired by flying all over the unacquired area. Even if you intend, you may not be able to create a complete 3D map due to lack of data. That is, in such a method, a lot of useless flight and useless imaging data that do not contribute to the creation of the 3D map are generated, and in addition to this, the operation of repeating the flight / shooting operation and the creation of the 3D map increases. In terms of time and labor required for the work, it was inefficient.

  Patent Document 1 describes a technique for UAV that stores a trajectory up to an observation target and a trajectory up to a point where the own device is to be collected, and controls the own device to fly along the trajectory. Based on the 3D map acquired by the 1st team (UGV), the flight plan of the 2nd team (UAV) cannot be optimized, and the 3D map creation work cannot be made efficient.

  Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to provide a terrain information acquisition device, a terrain information acquisition system, a terrain information acquisition method, and a program that can solve the above-described problems.

The present invention has been made to solve the above-described problem, and refers to a three-dimensional map created in advance for a part of the terrain in a predetermined region, and the three-dimensional map is created in the predetermined region. An area specifying unit that identifies a completed area that has been completed and an incomplete area that has not been created, a terrain gradient estimation unit that estimates a terrain gradient in the incomplete area based on the three-dimensional map, and the incomplete A terrain data acquisition unit that acquires terrain data in the incomplete region while optimizing terrain data acquisition conditions based on the terrain gradient estimated in the region and the incomplete region, and the terrain data acquisition unit Comprises a movable part that adjusts the direction of a predetermined sensor in a direction perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient, and is incomplete from the direction perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient. The terrain data acquisition condition is optimized by acquiring the terrain data in the region, and the terrain gradient estimation unit is arranged to be close to a boundary between the completed region and the unfinished region in the three-dimensional map. The terrain information acquisition apparatus is configured to estimate a terrain gradient in the incomplete region by applying a terrain gradient calculated only from information on a region of the part to the incomplete region .

  Further, the present invention is characterized in that the region specifying unit specifies the completed region and the incomplete region with reference to a two-dimensional map obtained by looking down on the three-dimensional map from one direction.

  In the present invention, the terrain information acquisition device is a flying object, and includes a flight route calculation unit that calculates a flight route based on the unfinished region and a terrain gradient estimated in the unfinished region. The terrain data in the incomplete area is acquired while flying based on the calculated flight route.

The present invention also includes a terrain data acquisition unit that acquires terrain data in a predetermined region, a three-dimensional map generation unit that generates a three-dimensional map of the terrain in the predetermined region based on the acquired terrain data, Referring to the 3D map, among the predetermined areas, a completed area in which the 3D map is created, an area identification unit that identifies an incomplete area that has not been created, and the 3D map And a terrain gradient estimation unit for estimating a terrain gradient in the unfinished area, and the terrain gradient estimation unit is close to a boundary between the completed area and the unfinished area in the three-dimensional map. terrain gradient calculated only from information on a partial region, by applying to the unfinished region, terrain information, characterized in Rukoto to estimate the terrain gradient in the unfinished region It is obtained apparatus.

The present invention also provides a first terrain information acquisition device that acquires terrain data in the predetermined area while moving in the predetermined area, and a three-dimensional terrain in the predetermined area based on the acquired terrain data. Referring to the 3D map creation unit that creates the map and the 3D map, the completed area in which the 3D map is created and the unfinished area in which the 3D map has not been created are identified. A region specifying unit that performs estimation based on the three-dimensional map, a terrain gradient estimation unit that estimates a terrain gradient in the unfinished region, and a terrain gradient estimated in the unfinished region and the unfinished region while optimizing topographical data acquisition condition, and a second topography information acquisition apparatus for acquiring topographical data in the incomplete region, said second topography information acquisition apparatus, where A movable portion that adjusts the orientation of the sensor in a direction perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient, and obtaining terrain data in the unfinished region from a direction perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient. The terrain data acquisition condition is optimized, and the terrain gradient estimation unit is calculated only from information on a part of the three-dimensional map that is close to the boundary between the completed region and the unfinished region. The terrain information acquisition system is characterized in that the terrain gradient in the incomplete area is estimated by applying the terrain gradient to the incomplete area .

  According to the present invention, the first terrain information acquisition device is a land vehicle, and the second terrain information acquisition device is a flying object.

