JP6124259B2 - Optical modulator, optical transmitter, polarization multiplexing phase modulation method, and program - Google Patents

Optical modulator, optical transmitter, polarization multiplexing phase modulation method, and program Download PDF

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JP6124259B2
JP6124259B2 JP2013184699A JP2013184699A JP6124259B2 JP 6124259 B2 JP6124259 B2 JP 6124259B2 JP 2013184699 A JP2013184699 A JP 2013184699A JP 2013184699 A JP2013184699 A JP 2013184699A JP 6124259 B2 JP6124259 B2 JP 6124259B2
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polarization
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JP2015052670A (en
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後藤 広樹
広樹 後藤
吉田 剛
剛 吉田
和行 石田
和行 石田
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三菱電機株式会社
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  The present invention relates to an optical modulator that performs polarization multiplexed phase modulation, an optical transmitter that transmits polarization multiplexed phase modulated light, a polarization multiplexed phase modulation method, and a program.

  Along with the expansion of data communication traffic, there is a demand for higher capacity in long-distance optical fiber communication. In addition to wavelength multiplexing, it is required to increase the transmission rate per wavelength, and expectations for 40 Gbps and 100 Gbps from the conventional 10 Gbps-OOK (On-Off-Keying) system are increasing.

  As means for realizing a 40 Gbps or 100 Gbps system, a method combining polarization multiplexing and a phase modulation method has been studied. For example, modulation schemes such as DP-BPSK (Dual Polarization-Binary Phase Shift Keying) and DP-QPSK (Dual Polarization-Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) are attracting attention.

  Since such a modulation method requires a high optical signal-to-noise ratio at the receiving end, it is required to transmit the optical fiber with high optical signal power. However, transmission with high optical signal power promotes non-linear effects in the optical fiber, so that transmission characteristics deteriorate.

  In order to improve the transmission characteristics in long-distance transmission, it is effective to combine it with a modulation method having excellent nonlinear tolerance. For example, pulse strength modulation schemes of various known formats synchronized with data symbols, such as RZ (Return-to-Zero) format and CS-RZ (Carrier-Suppressed-Return-to-Zero) format, have nonlinear tolerance. Are better. A configuration in which these pulse intensity modulation type modulators and other modulators such as a phase modulation type are connected in cascade is known (for example, Patent Documents 1 to 3). At this time, it is necessary to match the timing of the data and the clock with high accuracy.

  The optical modulation method of Patent Document 1 is RZ-DQPSK (Return-to-Zero-Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying). Two waveform shaping sections are provided for shaping the plurality of input data signals in synchronization with rising or falling timings based on the magnitude of the reference level of the input clock signal. DQPSK modulation is performed by modulating and combining the optical signals of the I component and the Q component with the two waveform shaped data signals. Then, based on the DQPSK modulated optical signal, the relative level ratio of the reference level to the amplitude level of the clock signal input to the waveform shaping unit is variably controlled to compensate for the phase shift between the I component and the Q component. Has been.

JP 2009-033658 A JP 2002-023121 A Japanese translation of PCT publication No. 2003-501585

  In the system combining the polarization multiplexing and the phase modulation system, the data of the two polarizations (X polarization and Y polarization) and the timing of the clock are matched with high accuracy to reduce the phase shift between the two polarizations. There is a need. However, since the two polarizations are orthogonal to each other and do not interfere with each other, the conventional method such as the method described in Patent Document 1 cannot adjust the phase in a state where the two polarizations are combined.

  Therefore, in order to synchronize the data of two polarization multiplexed polarizations (X polarization and Y polarization) and the clock timing, it is necessary to adjust the phase of each of the two polarizations in a separated state. There was a problem that it was not possible to evaluate the actual system operating state. In addition, there is a problem that transmission performance deteriorates due to a change in timing of data and clock due to a phase shift caused by a temperature change or a change with time.

  The present invention has been made in view of the above circumstances, and an object of the present invention is to provide an optical modulator or the like that has no phase shift between two polarizations of polarization-multiplexed phase-modulated light and has improved transmission characteristics. To do.

To achieve the above object, an optical modulator according to the present invention outputs an optical pulse modulator that performs pulse modulation of continuous light using a clock signal having the same frequency as a modulation data signal including transmission data, and outputs from the optical pulse modulator. Polarization-multiplexed polarization signals obtained by phase-modulating X-polarized light and Y-polarized light obtained by splitting the pulse-modulated light with X-polarized modulation data signals and Y-polarized modulation data signals, respectively. A wave multiplexing phase modulator, a first phase shifter that shifts the phase of the modulation data signal for X polarization, and a second phase shifter that shifts the phase of the modulation data signal for Y polarization. The first phase shifter inputs the X-polarization modulation data signal to the polarization multiplexing phase modulator and does not input the Y-polarization modulation data signal. when varying the amount of phase shift by monitoring the intensity of the output light of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator is set on the shift amount when the intensity of the output light becomes maximum, the second phase shifter is polarization The phase shift amount of the Y-polarization modulation data signal was changed while the Y-polarization modulation data signal was input to the multi-phase modulator and the X-polarization modulation data signal was not input . The intensity of the output light of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator is monitored, and the shift amount when the intensity of the output light becomes maximum is set.

  According to the present invention, it is possible to reduce a phase shift between two polarizations of polarization multiplexed phase modulated light, and to improve transmission characteristics.

