JP6117695B2 - EGR structure for opposed piston engine - Google Patents

EGR structure for opposed piston engine Download PDF

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JP6117695B2
JP6117695B2 JP2013511146A JP2013511146A JP6117695B2 JP 6117695 B2 JP6117695 B2 JP 6117695B2 JP 2013511146 A JP2013511146 A JP 2013511146A JP 2013511146 A JP2013511146 A JP 2013511146A JP 6117695 B2 JP6117695 B2 JP 6117695B2
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exhaust gas
egr
engine
valve
exhaust
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JP2013529275A (en
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ディオン,エリック,ピー.
リード,イアイン,ジェー.,エル.
ルドン,ファビアン,ジー.
レグナー,ガーハード
ウォール,マイケル,エイチ.
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アカーテース パワー,インク.
アカーテース パワー,インク.
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Priority to US61/401,598 priority
Application filed by アカーテース パワー,インク., アカーテース パワー,インク. filed Critical アカーテース パワー,インク.
Priority to PCT/US2011/000864 priority patent/WO2011146111A1/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B25/00Engines characterised by using fresh charge for scavenging cylinders
    • F02B25/02Engines characterised by using fresh charge for scavenging cylinders using unidirectional scavenging
    • F02B25/08Engines with oppositely-moving reciprocating working pistons
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B75/00Other engines
    • F02B75/28Engines with two or more pistons reciprocating within same cylinder or within essentially coaxial cylinders
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02FCYLINDERS, PISTONS OR CASINGS, FOR COMBUSTION ENGINES; ARRANGEMENTS OF SEALINGS IN COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02F1/00Cylinders; Cylinder heads
    • F02F1/18Other cylinders
    • F02F1/186Other cylinders for use in engines with two or more pistons reciprocating within same cylinder
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B75/00Other engines
    • F02B75/02Engines characterised by their cycles, e.g. six-stroke
    • F02B2075/022Engines characterised by their cycles, e.g. six-stroke having less than six strokes per cycle
    • F02B2075/025Engines characterised by their cycles, e.g. six-stroke having less than six strokes per cycle two
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B2275/00Other engines, components or details, not provided for in other groups of this subclass
    • F02B2275/14Direct injection into combustion chamber

Description

  The field is internal combustion engines. In particular, the field relates to ported, uniflow-scavenged, opposited-piston engines that use exhaust gas recirculation. More particularly, the art includes a two-stroke opposed piston engine that uses one or more ported cylinders and uniflow scavenging, where an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) structure provides a portion of the exhaust gas produced by the engine. In the mixture with the charge air to control the production of NOx during combustion.

  As can be seen in FIG. 1, the internal combustion engine is an opposed piston engine that includes at least one cylinder 10 with a bore 12 and longitudinally displaced exhaust ports 14 and intake ports 16 machined or formed therein. Is exemplified by The fuel injector nozzle 17 is located adjacent to or adjacent to the injector port through the side of the cylinder, at or near the longitudinal center of the cylinder. The two pistons 20, 22 are arranged in the bore 12 such that their end surfaces 20e, 22e face each other. For convenience, the piston 20 is referred to as an “exhaust” piston because it is proximate to the exhaust port 14; the end of the cylinder in which the exhaust port is formed is referred to as the “exhaust end”. Similarly, the piston 22 is referred to as an “intake” piston because it is close to the intake port 16 and the corresponding end of the cylinder is the “intake end”.

  The operation of an opposed piston engine with one or more cylinders, such as cylinder 10, is well understood. In this regard, referring to FIG. 2, in response to the combustion occurring between the end surfaces 20e, 22e, the opposing pistons move away from their respective top dead center (TDC) positions that are closest to each other in the cylinder. Move to. While moving from the TDC, the pistons keep their associated ports closed until they reach their respective bottom dead center (BDC) positions furthest from each other. The piston may move in the same phase so that the exhaust port 14 and the intake port 16 open and close all at once. Alternatively, one piston may lead the other piston in phase, such as when the intake and exhaust ports have different open and close times.