The present invention also includes a step of acquiring terrain data in the predetermined area while moving the predetermined area, and a step of creating a three-dimensional map of the terrain in the predetermined area based on the acquired terrain data And referring to the three-dimensional map, a step of identifying a completed region in which the three-dimensional map is created and an unfinished region that has not been created among the predetermined regions, On the basis of the step of estimating the terrain gradient in the unfinished region, and in the unfinished region, while optimizing terrain data acquisition conditions based on the terrain gradient estimated in the unfinished region and the unfinished region comprising a step of acquiring topographical data, a step of acquiring topographical data in said unfinished region of predetermined sensor Obtaining the terrain data in the unfinished area from a direction perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient, using a movable part that adjusts the vertical direction with respect to the estimated terrain gradient, Including a step of optimizing terrain data acquisition conditions, and the step of estimating the terrain gradient includes only information on a part of the three-dimensional map adjacent to a boundary between the completed region and the unfinished region. The terrain information acquisition method includes the step of estimating the terrain gradient in the incomplete region by applying the terrain gradient calculated from the above to the incomplete region .

In the present invention, the computer of the terrain information acquisition apparatus refers to a three-dimensional map created in advance for a part of the terrain in the predetermined area, and the three-dimensional map is created in the predetermined area. A region specifying means for specifying a completed region and an unfinished region that has not been created, a terrain gradient estimating means for estimating a terrain gradient in the unfinished region based on the three-dimensional map, the unfinished region, and while optimizing topographical data acquisition condition based on the terrain gradient estimated in unfinished areas, the terrain data acquisition means for acquiring terrain data in the unfinished area, to function as, the topographic data acquisition means, a predetermined sensor A movable part that adjusts the direction of the vertical direction with respect to the estimated topographic gradient, By acquiring the terrain data in the incomplete area, the terrain data acquisition condition is optimized, and the terrain gradient estimation means is located at a boundary between the completed area and the incomplete area in the three-dimensional map. The program is characterized in that the terrain gradient in the incomplete area is estimated by applying the terrain gradient calculated only from information of a part of the adjacent area to the incomplete area .

  According to the present invention, there is an effect that an insufficient three-dimensional map that could not be acquired by UGV can be accurately and efficiently created.

It is a figure which shows the function structure of the topographical information acquisition apparatus by 1st embodiment of this invention. It is a figure explaining the process of the area | region specific part by 1st embodiment of this invention. It is a 1st figure explaining the process of the landform gradient estimation part by 1st embodiment of this invention. It is a 2nd figure explaining the process of the landform gradient estimation part by 1st embodiment of this invention. It is a figure explaining the process of the flight route calculating part by 1st embodiment of this invention. It is a figure explaining the process of the landform data acquisition part by 1st embodiment of this invention. It is a figure which shows the processing flow which acquires terrain information using the terrain information acquisition apparatus by 1st embodiment of this invention. It is a figure which shows the function structure of the topography information acquisition apparatus by 2nd embodiment of this invention. It is a figure which shows the function structure of the topographical information acquisition system by 3rd embodiment of this invention. It is a figure which shows the processing flow which acquires terrain information using the conventional terrain information acquisition method.

<First embodiment>
Hereinafter, a terrain information acquisition apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a functional configuration of the terrain information acquisition apparatus according to the first embodiment of the present invention. In this figure, reference numeral 1 denotes a terrain information acquisition device.
The landform information acquisition apparatus 1 according to the present embodiment is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is an aspect of a “flying body”. In addition, the terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 according to the present embodiment registers a predetermined “flight route” composed of predetermined coordinate data in advance, and autonomously obtains the flight route with the aid of GPS (Global Positioning System) or the like. It is a flying aircraft.

  The terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 is used for the purpose of creating a three-dimensional map representing the terrain in a predetermined area. In particular, the terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 according to the present embodiment is used for the purpose of completing an incomplete three-dimensional map created based on imaging data acquired by the UGV as the first team. Therefore, the terrain information acquisition device 1 is a search device that acquires “terrain data” that is the original data of the three-dimensional map while flying in an incomplete region of the three-dimensional map.

  The terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 according to the present embodiment includes a control unit 10, a terrain data acquisition unit 11, and a control unit 12.

  The control unit 10 performs operations on various input information for the device itself and executes information processing. Generally, the control unit 10 is configured by causing a CPU (Central Processing Unit) to execute a predetermined program. Is done. The control unit 10 according to the present embodiment refers to an incomplete three-dimensional map created in advance for a part of the terrain in a predetermined region, calculates the flight route of the own device, and optimizes the terrain data acquisition condition To perform control.

  The terrain data acquisition unit 11 is a functional unit that acquires terrain data in a predetermined region where a three-dimensional map is to be created. Specifically, the terrain data acquisition unit 11 according to the present embodiment includes a camera unit 111 that captures terrain and a movable unit 110 that sets the optical axis of the camera unit 111 in an arbitrary direction.

