JP6026844B2 - Semiconductor device - Google Patents

Semiconductor device Download PDF

Info

Publication number
JP6026844B2
JP6026844B2 JP2012229749A JP2012229749A JP6026844B2 JP 6026844 B2 JP6026844 B2 JP 6026844B2 JP 2012229749 A JP2012229749 A JP 2012229749A JP 2012229749 A JP2012229749 A JP 2012229749A JP 6026844 B2 JP6026844 B2 JP 6026844B2
Authority
JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
wiring
film
transistor
oxide
oxide semiconductor
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
JP2012229749A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Other versions
JP2014082357A (en
Inventor
山崎 舜平
舜平 山崎
永井 雅晴
雅晴 永井
一哉 花岡
一哉 花岡
Original Assignee
株式会社半導体エネルギー研究所
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by 株式会社半導体エネルギー研究所 filed Critical 株式会社半導体エネルギー研究所
Priority to JP2012229749A priority Critical patent/JP6026844B2/en
Publication of JP2014082357A publication Critical patent/JP2014082357A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of JP6026844B2 publication Critical patent/JP6026844B2/en
Application status is Active legal-status Critical
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Description

  The disclosed invention relates to a semiconductor device using a semiconductor element and a manufacturing method thereof.

  Note that in this specification, a semiconductor device refers to all devices that can function by utilizing semiconductor characteristics, and an electro-optical device, a semiconductor circuit, and an electronic device are all semiconductor devices.

  A dynamic RAM (DRAM) using a silicon substrate as a semiconductor memory device is a well-known product and is still used in various electronic devices today. A memory cell constituting the core of the DRAM is composed of a write and read transistor and a capacitor.

  DRAM is an example of a volatile storage device, and another example of a volatile storage device is SRAM (Static Random Access Memory). An SRAM uses a circuit such as a flip-flop to hold stored contents, and therefore does not require a refresh operation. In this respect, the SRAM is more advantageous than a DRAM. However, since a circuit such as a flip-flop is used, there is a problem that the unit price per storage capacity increases. Further, there is no difference from DRAM in that the stored contents are lost when power supply is lost.

  Another example of the volatile storage device is a flash memory. A flash memory has a floating gate between a gate electrode of a transistor and a channel formation region, and stores data by holding electric charge in the floating gate. Therefore, a data holding period is extremely long (semi-permanent) and volatile This has the advantage that the refresh operation necessary for the volatile memory device is not required (see, for example, Patent Document 1).

  However, since the gate insulating film constituting the memory element is deteriorated by a tunnel current generated at the time of writing, there is a problem that the memory element does not function by repeating the writing many times. In order to avoid this problem, for example, a method of equalizing the number of times of writing in each storage element is employed, but in order to realize this, a complicated peripheral circuit is required. And even if such a method is adopted, the fundamental problem of lifetime is not solved. That is, the flash memory is not suitable for applications where the information rewriting frequency is high.

  Further, a high voltage is required to inject charges into the floating gate or to remove the charges. Furthermore, it takes a relatively long time to inject or remove charges, and there is a problem that it is not easy to speed up writing and erasing.

Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 57-105889

  In view of the above problems, an object of one embodiment of the present invention is to provide a semiconductor device in which stored contents can be held even when power is not supplied and the number of writings is not limited. Another object is to reduce power consumption of the semiconductor device.

  Further, along with the high density integration of device elements, it is necessary to make individual elements finer. In view of such a problem, an object is to provide a semiconductor device which has a small occupation area and has been miniaturized.

  In the basic structure of the memory element, a second transistor is provided over a first transistor. Data (potential) is held at a node between the gate of the first transistor and one of the source and the drain of the second transistor. However, since the stored data is lost due to the off-current that flows even when the gate of the second transistor is non-conductive, the off-current needs to be extremely low.

  In order to make the off-state current extremely low, the channel formation region is characterized in that the second transistor includes a semiconductor material having a wider band gap than silicon and lower intrinsic carrier density than silicon. By including a semiconductor material having such characteristics in the channel formation region, a transistor with extremely low off-state current can be realized. As such a semiconductor material, for example, an oxide semiconductor having a large band gap about three times that of silicon can be given. A transistor including the above semiconductor material can have extremely low off-state current as compared with a transistor formed using a normal semiconductor material such as silicon or germanium.

  In addition, in a transistor including an oxide semiconductor, carriers are formed when impurities such as hydrogen and moisture or impurities from an insulating film in contact with the oxide semiconductor enter the oxide semiconductor film. There is a problem that the characteristics fluctuate. Therefore, an oxide is formed in contact with the oxide semiconductor, and a multilayer film including the oxide semiconductor and the oxide is formed. With such a multilayer film structure, interface scattering hardly occurs at the interface between the oxide and the oxide semiconductor. Accordingly, the movement of carriers is not inhibited at the interface, so that the field-effect mobility of the transistor is increased. In addition, by forming an oxide in contact with the oxide semiconductor, impurities can be prevented from entering the oxide semiconductor film, so that a transistor including the oxide semiconductor has stable electrical characteristics. In addition, a high-performance memory element (semiconductor device) using the transistor can be provided.

  Further, by exposing the resist with an electron beam and using the developed mask as an etching mask for the conductive film, the pattern width can be reduced and etching can be performed finely, so that the transistor can be miniaturized. In addition, by using the transistor, a semiconductor device that can be finely integrated at high density can be provided.

  One embodiment of the present invention includes a first wiring, a second wiring, a third wiring, a fourth wiring, and a fifth wiring. The first wiring, the second wiring, A plurality of memory elements are connected in parallel to the wiring. One of the memory elements includes a first transistor having a first gate electrode, a first source electrode, and a first drain electrode. , A second transistor having a second gate electrode, a second source electrode, and a second drain electrode, and a third transistor having a third gate electrode, a third source electrode, and a third drain electrode A first transistor provided over a substrate including a semiconductor material, a second transistor including an oxide semiconductor film, the oxide semiconductor film including indium, and an oxide The oxide film is provided in contact with the material film. The energy at the lower end of the conduction band is close to the vacuum level, contains indium, and the first gate electrode and one of the second source electrode or the second drain electrode are electrically connected to each other. And the first source electrode are electrically connected to each other, the first drain electrode and the third source electrode are electrically connected to each other, and the second wire and the third drain electrode are electrically connected to each other. Is electrically connected, and the third wiring and the other of the second source electrode or the second drain electrode are electrically connected, and the fourth wiring and the second gate electrode are The fifth wiring and the third gate electrode are electrically connected semiconductor devices that are electrically connected.

  Another embodiment of the present invention includes a first wiring, a second wiring, a third wiring, a fourth wiring, and a fifth wiring. A plurality of memory elements are connected in parallel to the second wiring, and one of the plurality of memory elements includes a first gate electrode, a first source electrode, and a first drain electrode. 1 transistor, a second transistor having a second gate electrode, a second source electrode, and a second drain electrode, and a capacitor, and the first transistor includes a semiconductor material. The second transistor includes an oxide semiconductor film, and the oxide semiconductor film includes indium and is in contact with the oxide film. The oxide film is formed from the oxide semiconductor film. The energy at the bottom of the conduction band is close to the vacuum level, and contains indium, One gate electrode, one of the second source electrode or the second drain electrode, and one electrode of the capacitor are electrically connected, and the first wiring and the first source electrode are electrically connected to each other. The second wiring and the first drain electrode are electrically connected, and the third wiring and the other of the second source electrode or the second drain electrode are electrically connected. The connected fourth wiring and the second gate electrode are electrically connected, and the fifth wiring and the other electrode of the capacitor are electrically connected semiconductor devices.