  In many opposed piston structures, a phase offset is introduced into the piston motion. As shown in FIG. 1, for example, the exhaust piston leads the intake piston, and due to the phase offset, the piston moves near the BDC position, and the exhaust port 14 opens when the exhaust piston 20 sequentially moves through the BDC. However, since the intake port 16 remains closed, the combustion gas begins to flow from the exhaust port 14. As the pistons continue to move away from each other, the intake port 16 opens, but the exhaust port 14 also remains open, forcing the pressurized air charge (“supply air”) toward the cylinder 10 and the exhaust gas is Exit from exhaust port 14. Displacement of the exhaust gas from the cylinder through the exhaust port and passing the supply air through the intake port is referred to as “scavenging”. Since the supply air entering the cylinder flows in the same direction as the exhaust gas flow (towards the exhaust port), the scavenging process is referred to as “uniflow scavenging”.

  As the pistons move through their BDC positions and turn, the exhaust port 14 is closed by the exhaust piston 20 and scavenging stops. While the intake port 16 remains open, the intake piston 22 continues to move away from the BDC. As the piston continues to move toward the TDC (FIG. 2), the intake port 16 closes and the charge in the cylinder is compressed between the end surfaces 20e and 22e. Normally, the supply air swirls as it travels through the intake port 16 with the port open, promoting good scavenging and mixing the injected fuel and air after the port is closed. The fuel is usually diesel and is injected into the cylinder by a high-pressure jet. Referring to FIG. 1 as an example, swirling air (or simply “swirling”) 30 generally has a helical motion, forms a vortex in the bore, and circulates around the longitudinal axis of the cylinder. As best seen in FIG. 2, as the piston advances toward the respective TDC position of the cylinder bore, the fuel 40 passes directly through the nozzle 17 directly between the piston end surfaces 20e, 22e in the bore 12. Is blown into the swirling supply air 30. The swirling mixture of charge and fuel is compressed in a combustion chamber 32 defined between the end surfaces 20e and 22e when the pistons 20 and 22 are near their respective TDC positions. When the mixture reaches the ignition temperature, the fuel ignites in the combustion chamber, causing the pistons to move toward their respective BDC positions.

As illustrated in FIG. 2, fuel is injected directly into the cylinder bore through the side of the cylinder (“direct side injection”), and the movement of the fuel interacts with the remaining swirling motion of the charge in the bore. As engine operating levels increase and combustion heat rises, the amount of nitric oxide (NOx) produced increases. However, increasingly stringent emission requirements indicate that NOx needs to be significantly reduced. One technique reduces NOx emissions by exhaust gas recirculation (“EGR”). The EGR is incorporated in a spark-ignition 4-stroke engine structure and a 2-stroke compression ignition engine that operates a single piston in each cylinder.
However, such an EGR structure needs to create a pressure differential that pumps the exhaust gas into the incoming air stream in the opposed piston engine, which is not immediately applicable to a two-stroke opposed piston engine using uniflow scavenging. Absent. Therefore, there is a need for an effective EGR structure that is adapted to the design and operation of a two-stroke opposed piston engine using uniflow scavenging.

  The solution to the problem is to reduce the NOx emissions of a two stroke opposed piston engine using uniflow scavenging by exhaust gas recirculation through one or more ported cylinders of the engine. The engine includes at least one cylinder with piston-controlled exhaust and intake ports and an intake channel for providing supply to at least one intake port of the engine.

  In one aspect, the EGR is provided by an EGR loop having an input coupled to the exhaust port of the cylinder and a loop output coupled to the air supply channel. The pressure differential provided between the exhaust gas and the supply channel causes the exhaust gas to flow through the EGR loop to the supply channel where the exhaust gas and air are mixed and provided to at least one intake port. The

  In another aspect, EGR is provided by retaining ported cylinder residual exhaust gas when scavenging stops.