The movable unit 110 is a functional unit that sets the optical axis of the camera unit 111 in an arbitrary direction. The movable unit 110 sets the direction of the optical axis based on a predetermined instruction from the control unit 10. The camera unit 111 is a functional unit that records (captures) an image obtained through a predetermined lens as image data. Note that the imaging data acquired by the camera unit 111 in the present embodiment is an aspect of the “terrain data”.
A detailed description of the function of the terrain data acquisition unit 11 will be described later.

  The control unit 12 is a functional unit that causes the terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 to fly based on a previously specified flight route. The control unit 12 sequentially inputs instructions based on the flight route calculated and obtained by the control unit 10, and controls the engine output and the tail so that the own apparatus flies in accordance with the instructions.

Next, each function part with which the control part 10 is provided is demonstrated.
The control unit 10 includes an area specifying unit 100, a terrain gradient estimating unit 101, and a flight route calculating unit 102 as shown in FIG.

  The area specifying unit 100 according to the present embodiment refers to an incomplete 3D map created in advance, and a function for specifying a completed area in which the 3D map is created and an incomplete area that has not been created. Part.

FIG. 2 is a diagram for explaining the processing of the area specifying unit according to the first embodiment of the present invention.
For example, the region specifying unit 100 acquires an incomplete three-dimensional map as shown in FIG. As shown in FIG. 2A, the three-dimensional map is composed of a combination of coordinate positions (X, Y) called “voxels” and “height” information (Z) at the positions. Here, for each coordinate position (X, Y), the area where the height information (Z) has already been acquired and represented as a voxel is referred to as a “completed area” of the 3D map. On the other hand, an area for which height information has not yet been acquired and cannot be represented as a voxel is referred to as an “incomplete area”.

  For example, the region specifying unit 100 refers to a two-dimensional map (FIG. 2B) obtained by looking down a previously created three-dimensional map from one direction, for example, from the sky, and compares this with an actual map prepared separately. To identify unfinished areas. Specifically, the region specifying unit 100 holds in advance the position coordinates (X, Y) of a region from which a three-dimensional map is to be acquired. And the area | region specific part 100 determines whether the said position coordinate (X, Y) by determining whether the height information (Z) linked | related with each position coordinate (X, Y) is obtained as data, for example. It is specified whether the position indicated by belongs to an incomplete area or a completed area.

  The terrain gradient estimation unit 101 according to the present embodiment is a functional unit that estimates a terrain gradient in an incomplete region based on the incomplete three-dimensional map. Specifically, the terrain gradient estimation unit 101 applies a terrain gradient calculated from information on a portion close to the boundary between the completed region and the unfinished region in the unfinished three-dimensional map to the unfinished region. Thus, the terrain gradient in the unfinished area is estimated.

FIG. 3 is a first diagram illustrating processing of the topographic gradient estimation unit according to the first embodiment of the present invention.
First, the terrain gradient estimation unit 101 refers to the height information (Z) of the voxel adjacent to the boundary between the completed region and the incomplete region, and calculates the terrain gradient of the adjacent region. Here, “the voxel close to the boundary” refers to a voxel that is in contact with the incomplete region and belongs to the end of the completed region, and a plurality of voxels adjacent to the voxel that belongs to the end of the completed region. That is, as shown in FIG. 3, for example, the terrain gradient estimation unit 101 uses the height information (Z) of voxels belonging to the end of the completed region and a plurality of (for example, four) voxels adjacent to the end of the completed region. Calculate the slope of the identified surface. The gradient information obtained in this way is referred to as a known terrain gradient (FIG. 3).

  Then, the terrain gradient estimation unit 101 according to the present embodiment estimates the terrain gradient of the incomplete region, assuming that the known terrain gradient is directly applied to the terrain in the incomplete region (FIG. 3). This process is performed under the assumption that the terrain gradient will not change significantly in the vicinity of the boundary between the area where the 3D map can be created and the area where the 3D map cannot be created.

  The terrain gradient estimation unit 101 according to the present embodiment performs processing for deriving the estimated terrain gradient from four voxels close to the boundary. However, the embodiment is not limited to such a mode depending on other embodiments. . For example, the terrain gradient estimation unit 101 may calculate based on only three voxels close to the boundary, or calculates an average terrain gradient in the region derived from five or more voxels, in this way. You may perform the process which estimates the calculated | required known topographic gradient as an estimated topographic gradient. In this way, the topographic gradient estimation unit 101 can perform more accurate estimation.