It is a block diagram which shows the structure of the optical transmitter which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention. It is a figure for demonstrating the shift | offset | difference of the phase of a data signal and a clock signal. (A) has a phase shift of 0, (b) has a phase shift of π / 2, and (c) has a phase shift of between 0 and π / 2. It is a figure for demonstrating the relationship between the shift | offset | difference of a phase, and the average intensity | strength of output light. 3 is a flowchart showing phase adjustment processing according to the first embodiment. It is a flowchart which shows a phase modulator bias control process. It is a flowchart which shows a phase shift voltage control process. It is a block diagram which shows the structure of the optical transmitter which concerns on Embodiment 2 of this invention. (A) It is a figure for demonstrating the relationship between the shift | offset | difference of a phase, and the average intensity | strength of output light. (B) It is a figure for demonstrating the relationship between the shift | offset | difference of a phase, and the power change rate of output light. 10 is a flowchart showing phase adjustment processing according to the second embodiment.

Embodiment 1 FIG.
Embodiment 1 of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.

  The optical communication system according to the present embodiment includes an optical transmitter 1 that transmits a polarization multiplexed phase modulated signal obtained by phase modulation and polarization multiplexing transmission data, and a polarization multiplexed phase modulated signal output from the optical transmitter 1. And an optical receiver that receives the polarization multiplexed phase modulated signal transmitted through the optical fiber, demodulates the optical signal, and obtains received data.

  As shown in FIG. 1, the optical transmission device 1 includes a light source 100 and an optical modulator 101. The optical modulator 101 includes a data signal generation unit 102 that generates a data signal for modulating light output from the light source 100, an RZ modulator 103 that performs RZ modulation on light output from the light source 100, and an RZ modulator 103. A polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 that splits RZ-modulated light into two orthogonally polarized waves, phase-modulates each of them, and then combines the polarization, and the light output from the polarization multiplexed phase modulator 104 A light intensity measurement unit 105 that branches a part and measures the light intensity, and a control unit 106 that executes a phase adjustment process for adjusting the phase of the data signal input to the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 are provided.

  More specifically, the light source 100 is a light emitting element that emits CW light (Continuous Wave), and includes, for example, a semiconductor laser.

  A data signal generation unit 102 of the optical modulator 101 generates a first data signal generation unit 1021 and a second data signal generation unit 1022 that generate a first data signal and a second data signal from transmission data, and generates a clock signal. The clock signal generation unit 1023, the phase shifter 1024 for shifting the phase of the first data signal output from the first data signal generation unit 1021, and the phase of the second data signal output from the second data signal generation unit 1022 A phase shifter 1025 to be shifted, and drivers 1026, 1027, and 1028 for amplifying the data signal and the clock signal output from the phase shifter 1024 and the phase shifter 1025, respectively.

  The frequencies of the first data signal, the second data signal, and the clock signal output from the first data signal generation unit 1021 and the second data signal generation unit 1022 are the same. The phase shifters 1024 and 1025 are phase shifters whose phase shift amount varies depending on the magnitude of the applied voltage.

  The RZ modulator 103 is an optical pulse modulator that generates RZ modulated light by turning on / off the light intensity based on the clock signal generated by the clock signal generation unit 1023 of the data signal generation unit 102 and amplified by the driver 1028.

The polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 is, for example, a DP-BPSK (Dual Polarization-Binary Phase Shift Keying) modulator, a DP-QPSK (Dual Polarization-Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) modulator, or the like. The polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 includes a polarization separator that separates polarized X-polarized light and Y-polarized light, and phase modulators 1041 and 1042 that respectively phase-modulate X-polarized light and Y-polarized light. It comprises a polarization beam combiner that combines wave light and Y-polarized light. Here, it is best that the polarization directions of the X-polarized light and the Y-polarized light are orthogonal to each other, but the angle formed by the polarization directions of the two polarized lights may deviate from 90 degrees depending on permissible transmission characteristics.
The X-polarization phase modulator 1041 and the Y-polarization phase modulator 1042 are, for example, Mach-Zehnder phase modulators, and perform phase modulation such as BPSK modulation or QPSK modulation. The polarization separator and the polarization synthesizer are optical waveguide polarization separation / combination elements made of, for example, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and may be integrated with the phase modulators 1041 and 1042.

  The phase modulators 1041 and 1042 have data input terminals for inputting a phase modulation data signal. The X-polarization phase modulator 1041 phase-modulates the X-polarized light with the data signal generated by the first data signal generation unit 1021 and input to the data input terminal via the phase shifter 1024 and the driver 1026. The Y-polarization phase modulator 1042 phase-modulates Y-polarized light with a data signal generated by the second data signal generation unit 1022 and input to the data input terminal via the phase shifter 1025 and the driver 1027.

  The phase modulators 1041 and 1042 also have a bias input terminal for applying a bias voltage, and set an operating point according to the applied bias voltage.

  The optical intensity measuring unit 105 branches an optical signal output from the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104, and the center wavelength of the light source 100 with respect to the optical signal branched by the optical branching device 1051. A band pass filter (BPF) 1052 that limits the wavelength to a narrow band centering on the center, and a photoelectric conversion that photoelectrically converts an optical signal transmitted through the band pass filter 1052 and outputs a current proportional to the optical signal intensity (Optical / Electric Converter: indicated as O / E in the drawing) 1053 and a current-voltage converter (shown as I / V in the drawing) 1054 for converting a current signal into a voltage signal. That is, the light intensity measurement unit 105 outputs a voltage signal proportional to the optical signal intensity output from the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104.