FIG. 2 is a partial schematic side cross-sectional view of a cylinder of a prior art opposed piston engine with opposed pistons near their respective bottom dead center positions, appropriately labeled “prior art”. FIG. 2 is a partial schematic side cross-sectional view of the cylinder of FIG. 1 with the opposing pistons near their respective top dead center positions such that the end surface of the piston defines a combustion chamber and is appropriately labeled as “prior art” ing. 1 is a conceptual schematic of an opposed piston type internal combustion engine illustrating an embodiment of an air management system with EGR. FIG. 4 is a conceptual schematic diagram illustrating a preferred structure for EGR in the ported uniflow scavenging internal combustion engine of FIG. 3. FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a preferred EGR structure for the ported uniflow scavenging internal combustion engine of FIG. 3. FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of an alternative EGR structure for a ported uniflow scavenging opposed piston engine without a turbocharger.

  The EGR structure described herein includes a ported uniflow scavenging internal combustion engine having at least one cylinder, where a pair of pistons are disposed with their end surfaces facing each other. Presented in context. “Ported” cylinders include one or more intake and exhaust ports formed or machined in their sidewalls. This illustrative context is intended to provide a basis for understanding various EGR structure embodiments by way of illustrative examples.

  In FIG. 3, the internal combustion engine 49 is embodied by an opposed piston engine having at least one ported cylinder 50. For example, the engine may have one ported cylinder, two ported cylinders, three ported cylinders, or four or more ported cylinders. For purposes of illustration, in the example to be illustrated and described, the engine is an opposed piston type engine that is assumed to have a plurality of ported cylinders. In this regard, each cylinder 50 has a bore 52 and an exhaust port 54 and an intake port 56 formed or machined at the respective ends. Exhaust and intake ports 54 and 56 each include one or more circumferential arrays of openings, with adjacent openings separated by solid bridges. (In some descriptions, each opening is referred to as a “port”; the structure of the circumferential array of such “ports” is no different from the port structure shown in FIG. 3). The intake piston 62 is slidably disposed in the bore 52 so that the end surfaces 61 and 63 thereof face each other. The exhaust piston 60 is coupled to the crankshaft 71, and the intake piston is coupled to the crankshaft 72.

  When the pistons 60 and 62 of the cylinder 50 are at or near their TDC position, the combustion chamber is defined between the piston end surfaces 61 and 63 at the bore 52. Fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber through at least one fuel injector nozzle 100 positioned in the opening through the sidewall of the cylinder 50.

  Still referring to FIG. 3, the engine 49 includes an air management system 51 that manages the supply of air provided to the engine 49 and the transport of exhaust gases produced by the engine 49. A typical air management system structure includes an air supply subsystem and an exhaust subsystem. In air management system 51, the air supply subsystem is coupled to an air supply source that receives intake air and processes it into supply air, the supply air being transported to at least one intake port of the engine. And at least one air cooler in the charge channel coupled for receiving and cooling the charge (or a mixture of gases containing the charge) prior to delivery to the intake port of the engine Including. Such coolers can include liquid and / or air cooled devices, or another cooling device. Hereinafter, such a cooler is referred to as a “feed air cooler”. The charge subsystem also includes a supercharger that pumps charge in the charge channel to the intake port of the engine. The exhaust subsystem includes an exhaust channel that transports exhaust products from the exhaust port of the engine to an exhaust pipe.

  Referring to FIG. 3, a preferred air supply subsystem includes a supercharger 110, which can be driven by an electric motor or by a gear, chain, or belt device coupled to a crankshaft. For example, but not limited to, in FIGS. 4, 5 and 6, supercharger 110 is coupled to and driven by crankshaft 72 by belt cooperation. The supercharger 110 may be a single speed or multi-speed device, or a fully variable speed device. Preferably, but not necessarily, the air management system 51 includes a turbocharger 120 with a turbine 121 and a compressor rotating on a common shaft 123. Turbine 121 is coupled to the exhaust subsystem, and compressor 122 is coupled to the charge subsystem. The turbine 121 may be a fixed geometry or a variable geometry device. The turbocharger 120 extracts energy from the exhaust gas exiting the exhaust port 54 and flows it directly from the exhaust port 54 or from the exhaust manifold 125 to the exhaust channel 124. At this point, the turbine 121 is rotated by the exhaust gas passing through it. This causes the compressor 122 to rotate and compress the intake air to produce air supply. The charge output by the compressor 122 flows through the conduit 126 to the charge cooler 127 where it is pumped by the supercharger 110 to the intake port. The air compressed by the supercharger 110 is output from the supercharger through the charge air cooler 129 to the intake manifold 130. The intake port 56 receives supply air that is pumped by the supercharger 110 through the intake manifold 130. Preferably, but not necessarily, in a multi-cylinder opposed piston engine, the intake manifold 130 is comprised of an intake plenum that communicates with the intake ports 56 of all cylinders 50.