  In the above structure, the channel of the second transistor is preferably separated from the gate insulating film of the second transistor.

  In the above structure, the oxide film preferably has a lower energy of a conduction band lower than the oxide semiconductor film by 0.05 eV or more and 2 eV or less near the vacuum level.

  In the above structure, the multilayer film includes a first oxide film, an oxide semiconductor film provided in contact with the first oxide film, and a second oxide film provided in contact with the oxide semiconductor film. It is preferable to have.

  In the above structure, the second source electrode includes a first conductive film formed over the oxide semiconductor film and a second conductive film formed over the first conductive film. The second drain electrode includes a third conductive film formed over the oxide semiconductor film and a fourth conductive film formed over the first conductive film. The distance between the fourth conductive films is narrower than the distance between the first conductive film and the third conductive film.

  In the above structure, the channel length of the second transistor is an interval between the second conductive film and the fourth conductive film.

  In the above structure, the distance between the second conductive film and the fourth conductive film is determined by electron beam exposure, and the distance between the first conductive film and the third conductive film is determined by exposure using a photomask. It is determined.

  In the above structure, the length of the second gate electrode in the channel length direction is wider than the distance between the second conductive film and the fourth conductive film, and is longer than the distance between the first conductive film and the third conductive film. narrow.

  According to one embodiment of the present invention, a semiconductor device in which stored contents can be held even when power is not supplied and the number of writing times is not limited can be provided. In addition, power consumption of the semiconductor device can be reduced. Furthermore, a semiconductor device having a transistor with a small occupation area and miniaturization can be provided. In addition, a semiconductor device with high integration can be provided.

FIG. 6 is a circuit diagram for explaining a semiconductor device. FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a semiconductor device. FIG. 6 is a timing chart for explaining the operation of a memory element. 9 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a manufacturing process of a semiconductor device. 9 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a manufacturing process of a semiconductor device. 9 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a manufacturing process of a semiconductor device. 9 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a manufacturing process of a semiconductor device. Sectional drawing for demonstrating the structure of a multilayer film. FIG. 6 is a circuit diagram for explaining a semiconductor device. FIG. 9 is a circuit diagram for explaining a memory element. FIG. 6 is a circuit diagram for explaining a semiconductor device. FIG. 9 is a circuit diagram for explaining a memory element. The figure which shows the relationship between nodeA and the 5th wiring potential. FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a semiconductor device. FIG. 6 is a circuit diagram for explaining a semiconductor device. FIG. 9 is a circuit diagram for explaining a memory element. FIG. 6 is a circuit diagram for explaining a semiconductor device. FIG. 9 is a circuit diagram for explaining a memory element. FIG. 9 is a circuit diagram for explaining a memory element. FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional view of a transistor. 10A to 10D illustrate a method for manufacturing a transistor. The figure for demonstrating the band structure of a multilayer film. The figure for demonstrating the band structure of a multilayer film. The figure for demonstrating the band structure of a multilayer film. The figure which showed a mode that sputtered particle was peeled from the target. FIG. 6 illustrates an example of a crystal structure of an In—Ga—Zn oxide. The schematic diagram which showed a mode that sputtered particle reached | attains a film-forming surface and deposited. 10A and 10B each illustrate an electronic device. FIG. 13 shows off-state current measurement results of a transistor including a multilayer film. 3A and 3B illustrate a structure and element characteristics of a basic memory element.

  An example of an embodiment of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings. However, the present invention is not limited to the following description, and it is easily understood by those skilled in the art that modes and details can be variously changed without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. Therefore, the present invention should not be construed as being limited to the description of the embodiments below.

  Note that the position, size, range, and the like of each component illustrated in the drawings and the like may not represent the actual position, size, range, or the like for easy understanding. Therefore, the position, size, range, and the like disclosed in the drawings and the like are not necessarily limited.

  It should be noted that ordinal numbers such as “first”, “second”, and “third” in this specification and the like are added to avoid confusion between components and are not limited numerically. To do.

  In the present specification and the like, the terms “upper” and “lower” do not limit that the positional relationship between the components is “directly above” or “directly below”. For example, the expression “a gate electrode over a gate insulating film” does not exclude an element including another component between the gate insulating film and the gate electrode.

  Further, in this specification and the like, the terms “electrode” and “wiring” do not functionally limit these components. For example, an “electrode” may be used as part of a “wiring” and vice versa. Furthermore, the terms “electrode” and “wiring” include a case where a plurality of “electrodes” and “wirings” are integrally formed.

  In addition, the functions of “source” and “drain” may be switched when transistors having different polarities are employed or when the direction of current changes in circuit operation. Therefore, in this specification and the like, the terms “source” and “drain” can be used interchangeably.

  In addition, “electrically connected” includes a case where they are connected via “things that have some electric action”. Here, the “having some electric action” is not particularly limited as long as it can exchange electric signals between the connection targets.

  A “channel” used in this specification and the like refers to a portion where carriers flow, and a “channel formation region” refers to a region where a channel can be formed. In this specification and the like, the channel length direction is a direction in which a current flows in a channel formation region, and refers to a direction from a source electrode to a drain electrode or the opposite direction.

(Embodiment 1)
In this embodiment, a structure and a manufacturing method of a semiconductor device according to one embodiment of the disclosed invention will be described with reference to FIGS.

  First, the structure and element characteristics of a basic memory element will be described with reference to FIG.

  FIG. 30A illustrates a basic structure of the memory element, which includes a transistor 160 (first transistor) and a transistor 162 (second transistor).

  Here, the gate electrode of the transistor 160 and one of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the transistor 162 are electrically connected. In addition, the source electrode of the first wiring SL (source line) transistor 160 is electrically connected, and the second wiring BL (bit line) and the drain electrode of the transistor 160 are electrically connected. . The third wiring S1 (first signal line) and the other of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the transistor 162 are electrically connected, and the fourth wiring S2 (second signal line) and the gate of the transistor 162 are connected. The electrode is electrically connected.

  Since the transistor 160 using a material other than an oxide semiconductor can operate at a sufficiently high speed, reading of stored contents or the like can be performed at high speed by using the transistor. In addition, the transistor 162 including an oxide semiconductor has a feature of extremely low off-state current. Therefore, when the transistor 162 is turned off, the potential of the gate electrode of the transistor 160 can be held for an extremely long time.

  The potential of the fourth wiring is set to a potential at which the transistor 162 is turned on, so that the transistor 162 is turned on. Accordingly, the potential of the third wiring is supplied to the gate electrode of the transistor 160. After that, the potential of the fourth wiring is set to a potential at which the transistor 162 is turned off and the transistor 162 is turned off, whereby the potential of the gate electrode of the transistor 160 is held at nodeA.

  At this time, if the potential held at nodeA is 2V, if it is High, and if it is 0V, then Low, as shown in FIG. 30B, when it is High, the drain current Id flows when the gate voltage Vg is 0V, and Low When the gate voltage Vg is 0V, the drain current Id does not flow. The memory element of one embodiment of the present invention has such element characteristics.

<Circuit configuration of semiconductor device>
FIG. 1 illustrates an example of a circuit diagram of a memory element (hereinafter also referred to as a memory cell) included in a semiconductor device. A memory cell 200 illustrated in FIG. 1 includes a first wiring SL (source line), a second wiring BL (bit line), a third wiring S1 (first signal line), and a fourth wiring S2 ( Second signal line), fifth wiring WL (word line), transistor 160 (first transistor), transistor 162 (second transistor), and transistor 161 (third transistor) Has been. The transistor 160 and the transistor 161 are formed using a material other than an oxide semiconductor, and the transistor 162 is formed using an oxide semiconductor.

