JP6077887B2 - Optical waveguide mode converter - Google Patents

Optical waveguide mode converter Download PDF

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JP6077887B2
JP6077887B2 JP2013042120A JP2013042120A JP6077887B2 JP 6077887 B2 JP6077887 B2 JP 6077887B2 JP 2013042120 A JP2013042120 A JP 2013042120A JP 2013042120 A JP2013042120 A JP 2013042120A JP 6077887 B2 JP6077887 B2 JP 6077887B2
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waveguide
dielectric
mode converter
plasmonic
optical
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JP2014170126A (en
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納富 雅也
雅也 納富
シュー ハオ
シュー ハオ
秀昭 谷山
秀昭 谷山
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日本電信電話株式会社
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Description

  The present invention relates to an optical waveguide mode converter.

  Conventionally, information processing in a semiconductor chip such as a CPU (central processing unit) has been handled by an electronic circuit, but in recent years, information transfer by electrical wiring in the chip is becoming a main factor of energy consumption and heat generation of the entire chip. In addition, since the calculation speed of the chip is limited by the band of the wiring, the limit of the calculation speed by the electric wiring has become a problem. On the other hand, as the exchange of information within the chip and between the chips explosively increases, advanced network processing is required.

  Therefore, in order to solve this problem, introduction of optical wiring into the chip and further introduction of optical network processing technology are beginning to be studied. However, a normal optical wiring (that is, an optical waveguide) is limited in size by the wavelength of light and its diffraction limit, and requires a cross-sectional area of about several microns square, so a chip having a size of about 10 nm to 100 nm. There is a problem that it is difficult to integrate high-density optical wiring because the size of the electronic circuit component element is not suitable. In addition, an optical component that performs normal optical network processing has a size of several hundred microns or more, and it is difficult to integrate it in a chip.

  Therefore, in recent years, plasmonics technology that can allow light to pass through a waveguide having a cross-sectional area that is much smaller than the wavelength of light and that is less than the diffraction limit and can dramatically reduce the size of optical components has attracted attention. The plasmonic waveguide can strongly confine light in a metal nanostructure by utilizing an interface plasmon mode formed at a metal / dielectric interface. There are several forms of plasmonic waveguides, but the propagation distance of any form of waveguide is limited by light absorption by the metal, and in general, the mode oozes into the metal as the waveguide has a smaller mode cross section. Therefore, a trade-off relationship that propagation loss is large is known. As a representative example of a plasmonic waveguide having the smallest mode cross-sectional area, an MDM (Metal-Dielectric-Metal) type waveguide is well known (Non-Patent Document 1).

FIG. 1 shows the structure of an MDM type plasmonic waveguide and a normal dielectric waveguide (in the case of a silicon fine wire waveguide). In FIG. 1, (a) is a top perspective view of each, and (b) is a side view seen from the core cross-sectional direction. As shown in FIG. 1, the dielectric waveguide 20 has a configuration in which a dielectric (Si) 2 serving as a core is laminated on a silicon SiO 2 cladding 1. The MDM type plasmonic waveguides 30 and 40 are of a type that confines light in a gap region sandwiched between two metals 3, and are called optical versions of a two-conductor type waveguide such as a microstrip line in a microwave circuit. It is a waveguide with power properties. It is sufficient that a non-metallic dielectric exists in the gap region. As shown in FIG. 1, a waveguide can be formed both in the case of an air gap (30) and in the case where the gap is filled with a dielectric 41 (40). is there. According to Non-Patent Document 1, in this waveguide, light having a wavelength of 1550 nm can be confined within a gap region of 50 nm square, but the propagation length in that case is limited to about 10 μm or less, The loss is too large to use as the wiring. Various optical components can be realized based on the plasmonic waveguide, but its performance is greatly limited by the propagation loss of the plasmonic waveguide as the base, and it is easy to achieve the same performance as existing devices. is not.