  Exhaust gas management: It is desirable to modify or adapt the air management structure for a ported cylinder type internal combustion engine to reduce NOx emissions caused by combustion. It is particularly desirable to control such emissions by exhaust gas recirculation through the ported cylinder of the opposed piston engine. The recirculated exhaust gas is mixed with the charge air to reduce the peak combustion temperature and reduce NOx emissions. This process is referred to as exhaust gas recirculation (“EGR”). In FIG. 3, the EGR structure allows the exhaust gas transported to the EGR channel outside the cylinder by the valve-controlled recirculation channel 131 to be used for the incoming stream of fresh intake air. Alternatively or additionally, the EGR process can utilize residual exhaust gas retained in the cylinder 50 when scavenging stops. In the case of an external EGR, the exhaust gas is pumped to the incoming air stream. A pressure source in communication with the EGR channel creates a pressure differential so that exhaust gas flows through the EGR channel to the air supply subsystem. In some aspects, a virtual pump is present when the exhaust gas to be recirculated is obtained from a source that is guaranteed to be at a higher pressure than is supplied to the intake air intake stream. In other embodiments, an active pump, such as supercharger 110, is used to pump the exhaust gas to be recirculated into the charge air that the supercharger is pumping to the intake port. In these aspects, the use of a supercharger provides an additional variable for controlling EGR operation in an opposed piston engine. In some aspects, the recirculated exhaust gas is cooled by one or more EGR coolers, which can include liquid cooled and / or air cooled devices. In other embodiments, the recirculated exhaust gas is cooled by one or more charge air coolers alone or in combination with one or more EGR coolers.

  First EGR loop structure: In some aspects, the internal combustion engine as seen in FIG. 3 includes a first EGR loop structure. Referring to FIG. 4, the first EGR loop structure for uniflow scavenging ported opposed piston application circulates exhaust gas from any exhaust gas source exiting one or more cylinders. For example, but not excluding other exhaust gas sources, the first EGR loop structure includes an EGR port 55 positioned inside the exhaust port 54; that is, the EGR port 55 includes an exhaust port 54 and a cylinder. Positioned between 50 longitudinal midpoints. The EGR port structure includes one or more port openings as required by any particular design. During movement toward the BDC in response to combustion, the exhaust piston 60 passes through the EGR port 55 and opens the EGR port to cylinder bore pressure, which is guaranteed to be higher than the pressure in the intake manifold 130. ing. This pressure differential pumps a portion of the exhaust gas from the EGR port 55 through a plenum or manifold (not shown) to a conduit 133 controlled by a one-way check valve 134 and then to the intake manifold 130 where the supply air And recirculated to the cylinder bore. Although not necessarily required, preferably the exhaust gas enters the charge air output by the supercharger 110 before the inlet of the charge air cooler 129. It is desirable that the ratio of cylinder pressure to intake manifold pressure when the EGR port is open (“EGR open”) does not exceed a threshold at which choke flow conditions may occur in the one-way check valve 134 when this value is exceeded. This pressure ratio is affected by the size of the EGR port and the position relative to the longitudinal center of the cylinder (the pressure gets higher as it gets closer to the center), as well as the state of the charge system (boost, turbine back pressure, etc.).

  Still referring to FIG. 4, in a variation of the first loop EGR structure, the exhaust gas flowing through the conduit 133 is mixed with the supply air output by the supercharger 110 through the mixer 135, which can be configured, for example, as a venturi. Is done. Exhaust gas is input to mixer 135 through valve 136; the charge output pressurized by supercharger 110 is provided to the mixing input of mixer 135. The mixture of the pressurized charge air and the exhaust gas produced by the mixer 135 is provided to the input of the charge air cooler 29 (or alternatively to the input of the charge air cooler 127). The valve 136 is operated by a signal output from the engine control unit (ECU) 149.