FIG. 4 is a second diagram illustrating the processing of the topographic gradient estimation unit according to the first embodiment of the present invention.
Further, when the estimated terrain gradient to be applied in the incomplete region can be estimated from a plurality of known terrain gradients, the terrain gradient estimation unit 101 may derive the estimated terrain gradient in consideration of both of them. For example, when the completed area of the 3D map is obtained so as to surround a part or all of the incomplete area, the incomplete area is estimated from different axes, for example, both directions of the X axis and the Y axis shown in FIG. The topographic gradient can be specified. In such a case, the terrain gradient estimation unit 101 may apply, for example, a value obtained by averaging both known terrain gradients as the estimated terrain gradient at the corresponding position. For example, the terrain gradient estimation unit 101 may calculate the estimated terrain gradient B from a combined vector obtained by combining the normal vector for the known terrain gradient A1 (FIG. 4) and the normal vector for the known terrain gradient A2.

FIG. 5 is a diagram for explaining processing of the flight route calculation unit 102 according to the first embodiment of the present invention.
The flight route calculation unit 102 according to the present embodiment calculates a flight route based on the incomplete region specified by the region specifying unit 100 and the terrain gradient (estimated terrain gradient) estimated in the incomplete region by the terrain gradient estimation unit 101. It is a functional part to calculate. The flight route calculation unit 102 calculates the shortest route for comprehensively acquiring imaging data for an incomplete region. For example, the flight route calculation unit 102 grasps in advance the shootable range (FIG. 5) of the camera unit 111. Next, in consideration of the shootable range, a plurality of shooting points (FIG. 5) are set so that all unfinished areas are included in the shootable range. Then, a flight route that passes through the shooting point in the shortest time is calculated (FIG. 5). Note that the flight route calculation unit 102 may set the shooting point in consideration of the direction of the optical axis of the camera unit 111 at that point. The flight route calculation unit 102 calculates a flight route based on the estimated terrain gradient derived by the terrain gradient estimation unit 101 so that the distance (flight altitude) between the terrain to be photographed and the device itself is substantially constant. Also good.

FIG. 6 is a diagram for explaining the processing of the terrain data acquisition unit according to the first embodiment of the present invention.
The terrain data acquisition unit 11 according to the present embodiment acquires terrain data in an incomplete region from a direction perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient. Specific embodiments thereof will be described below.

The terrain data acquisition unit 11 includes the movable unit 110 and the camera unit 111 as described above. The camera unit 111 is an aspect of “predetermined sensor”. The “predetermined sensor direction” refers to the direction of the optical axis of the camera unit 111, for example.
The movable unit 110 always adjusts the optical axis of the camera unit 111 in a direction perpendicular to the estimated topographic gradient in the region to be imaged while the device itself is flying. Here, it is assumed that the terrain data acquisition unit 11 has a position information acquisition function and a posture detection function for the device itself. Then, the terrain data acquisition unit 11 refers to the position and orientation information of its own device, and based on the estimated terrain gradient for the terrain to be photographed, the optical axis of the camera unit 111 is perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient. So that the orientation is maintained (FIG. 6). The estimated terrain gradient calculated by the terrain gradient estimation unit 101 is stored in a separately prepared storage unit, and the terrain data acquisition unit 11 reads the estimated terrain gradient stored in the storage unit while reading the optical axis of the camera unit 111. Adjust.

FIG. 7 is a diagram showing a processing flow for acquiring terrain information using the terrain information acquisition apparatus according to the first embodiment of the present invention.
As described above, the terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 according to the present embodiment inputs an incomplete three-dimensional map created from imaging data acquired by the UGV as the first team, and acquires imaging data of the incomplete area. Hereinafter, a procedure for creating a three-dimensional map using the landform information acquisition apparatus 1 according to the present embodiment will be described step by step with reference to FIG.

  First, the UGV, which is the first team, acquires terrain imaging data while traveling in an area where a three-dimensional map is to be created (step S1). At this time, the UGV associates the acquired imaging data with information such as the position information of the own apparatus and the imaging direction. Then, the UGV creates a three-dimensional map from the obtained imaging data and position information of the imaging data (step S2). At this time, as described above, UGV uses the motion stereo technology that calculates a three-dimensional information (three-dimensional map) by combining a plurality of two-dimensional information (imaging data), thereby performing the three-dimensional map creation process. Realize. Here, it is assumed that the three-dimensional map created from the imaging data acquired by the UGV has an unfinished area due to the existence of a non-running area and a blind spot.