  Here, the band pass filter 1052 is an optical filter having a transmission bandwidth based on the symbol rate of the first data signal and the second data signal input to the phase modulators 1041 and 1042. By inserting the bandpass filter 1052 into the light intensity measurement unit 105, the sensitivity of the light intensity detected by the photoelectric converter 1053 can be increased. The bandwidth of the bandpass filter 1052 is appropriately selected according to the detection sensitivity of the photoelectric converter 1053. For example, in the case of the DP-QPSK system of 100 Gbps, the symbol rate is 25 GSymbol / s, so the repetition frequency The frequency is about 50 GHz, which is twice as high.

  The control unit 106 converts an AD converter (shown as ADC in the figure) 1061 that converts a voltage signal proportional to the optical signal intensity input from the optical intensity measurement unit 105 into a digital signal, and a digital signal output from the AD converter 1061. Based on the bias control unit 1062 that outputs a control signal for controlling the bias voltage of the phase modulators 1041 and 1042, based on the digital signal output from the AD converter, the control signal for controlling the phase of the phase shifters 1024 and 1025 is output. From the phase control unit 1063, the data output control unit 1064 for controlling ON / OFF of the data output from the first data signal generation unit 1021 and the second data signal generation unit 1022, the bias control unit 1062, and the phase control unit 1063 DA converter that converts the output control signal into a voltage signal (D in the figure) Shown as C) comprises a 1065,1066,1067,1068, a.

  The operation of the optical transmission device 1 configured as described above will be described.

  The CW light output from the light source 100 is RZ-modulated by the RZ modulator 103, and is phase-modulated by the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 with respect to each of the X polarization and the Y polarization. Since the optical signals phase-modulated by the phase modulator 1041 and the phase modulator 1042 of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 are orthogonal to each other, they are subjected to polarization synthesis while maintaining the polarization characteristics without interfering with each other. , And output from the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104.

  A part of the optical signal output from the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 is branched by the optical branching unit 1051. The branched optical signal is band-narrowed by the band-pass filter 1052 and input to the photoelectric converter 1053. The current photoelectrically converted by the photoelectric converter 1053 is converted into a voltage signal by the current-voltage converter 1054 and output. That is, the voltage output from the light intensity measuring unit 105 is proportional to the intensity of the optical signal output from the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104.

  Here, the optical signal output from the phase modulator 1041 for X polarization of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 is generated by the phase of the clock signal generated by the clock signal generation unit 1023 and the first data signal generation unit 1021. Thus, the light intensity changes in accordance with the phase shift of the first data signal input to the phase modulator 1041 via the phase shifter 1024.

FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating the waveform of the clock signal, the waveform of the first data signal, and the waveform of the optical signal output from the phase modulator 1041. Since the clock signal and the first data signal have the same frequency, when the phase difference Δθ between the phase of the clock signal and the first data signal is 0, as shown in FIG. The average intensity P AVE of the optical signal that outputs is maximized. When the phase shift Δθ between the phase of the clock signal and the first data signal is (± π / 2), the average intensity P AVE of the optical signal output from the phase modulator 1041 is shown in FIG. Is minimal. FIG. 2C shows an optical waveform when the phase shift Δθ is between 0 and (± π / 2).

That is, the average intensity P AVE of the optical signal output from the phase modulator 1041 changes as shown in FIG. 3 with respect to the phase shift Δθ. The average intensity of the optical signal output from the phase modulator 1042 changes in the same manner with respect to the phase difference Δθ between the clock signal and the second data signal.

  When the phase shift Δθ is 0, the timing of RZ modulation and phase modulation can be matched with high accuracy, and an optical signal with excellent transmission characteristics can be transmitted. Therefore, the phase shifters 1024 and 1025 may be operated with a shift amount at which the phase shift Δθ is zero.

  The control unit 106 performs control to set the phase shift of the phase modulator 1041 or the phase modulator 1042 to 0 in a state where only one of the first data signal and the second data signal is input. Specifically, the data output control unit 1064 turns on the data output of the first data signal generation unit 1021 and turns off the data output of the second data signal generation unit 1022, and the light of the phase modulator 1042 for Y polarization With the output extinguished, the optimum value of the phase shift voltage to be applied to the X polarization phase shifter 1024 is determined. In addition, the data output control unit 1063 turns off the data output of the first data signal generation unit 1021 and turns on the data output of the second data signal generation unit 1022 so that the phase modulator 1042 for X polarization is extinguished. Thus, the optimum value of the phase shift voltage applied to the phase shifter 1025 for Y polarization is determined.

  The phase adjustment process executed by the control unit 106 will be described with reference to the flowchart of FIG.

  First, the data output control unit 1064 receives the first data signal of the X polarization modulation signal from the first data signal generation unit 1021, and the second data signal of the Y polarization modulation signal from the second data signal generation unit 1022. Output (data signal ON). In addition, the bias control unit 1062 outputs a control signal for applying a predetermined bias voltage to the X-polarization phase modulator 1041 and the Y-polarization phase modulator 1042 (bias ON) (step S101). .

  Next, the data output control unit 1064 causes the second data signal generation unit 1022 to stop outputting the second data signal for Y polarization (data signal OFF) (step S102).