  In some embodiments, it is desirable to reduce fluctuations in the exhaust gas flow. In such a case, referring to FIG. 4, an accumulator 145 is provided in a first loop in series between the EGR port 55 and the input to the valve 136. In some other embodiments, it is desirable to cool the exhaust gas before mixing with the charge air. In such a case, the EGR cooler 146 is provided to the first loop in series between the check valve 134 and the input to the valve 136. Alternatively, the loop structure may be 134, 136, 146. If both EGR accumulator 145 and cooler 146 are used, it is preferred, but not essential, that EGR cooler 146 be positioned in series between the output of EGR accumulator 145 and the input of valve 136.

  Second EGR loop structure: In some aspects, as seen in FIG. 3, the internal combustion engine 49 may include another EGR loop structure. Referring to FIGS. 3 and 4, the second EGR loop structure includes a conduit 131 and a valve 138 that switches a portion of the exhaust gas from the exhaust manifold 54 to the input air cooler input and cools a portion thereof. . In order to promote optimal exhaust gas / air supply mixing, it is desirable to add a device in which the exhaust gas and air supply flow and mix together. If it is desired to introduce the exhaust gas into the supply air at a location remote from the intake manifold 56, a portion of the exhaust gas is switched to the input of the supply air cooler 127. This loop provides the exhaust gas for the cooling action of the two charge air coolers (127 and 129). If it is reasonable not to cool much, the valve 138 can be configured as a three-way valve (as best seen in FIG. 4) and some of the exhaust gas is superposed from near the cooler 127. The input of the charger 110 can be switched. In this alternative, a portion of the exhaust gas is cooled only by the charge air cooler 129. A dedicated EGR cooler that cools only the exhaust gas can be incorporated into the second loop as needed. For example, an EGR cooler can be placed in conduit 131 in series with valve 138 or in series with the output port of valve 138 and the input of supercharger 110. In some aspects, the valve 138 is configured as a single three-way device. Alternatively, the valves 138 are configured as a pair of valves, each in a respective branch of the Y-couple from the conduit 131, where one valve controls to provide exhaust gas to the input of the cooler 127. The other controls the exhaust gas to be provided to the input of the supercharger 110.

  EGR with retained exhaust gas: In a uniflow or loop scavenging internal combustion engine, it may be desirable to capture or retain a residual amount of exhaust gas in the cylinder after scavenging has stopped. The residual exhaust gas can be used to adjust the initial conditions of combustion to the point where it reduces NOx emissions. Depending on the turbomachinery configuration, at low and medium speeds and loads, the uniflow scavenging engine may exhibit incomplete scavenging. Because the residual exhaust gas in the cylinder is hot, the resulting temperature of the new charge can be substantially increased, so this method is most effective to reduce NOx under some engine load conditions. Is suitable.

  The amount of charge supplied to the cylinder in each cycle can be used to change the amount of residual exhaust gas remaining in the cylinder. In this regard, adjusting the amount of charge supplied to the cylinder in any given operating cycle is to “tune” the amount of exhaust gas held in the cylinder for the next occurrence of combustion. Can be used for In one embodiment of the retained exhaust gas EGR seen in FIG. 4, a bypass conduit loop 148 that includes a valve 139 is placed parallel to the supercharger 110. Valve 139 is operated to control the amount of charge pumped to the engine by supercharger 110. By setting the amount of pumped supply air, the amount of exhaust gas scavenged can be controlled, and as a result, the amount of exhaust gas retained in any cylinder after scavenging can be controlled. In this regard, if high manifold pressure is desired (as shown for high engine load conditions), valve 139 is fully closed and charge is delivered to the engine at a high rate. As the opening of the valve 139 increases, the amount of charge pumped by the supercharger 110 increases back to the supercharger inlet and proportionally reduces the amount of charge delivered to the engine. Thus, the charge / fuel ratio decreases and the amount of exhaust gas retained in any cylinder increases. One of the benefits realized by this aspect of retained exhaust gas EGR is the reduction of NOx and the pumping load imposed on the engine by the supercharger 110.