  Next, the terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 (UAV) according to the present embodiment acquires imaging data of an incomplete area as the second team. Specifically, first, the area specifying unit 100 of the terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 specifies a completed area and an incomplete area from the incomplete 3D map created by UGV by the method shown in FIG. 2 (step S3). Next, for example, as shown in FIG. 5, the flight route calculation unit 102 refers to the incomplete area specified by the area specifying unit 100 and flies in the area to efficiently acquire imaging data. Is created (step S4). On the other hand, as shown in FIG. 3 or FIG. 4, the terrain gradient estimation unit 101 calculates the terrain gradient in the completed area from the incomplete 3D map acquired by the UGV, and calculates the estimated terrain gradient in the incomplete area. . The flight route calculation unit 102 may calculate a three-dimensional flight route including the flight altitude from the estimated terrain height in consideration of the estimated terrain gradient obtained here.

  Next, the terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 flies in an incomplete area by controlling the flight control system of the own apparatus while the control unit 12 refers to the flight plan obtained in step S4 (step S5). Then, during the flight of the terrain information acquisition apparatus 1, the terrain data acquisition unit 11 acquires terrain imaging data in the region (step S6). At this time, the movable unit 110 refers to the estimated terrain gradient obtained by the terrain gradient estimation unit 101, and the optical axis of the camera unit 111 is always perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient in conjunction with the position information and posture information of the own device. Adjust so that By doing in this way, highly accurate three-dimensional data can be calculated from the acquired imaging data.

  The landform information acquisition apparatus 1 creates a three-dimensional map based on the obtained imaging data (step S7). This process uses the same technique as in step S2 performed first by UGV. Finally, the operator integrates the 3D map created by the UGV and the 3D map created by the terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 (UAV) to obtain a complete 3D map (step S8).

  In this way, the terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 according to the present embodiment calculates various information from the three-dimensional map created by the first team UGV, and obtains its own flight route and acquisition conditions of imaging data to be acquired. To maximize the efficiency of 3D map creation by the operator. As described above, according to the terrain information acquisition device 1 of the first embodiment, an effect is obtained that an insufficient three-dimensional map that cannot be acquired by the UGV can be created accurately and efficiently.

  Note that the terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 according to the present embodiment is a method of creating a three-dimensional map based on the image data captured by the camera unit 111 included in the terrain data acquisition unit 11, but in other embodiments, the method is limited to this method. It will never be done. For example, the terrain data acquisition unit 11 may use a three-dimensional detection technique that performs distance measurement with a laser in all directions as a sensor that acquires terrain data.

  Further, the terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 according to the present embodiment realizes that the optical axis of the camera unit 111 is set in a direction perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient by the operation of the movable unit 110 based on the estimated terrain gradient ( In other embodiments, the method is not limited to this method as long as the object of acquiring imaging data from a direction perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient can be achieved. For example, the terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 sets the (non-movable) fixed camera optical axis provided in the own apparatus in a direction perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient by the control unit 12 controlling the attitude of the own apparatus itself. You may use the method of.

  The terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 (UAV) receives an incomplete three-dimensional map created based on imaging data from the first team (UGV) as input, and efficiently acquires the missing data as the second team. However, the application of the terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 according to the present embodiment is not limited to this mode.

  For example, it is assumed that the terrain information acquisition device 1 (UAV) according to the present embodiment further includes a 3D map creation unit that creates a 3D map based on the terrain data acquired by the terrain data acquisition unit 11. The landform information acquisition apparatus 1 first obtains imaging data by flying over a predetermined area as the first team and creates a three-dimensional map on the spot from the acquired imaging data (steps S1 to S2 in FIG. 7). Subsequently, the terrain information acquisition device 1 calculates a future flight route and an estimated terrain gradient from the created (incomplete) three-dimensional map (steps S3 to S5), and directly captures imaging data of the incomplete region as the second team. Obtain (step S6).

  Here, when the terrain information acquisition device 1 acquires the imaging data as the first team, the setting of the movable unit 110 is set to a predetermined initial value (for example, “downward 45 degree angle fixed”). The movable unit 110 changes the direction of the optical axis of the camera unit 111 in accordance with each time a three-dimensional map is created by the own device and the estimated topographic gradient is sequentially calculated. By continuously performing such an operation, a three-dimensional map can be efficiently created with only one terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 (UAV) according to the present embodiment.

<Second Embodiment>
Hereinafter, a terrain information acquisition apparatus according to a second embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
FIG. 8 is a diagram showing a functional configuration of the terrain information acquisition apparatus according to the second embodiment of the present invention. In this figure, reference numeral 2 denotes a terrain information acquisition device. In addition, about the function part same as the topographical information acquisition apparatus 1 by 1st embodiment, the same code | symbol is attached | subjected and description is abbreviate | omitted or simplified.