  Here, the gate electrode of the transistor 160 and one of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the transistor 162 are electrically connected. The first wiring and the source electrode of the transistor 160 are electrically connected, and the drain electrode of the transistor 160 and the source electrode of the transistor 161 are electrically connected. The second wiring and the drain electrode of the transistor 161 are electrically connected, and the third wiring and the other of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the transistor 162 are electrically connected, and the fourth wiring The wiring and the gate electrode of the transistor 162 are electrically connected, and the fifth wiring and the gate electrode of the transistor 161 are electrically connected.

In order to impart stable electric characteristics to the transistor 162 in which a channel is formed in the oxide semiconductor film, it is effective to reduce the impurity concentration in the oxide semiconductor film and achieve high-purity intrinsicity. High-purity intrinsic refers to making an oxide semiconductor film intrinsic or substantially intrinsic. Note that in the case of being substantially intrinsic, the carrier density of the oxide semiconductor film is less than 1 × 10 17 cm 3 , preferably less than 1 × 10 15 cm 3 , and more preferably less than 1 × 10 13 cm 3 . In the oxide semiconductor film, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, silicon, and metal elements other than main components are impurities. In order to reduce the impurity concentration in the oxide semiconductor film, it is preferable to reduce the impurity concentration in an adjacent film.

For example, silicon forms impurity levels in an oxide semiconductor. In addition, the impurity level becomes a trap, which may deteriorate the electrical characteristics of the transistor. Specifically, the silicon concentration of the oxide semiconductor film is less than 1 × 10 19 atoms / cm 3 , preferably less than 5 × 10 18 atoms / cm 3 , and more preferably less than 1 × 10 18 atoms / cm 3 . Note that as a gate insulating film of a transistor, an insulating film containing silicon, such as silicon oxide, silicon oxynitride, silicon nitride, or silicon nitride oxide, is often used; therefore, the oxide semiconductor film has a channel separated from the gate insulating film. It is preferable to form.

  In addition, hydrogen and nitrogen in the oxide semiconductor film form donor levels and increase the carrier density.

  In addition, when a channel is formed at the interface between the gate insulating film and the oxide semiconductor film, interface scattering occurs at the interface, and the field-effect mobility of the transistor is reduced. From this point of view, the channel of the transistor is preferably formed in a layer of the oxide semiconductor film separated from the gate insulating film.

  In order to separate the channel of the transistor from the gate insulating film, for example, the following configuration may be used.

  An oxide semiconductor film; and an oxide film provided between the oxide semiconductor film and the gate insulating film. The oxide film includes one or more elements constituting the oxide semiconductor film, and the energy at the lower end of the conduction band is 0.05 eV or more, 0.07 eV or more, 0.1 eV or more, or 0.15 eV or more than the oxide semiconductor film. 2 eV or less, 1 eV or less, 0.5 eV or less, or 0.4 eV or less. Note that it is preferable that the oxide semiconductor film contain at least indium because carrier mobility is increased. At this time, when an electric field is applied to the gate electrode, a channel is formed in the oxide semiconductor film with small energy at the lower end of the conduction band. That is, by providing the oxide film between the oxide semiconductor film and the gate insulating film, the channel of the transistor can be formed in a layer that is not in contact with the gate insulating film (here, the oxide semiconductor film). In addition, since the oxide film includes one or more elements included in the oxide semiconductor film, interface scattering hardly occurs at the interface between the oxide semiconductor film and the oxide film. Therefore, carrier movement is not inhibited at the interface, so that the field-effect mobility of the transistor can be increased.

  Next, the operation of the circuit will be specifically described.

  When writing to the memory cell 200, the first wiring is set to 0V, the fifth wiring is set to 0V, the second wiring is set to 0V, and the fourth wiring is set to 2V. When data “1” is written, the third wiring is set to 2V, and when data “0” is written, the third wiring is set to 0V. At this time, the transistor 161 is turned off and the transistor 162 is turned on. Note that when writing is completed, the fourth wiring is set to 0 V and the transistor 162 is turned off before the potential of the third wiring is changed.

  As a result, the potential of a node (hereinafter referred to as nodeA) connected to the gate electrode of the transistor 160 is about 2V after data “1” is written, and the potential of nodeA is about 0V after data “0” is written. Although charge corresponding to the potential of the third wiring is accumulated in nodeA, the off-state current of the transistor 162 is extremely small or substantially zero, so that the potential of the gate electrode of the transistor 160 is held for a long time. The An example of a timing chart of the write operation is shown in FIG.

  Next, when reading data from a memory cell, the first wiring is set to 0 V, the fifth wiring is set to 2 V, the fourth wiring is set to 0 V, and the third wiring is set to 0 V, which are connected to the second wiring. The reading circuit is set in an operating state. At this time, the transistor 161 is turned on and the transistor 162 is turned off.

  If data “0”, that is, nodeA is in a state of about 0 V, the transistor 160 is in an off state, so that the resistance between the second wiring and the first wiring is high. On the other hand, if data “1”, that is, nodeA is about 2V, the transistor 160 is on, so that the resistance between the second wiring and the first wiring is low. The read circuit can read data “0” and “1” from the difference in resistance state of the memory cell. Note that the second wiring at the time of writing is set to 0 V, but may be charged in a floating state or a potential of 0 V or more. Although the third wiring at the time of reading is set to 0 V, it may be charged in a floating state or a potential of 0 V or higher.

  Note that data “1” and data “0” are definitions for convenience, and may be reversed. The operating voltage described above is an example. The operating voltage is such that the transistor 160 is turned off when the data is “0”, the transistor 160 is turned on when the data is “1”, the transistor 162 is turned on when writing, and is turned off when not writing. It may be selected so that the transistor 161 is turned on at the time of reading. In particular, the power supply potential VDD of the peripheral logic circuit may be used instead of 2V.

  Although the above description is about the case of using an n-channel transistor having electrons as a majority carrier, a p-channel transistor having holes as a majority carrier can be used instead of the n-channel transistor. Needless to say.

<Cross-sectional configuration of semiconductor device>
FIG. 2 illustrates an example of a structure of the semiconductor device. FIG. 2 shows a cross section of the semiconductor device. Here, the semiconductor device illustrated in FIG. 2 includes a transistor 160 and a transistor 161 using a material other than an oxide semiconductor in a lower portion and a transistor 162 using an oxide semiconductor in an upper portion. Note that although the transistors 160, 161, and 162 are all described as n-type transistors, p-type transistors may be employed. In particular, the transistor 160 and the transistor 161 can be easily p-type.

  As shown in FIG. 2, the transistor 160 and the transistor 161 are formed over the substrate 100. As the substrate 100, for example, a single crystal silicon substrate having an n-type or p-type conductivity, a compound semiconductor substrate (GaAs substrate, InP substrate, GaN substrate, SiC substrate, ZnSe substrate, or the like) can be used. FIG. 2 illustrates the case where a single crystal silicon substrate having n-type conductivity is used.

  The transistor 160 and the transistor 161 are electrically isolated by the element isolation insulating film 101. For the formation of the element isolation insulating film 101, a selective oxidation method (LOCOS (Local Oxidation of Silicon) method), a trench isolation method, or the like can be used. Note that an SOI (Silicon On Insulator) type semiconductor substrate may be used as the substrate 100. In this case, element isolation may be performed by dividing the semiconductor layer for each element by etching.

  The transistor 162 is a transistor in which a channel is formed in the oxide semiconductor film described above, and the transistor has stable electrical characteristics.