  An increase in the pressure sensed by the exhaust gas flowing to the turbine (“back pressure”) can also be used to change the amount of residual exhaust gas remaining in the cylinder. In this regard, adjusting the amount of back pressure in any given cycle of operation can be used to “tune” the amount of residual exhaust gas for subsequent combustion generation. Thus, as seen in FIG. 4, in another aspect of the retained exhaust gas EGR, the variable valve 140 is disposed in series with the exhaust gas output. The setting of the valve 140 directly affects the back pressure sensed upstream of the valve, and consequently affects the amount of exhaust gas retained in any cylinder after scavenging. In FIG. 4, the valve 140 is arranged in series with the output of the turbine 121. In this case, any back pressure resulting from the valve settings is distributed across all cylinders of the engine. In an alternative aspect, an equivalent valve 140a can be placed in series between the input to the turbine 121 and an exhaust manifold that collects the exhaust output of one or more cylinders. In yet another alternative, an equivalent valve 140a can be placed in series with the exhaust manifold or exhaust port of each of the plurality of cylinders.

  Turbine Bypass Structure: Referring again to FIG. 4, the bypass conduit loop 143 that includes the valve 144 is disposed parallel to the turbine 121. The valve 144 is operated to control the amount of exhaust gas flowing from the engine to the turbine 121. By setting the valve 144 to bypass the turbine 121, the exhaust energy can be released to the exhaust pipe 128 without operating the turbine 121 and the compressor 122. This maintains the exhaust gas at a high temperature level and increases post-treatment conversion efficiency (eg, with respect to granular filters and catalyst devices), for example, during engine warm-up during some engine load conditions from cold start. In addition, setting the valve 144 during engine operation under some engine load conditions to bypass the turbine 121 reduces turbocharger operation and drives more exhaust gas to the supercharger 110. At the same time, hotter exhaust gas can be delivered to the exhaust pipe 128 at the same time (e.g., via valve 138) to increase the conversion efficiency after processing. Another structure for changing the amount of exhaust gas flowing from the engine to the turbine 121 includes a turbine with a variable geometry structure for controlling the pressure in the exhaust conduit 124 upstream of the valve 144. The use of a variable geometry turbine (VGT) instead of a fixed geometry turbine does not necessarily eliminate the need for a turbine bypass valve, such as valve 144, for example. VGT has only a limited mass flow range that works with acceptable efficiency. Outside this range, the turbine bypass valve can be used to control mass flow and engine 49 intake pressure.

  Preferred EGR Embodiment: A preferred EGR structure with uniflow scavenging for a ported opposed piston engine is shown in FIG. In the preferred construction, exhaust gas flows from the engine exhaust port 54 through the conduit 124 to the turbine 121, where it passes through the exhaust pipe 128 via a post-treatment transition (not shown). Prior to input to turbine 121, a portion of the exhaust gas is switched from conduit 124 through 131 and from conduit 124 through valve 138 ′ to the input air cooler 127 input, where the fresh air inflow stream and Mix. Exhaust gas and air are mixed and cooled by the charge air cooler 127, and the cooled gas / air mixture is input to the supercharger 110. The supercharger 110 compresses the gas / air mixture and inputs the compressed mixture to the charge air cooler 129. The cooled compressed mixture is then placed into the cylinder 50 via the intake port 56. In some cases, an intake throttle valve 141 and a turbine bypass valve 144 are included for highly accurate control of the ratio of recirculated exhaust gas to fresh air.