  The landform information acquisition apparatus 2 according to the present embodiment is an unmanned land vehicle (UGV) that travels on land. The terrain information acquisition device 2 is an exploration device that acquires terrain data (imaging data) of a predetermined area as a first team and creates a three-dimensional map. As shown in FIG. 8, the terrain information acquisition apparatus 2 according to the present embodiment includes a control unit 20 and a terrain data acquisition unit 21. Here, among the functions of the control unit 20, the region specifying unit 100, the terrain gradient estimation unit 101, and the flight route calculation unit 102 are the same as the functional units included in the control unit 10 according to the first embodiment.

  The three-dimensional map creation unit 103 is a functional unit that creates a three-dimensional map based on a plurality of imaging data obtained via the topographic data acquisition unit 21 using the motion stereo technique described above. However, the three-dimensional map creation unit 103 creates a three-dimensional map only for a region in which three-dimensional information can be calculated from imaging data acquired by the own device (UGV). Therefore, the three-dimensional map creation unit 103 does not create a three-dimensional map for a region where the own device cannot enter or a blind spot region of the acquired imaging data.

  The terrain data acquisition unit 21 of the terrain information acquisition device 2 captures the surrounding terrain while the device is traveling and acquires the terrain as imaging data. Here, similarly to the terrain data acquisition unit 11 in the first embodiment, the terrain data acquisition unit 21 includes a predetermined camera unit, and acquires imaging data regarding the terrain via this. And the control part 20 with which an own apparatus is provided calculates the information required for a 2nd team based on the acquired imaging data. That is, the terrain information acquisition device 2 creates a three-dimensional map from the imaging data acquired by the device, and performs calculation of the incomplete region, calculation of the flight route, and estimation processing of the terrain gradient in the incomplete region. It is characterized by. The terrain data acquisition unit 21 may use a three-dimensional data acquisition method based on distance measurement using a laser, for example, in addition to the above-described aspect.

That is, in the present embodiment, the function provided in the UAV (terrain information acquisition apparatus 1) according to the first embodiment is provided in the UGV (terrain information acquisition apparatus 2 according to this embodiment) as the first team. . Here, when using the terrain information acquisition device 2 according to the present embodiment, steps S1 to S4 are executed by the UGV (the terrain information acquisition device 2 according to the present embodiment) in the processing flow shown in FIG. 7, and steps S5 to S7 are performed. UAV executes.
Even in this case, as in the first embodiment, a shortage of three-dimensional maps that could not be acquired by the UGV can be accurately and efficiently created by the second group of UAVs.

<Third embodiment>
Hereinafter, a terrain information acquisition system according to a third embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. FIG. 9 is a diagram showing a functional configuration of the terrain information acquisition system according to the third embodiment of the present invention. In this figure, reference numeral 4 denotes a terrain information acquisition system. In addition, about the same function part as the topographic information acquisition apparatus 1 by 1st embodiment, or the topographic information acquisition apparatus 2 by 2nd embodiment, the same code | symbol is attached | subjected and description is abbreviate | omitted or simplified.

  As shown in FIG. 9, the terrain information acquisition system 4 according to this embodiment includes a first terrain information acquisition device 2, a second terrain information acquisition device 1, and a calculation device 3. Here, the first terrain information acquisition device 2 according to the present embodiment is a land vehicle (UGV), and the terrain data (imaging data) is obtained while traveling on land in a predetermined area as the first team, and the terrain data acquisition unit 21 is used. It is an exploration device acquired through The terrain data acquisition unit 21 is the same as the terrain data acquisition unit 21 included in the terrain information acquisition device 2 according to the second embodiment.

Then, the imaging data acquired by the first team UGV (first terrain information acquisition device 2) is input to the arithmetic device 3. Here, the computing device 3 according to the present embodiment is a general-purpose computer that is separate from, for example, UGV and UAV, and is a device that exchanges information with UGV or UAV via a predetermined electronic information medium or information communication.
Here, the arithmetic device 3 includes a control unit 30 inside. Then, the control unit 30 of the arithmetic device 3 creates a three-dimensional map by the three-dimensional map creation unit 103 from the imaging data acquired by the first topographic information acquisition device 2. However, the three-dimensional map creation unit 103 creates a three-dimensional map only for an area where the three-dimensional information can be calculated from the imaging data acquired by the UGV.