  The transistor 160 includes a high-concentration impurity region 107 and a low-concentration impurity region 108, a gate electrode 109, and a gate insulating film 106 a provided between the substrate 100 and the gate electrode 109. A sidewall insulating film 136 is formed around the gate electrode 109.

  The transistor 161 includes a high-concentration impurity region 103 and a low-concentration impurity region 104, a gate electrode 105, and a gate insulating film 106 b provided between the substrate 100 and the gate electrode 105. A sidewall insulating film 135 is formed around the gate electrode 105.

  The transistor 162 includes the multilayer film 130, the conductive film 132a and the conductive film 133a that serve as a source electrode over the multilayer film 130, the conductive film 132b and the conductive film 133b that serve as a drain electrode over the multilayer film 130, the multilayer film 130, and the conductive film. A gate insulating film 131 over the film 133a and the conductive film 133b; and a gate electrode 134 provided in a region overlapping with the multilayer film 130 over the gate insulating film 131 and not overlapping with the conductive films 133a and 133b. .

  An insulating film 116 is provided over the transistors 160 and 161. An opening is formed in the insulating film 116, and a wiring 110 and a wiring 111 are formed in contact with the high concentration impurity region 103, and a wiring 112 and a wiring 113 are formed in contact with the high concentration impurity region 107. Has been. A wiring 115 is formed in contact with the gate electrode 109.

  The wiring 110 is connected to a wiring 117 formed over the insulating film 116, the wiring 111 and the wiring 112 are connected to a wiring 118 formed over the insulating film 116, and the wiring 113 is insulated. The wiring 115 is connected to the wiring 120 formed over the film 116, and the wiring 115 is connected to the wiring 119 formed over the insulating film 116.

  An insulating film 121 is formed over the wirings 117 to 120. An opening is formed in the insulating film 121, and a wiring 122 and a wiring 123 connected to the wiring 119 in the opening are formed over the insulating film 121. An insulating film 124 is formed over the wiring 122 and the wiring 123.

  A transistor 162 including the multilayer film 130 including the oxide semiconductor film 130b is formed over the insulating film 124. The transistor 162 includes a conductive film 132a and a conductive film 133a functioning as a source electrode, a conductive film 132b and a conductive film 133b functioning as a drain electrode, a gate insulating film 131, and a gate electrode 134 over the multilayer film 130. . The conductive film 132 a is connected to the wiring 122 in an opening provided in the insulating film 124.

  The wiring 123 is provided at a position overlapping the multilayer film 130 with the insulating film 124 interposed therebetween. The wiring 123 functions as a back gate of the transistor 162. The wiring 123 is provided as necessary.

  The transistor 162 is covered with the insulating film 144 and the insulating film 145. As the insulating film 144, an insulating film having a function of preventing hydrogen released from the insulating film 145 from entering the multilayer film 130 is preferable.

  A conductive film 146 is provided over the insulating film 145. In the opening provided in the gate insulating film 131, the insulating film 144, and the insulating film 145, the conductive film 146 is in contact with the conductive film 133b.

<Method for Manufacturing Semiconductor Device>
Next, an example of a method for manufacturing the semiconductor device will be described. In the following, a method for manufacturing the lower transistor 160 and the transistor 161 will be described with reference to FIGS. 4A to 5C, and a method for manufacturing the upper transistor 162 will be described with reference to FIGS.

<Method for Manufacturing Lower Transistor>
First, the substrate 100 including a semiconductor material is prepared (see FIG. 4A). As the substrate 100 including a semiconductor material, a single crystal semiconductor substrate such as silicon or silicon carbide, a polycrystalline semiconductor substrate, a compound semiconductor substrate such as silicon germanium, an SOI substrate, or the like can be used. Here, an example in which a single crystal silicon substrate is used as the substrate 100 including a semiconductor material is described. In general, an “SOI substrate” refers to a substrate having a structure in which a silicon semiconductor layer is provided on an insulating surface. In this specification and the like, a semiconductor layer made of a material other than silicon is provided on an insulating surface. It is used as a concept including the substrate of the configuration. That is, the semiconductor layer included in the “SOI substrate” is not limited to the silicon semiconductor layer. The SOI substrate includes a substrate in which a semiconductor layer is provided over an insulating substrate such as a glass substrate with an insulating layer interposed therebetween.

  A protective film 170 serving as a mask for forming an element isolation insulating film is formed over the substrate 100 (see FIG. 4A). As the protective film 170, for example, an insulating film made of silicon oxide, silicon nitride, silicon nitride oxide, or the like can be used. Note that an impurity element imparting n-type conductivity or an impurity element imparting p-type conductivity may be added to the substrate 100 before and after this step in order to control the threshold voltage of the transistor. . When the semiconductor is silicon, phosphorus, arsenic, or the like can be used as an impurity imparting n-type conductivity, for example. As the impurity imparting p-type conductivity, for example, boron, aluminum, gallium, or the like can be used.

  Next, etching is performed using the protective film 170 as a mask to remove part of the substrate 100 in a region not covered with the protective film 170 (exposed region). Thus, the isolated semiconductor region 171 is formed (see FIG. 4B). As the etching, dry etching is preferably used, but wet etching may be used. An etching gas and an etchant can be appropriately selected according to the material to be etched.

  Next, an element isolation insulating film 101 is formed by forming an insulating layer so as to cover the semiconductor region 171 and selectively removing the insulating layer in a region overlapping with the semiconductor region 171 (see FIG. 4B). ). The insulating film is formed using silicon oxide, silicon nitride, silicon nitride oxide, or the like. As a method for removing the insulating layer, there are a polishing process such as CMP and an etching process, any of which may be used. Note that the protective film 170 is removed after the semiconductor region 171 is formed or after the element isolation insulating film 101 is formed.

  Next, an insulating film is formed over the semiconductor region 171 and a layer containing a conductive material is formed over the insulating film.

The insulating film is to be a gate insulating film later, and is obtained by using a CVD method, a sputtering method, or the like. Silicon oxide, silicon oxynitride, silicon nitride, hafnium oxide, aluminum oxide, tantalum oxide, yttrium oxide, hafnium silicate ( HfSi x O y (x> 0, y> 0)), nitrogen-added hafnium silicate (HfSi x O y (x> 0, y> 0)), nitrogen-added hafnium aluminate (HfAl x O A single-layer structure or a stacked structure of a film containing y (x> 0, y> 0)) or the like is preferable. In addition, the insulating film may be formed by oxidizing and nitriding the surface of the semiconductor region 171 by high-density plasma treatment or thermal oxidation treatment. The high-density plasma treatment can be performed using, for example, a rare gas such as He, Ar, Kr, or Xe, or a mixed gas such as oxygen, nitrogen oxide, ammonia, nitrogen, or hydrogen. The thickness of the insulating film is not particularly limited, but can be, for example, 1 nm to 100 nm, preferably 10 nm to 50 nm.

  The layer including a conductive material can be formed using a metal material such as aluminum, copper, titanium, tantalum, or tungsten. Alternatively, the layer including a conductive material may be formed using a semiconductor material such as polycrystalline silicon including a conductive material. There is no particular limitation on the formation method, and various film formation methods such as an evaporation method, a CVD method, a sputtering method, and a spin coating method can be used. Note that in this embodiment, an example of the case where the layer including a conductive material is formed using a metal material is described.

  After that, the insulating film and the layer including a conductive material are selectively etched, so that the gate insulating film 106a, the gate insulating film 106b, the gate electrode 105, and the gate electrode 109 are formed (see FIG. 4C).