  Exhaust configuration and control: The EGR and turbine bypass structures illustrated in FIGS. 4 and 5 can be used in a uniflow scavenging type ported engine as a single or more than one as required for a particular design. It can be implemented in combination of structures or in some of them. One example is an EGR structure where uncooled exhaust gas retained in the cylinder after scavenging is combined or mixed with recirculated exhaust gas that is cooled and mixed with the charge provided to the cylinder. The relative amount of retained and recirculated exhaust gas may vary to accurately control the EGR rate and temperature. The intake throttle valve 141 can be placed in a stream of fresh air that flows to the compressor 122 to more accurately control the ratio of recirculated exhaust gas to fresh air. When implemented per cylinder reference, high speed individual EGR and charge / fuel trims are provided to compensate for cylinder-to-cylinder variations caused by flow dynamics and / or manufacturing tolerances.

  The EGR control process for an EGR system that utilizes one or more structures illustrated in FIGS. 4 and 5 or any combination thereof is any one when a multi-speed or variable speed device is used. If the above valves 136, 138, 139, 140, 140a and 144, the intake throttle valve 141, and the supercharger 110, and variable geometry devices are used, the turbocharger 120 can be identified by automatically operating it. It is executed by ECU 149 in response to engine operating conditions. Of course, the operation of valves, throttles, and related elements used for EGR can include any one or more of electrical, pneumatic, mechanical, and hydraulic actuation operations. For quick, accurate automatic operation, the valve is preferably a fast, computer controlled device with continuously variable settings. Each valve has a first state that is open to allow gas flow (for some settings controlled by ECU 149) and a second state that is closed to block gas flow. Have.

  Preferably, the EGR control process is automatically described and exemplified herein based on one or more parameters regarding the recirculated exhaust gas and the recirculated exhaust gas and charge mixture. Operate an EGR system that incorporates more than one structure. Parameter values are determined by a combination of one or more sensors, calculations, and table lookups to manage individual parameter values and one or more ratios of EGR and mixture parameters in one or more cylinders. .

  Alternative EGR Embodiment: An alternative EGR structure in a two-stroke opposed piston engine using a ported cylinder and uniflow scavenging where only the supercharger provides scavenging pressure is shown in FIG. Processed by an emission control device that includes a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) to reduce CO and hydrocarbons, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) to reduce soot emissions, and a selective catalytic reduction device to reduce NOx emissions It is assumed that a later conversion will take place. All of these devices require the addition of heat for operation, and the absence of a turbocharger reduces engine power density while reducing the competition for heat derived from exhaust gases. Furthermore, the DPF and DOC can now be tightly coupled at the exhaust manifold, where the turbocharger is usually placed. Further, the reduction of the turbocharger and its required ducting reduces the size of the opposed piston engine, and the exhaust heat loss is reduced by convection from the turbocharger housing and ducting. Although not necessarily required, preferably the exhaust gas for recirculation is extracted from the outlet of the DPF, where it does not contain particulates, can be cooled and can be pumped to the inlet of the supercharger. The exhaust gas after the DPF is cooled more, but can be further cooled by the EGR cooler.

  An alternative EGR embodiment for a two-stroke ported uniflow scavenging opposed piston engine is illustrated in FIG. Preferably, the engine does not include a turbocharger. Exhaust gas flows from exhaust manifold 125, through conduit 124, through DOC 150 and DPF 151, and then through valve 140 and out of exhaust pipe 128. Some exhaust gas is diverted by a change in pressure determined by setting valve 140 to the input of EGR cooler 142. The exhaust gas output cooled by the EGR cooler 142 is metered into the air stream through the valve 147 and enters the supercharger 110. The intake throttle valve 141 is placed in the air stream flowing to the supercharger upstream of the output of the valve 147 in order to more precisely control the ratio of exhaust gas to air being recirculated by creating a slight vacuum. it can. As the alternative EGR loop exits through the supercharger 110, the time required to empty the exhaust gas from the charge air cooler 129 is greatly reduced, improving the transient response. When supercharger 110 is driven directly from the engine, it achieves high flow and high speed with the engine. Supercharger capacity allows the required exhaust gases to be pumped as needed to meet high engine speeds and strict emission requirements. The supercharger bypass valve 139 continuously varies the pressure generated by the supercharger.