  Thereafter, the bias control unit 1062 controls the bias voltage of the phase modulator 1042 for Y polarization to set the bias voltage at which the output of the current-voltage converter 1054 is minimized (phase modulator bias control processing: step S103). ). This is a step of minimizing the output of the phase modulator 1042 for Y polarization in order to adjust the phase of the first data signal input to the phase modulator 1041 for X polarization. The extinction point (NULL point) may not appear at the zero voltage due to a phase error that occurs during the manufacture of the phase modulator 1042. In this case, the extinction point is specified by changing the bias voltage applied to the phase modulator 1041. It is necessary to do.

  In a state where the output of the phase modulator 1042 for Y polarization is minimized, the phase control unit 1063 controls the phase shift voltage of the phase shifter 1024 for X polarization, and the output of the current-voltage converter 1054 is maximized. Is set to a phase shift voltage (phase shift voltage control process: step S104). Thereby, the shift Δθ of the phase of the first data signal for X polarization with respect to the phase of the clock can be brought close to zero.

  Next, the data output control unit 1064 starts outputting the second data signal for Y polarization (data signal ON) (step S105). In addition, the bias controller 1062 applies the same bias voltage as the voltage applied in step S101 to the phase modulator 1042 for Y polarization (step S106).

  Next, the data output control unit 1064 stops the output of the first data signal for X polarization (data signal OFF) (step S107).

  Thereafter, the bias control unit 1062 controls the bias voltage of the phase modulator 1042 for X polarization, specifies the extinction point (NULL point) at which the output of the current-voltage converter 1054 is minimum, and sets the bias voltage. (Phase modulator bias control process: step S108). This is a step of minimizing the output of the phase modulator 1041 for X polarization in order to adjust the phase of the second data input to the phase modulator 1042 for Y polarization.

  In a state where the output of the phase modulator 1041 for X polarization is minimized, the phase control unit 1063 controls the phase shift voltage of the phase shifter 1025 for Y polarization, and the output of the current-voltage converter 1054 is maximized. Is set to the phase shift voltage (phase shift voltage control processing: step S109). Thereby, the shift Δθ of the phase of the second data signal for Y polarization with respect to the phase of the clock can be brought close to zero.

  Next, the data output control unit 1064 starts output of the first data signal for X polarization (data signal ON) (step S110). The bias controller 1062 applies the same bias voltage as the voltage applied in step S101 to the phase modulator 1042 for X polarization (step S111). Then, the process ends.

  The phase modulator bias control process in steps S103 and S108 may be any method as long as it can derive a bias voltage that minimizes the outputs of the phase modulators 1041 and 1042. An example of the phase modulator bias control process in step S108 will be described with reference to the flowchart of FIG.

First, n voltage values in a range predicted to be near the NULL point of the bias voltage applied to the phase modulator 1041 are determined in advance. Starting from m = 0 (step S201), the bias voltage V i-m is applied to the phase modulator 1041 (step S202), and the output voltage V o-m of the current-voltage converter 1054 at that time is obtained (step S202). S203).

Application of the bias voltage V i-m to the phase modulator 1041 (step S202) and acquisition of the output voltage V o-m of the current-voltage converter 1054 (step S203) are performed as long as m is lower than n (step S203). S204) The value of m is increased in order (step S205), and the process is repeatedly executed.

Identify minimum voltage in the output voltage V o-m of the obtained current-voltage converter 1054, to identify the bias voltage V i-m0 to the phase modulator 1041 when outputting the voltage (step S206) . Then, the bias voltage V i-m0 is applied to the phase modulator 1041 (step S207). The phase modulator bias control process in step S103 is executed in the same procedure.

  The phase shift voltage control processing in steps S104 and S109 may be any method as long as it can derive the phase shift voltages of the phase shifters 1024 and 1025 that maximize the output of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104. An example of the phase shift voltage control process in step S104 will be described with reference to the flowchart of FIG.

First, n voltage values within the variable range of the phase shift voltage applied to the phase shifter 1024 are determined in advance. starting from k = 0 (step S301), the phase shift voltage V i-k is applied to the phase shifter 1024 (step S302), acquires the output voltage V o-k of the current-voltage converter 1054 at that time (step S303).

Applying a phase shift voltage V i-k to the phase shifter 1024 (step S302), acquires the output voltage V o-k of the current-voltage converter 1054 (step S303), as long as k is lower than the n (step S304) Increase the value of k in order (step S305), and execute repeatedly.

The maximum voltage among the obtained output voltages V ok of the current-voltage converter 1054 is specified, and the phase shift voltage V i-k0 to the phase shifter 1024 when the voltage is output is specified (step S306). . Then, the phase shift voltage V i-k0 is applied to the phase shifter 1024 (step S307). The phase modulator bias control process in step S109 is also executed in the same procedure.

  As described above, the phase of the first data signal input to the X-polarization phase modulator 1041 and the phase of the second data signal input to the Y-polarization phase modulator 1042 are controlled by the control unit 106. Thus, the phase shift of the clock signal can be minimized.

  As described above, according to the present embodiment, the light output from the light source 100 is RZ-modulated with the clock signal, and the phase is determined with the first data signal for X polarization and the second data signal for Y polarization. In the modulating optical transmitter, in order to bring the phase shift between either the first data signal for X polarization or the second data signal for Y polarization and the clock signal close to 0, the other data signal In this state, the phase shift voltage applied to the phase shifter when the output of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 becomes maximum is specified. Thereby, the timing of RZ modulation and phase modulation can be matched with high accuracy, and an optical signal having excellent transmission characteristics can be transmitted.