  The control unit 30 included in the calculation device 3 further includes a region specifying unit 100, a terrain gradient estimation unit 101, and a flight route calculation unit 102. These functional units are the same as the functional units included in the control unit 10 according to the first embodiment (or the control unit 20 according to the second embodiment). The control unit 30 inputs the imaging data acquired by the first terrain information acquisition device 2 and generates a three-dimensional map within a possible range. Then, the control unit 30 creates a flight plan for the UAV (second terrain information acquisition device 1), which is the second team, by the function units of the area specifying unit 100, the terrain gradient estimation unit 101, and the flight route calculation unit 102. , And an estimated topographic gradient calculation process.

  The second terrain information acquisition apparatus 1 according to the present embodiment is a flying object (UAV), and is an exploration apparatus that acquires terrain imaging data while flying in an area where a three-dimensional map could not be created by the first team. The second terrain information acquisition device 1 inputs the flight plan calculated by the arithmetic device 3 and the estimated terrain gradient in the three-dimensional map incomplete region. Then, the control unit 12 causes the apparatus to fly based on the input flight plan. Further, the movable unit 110 included in the terrain data acquisition unit 11 refers to the input estimated terrain gradient, and interlocks with the position information and posture information of the own device, so that the optical axis of the camera unit 111 is perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient. Control is performed.

  In the present embodiment, the functions provided in the UAV (terrain information acquisition device 1) in the first embodiment are provided in arithmetic devices other than UGV and UAV. Even in this case, as in the first embodiment or the second embodiment, the shortage three-dimensional map that could not be acquired by the UGV can be accurately and efficiently created by the UAV of the second team. become.

In the terrain information acquisition system 4 according to the third embodiment described above, an example in which UGV is used for the first team and UAV is used for the second team has been shown. Both the first and second teams may use UAV, and the first and second teams may use UGV.
Further, the terrain information acquisition system 4 may use UAV for the first team and UGV for the second team. In this case, the computing device 3 of the terrain information acquisition system 4 identifies a region (for example, a wall surface of a building) that becomes a blind spot from the UAV (in the sky), and estimates a terrain gradient in the region. The UGV that has obtained the information acquires imaging data under the optimum conditions for the terrain gradient, that is, under the condition that the optical axis of the camera unit 111 is perpendicular to the gradient of the terrain to be imaged.

  The terrain information acquisition device 1, the terrain information acquisition device 2, and the arithmetic device 3 of the terrain information acquisition system 4 have a computer system therein. The processes of the above-described terrain information acquisition device 1, terrain information acquisition device 2, and arithmetic unit 3 are stored in a computer-readable recording medium in the form of a program, and the computer reads this program. The above processing is performed by executing the above. Here, the computer-readable recording medium refers to a magnetic disk, a magneto-optical disk, a CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory), a semiconductor memory, or the like. Alternatively, the computer program may be distributed to the computer via a communication line, and the computer that has received the distribution may execute the program.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... (2nd) Topographic information acquisition apparatus 10, 20, 30 ... Control part 100 ... Area specific | specification part 101 ... Topographic gradient estimation part 102 ... Flight route calculating part 103 ... Tertiary Original map creation unit 11, 21 ... Terrain data acquisition unit 110 ... Movable unit 111 ... Camera unit 12 ... Steering unit 2 ... (first) Terrain information acquisition device 3 ... arithmetic unit 4 ... Topographic information acquisition system

Claims (9)