G. Veronis and S.M. Fan, Opt. Lett. vol. 30, pp. 3359-3361 (2005) Hyuck Choo et al. , Nature Photonics, vol. 6, pp 838-844 (2012) J. et al. Tian et al. , Applied Physics Letters, vol. 95, 013504 (2009)

  As is clear from the above background explanation, the plasmonic waveguide technology that can reduce the size is very attractive to realize the optical wiring and the optical network processing circuit in the chip, but the loss is too large. It was difficult to use practically. However, for the original purpose, a waveguide having a very small diameter may be required only near a connection portion with a small-sized electronic device or near an optical active component that consumes energy. In other words, a plasmonics waveguide having a very small diameter is used for the short-distance routing portion, and a normal dielectric waveguide (for example, a silicon thin wire waveguide) is sufficient for the other portion that propagates light over a long distance. If the propagation distance and the length of the optical component are short, the loss of the plasmonic waveguide is not a problem.

  When such usage is assumed, it is necessary to be able to connect the plasmonics waveguide and the dielectric waveguide with high efficiency. However, plasmonics waveguides and dielectric waveguides differ greatly in mode diameter and reflect the difference in the confinement principle. Therefore, it is not easy to connect the two with high efficiency. . In particular, since the thickness of the waveguide differs from several times to about an order of magnitude, it is considered that a structure for connecting the two requires a three-dimensional connection structure, and the manufacturing process is considered difficult.

  So far, mode converters that connect plasmonics waveguides and dielectric waveguides have been proposed and fabricated for the above purposes, but in many cases to circumvent the problem of thickness differences. In addition, the thickness of the plasmonics waveguide is aligned with the thickness of the dielectric waveguide, and then a two-dimensional connection structure is introduced (Non-patent Document 2). It cannot be connected to the waveguide, and the expected effect is not obtained. In addition, a complicated three-dimensional structure that connects a tiny plasmonics waveguide and a dielectric waveguide is necessary (Non-patent Document 3), and it is difficult to fabricate. Further, the performance is not sufficient, and the expected performance is still obtained. Absent.

  However, the inventors of the present invention have a complicated and long three-dimensional taper structure (to smoothly connect the difference in geometric structure between the two waveguides) in order to connect both the tiny plasmonics waveguide and the dielectric waveguide. The present inventors have found that even if they are directly abutted with each other with a different height without a transition structure, they can be connected with high coupling efficiency, and the present invention has been achieved.

  An object of the present invention is to provide an optical waveguide mode converter that connects a plasmonics waveguide having the smallest confinement diameter and a dielectric waveguide that is most commonly used with high efficiency.

  In order to solve the above problems, the invention described in one embodiment includes a dielectric waveguide formed by stacking a dielectric serving as a core on a clad and a gap defining the core on the clad. An optical waveguide mode converter comprising a plasmonic waveguide formed by laminating two arranged metals, wherein the plasmonic waveguide and the dielectric waveguide have different core thicknesses. It is an optical waveguide mode converter characterized by being optically connected by butting.

It is a figure which shows the MDM type | mold plasmonics waveguide of a nonpatent literature 1, and a silicon | silicone thin wire | line type dielectric waveguide. It is a figure which shows the structure of the mode converter of this invention. It is a figure for demonstrating the waveguide mode used with the mode converter of this invention. It is a figure explaining the structure of the mode conversion part of the mode converter of this invention. It is a figure which shows the electromagnetic field simulation result of the light transmittance of the mode converter of this invention. It is a figure which shows the electromagnetic field simulation result of the light transmittance of the mode converter of this invention. It is a figure which shows a structure in case the taper length is zero in the mode converter of this invention. It is a figure which shows the application example of the mode converter of this invention. It is a figure which shows the application example of the mode converter of this invention.

Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail. FIG. 2 shows an embodiment of the optical waveguide mode converter of the present invention. 2A is a top perspective view of the optical waveguide mode converter, FIG. 2B is a top view of the optical waveguide mode converter, and FIG. 2C is AA ′ in FIG. It is sectional drawing, BB 'sectional drawing, and CC' sectional drawing. The optical waveguide mode converter 10 includes a dielectric (waveguide) 2 serving as a core that forms a silicon thin wire waveguide and a metal 3 that forms an MDM type plasmonic waveguide sandwiched between the SiO 2 clad 1 It is constructed by laminating on top. The same type of MDM type plasmonic waveguide as shown in FIG. 1 can be adopted as the MDM type plasmonic waveguide. In this example, two metal thin film regions 3 are opposed to each other through an air gap that defines a core. Yes.

  The dielectric 2 forming the silicon fine wire waveguide (Si fine wire waveguide) is, for example, the size (typically used as a single mode waveguide of TE polarization (electric field is parallel to the substrate) even at a wavelength of 1550 nm ( Width W1 = 400 nm, thickness t1 = about 200 nm) can be used. This waveguide has a low propagation loss of 2 dB / cm or less, and can be connected with other dielectric waveguides (optical fiber or photonic crystal waveguide) and existing mode converters with high efficiency. Is also known.

  An MDM type plasmonic waveguide (MDM waveguide) is a dielectric region sandwiched between two metal regions (here, gold) 3 (in this example, the dielectric region is air. Typical size is (A gap width W2 = 50 nm, thickness t2 = 50 nm) is configured as a waveguide in which TE polarized light is strongly confined.

  In the optical waveguide mode converter 10, the two waveguides 2 and 3 are optically connected by abutting the cores with the thicknesses (t1, t2) being different from each other. Furthermore, as shown in FIG. 2, it is preferable that mode conversion portions 2b and 3b are provided at locations where the two waveguides 2 and 3 are connected. The mode conversion portions 2b and 3b are formed in a two-dimensional taper shape. In this example, the mode is converted from the silicon waveguide 2 to the MDM waveguide 3, and then further converted to another silicon waveguide 2. By examining the transmittance of light from one silicon waveguide 2 to the other silicon waveguide 2, the mode conversion efficiency can be evaluated.

  FIG. 3 shows mode shapes of the Si fine wire waveguide and the MDM type waveguide. The configurations shown at both ends of the figure correspond to the configurations 2a and 3a based on the original conditions of the respective waveguides, and the configuration shown at the center of the figure corresponds to the configurations of the mode conversion portions 2b and 3b of the respective waveguides. To do. As is apparent, the mode sizes and mode shapes of the two waveguides 2a and 3a are greatly different. The height of the center position of the modes of the two waveguides 2a and 3a is greatly different from the substrate at 100 nm on the silicon fine wire side and 25 nm at the MDM waveguide. Because of this difference, it has been considered that a complicated and long three-dimensional taper structure (a transition structure that smoothly connects the differences in the geometric structure of both waveguides) is necessary to connect the two. .

  However, the inventors of the present invention have achieved high coupling efficiency by directly matching the two waveguides having different heights as shown in FIG. I found that I can connect. Furthermore, if a simple two-dimensional taper structure is introduced in the transition region, the coupling efficiency can be further improved. As shown in FIG. 3, in the silicon wire waveguide mode, in addition to the central main lobe, there are two side lobes on the side of the waveguide, but the strength of this side lobe increases when the waveguide width is narrowed. To do. On the other hand, when the gap width is narrow, the MDM waveguide is strongly localized at the center, but when the gap width is widened, it is localized at the ends of the two metals. The mode of the MDM waveguide in this situation has a mode shape that is relatively similar to the side lobe of the Si wire waveguide mode when the waveguide width is narrow. In the connection arrangement in which the taper structure is introduced, more efficient mode conversion is possible by directly connecting the side lobe and the MDM waveguide.