Embodiment 2. FIG.
The optical communication system according to the second embodiment of the present invention has the same configuration as that of the first embodiment. As shown in FIG. 7, the optical transmission device 2 according to the present embodiment includes a light source 100 and an optical modulator 201. The optical modulator 201 includes a data signal generation unit 102 that generates a data signal for modulating light output from the light source 100, an RZ modulator 103 that performs RZ modulation on light output from the light source 100, and an RZ modulator 103. A polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 that splits RZ-modulated light into two orthogonally polarized waves, phase-modulates each of them, and then combines the polarization, and the light output from the polarization multiplexed phase modulator 104 A light intensity measurement unit 105 that branches a part and measures the light intensity, and a control unit 206 that executes a phase adjustment process for adjusting the phase of the data signal input to the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 are provided.

  Functions and configurations of the light source 100, the data signal generation unit 102, the RZ modulator 103, the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104, and the light intensity measurement unit 105 are the same as those in the first embodiment.

  The control unit 206 includes an AD converter 1061, a bias control unit 1062, a phase control unit 1063, a data output control unit 1064, and DA converters 1065, 1066, 1067, and 1068 that are the same as the control unit 106 of the first embodiment. In addition, dither signal generation units 2011 and 2012 that generate a low-frequency dither signal based on a control signal from the phase control unit 1063, and dither signals output from the dither signal generation units 2011 and 2012 are converted into analog signals. DA converters 2013 and 2014 are further provided.

  The first dither signal and the second dither signal generated by the dither signal generation units 2011 and 2012, respectively, are periodic signals that alternately take a positive value and a negative value. The frequencies of the first dither signal and the second dither signal are different from each other, and are sufficiently lower than the data signal transmission speed of several tens of Gbps, for example, several tens to several hundreds of Hz.

  A voltage signal obtained by DA-converting the first dither signal generated by the dither signal generation unit 2011 is a voltage obtained by DA-converting the control signal for controlling the phase of the phase shifter 1024 output from the phase control unit 1063 by the adder 2015. The signal is added to the signal and input to the phase shifter 1024. Also, the voltage signal obtained by DA converting the second dither signal generated by the dither signal generation unit 2012 is DA converted by the adder 2016 and the control signal for controlling the phase of the phase shifter 1025 output from the phase control unit 1063. The added voltage signal is added to the phase shifter 1025.

  The operation of the optical transmission apparatus 2 configured as described above will be described.

  As in the first embodiment, the CW light output from the light source 100 of the optical transmission apparatus 2 according to the present embodiment is RZ-modulated by the RZ modulator 103, and the X-polarized wave and the Y-wave are modulated by the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104. Phase modulated for each polarization. Since the optical signals phase-modulated by the phase modulator 1041 and the phase modulator 1042 of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 are orthogonal to each other, they are subjected to polarization synthesis while maintaining the polarization characteristics without interfering with each other. The polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 is output.

  Here, the optical signal output from the phase modulator 1041 for X polarization of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 is generated by the phase of the clock signal generated by the clock signal generation unit 1023 and the first data signal generation unit 1021. Thus, the light intensity changes in accordance with the phase shift of the first data signal input to the phase modulator 1041 via the phase shifter 1024.

  The average intensity of the optical signal output from the phase modulator 1041 changes as shown in FIG. 8A with respect to the phase shift Δθ. The average intensity of the optical signal output from the phase modulator 1042 changes in the same manner with respect to the phase difference Δθ between the clock signal and the second data signal.

  The rectangular wave shown in FIG. 8A schematically shows how the phase shift changes when the dither signal is superimposed. As is clear from FIG. 8A, the change in power when the dither signal has a positive value and a negative value becomes small when the phase shift is 0, ± π / 2, and 0 and ± π / It is large when it is between 2 (for example, ± 1 / 4π).

  FIG. 8B shows the change rate of the optical power with respect to the phase shift Δθ. It becomes 0 when the phase shift is 0, ± π / 2.

  When the phase shift Δθ is 0, the RZ modulation and the phase modulation timing match with high accuracy, so that an optical signal with excellent transmission characteristics can be transmitted. Therefore, the phase shifters 1024 and 1025 may be operated with a shift amount at which the phase shift Δθ is zero.

  The phase control unit 1063 of the control unit 106 calculates the product of the digital voltage signal output from the AD converter 1061 and the first dither signal, and obtains the X polarization error signal e_Xpol expressed by the following equation (1). Generate.

  e_Xpol∝I (p) -I (n) (1)

  I (p) indicates a current signal output from the photoelectric converter 1053 when the first dither signal is on the positive polarity side, and I (n) is when the first dither signal is on the negative polarity side. The current signal output from the photoelectric converter 1053 is shown. That is, the X polarization error signal e_Xpol is proportional to the difference between the output of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 with respect to the positive pole of the second dither signal and the output of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 with respect to the negative pole of the second dither signal.

  Similarly, the phase control unit 1063 of the control unit 106 computes the product of the digital voltage signal from the AD converter 1061 and the second dither signal, and the error signal e_Ypol for Y polarization expressed by the following equation (2). Is generated.

  e_Ypol∝I (p) -I (n) (2)

  I (p) indicates a current signal output from the photoelectric converter 1053 when the second dither signal is on the positive side, and I (n) indicates a photoelectric signal when the second dither signal is on the negative side. The current signal output from the converter 1053 is shown. That is, the X polarization error signal e_Xpol is proportional to the difference between the output of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 with respect to the positive pole of the second dither signal and the output of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 with respect to the negative pole of the second dither signal.