  Next, phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), or the like is added to the semiconductor region 171 to form the low-concentration impurity region 104 and the low-concentration impurity region 108 having a shallow junction depth (see FIG. 4C). Here, phosphorus or arsenic is added to form an n-type transistor. However, when a p-type transistor is formed, an impurity element such as boron (B) or aluminum (Al) may be added. . Note that with the formation of the low-concentration impurity region 104 and the low-concentration impurity region 108, a channel formation region 172 and a channel formation region 173 are formed below the gate insulating film 106a and the gate insulating film 106b in the semiconductor region 171 (FIG. 4 (C)). Here, the concentration of the impurity to be added can be set as appropriate. However, when the semiconductor element is highly miniaturized, it is desirable to increase the concentration.

  Next, a sidewall insulating film 135 and a sidewall insulating film 136 are formed (see FIG. 4D). The sidewall insulating film 135 and the sidewall insulating film 136 are formed with high anisotropy after an insulating film is formed so as to cover the gate insulating film 106a, the gate insulating film 106b, the gate electrode 105, and the gate electrode 109. By applying the etching process, it can be formed in a self-aligned manner. At this time, the insulating film may be partially etched to expose the upper surfaces of the gate electrode 105 and the gate electrode 109.

  Next, an insulating film is formed so as to cover the gate electrode 105, the gate electrode 109, the low-concentration impurity region 104, the low-concentration impurity region 108, the sidewall insulating film 135, the sidewall insulating film 136, and the like. Then, phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), or the like is added to the regions in contact with the low concentration impurity region 104 and the low concentration impurity region 108 to form the high concentration impurity region 103 and the high concentration impurity region 107 (FIG. 5). (See (A)). Thereafter, the insulating film is removed.

  Next, the insulating film 116 is formed so as to cover the components formed in the above steps (see FIG. 5B). The insulating film 116 can be formed using an inorganic insulating material such as silicon oxide, silicon nitride oxide, silicon nitride, hafnium oxide, aluminum oxide, or tantalum oxide. Alternatively, it can be formed using an organic insulating material such as polyimide or acrylic. Note that here, after the insulating film 116 is formed, the surface thereof is preferably planarized by CMP, etching, or the like.

  After that, openings reaching the high concentration impurity region 103, the high concentration impurity region 107, and the gate electrode 109 are formed in the insulating film 116, and a wiring 110, a wiring 111, and a wiring 112 serving as a source electrode or a drain electrode are formed in the openings. Then, a wiring 113 and a wiring 115 connected to the gate electrode 109 are formed (see FIG. 5C). For the wiring 110, the wiring 111, the wiring 112, the wiring 113, and the wiring 115, for example, a conductive film is formed in a region including an opening using a PVD method, a CVD method, or the like, and then a method such as etching treatment or CMP is used. It can be formed by removing part of the conductive film.

  Note that when the wiring 110, the wiring 111, the wiring 112, the wiring 113, and the wiring 115 are formed by removing part of the conductive film, it is preferable that the surface be processed to be flat. For example, when a tungsten film is formed so as to be embedded in the opening after a thin titanium film or titanium nitride film is formed in a region including the opening, unnecessary tungsten, titanium, titanium nitride, or the like is removed by subsequent CMP. At the same time, the flatness of the surface can be improved. In this manner, by planarizing the surface including the wiring 110, the wiring 111, the wiring 112, the wiring 113, and the wiring 115, a favorable electrode, wiring, insulating film, semiconductor film, or the like can be formed in a later step. It becomes possible.

  There is no particular limitation on a material that can be used for the wiring 110, the wiring 111, the wiring 112, the wiring 113, and the wiring 115, and various conductive materials can be used. For example, a conductive material such as molybdenum, titanium, chromium, tantalum, tungsten, aluminum, copper, neodymium, or scandium can be used.

  Next, a wiring 117 connected to the wiring 110, a wiring 118 connected to the wiring 111 and the wiring 112, a wiring 119 connected to the wiring 115, and a wiring 120 connected to the wiring 114 are formed. (See FIG. 5D). The wiring 110, the wiring 111, the wiring 112, the wiring 113, and the wiring 115 can be formed using a method and a material similar to those of the gate electrode 105 and the like.

  Next, the insulating film 121 is formed so as to cover the components formed in the above steps (see FIG. 5D). The insulating film 121 can be formed using a method and a material similar to those of the insulating film 116. Further, since the transistor 162 is formed over the insulating film 116, a nitride insulating film that blocks hydrogen is preferably used.

  Through the above steps, the transistor 160 and the transistor 161 using the substrate 100 containing a semiconductor material are formed. Note that an electrode, a wiring, an insulating film, or the like may be further formed after the above steps. A highly integrated semiconductor device can be provided by adopting a multilayer wiring structure including a laminated structure of an insulating film and a conductive film as a wiring structure.

<Method for Manufacturing Upper Transistor>
Next, a process for manufacturing the transistor 162 over the insulating film 121 is described with reference to FIGS. 6 and 7 show various electrodes over the insulating film 121 and manufacturing steps of the transistor 162 and the like, the transistor 160 and the transistor 161 existing below the transistor 162 are omitted.

  First, an opening reaching the wiring 119 is formed in the insulating film 121, and the wiring 122 is formed in the opening. Further, the wiring 123 is formed at the same time as the wiring 122 at a position overlapping the multilayer film 130 with an insulating film 124 formed later interposed therebetween. The wiring 123 functions as a back gate of the transistor 160. The wiring 123 is provided as necessary. (See FIG. 6A). The wiring 122 and the wiring 123 can be formed using a method and a material similar to those of the wiring 110 and the like.

  Next, an insulating film 124 which covers the insulating film 121, the wiring 122, and the wiring 123 is formed (see FIG. 6A). Here, after the insulating film 124 is formed, the surface thereof is preferably planarized by CMP, etching, or the like. The insulating film 124 can be formed using silicon oxide, silicon oxynitride, silicon nitride, silicon nitride oxide, gallium oxide, hafnium oxide, yttrium oxide, aluminum oxide, aluminum oxynitride, or the like. Note that when the insulating film 124 is formed using silicon nitride, gallium oxide, hafnium oxide, yttrium oxide, aluminum oxide, or the like, impurities, typically alkali metal, water, hydrogen, and the like are formed from the transistor 160 and the transistor 161 side (lower part). And the like can be prevented from diffusing into the multilayer film 130. The insulating film 124 can be formed by a sputtering method or a CVD method.

  Next, a multilayer film 130 including an oxide semiconductor film is formed in a region overlapping with the wiring 123 over the insulating film 124 (see FIG. 6B).

  The multilayer film 130 will be described with reference to FIG.

  A multilayer film 130 illustrated in FIG. 8 includes an oxide film 130a, an oxide semiconductor film 130b provided over the oxide film 130a, and an oxide film 130c provided over the oxide semiconductor film 130b. Hereinafter, the case where the multilayer film 130 has three layers will be described. However, the multilayer film 130 may have two layers or four layers or more. For example, the multilayer film 130 may include an oxide film 130a and an oxide semiconductor film 130b provided over the oxide film 130a. The multilayer film 130 may include the oxide semiconductor film 130b and the oxide semiconductor film 130b. And the oxide film 130c provided over the physical semiconductor film 130b.

  The oxide film 130a is an oxide film including one or more elements constituting the oxide semiconductor film 130b and having an electron affinity of 0.2 eV or less smaller than that of the oxide semiconductor film 130b. At this time, when an electric field is applied to the gate electrode, a channel is formed in the oxide semiconductor film 130b having high electron affinity in the multilayer film. That is, by providing the oxide film 130a between the oxide semiconductor film 130b and the gate insulating film, the channel of the transistor can be formed in a layer that is not in contact with the gate insulating film (here, the oxide semiconductor film 130b). . In addition, since the oxide film 130a includes one or more elements included in the oxide semiconductor film 130b, interface scattering is unlikely to occur at the interface between the oxide semiconductor film 130b and the oxide film 130a. Therefore, carrier movement is not inhibited at the interface, so that the field-effect mobility of the transistor can be increased.