  1. Referring to a three-dimensional map created in advance for a part of the terrain in a predetermined area, among the predetermined areas, a completed area where the three-dimensional map is created and an unfinished area that is not created An area identification part to be identified;
    Based on the three-dimensional map, a terrain gradient estimation unit that estimates a terrain gradient in the unfinished area;
    The terrain data acquisition unit for acquiring the terrain data in the incomplete region, while optimizing the terrain data acquisition condition based on the terrain gradient estimated in the incomplete region,
    With
    The terrain data acquisition unit
    A movable unit that adjusts a direction of a predetermined sensor in a direction perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient, and obtains terrain data in the incomplete region from a direction perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient; Then, optimize the terrain data acquisition conditions,
    The terrain gradient estimator is
    The unfinished area is applied to the unfinished area by applying a terrain gradient calculated only from information of a part of the area close to the boundary between the completed area and the unfinished area in the three-dimensional map. An apparatus for acquiring terrain information, wherein the terrain gradient is estimated .
  2. The region specifying unit includes:
    The terrain information acquisition apparatus according to claim 1 , wherein the completed region and the unfinished region are specified by referring to a two-dimensional map obtained by looking down on the three-dimensional map from one direction.
  3. The terrain information acquisition device is a flying object,
    A flight route calculation unit that calculates a flight route based on the unfinished region and the terrain gradient estimated in the unfinished region;
    With
    The terrain information acquisition device according to claim 1 or 2 , wherein the terrain data in the unfinished area is acquired while flying based on the calculated flight route.
  4. A three-dimensional map creation unit that creates a three-dimensional map of the terrain in the predetermined region based on the terrain data acquired by the terrain data acquisition unit;
    The topographical information acquisition according to any one of claims 1 to 3 , wherein the three-dimensional map created in advance is created by the three-dimensional map creation unit provided in the device itself. apparatus.
  5. A terrain data acquisition unit for acquiring terrain data in a predetermined area;
    Based on the acquired terrain data, a three-dimensional map creation unit that creates a three-dimensional map of the terrain in the predetermined area;
    With reference to the three-dimensional map, among the predetermined regions, a completed region where the three-dimensional map is created, and a region identifying unit that identifies an unfinished region that has not been created,
    Based on the three-dimensional map, a terrain gradient estimation unit that estimates a terrain gradient in the unfinished area;
    With
    The terrain gradient estimator is
    The unfinished area is applied to the unfinished area by applying a terrain gradient calculated only from information of a part of the area close to the boundary between the completed area and the unfinished area in the three-dimensional map. An apparatus for acquiring terrain information, wherein the terrain gradient is estimated .
  6. A first terrain information acquisition device for acquiring terrain data in the predetermined area while moving the predetermined area;
    Based on the acquired terrain data, a three-dimensional map creation unit that creates a three-dimensional map of the terrain in the predetermined area;
    With reference to the three-dimensional map, among the predetermined regions, a completed region where the three-dimensional map is created, and a region identifying unit that identifies an unfinished region that has not been created,
    Based on the three-dimensional map, a terrain gradient estimation unit that estimates a terrain gradient in the unfinished area;
    A second terrain information acquisition device for acquiring terrain data in the incomplete area, while optimizing terrain data acquisition conditions based on the incomplete area and the terrain gradient estimated in the incomplete area;
    With
    The second terrain information acquisition device includes:
    A movable unit that adjusts a direction of a predetermined sensor in a direction perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient, and obtains terrain data in the incomplete region from a direction perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient; Then, optimize the terrain data acquisition conditions,
    The terrain gradient estimator is
    The unfinished area is applied to the unfinished area by applying a terrain gradient calculated only from information of a part of the area close to the boundary between the completed area and the unfinished area in the three-dimensional map. Topographic information acquisition system characterized by estimating the topographic gradient in
  7. The first terrain information acquisition device is a land traveling vehicle,
    The terrain information acquisition system according to claim 6 , wherein the second terrain information acquisition device is a flying object.
  8. While moving the predetermined region, a step of acquiring topographical data in the predetermined region,
    Creating a three-dimensional map of the terrain in the predetermined area based on the acquired terrain data;
    A step with reference to the three-dimensional map, of the predetermined area, identifying complete area where the three-dimensional map is created, and, unfinished area that has not been created,
    Estimating a terrain gradient in the unfinished region based on the three-dimensional map;
    Obtaining the terrain data in the incomplete area, while optimizing the terrain data acquisition conditions based on the terrain gradient estimated in the incomplete area; and
    Have
    The step of acquiring the terrain data in the unfinished area,
    Using the movable unit that adjusts the direction of a predetermined sensor in a direction perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient, terrain data in the unfinished region is acquired from a direction perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient. A step of optimizing the terrain data acquisition conditions,
    The step of estimating the terrain gradient includes:
    The unfinished area is applied to the unfinished area by applying a terrain gradient calculated only from information of a part of the area close to the boundary between the completed area and the unfinished area in the three-dimensional map. A method for acquiring terrain information , comprising the step of estimating a terrain gradient in
  9. The computer of the terrain information acquisition device,
    Referring to a three-dimensional map created in advance for a part of the terrain in the predetermined area, out of the predetermined area, a completed area where the three-dimensional map is created and an unfinished area that is not created Area identification means to identify,
    Terrain gradient estimation means for estimating a terrain gradient in the unfinished region based on the three-dimensional map;
    Terrain data acquisition means for acquiring terrain data in the incomplete area while optimizing terrain data acquisition conditions based on the incomplete area and the terrain gradient estimated in the incomplete area;
    Function as
    The terrain data acquisition means includes:
    A movable unit that adjusts a direction of a predetermined sensor in a direction perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient, and obtains terrain data in the incomplete region from a direction perpendicular to the estimated terrain gradient; Then, optimize the terrain data acquisition conditions,
    The terrain gradient estimation means includes:
    The unfinished area is applied to the unfinished area by applying a terrain gradient calculated only from information of a part of the area close to the boundary between the completed area and the unfinished area in the three-dimensional map. A program characterized by estimating the terrain gradient in the .
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