  The phase control unit 1063 generates, for example, proportional-integral control based on the X-polarization error signal e_Xpol, thereby generating an X-polarization control signal and outputs the control signal to the DA converter 1067. In the proportional-integral control, control that combines the operation of changing the phase shift voltage in proportion to the error signal and the operation of changing the phase shift voltage based on the integral value of the error signal is performed.

  More specifically, as shown in FIG. 8B, the change rate of the optical power with respect to the phase shift Δθ becomes 0 when the phase shift is 0, ± π / 2, and 0, ± π / Control is performed using the fact that the polarity increases with increasing distance from 2 and the polarity of the slope of the change rate differs depending on whether the phase shift is close to 0 or ± π / 2.

  That is, when the value of the X polarization error signal e_Xpol is large, the change in the phase shift voltage applied to the phase shifter 1024 is increased, and when the value of the X polarization error signal e_Xpol is small, the phase applied to the phase shifter 1024. Control proportional to the error signal is performed to reduce the change in the shift voltage. Thereby, the phase shift can be brought close to either 0 or ± π / 2. Further, the integral value of the X polarization error signal e_Xpol when the phase shift voltage is changed when the phase shift is close to 0, ± π / 2 has a polarity depending on whether the phase shift is 0 or ± π / 2. Therefore, the control based on the integral value of the error signal is performed to determine whether the phase shift is close to 0 or ± π / 2 based on the integral value and to change the phase shift voltage.

  As described above, the phase control unit 1063 controls the phase shift voltage applied to the phase shifter 1024 based on the X polarization error signal e_Xpol, so that the phase of the first data signal for X polarization is clocked. It is possible to specify a phase shift voltage whose deviation Δθ with respect to the phase of the phase is closest to zero.

  Similarly, the phase control unit 1063 controls the phase shift voltage applied to the phase shifter 1025 based on the Y polarization error signal e_Ypol, so that the phase of the second data signal for Y polarization is clocked. It is possible to specify a phase shift voltage whose deviation Δθ with respect to the phase of the phase is closest to zero.

  The phase shifter adjustment process executed by the control unit 206 will be described with reference to the flowchart of FIG.

  First, the data output control unit 1064 outputs the first data signal for X polarization from the first data signal generation unit 1021 and the second data signal for Y polarization from the second data signal generation unit 1022 (data Signal ON). Also, the bias control unit 1062 outputs a control signal for applying a predetermined bias voltage to the X-polarization phase modulator 1041 and the Y-polarization phase modulator 1042 (bias ON). Further, the phase control unit 1063 outputs a control signal for applying a predetermined phase shift voltage to the X-polarization phase shifter 1024 and the Y-polarization phase shifter 1025 (step S401).

  The dither signal generation unit 2011 starts outputting the first dither signal (step S402), and performs processing for adjusting the phase shift voltage of the phase shifter 1024. First, the output level Vo of the current-voltage converter 1054 is measured (step S403), and the error signal e_Xpol is calculated by calculating the product with the second dither signal (step S404). Based on the calculated value of the error signal e_Xpol and the integrated value, it is determined whether or not the phase shift between the first data signal and the clock signal is Δθ≈0 (step S405). For example, the determination is made based on whether or not the value of the error signal e_Xpol is close to 0 and the integrated value of the error signal e_Xpol has a polarity corresponding to the change direction of the phase shift voltage.

  When it cannot be determined that Δθ≈0 (step S405: No), the phase shift voltage Vi is changed (step S406), and the process returns to step S403. Here, the change of the phase shift voltage Vi determines the change direction and the change amount based on the value of the error signal e_Xpol and the integrated value. For example, when the value of the error signal e_Xpol is large, the amount of change in the phase shift voltage Vi is increased, and when the value of the error signal e_Xpol is small, the amount of change in the phase shift voltage Vi is decreased. When the integral value of the error signal e_Xpol does not have a polarity corresponding to the change direction of the phase shift voltage, the phase shift voltage is changed so as to shift the phase by about π / 2.

  In this way, when the measurement of the output voltage of the current-voltage converter 1054, the calculation of the error signal, and the change of the phase shift voltage based on the error signal are repeated, it is determined that the phase shift Δθ≈0 (step S405: Yes). The phase shift voltage Vi at the time of determination is fixed (step S407).

  Next, the dither signal generation unit 2011 stops outputting the first dither signal, the dither signal generation unit 2012 starts outputting the second dither signal (step S408), and adjusts the phase shift voltage of the phase shifter 1024. Similarly, processing for adjusting the phase shift voltage of the phase shifter 1025 is performed. First, the output level Vo of the current-voltage converter 1054 is measured (step S409), and the error signal e_Ypol is calculated by calculating the product with the second dither signal (step S410). Based on the calculated value of the error signal e_Ypol and the integrated value, it is determined whether or not the phase shift Δθ≈0 between the second data signal and the clock signal (step S411). If it cannot be determined that Δθ≈0 (step S411: No), the phase shift voltage Vi is changed (step S412), and the process returns to step S409.