  The oxide film 130c is an oxide film including one or more elements constituting the oxide semiconductor film 130b and having an electron affinity of 0.2 eV or less smaller than that of the oxide semiconductor film 130b. At this time, when an electric field is applied to the gate electrode, a channel is formed in the oxide semiconductor film 130b having high electron affinity in the multilayer film. That is, by providing the oxide film 130c between the oxide semiconductor film 130b and the gate insulating film, the channel of the transistor can be formed in a layer that is not in contact with the gate insulating film (here, the oxide semiconductor film 130b). . In addition, since the oxide film 130c includes one or more elements included in the oxide semiconductor film 130b, interface scattering is unlikely to occur at the interface between the oxide semiconductor film 130b and the oxide film 130c. Therefore, carrier movement is not inhibited at the interface, so that the field-effect mobility of the transistor can be increased.

  For example, the oxide film 130a and the oxide film 130c contain the same elements (indium, gallium, and zinc) as the main components of the oxide semiconductor film 130b and contain gallium at a higher atomic ratio than the oxide semiconductor film 130b. A film may be used. Specifically, as the oxide film 130a and the oxide film 130c, an oxide containing gallium at an atomic ratio higher than that of the oxide semiconductor film 130b by 1.5 times or more, preferably 2 times or more, more preferably 3 times or more. A material film is used. Since gallium is strongly bonded to oxygen, it has a function of suppressing generation of oxygen vacancies in the oxide film. That is, the oxide film 130a and the oxide film 130c are oxide films in which oxygen vacancies are less likely to occur than in the oxide semiconductor film 130b.

In the case where the oxide semiconductor film 130b is an In—Ga—Zn oxide and the oxide film 130a is also an In—Ga—Zn oxide, the oxide film 130a is formed of In: Ga: Zn = x 1 : y 1. : Z 1 [atomic number ratio] and the oxide semiconductor film 130b is In: Ga: Zn = x 2 : y 2 : z 2 [atomic number ratio], y 1 / x 1 is more than y 2 / x 2 The oxide film 130a and the oxide semiconductor film 130b to be enlarged are selected. Preferably, the oxide film 130a and the oxide semiconductor film 130b in which y 1 / x 1 is 1.5 times or more larger than y 2 / x 2 are selected. More preferably, the oxide film 130a and the oxide semiconductor film 130b in which y 1 / x 1 is twice or more larger than y 2 / x 2 are selected. More preferably, the oxide film 130a and the oxide semiconductor film 130b in which y 1 / x 1 is three times or more larger than y 2 / x 2 are selected.

  The multilayer film 130 is an oxide which is in contact with the gate insulating film and the oxide semiconductor film 130b and includes one or more elements constituting the oxide semiconductor film 130b, and has an electron affinity of 0.2 eV or less smaller than that of the oxide semiconductor film 130b. The material film 130c may be included. At this time, even when an electric field is applied to the gate electrode, a channel is not formed in the oxide film 130c. In addition, since the oxide film 130c includes one or more elements included in the oxide semiconductor film 130b, it is difficult to form an interface state at the interface between the oxide semiconductor film 130b and the oxide film 130c. When the interface has an interface state, another transistor having the interface as a channel formation region and having a different threshold voltage is formed, and the apparent threshold voltage of the transistor may fluctuate. Therefore, by providing the oxide film 130c, variation in electrical characteristics such as threshold voltage of the transistor can be reduced.

In addition, when the oxide semiconductor film 130b is an In—Ga—Zn oxide and the oxide film 130c is also an In—Ga—Zn oxide, the oxide semiconductor film 130b is formed of In: Ga: Zn = x 2 : y. 2: z 2 [atomic ratio], the oxide film 130c In: Ga: Zn = x 3: y 3: When z 3 [atomic ratio], than y 3 / x 3 is y 2 / x 2 The oxide semiconductor film 130b and the oxide film 130c to be enlarged are selected. Preferably, the oxide semiconductor film 130b and the oxide film 130c in which y 3 / x 3 is 1.5 times or more larger than y 2 / x 2 are selected. More preferably, the oxide semiconductor film 130b and the oxide film 130c in which y 3 / x 3 is twice or more larger than y 2 / x 2 are selected. More preferably, the oxide semiconductor film 130b and the oxide film 130c in which y 3 / x 3 is three times or more larger than y 2 / x 2 are selected.

  The thickness of the oxide film 130a is 1 nm to 50 nm, preferably 5 nm to 50 nm, more preferably 10 nm to 40 nm. The thickness of the oxide semiconductor film 130b is 1 nm to 50 nm, preferably 3 nm to 40 nm, more preferably 5 nm to 30 nm. The thickness of the oxide film 130c is 1 nm to 50 nm, preferably 3 nm to 40 nm, more preferably 5 nm to 30 nm.

  Alternatively, oxide semiconductors having different crystallinities may be used for the oxide film 130a, the oxide semiconductor film 130b, and the oxide film 130c. That is, an amorphous oxide semiconductor, a crystalline oxide semiconductor such as a single crystal oxide semiconductor, a polycrystalline oxide semiconductor, and a CAAC-OS (see Embodiment 7 for details of the CAAC-OS) are used. It is good also as a structure which combined suitably. In addition, when an amorphous oxide semiconductor is used for any one of the oxide film 130a, the oxide semiconductor film 130b, and the oxide film 130c, internal stress of the oxide semiconductor film and external stress are reduced, so that the transistor Characteristic variation is reduced.

  For example, the oxide film 130a is preferably an amorphous oxide semiconductor or a crystalline oxide semiconductor. The oxide semiconductor film 130b that can serve as a channel formation region is preferably a crystalline oxide semiconductor. The oxide film 130c is preferably an amorphous oxide semiconductor. With the structure including the multilayer film 130 in which the oxide film 130a, the oxide semiconductor film 130b, and the oxide film 130c are sequentially stacked, a change in the threshold voltage due to aging of the transistor or a reliability test is reduced. be able to.

  As an oxide semiconductor that can be used for the multilayer film 130 including an oxide semiconductor film, an energy gap is 2.5 eV or more, preferably 2.7 eV or more, more preferably 3 eV or more. In this manner, the off-state current of the transistor 162 can be reduced by using an oxide semiconductor with a wide energy gap. By reducing the off-state current, the memory element can hold a potential for a long time. The details of the multilayer film 130 will be described in detail in Embodiment 8.

  As the multilayer film 130 including an oxide semiconductor film, for example, indium oxide, tin oxide, zinc oxide, In—Zn oxide, Sn—Zn oxide, or Al—Zn oxide, which are oxides containing two kinds of metals, are used. Zn—Mg oxide, Sn—Mg oxide, In—Mg oxide, In—Ga oxide, In—Ga—Zn oxide (also referred to as IGZO) which is an oxide containing three kinds of metals, In -Al-Zn oxide, In-Sn-Zn oxide, Sn-Ga-Zn oxide, Al-Ga-Zn oxide, Sn-Al-Zn oxide, In-Zr-Zn oxide, In-Ti -Zn oxide, In-Sc-Zn oxide, In-Y-Zn oxide, In-La-Zn oxide, In-Ce-Zn oxide, In-Pr-Zn oxide, In-Nd-Zn Oxide, In-Sm-Zn oxide, In-Eu- n oxide, In-Gd-Zn oxide, In-Tb-Zn oxide, In-Dy-Zn oxide, In-Ho-Zn oxide, In-Er-Zn oxide, In-Tm-Zn oxide , In-Yb-Zn oxide, In-Lu-Zn oxide, In-Hf-Zn oxide, In-Sn-Ga-Zn oxide which is an oxide containing four kinds of metals, In-Al- Ga—Zn oxide and In—Sn—Al—Zn oxide can be used.