Although the EGR structure has been described with reference to a ported opposed engine structure with two crankshafts, it should be understood that various aspects of these structures are applicable to an opposed piston engine with one or more crankshafts. It is. Furthermore, these various aspects of the EGR structure are applicable to opposed piston engines with ported cylinders disposed on opposite and / or opposite sides of one or more crankshafts. Accordingly, the protection afforded by these structures is limited only by the accompanying claims.
(Appendix)
The technical idea of the present invention is also expressed by the following features.
(1) A method of operating a ported uniflow scavenging opposed piston engine (49) having one or more cylinders (50), wherein the charge is pressurized and then at least one charge cooler (127) 129) and providing engine exhaust gas through an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop to the input of at least one charge air cooler (127, 129) of the one or more cylinders. Method provided to each intake port (56).
(2) The method of operating a ported uniflow scavenging opposed piston engine of (1), further comprising holding exhaust gas in the one or more cylinders (50) during low engine load conditions.
(3) The method for operating a ported uniflow scavenging opposed piston engine according to (2), wherein exhaust gas is held in the one or more cylinders by lowering a supply pressure.
(4) The method for operating a ported uniflow scavenging opposed piston engine according to (2), wherein exhaust gas is held in the one or more cylinders by increasing an exhaust gas back pressure.
(5) The ported uniflow scavenging according to claim 9, wherein the exhaust gas is further retained in the one or more cylinders by a combination of increasing the exhaust gas back pressure and decreasing the supply air pressure. How to operate an opposed piston engine.
(6) In a uniflow scavenging opposed piston engine (49) having no turbocharger and having one or more ported cylinders (50), an exhaust gas recirculation loop characterized by:
A first cooler (142) having an input coupled to the output of the thermally operated exhaust treatment device (151);
A supercharger (110) having an input and an output coupled to an intake air source;
A second cooler (129) having an input coupled to the output of the supercharger and an output coupled to at least one intake port (56); and
A valve (147) coupled between the output of the first cooler (142) and the input of the supercharger (110).
(7) further including a throttle valve (141) having an input coupled to an intake air source and an output coupled to the input of the supercharger (110), wherein the valve (147) is configured to be coupled to the first cooler (142 And an output coupled in common with the output of the throttle valve (141) and the input of the supercharger (110), the exhaust gas recirculation according to (6) loop.

Claims (4)

  1. Ported uniflow scavenging piston engine (49),
    At least one cylinder (50) with piston-controlled exhaust and intake ports (54, 56);
    A pair of pistons (60, 62) opposed to each other in a bore (52) of the cylinder, wherein each of the pistons is coupled to each crankshaft (71, 72). When,
    An air supply channel for providing air supply to at least one intake port of the engine;
    An exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop has a loop input (124) coupled to the exhaust port (54) of the cylinder and a loop output coupled to the air supply channel, and the engine is in communication with the EGR loop. Including a pump, pumping exhaust gas through the EGR loop to the air supply channel ;
    The air supply channel includes at least one air supply cooler (127, 129), and the EGR loop switches a portion of the exhaust gas to the input of the air supply cooler (127) in the air supply channel. Engine comprising a conduit (131) and a valve (138) .
  2. The pump is an active pump including a supercharger (110) having an air supply output coupled to the air supply input supercharger input and before Symbol charge air cooler (129), and the supercharger valve (139) is parallel near a is, wherein the valve, the supercharger input, a first state is coupled through the valve to supply air output of the supercharger, and the supercharger input, through said valve 2. The ported uniflow scavenging opposed piston engine according to claim 1 , wherein the ported uniflow scavenging opposed piston engine can be set to a second state in which it is disconnected from an air supply output of the supercharger.
  3. A charge output coupled to a charge channel, a turbine input coupled to the exhaust port (54), a turbine output coupled to an exhaust output (128), and a back pressure in series between the turbine output and the exhaust output valve further comprises a turbocharger (120) having a (140), wherein the back pressure valve, according to claim 2, characterized in that it is settable to a state which causes a back pressure acting on the exhaust port Ported uniflow scavenging opposed piston engine.
  4. The ported uniflow scavenging opposed piston engine of claim 3 , wherein the turbocharger includes a variable geometry turbine (121).
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