  When the measurement of the output voltage of the current-voltage converter 1054, the calculation of the error signal, and the change of the phase shift voltage based on the error signal are repeated, and the phase shift Δθ≈0 is determined (step S411: Yes), the phase at the time of determination The shift voltage Vi is fixed (step S413). Note that the method of changing the phase shift voltage Vi in step S412 is the same as in step S406. Thereafter, the dither signal generation unit 2012 stops outputting the second dither signal and ends the process.

  As described above, according to the present embodiment, the light output from the light source 100 is RZ-modulated with the clock signal, and the phase is determined with the first data signal for X polarization and the second data signal for Y polarization. In an optical transmitter that modulates, a polarization-division multiplexed phase modulation with respect to the positive pole of the dither signal by superimposing a low-frequency dither signal on one of the first data signal for X polarization and the second data signal for Y polarization Adjusting the phase shift voltage of the phase shifter for X polarization or Y polarization based on an error signal proportional to the difference between the output of the modulator 104 and the output of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 with respect to the negative electrode of the dither signal, The phase shift between the first data signal for X polarization, the second data signal for Y polarization, and the clock signal is made close to zero. Thus, the phase shift amounts of the phase shifters 1024 and 1025 can be optimized without turning off both the first data signal for X polarization and the second data signal for Y polarization. That is, phase adjustment is possible even during system operation.

  As described above, the present invention separates the pulse-modulated light obtained by pulse-modulating the continuous light with the clock signal having the same frequency as the modulation data signal including the transmission data into the X-polarized wave and the Y-polarized light, Is modulated with an X-polarization modulation data signal and a Y-polarization modulation data signal, and is polarization multiplexed and output in an optical modulator that outputs an X-polarization modulation data signal or Y-polarization. The phase of the modulation data signal for X polarization and the modulation data signal for Y polarization based on the change in the light intensity of the polarization multiplexed phase modulated light when the phase of the modulation data signal for use is changed The amount of shift was determined. Thereby, there is no phase shift between the two polarizations of the polarization-multiplexed phase-modulated light, and the transmission characteristics can be improved.

  In addition, this invention is not limited to the said embodiment, Of course, the various change in the range which does not deviate from the summary of this invention is possible.

  For example, in this embodiment, polarization multiplexed phase modulation is performed on an optical signal that has been RZ-modulated by a clock signal. However, modulation by a clock signal is performed by pulse modulation of a known format having the same frequency as the data signal for phase modulation. Any other modulation method may be used. For example, CS-RZ modulation may be used.

  In the present embodiment, in the phase shift voltage control process executed by the phase control unit 1063, one of the data signals for X polarization and Y polarization is turned OFF, and the phase applied to the other phase shifter Although the phase shift voltage that maximizes the output of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 is specified by changing the shift voltage, the phase shift voltage may be specified by other methods. For example, when the change in the output of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 when the phase shift voltage applied to the phase shifter is changed, the change from the increase to the decrease, or from the decrease to the increase (the point where the increment value becomes 0). The voltage may be specified as a phase shift voltage.

  In this embodiment, the phase modulation scheme in the polarization multiplexing phase modulator 104 is the DP-BPSK scheme. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and DP-MPSK (M-array Phase) having M values per symbol. Shift Keying).

  In this embodiment, the phase shifters 1024 and 1025 adjust the phases of the first data signal and the second data signal output from the first data signal generation unit 1021 and the second data signal generation unit 1022. When the first data signal generation unit 1021 and the second data signal generation unit 1022 have a function of adjusting the phase, the phase control by the phase control unit 1063 is performed by the first data signal generation unit 1021 and the second data signal generation unit. You may perform with respect to 1022.

  By applying a program for the control units 106 and 206 to execute phase adjustment processing or the like to an existing arithmetic processing device, an optical transmission device or the like provided with the arithmetic processing device can be configured.

  Such a program distribution method is arbitrary, for example, a computer-readable recording medium such as a CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read-Only Memory), a DVD (Digital Versatile Disk), an MO (Magneto Optical Disk), or a memory card. It may be stored and distributed in the network, or distributed via a communication network such as the Internet.

  DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Optical transmitter, 100 Light source, 101,201 Optical modulator, 102 Data signal generation part, 1021 1st data signal generation part, 1022 2nd data signal generation part, 1023 Clock signal generation part, 1024,1025 Phase shifter, 1026 , 1027, 1028 driver, 103 RZ modulator, 104 polarization multiplexed phase modulator, 1041, 1042 phase modulator, 105 light intensity measurement unit, 1051 optical branching unit, 1052 bandpass filter, 1053 photoelectric converter, 1054 current voltage Converter, 106, 206 control unit, 1061 AD converter, 1062 Bias control unit, 1063 Phase control unit, 1064 Data output control unit, 1065, 1066, 1067, 1068, 2013, 2014 DA converter, 2011, 2012 Dither signal generation Part, 2015,2016 adder

Claims (9)