A detailed planar structure of the mode conversion units 2b and 3b is shown in FIG. In either case, the structure in the direction perpendicular to the substrate is the same as shown in FIG. 4A, 4B, and 4C, the terminal tapered portion of the silicon waveguide 2 has a triangular shape whose length is equal to L taper , and the waveguide width is 400 nm in this tapered region. From 0 to 0 nm. An MDM waveguide having a gap width of W2 is formed so as to sandwich the triangular tapered portion. In the structure of FIG. 4A, the metal region 3 of the MDM waveguide is disposed so as to be in contact with the Si waveguide 2, but in the structure of FIG. 4B, the metal region 3 is interposed via a gap having a width W taper. Is arranged. In the structure of FIG. 4C, a structure in which the metal region 3 shown in FIG. 4A is in contact with the Si waveguide 2 and a Si waveguide 2 shown in FIG. On the other hand, a structure in which the metal region 3 is disposed through a gap is combined.

In the structure of FIG. 4B in FIG. 5, when W1 = 400 nm, t1 = 200 nm, W2 = 40 nm, t2 = 30 nm, and W taper = 40 nm, the length of the tapered portion (L taper ) and the MDM waveguide length The result of numerical simulation of the magnitude of the light transmittance from one waveguide 2 to the other waveguide 2 when (L MDM ) is changed by three-dimensional electromagnetic field analysis is shown. Here, since the mode conversion is performed twice, the conversion loss of a single mode converter (one mode conversion) from the silicon waveguide to the plasmonics waveguide corresponds to half of the value shown in FIG. . There is a difference of approximately 70 times in the cross-sectional area between the two waveguides, and if this is simply estimated, an intensity loss of about 19 dB should occur. However, the results of FIG. 5 show that a high light transmittance of about 3 dB or less per mode conversion is achieved in a wide parameter range, and this structure functions effectively as a mode converter. Since the length of this MDM waveguide is sufficiently short, the propagation loss of the MDM waveguide can be almost ignored, and the transmittance is actually not strongly dependent on LMDM . Loose dependence is observed with respect to L taper, L taper is is higher long as transmittance. Although this tendency itself is a tendency seen in a mode converter using a general taper, it is important here that a sufficient conversion efficiency is achieved with a very short length of 200 nm to 300 nm. It can be seen that the mode can be effectively converted with a much shorter length.

In FIG. 6, when W1 = 400 nm, t1 = 200 nm, W2 = 30 nm, t2 = 30 nm, and W taper = 40 nm in the structure of FIG. 4B, from one waveguide 2 to the other waveguide 2 The result of numerical simulation of the magnitude of the light transmittance of the three-dimensional electromagnetic field analysis is shown. The result is almost qualitatively the same as the result of FIG. 5, but here shows a condition in which the length of the tapered portion (L taper ) is changed to zero. As can be seen from this result, even when L taper is zero, a conversion efficiency of about 3 dB per mode conversion can be realized. When this structure is shown in the figure, it corresponds to FIG. The coupling efficiency itself is slightly higher when the tapered portion has a certain length, but even a simple structure as shown in FIG. 7 functions sufficiently as a mode converter.

  In the above example, the case where W2 = 40 nm and 30 nm and t2 = 30 nm is described as the MDM waveguide, but almost the same result is obtained when t2 is 10 nm, 20 nm, 40 nm, and 50 nm. It was confirmed that W2 also functions effectively as a mode converter at 10 nm, 20 nm, 30 nm, 40 nm, and 50 nm.

In addition, although an example in which W taper is fixed to 40 nm is shown, substantially the same performance can be achieved with other values. In the structures of FIGS. 4A and 7A where Wtaper = 0, the coupling efficiency is reduced by about 3 dB compared to the case of Wtaper = 40 nm. Therefore, it was confirmed that the existence of the gap between the dielectric waveguide and the plasmonic waveguide is effective for improving the coupling efficiency. However, since Wtaper = 0 is easy to manufacture, even if the coupling efficiency is somewhat low, there is a certain value in practical use. Further, in the configuration of the multi-step taper as shown in FIG. 4C, a coupling efficiency almost equal to that in FIG. 4B was obtained.