  Here, the In—Ga—Zn oxide means an oxide containing In, Ga, and Zn as main components, and there is no limitation on the atomic ratio of In, Ga, and Zn.

Alternatively, a material represented by InMO 3 (ZnO) m (m> 0) may be used as the oxide semiconductor. Note that M represents one metal element or a plurality of metal elements selected from Ga, Fe, Mn, and Co.

  For example, an In—Ga—Zn oxide with an atomic ratio of In: Ga: Zn = 1: 1: 1, In: Ga: Zn = 2: 2: 1, or In: Ga: Zn = 3: 1: 2 Can be used. Alternatively, an In—Sn—Zn oxide having an atomic ratio of In: Sn: Zn = 1: 1: 1, In: Sn: Zn = 2: 1: 3, or In: Sn: Zn = 2: 1: 5 is used. Use it. Note that the atomic ratio of the metal oxide includes a variation of plus or minus 20% of the above atomic ratio as an error.

  In addition, defects included in the multilayer film 130 including an oxide semiconductor film, typically, oxygen vacancies are preferably reduced as much as possible. For example, the spin density (corresponding to the defect density contained in the oxide semiconductor film) of g value = 1.93 by the electron spin resonance method in which the direction of the magnetic field is applied in parallel to the film surface is the lower detection limit of the measuring instrument. It is preferable to be reduced to the following.

In addition, the multilayer film 130 including an oxide semiconductor film preferably has hydrogen reduced as much as possible. Specifically, in the multilayer film 130 including an oxide semiconductor film, the hydrogen concentration obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is less than 5 × 10 18 atoms / cm 3 , preferably 1 × 10 18 atoms / cm 3 or less, more preferably 5 × 10 17 atoms / cm 3 or less, and further preferably 1 × 10 16 atoms / cm 3 or less.

The multilayer film 130 including an oxide semiconductor film has an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal concentration obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry of 1 × 10 18 atoms / cm 3 or less, preferably 2 × 10 16 atoms. / Cm 3 or less. When an alkali metal and an alkaline earth metal are combined with an oxide semiconductor, carriers may be generated, and the off-state current of the transistor 162 may be increased.

  In this manner, by reducing the impurities (such as hydrogen, nitrogen, alkali metal, or alkaline earth metal) as much as possible and forming the multilayer film 130 including a highly purified oxide semiconductor film, the transistor 162 can be a depletion type transistor. The off-state current of the transistor 162 can be extremely reduced. Accordingly, a display device having favorable electrical characteristics can be manufactured. In addition, a display device with improved reliability can be manufactured.

Note that low off-state current of a transistor including a highly purified oxide semiconductor film can be proved by various experiments. For example, even in an element having a channel width of 1 × 10 6 μm and a channel length of 10 μm, when the voltage between the source electrode and the drain electrode (drain voltage) is in the range of 1V to 10V, It is possible to obtain characteristics that are below the measurement limit, that is, 1 × 10 −13 A or less. In this case, it can be seen that the off-state current corresponding to the value divided by the channel width of the transistor is 100 zA / μm or less. In addition, off-state current was measured using a circuit in which a capacitor and a transistor were connected and charge flowing into or out of the capacitor was controlled by the transistor. In this measurement, a highly purified oxide semiconductor film of the transistor was used for a channel formation region, and the off-state current of the transistor was measured from the change in the amount of charge per unit time of the capacitor. As a result, it was found that when the voltage between the source electrode and the drain electrode of the transistor is 3 V, an even lower off-current of several tens of yA / μm can be obtained. Therefore, a transistor including a highly purified oxide semiconductor film has extremely small off-state current.

  Next, an opening reaching the wiring 122 is formed in the insulating film 124, and a conductive film 132 is formed over the opening, the insulating film 124, and the multilayer film 130. (See FIG. 6C). The conductive film 132 can be formed by a film formation method such as a PVD method or a CVD method, and is a kind of aluminum, titanium, chromium, cobalt, nickel, copper, yttrium, zirconium, molybdenum, ruthenium, silver, tantalum, and tungsten. The conductive film including the above can be used as a single layer or a stacked layer.

  Next, a resist mask 174 is formed over part of the conductive film 132 by a photolithography method (see FIG. 6C).

  Next, the conductive film 132 is selectively etched using the resist mask 174 as a mask to form a conductive film 132a and a conductive film 132b (see FIG. 6D). At this time, the distance between the conductive film 132a and the conductive film 132b is determined by the photomask used when the resist mask 174 is formed. Further, a resist mask may be formed by exposure using an electron beam in the same manner as the conductive films 133a and 133b to be formed later.

  Next, a conductive film 133 is formed to cover the insulating film 124, the conductive film 132a, and the conductive film 132b (see FIG. 7A). For example, the conductive film 133 is formed by forming a film of a material that can be used for the conductive films 133a and 133b by a sputtering method or the like.

Next, a resist is formed over the conductive film 133, and exposure using an electron beam is performed on the resist to form a resist mask 175 (see FIG. 7A).

  As the resist material, for example, a siloxane resist or a polystyrene resist can be used. Note that since the width of the pattern to be formed is small, it is preferable to use a negative resist rather than a positive resist. With a positive type resist, it is necessary to draw all parts where the resist is to be removed, and the processing time is enormous. On the other hand, since the negative resist is drawn only on the portion to be used as a mask, the processing time can be reduced. Further, the thickness of the resist material is preferably in a relationship of 1: 1 to 1: 2, for example, with the width of the pattern to be produced. For example, when the pattern width is 30 nm, the thickness of the resist can be 30 nm or more and 200 nm or less.

  In the exposure using an electron beam, the resist mask 175 is preferably thinner than the resist mask 174. In the case where the resist mask 175 is thinned, it is preferable that the unevenness of the surface to be formed be as flat as possible. In the method for manufacturing a semiconductor device of this embodiment, by performing planarization treatment on the insulating film 124, unevenness due to the insulating film 124 is reduced; thus, the resist mask can be thinned. Thereby, exposure using an electron beam can be performed precisely.

At this time, in an electron beam lithography apparatus capable of electron beam irradiation, for example, the acceleration voltage is preferably 5 kV to 50 kV. The current intensity is preferably 5 × 10 −12 to 1 × 10 −11 A. The minimum beam diameter is preferably 2 nm or less. Moreover, it is preferable that the minimum line width of the pattern which can be produced is 8 nm or less.

  Under the above conditions, for example, the pattern width can be 30 nm or less, preferably 20 nm or less, and more preferably 8 nm or less.

  Next, the conductive film 133 is selectively etched using the resist mask 175 as a mask to form a conductive film 133a and a conductive film 133b (see FIG. 7B). Note that the conductive films 132a and 133a function as source electrodes, and the conductive films 132b and 133b function as drain electrodes.

In addition, it is preferable that the etching conditions be such that the etching selectivity between the thin resist mask 175 and the conductive film 133 is high. For example, in dry etching, it is preferable to use a mixed gas of Cl 2 and HBr as an etching gas so that the flow rate ratio of HBr is higher than the flow rate ratio of Cl 2 . For example, a flow rate ratio of Cl 2 : HBr = 20: 80 is preferable. In the case of etching with inductively coupled plasma (also referred to as ICP etching), when the ICP power is 500 W, the etching selectivity between the resist mask 175 and the conductive film 133 is increased by setting the bias power to 30 W to 40 W or less. Can be high.