  1. An optical pulse modulator for pulse-modulating continuous light with a clock signal having the same frequency as a modulation data signal including transmission data;
    The X-polarized light and the Y-polarized light orthogonal to each other obtained by polarization-separating the pulse-modulated light output from the optical pulse modulator are respectively converted into the modulation data signal for the X-polarized wave and the Y-polarized light. A polarization multiplexed phase modulator that performs phase modulation with the data signal for modulation, and performs polarization multiplexing to output;
    A first phase shifter for shifting the phase of the modulation data signal for the X polarization;
    A second phase shifter for shifting the phase of the modulation data signal for the Y polarization,
    The first phase shifter inputs the modulation data signal for the X polarization to the polarization multiplexing phase modulator and does not input the modulation data signal for the Y polarization. Monitoring the intensity of the output light of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator when the phase shift amount of the modulation data signal is changed , and setting the shift amount when the intensity of the output light is maximized And
    The second phase shifter inputs the modulation data signal for the Y polarization to the polarization multiplexing phase modulator and does not input the modulation data signal for the X polarization. Monitoring the intensity of the output light of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator when the phase shift amount of the modulation data signal is changed , and setting the shift amount when the intensity of the output light is maximized To
    Light modulator.
  2. The optical pulse modulator performs pulse intensity modulation of the continuous light with the clock signal in an RZ (Return to Zero) format or a CR-RZ (Carrier Suppressed Return to Zero) format.
    The optical modulator according to claim 1.
  3. The polarization multiplexing phase modulator performs MPSK (M-array Phase Shift Keying) phase modulation on the X-polarized light and the Y-polarized light, respectively.
    The optical modulator according to claim 1.
  4. The first phase shifter and the second phase shifter are phase shifters in which a phase shift amount is changed by an applied phase shift voltage,
    A phase shift voltage output unit that outputs a first phase shift voltage applied to the first phase shifter and a second phase shift voltage applied to the second phase shifter;
    During adjustment of the optical modulator, while no input the modulated data signals for the X-polarization to the polarization multiplexing phase modulator inputs the modulation data signal for the Y polarized wave, the phase shift obtained while varying the said first phase shift voltage outputted from the voltage output unit, to monitor the intensity of the output light of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator, when the intensity of the output light becomes maximum, the first determining a phase shift voltage as the set voltage, while no said to polarization multiplexing phase modulator inputs the modulation data signal for the Y polarized wave input the modulated data signals for the X polarized wave, the obtained while varying the second phase shift voltage output from the phase shift voltage output unit, to monitor the intensity of the output light of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator, when the intensity of the output light becomes maximum , setting said second phase shift voltage voltage And determined, when the light modulation of the light modulator, the determined first phase shift voltage is set to the first phase shifter, and sets the determined second phase shift voltage to said second phase shifter control A control unit for performing
    The optical modulator according to any one of claims 1 to 3.
  5. Wherein the control unit, the Y and the input to the polarization multiplexing phase modulator of the modulation data signal for polarization after stopping, control the bias voltage of the phase modulator for the Y polarized wave to extinction point from to, after the polarization-multiplexing to monitor the intensity of the output light of the phase modulator, to stop the input to the polarization multiplexing phase modulator of the modulation data signal for the X-polarization, the X After controlling the bias voltage of the polarization phase modulator to the extinction point, control to monitor the intensity of the output light of the polarization multiplexing phase modulator,
    The optical modulator according to claim 4.
  6. The first phase shifter and the second phase shifter change the intensity of the output light of the polarization multiplexed phase modulator, and the intensity of the light after the output light of the polarization multiplexed phase modulator has passed through the wavelength filter. Determine the shift amount based on
    The optical modulator according to any one of claims 1 to 5.
  7. An optical transmission device on which the optical modulator according to any one of claims 1 to 6 is mounted.
  8. X-polarized light and Y-polarized light orthogonal to each other obtained by pulse-modulating continuous light with a clock signal having the same frequency as the data signal for modulation including transmission data, and separating the pulse-modulated light from each other, A polarization multiplexing phase modulation method performed by an optical modulator that performs phase modulation with the modulation data signal for polarization and the modulation data signal for Y polarization, and performs polarization multiplexing and outputs the modulated data signal,
    While the modulation data signal for the X polarization is input and the modulation data signal for the Y polarization is not input , the phase shift amount of the modulation data signal for the X polarization is changed. a first phase shift step of monitoring the intensity of the polarization multiplexed optical signal, phase shifting said modulating data signal for the X polarized wave at the shift amount when the intensity becomes maximum when the,
    In the state where the modulation data signal for the Y polarization is input and the modulation data signal for the X polarization is not input , the phase shift amount of the modulation data signal for the Y polarization is changed. when the monitors the intensity of the polarization multiplexed optical signal, a second phase shift step of the intensity is a phase shift the modulation data signal for the Y polarized wave at the shift quantity when the maximum, the Have
    Polarization multiplexing phase modulation method.
  9. X-polarized light and Y-polarized light orthogonal to each other obtained by pulse-modulating continuous light with a clock signal having the same frequency as the data signal for modulation including transmission data, and separating the pulse-modulated light from each other, A computer that controls the optical modulator that is phase-modulated with the modulation data signal for polarization and the modulation data signal for Y polarization and is multiplexed and output;
    While the modulation data signal for the X polarization is input and the modulation data signal for the Y polarization is not input , the phase shift amount of the modulation data signal for the X polarization is changed. to monitor the intensity of the polarization multiplexed optical signal, a first phase shift to control such that the intensity is phase-shifting said modulating data signal for the X polarized wave at the shift amount when the maximum time has Control unit,
    In the state where the modulation data signal for the Y polarization is input and the modulation data signal for the X polarization is not input , the phase shift amount of the modulation data signal for the Y polarization is changed. to monitor the intensity of the polarization multiplexed optical signal, a second phase shift to control such that the intensity is phase-shifting said modulating data signal for the Y polarized wave at the shift amount when the maximum time has Control unit,
    Program to function as.
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