  The mode converter according to the present invention is configured as shown in FIG. 8A in which the one shown in FIGS. 4 and 7 is divided in half in the middle of the MDM waveguide 3, and the MDM plasmonics is changed from the dielectric waveguide 2 to the mode converter. It is self-evident that it can be used as a converter to the waveguide 3 (or vice versa). Once the mode can be coupled from the dielectric waveguide 2 to the MDM waveguide 3, it is easy to further narrow down the modes in the MDM waveguide 3. For example, by changing the gap width of the MDM waveguide 3 continuously as shown in FIG. 8B or by connecting to a narrow gap structure with a sharp tip as shown in FIG. It is possible to narrow down to a narrow area.

  Similarly, it is also possible to narrow down the modes in the same manner by creating a region having a narrow gap width locally in the central MDM waveguide 3 having the structure of FIGS. An example is shown in FIG. 8 and 9, the optical functional material (gain medium, optical nonlinear medium, electro-optic effect medium, etc.) 5 is disposed in the portion where the modes are concentrated, thereby realizing an ultra-compact optical functional device (laser, optical A switch, an optical modulator, etc.). An example is shown in FIG.

  In the configuration of the present invention, waveguides having completely different geometric sizes, structures, and mode center positions, ie, dielectric waveguides and plasmonic waveguides, are connected without a three-dimensional structure transition region (tapered portion). Is possible. Unlike the prior art, the structure in the thickness direction of the mode connection is exactly the same as the dielectric waveguide and MDM waveguide to be connected, so the entire structure can be obtained using the fabrication process for fabricating both waveguides as they are. Can be produced. The structure of the mode conversion unit can be created in the structure by modifying the two-dimensional pattern data at the time of lithography.

  Although the case where the gap is an air gap has been described in the above embodiment, a similar MDM waveguide can be formed even if a dielectric is disposed in the gap as shown in FIG. It is clear that the same effect can be expected even in the waveguide mode converter even if a dielectric is disposed in the gap.

  Further, in the above embodiment, the position of the MDM waveguide is arranged at a position that coincides with the lower part of the dielectric waveguide. However, as a result of our findings, high coupling efficiency can be obtained even if the positions of both are greatly deviated. Since it can be expected, the arrangement method is not limited to this. Of course, it goes without saying that high performance can be realized even if the center positions of the two coincide.

In addition, although SiO 2 is used as the cladding, silicon is used as the dielectric waveguide, and gold is used as the MDM waveguide, the same effect can be obtained by using other low refractive index materials (polymer, air, etc.) as the cladding, Using other high refractive index materials (semiconductors such as InP and GaAs and high refractive index polymers) as waveguides, or using other metals (silver, copper, aluminum, etc.) as MDM waveguides, the same effect is obtained. It is obvious that we can expect.

1 SiO 2 clad 2 Dielectric (Silicon wire waveguide)
3 Metal (MDM type plasmonics waveguide)
4 Substrate 5 Optical Functional Material 10 Optical Waveguide Mode Converter 20 Dielectric Waveguide 30, 40 MDM Type Plasmonic Waveguide

Claims (3)

  1. A dielectric waveguide formed by laminating a core dielectric on the cladding;
    An optical device comprising: a plasmonic waveguide having a cross-sectional area equal to or less than a diffraction limit of a wavelength of light formed by laminating two metals arranged on a clad with a gap defining a core having a constant width; A waveguide mode converter,
    The optical waveguide mode converter characterized in that the plasmonics waveguide and the dielectric waveguide are optically connected by abutting cores with different thicknesses.
  2. In the width direction of the waveguide perpendicular to the thickness direction, an overlapping portion in which the plasmonic waveguide and the dielectric waveguide overlap with a butt portion between the core of the dielectric waveguide and the core of the plasmonic waveguide Each of the plasmonic waveguide and the dielectric waveguide is tapered so that the side lobe existing around the dielectric waveguide and the waveguide mode of the plasmonic waveguide coincide with each other in the overlapping portion. 2. The optical waveguide mode converter according to claim 1, wherein the optical waveguide mode converter is formed in a shape.
  3.   3. The optical waveguide mode converter according to claim 1, wherein the plasmonic waveguide and the dielectric waveguide are disposed with a gap therebetween.
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US7733853B2 (en) 2005-01-31 2010-06-08 Airbiquity, Inc. Voice channel control of wireless packet data communications
US7924934B2 (en) 2006-04-07 2011-04-12 Airbiquity, Inc. Time diversity voice channel data communications
US7979095B2 (en) 2007-10-20 2011-07-12 Airbiquity, Inc. Wireless in-band signaling with in-vehicle systems
US7983310B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2011-07-19 Airbiquity Inc. Methods for in-band signaling through enhanced variable-rate codecs
US8068792B2 (en) 1998-05-19 2011-11-29 Airbiquity Inc. In-band signaling for data communications over digital wireless telecommunications networks
US8195093B2 (en) 2009-04-27 2012-06-05 Darrin Garrett Using a bluetooth capable mobile phone to access a remote network
US8249865B2 (en) 2009-11-23 2012-08-21 Airbiquity Inc. Adaptive data transmission for a digital in-band modem operating over a voice channel
US8418039B2 (en) 2009-08-03 2013-04-09 Airbiquity Inc. Efficient error correction scheme for data transmission in a wireless in-band signaling system
US8594138B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2013-11-26 Airbiquity Inc. Methods for in-band signaling through enhanced variable-rate codecs
US8848825B2 (en) 2011-09-22 2014-09-30 Airbiquity Inc. Echo cancellation in wireless inband signaling modem

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US8068792B2 (en) 1998-05-19 2011-11-29 Airbiquity Inc. In-band signaling for data communications over digital wireless telecommunications networks
US7733853B2 (en) 2005-01-31 2010-06-08 Airbiquity, Inc. Voice channel control of wireless packet data communications
US8036201B2 (en) 2005-01-31 2011-10-11 Airbiquity, Inc. Voice channel control of wireless packet data communications
US7924934B2 (en) 2006-04-07 2011-04-12 Airbiquity, Inc. Time diversity voice channel data communications
US7979095B2 (en) 2007-10-20 2011-07-12 Airbiquity, Inc. Wireless in-band signaling with in-vehicle systems
US8369393B2 (en) 2007-10-20 2013-02-05 Airbiquity Inc. Wireless in-band signaling with in-vehicle systems
US8594138B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2013-11-26 Airbiquity Inc. Methods for in-band signaling through enhanced variable-rate codecs
US7983310B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2011-07-19 Airbiquity Inc. Methods for in-band signaling through enhanced variable-rate codecs
US8195093B2 (en) 2009-04-27 2012-06-05 Darrin Garrett Using a bluetooth capable mobile phone to access a remote network
US8346227B2 (en) 2009-04-27 2013-01-01 Airbiquity Inc. Automatic gain control in a navigation device
US8452247B2 (en) 2009-04-27 2013-05-28 Airbiquity Inc. Automatic gain control
US8418039B2 (en) 2009-08-03 2013-04-09 Airbiquity Inc. Efficient error correction scheme for data transmission in a wireless in-band signaling system
US8249865B2 (en) 2009-11-23 2012-08-21 Airbiquity Inc. Adaptive data transmission for a digital in-band modem operating over a voice channel
US8848825B2 (en) 2011-09-22 2014-09-30 Airbiquity Inc. Echo cancellation in wireless inband signaling modem

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