  The distance between the conductive films 133a and 133b is narrower than the distance between the conductive films 132a and 132b. In particular, in the case where the conductive film 133a and the conductive film 133b have higher resistance than the conductive films 132a and 132b, the distance between the conductive film 133a and the conductive film 133b is shortened so that the distance between the source electrode, the oxide semiconductor film, and the drain electrode is reduced. Can reduce the resistance.

  7B, the conductive film 133a preferably covers the top and side surfaces of the conductive film 132a, and the conductive film 133b preferably covers the top and side surfaces of the conductive film 132b. Accordingly, the conductive film 132a and the conductive film 132b can be protected by the conductive film 133a and the conductive film 133b, for example.

  At this time, the channel length of the transistor is an interval between the conductive films 133a and 133b. The channel length is as short as less than 50 nm, for example. For example, by shortening the distance between the conductive films 133a and 133b using a resist mask formed by exposure with an electron beam as an etching mask, the channel length can be shortened and the transistor 162 can be miniaturized. And high integration of the semiconductor device can be realized.

  Next, the gate insulating film 131 is formed over the insulating film 124, the multilayer film 130, the conductive film 133a, and the conductive film 133b. (See FIG. 7C). The gate insulating film 131 is formed by plasma CVD, sputtering, or the like using aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, silicon oxynitride, silicon nitride oxide, silicon nitride, gallium oxide, germanium oxide, yttrium oxide, zirconium oxide, lanthanum oxide, An insulating film containing one or more of neodymium oxide, hafnium oxide, and tantalum oxide may be used as a single layer or a stacked layer.

For example, the gate insulating film may be a multilayer film in which the first layer is a silicon oxide layer and the second layer is a silicon nitride layer. In this case, the silicon oxide layer may be a silicon oxynitride layer. The silicon nitride layer may be a silicon nitride oxide layer. As the silicon oxide layer, a silicon oxide layer with a low defect density is preferably used. Specifically, the spin density of a spin derived from a signal having a g value of 2.001 by electron spin resonance (ESR) is 3 × 10 17 spins / cm 3 or less, preferably 5 × 10 16 spins. A silicon oxide layer of / cm 3 or less is used. As the silicon oxide layer, a silicon oxide layer containing excess oxygen is preferably used. As the silicon nitride layer, a silicon nitride layer that releases less hydrogen and ammonia is used. The amount of hydrogen and ammonia released may be measured by TDS (Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy) analysis.

  A silicon oxide layer containing excess oxygen refers to a silicon oxide layer from which oxygen can be released by heat treatment or the like. When the silicon oxide layer is expanded to an insulating film, the insulating film having excess oxygen is an insulating film having a function of releasing oxygen by heat treatment.

  Here, excess oxygen is present in excess of oxygen that can move in an oxide semiconductor film or an insulating film (silicon oxide or silicon oxynitride) by heat treatment or oxygen in an original stoichiometric ratio. Oxygen or oxygen having a function of filling or filling oxygen deficiency (vacancies) due to oxygen deficiency with excess oxygen.

Here, oxygen is released by heat treatment, 1 × 10 18 atoms / cm 3 or more oxygen released by TDS is in terms of an oxygen atom, 1 × 10 19 atom / cm 3 or more, or 1 × 10 It means 20 atoms / cm 3 or more.

  Here, a method of measuring the amount of released oxygen using TDS analysis will be described below.

  The total amount of gas released when the measurement sample is subjected to TDS analysis is proportional to the integrated value of the ionic strength of the released gas. The total amount of gas released can be calculated by comparison with a standard sample.

For example, from the TDS analysis result of a silicon wafer containing hydrogen of a predetermined density as a standard sample and the TDS analysis result of the measurement sample, the amount of released oxygen molecules (N O2 ) of the measurement sample is obtained by Equation (1). Can do. Here, it is assumed that all the gases detected by the mass number 32 obtained by the TDS analysis are derived from oxygen molecules. There is CH 3 OH in addition to those having a mass number of 32, but these are not considered here because they are unlikely to exist. In addition, oxygen molecules containing oxygen atoms with a mass number of 17 and oxygen atoms with a mass number of 18 which are isotopes of oxygen atoms are not considered because the existence ratio in nature is extremely small.

N H2 is a value obtained by converting hydrogen molecules desorbed from the standard sample by density. SH2 is an integral value of ion intensity when the standard sample is subjected to TDS analysis. Here, the reference value of the standard sample is N H2 / SH 2 . S O2 is an integrated value of ion intensity when the measurement sample is subjected to TDS analysis. α is a coefficient that affects the ionic strength in the TDS analysis. For details of Equation (1), refer to Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. Hei 6-275697. The oxygen release amount is determined by using a temperature-programmed desorption analyzer EMD-WA1000S / W manufactured by Electronic Science Co., Ltd., and using a silicon wafer containing 1 × 10 16 atoms / cm 2 of hydrogen atoms as a standard sample. It was measured.

  In TDS analysis, part of oxygen is detected as oxygen atoms. The ratio of oxygen molecules to oxygen atoms can be calculated from the ionization rate of oxygen molecules. Note that since the above α includes the ionization rate of oxygen molecules, the amount of released oxygen atoms can be estimated by evaluating the amount of released oxygen molecules.

Note that N 2 O 2 is the amount of released oxygen molecules. The amount of release when converted to oxygen atoms is twice the amount of release of oxygen molecules.

Alternatively, releasing oxygen by heat treatment means containing a peroxide radical. Specifically, it means that the spin density resulting from the peroxide radical is 5 × 10 17 spins / cm 3 or more. Note that including a peroxide radical means that an ESR has an asymmetric signal with a g value near 2.01.

Alternatively, the insulating film containing excess oxygen may be oxygen-excess silicon oxide (SiO X (X> 2)). Oxygen-excess silicon oxide (SiO X (X> 2)) contains oxygen atoms more than twice the number of silicon atoms per unit volume. The number of silicon atoms and the number of oxygen atoms per unit volume are values measured by RBS.

  In the case where at least one of the gate insulating film 131 and the insulating film 144 includes an insulating film containing excess oxygen, oxygen vacancies in the oxide semiconductor film 130b can be reduced.

  The transistor configured as described above has stable electric characteristics and high field-effect mobility when a channel is formed in the oxide semiconductor film 130b of the multilayer film 130.

  Next, a gate electrode 134 is formed in a region overlapping with the wiring 123 and the multilayer film 130 over the gate insulating film 131 (see FIG. 7C). In addition, the gate electrode 134 does not overlap with the conductive films 133a and 133b. The gate electrode 134 can be formed using a method and a material similar to those of the gate electrode 105 and the like.

Next, the insulating film 144 and the insulating film 145 are formed so as to cover the components formed in the above steps (see FIG. 7D). The insulating film 144 and the insulating film 145 can be formed using a method and a material similar to those of the gate insulating film 131. For example, the insulating film 144 may be a silicon oxide layer and the insulating film 145 may be a silicon nitride layer. Good. In this case, the silicon oxide layer may be a silicon oxynitride layer. The silicon nitride layer may be a silicon nitride oxide layer. As the silicon oxide layer, a silicon oxide layer with a low defect density is preferably used. Specifically, a silicon oxide layer in which the spin density of a spin derived from a signal having a g value of 2.001 by ESR is 3 × 10 17 spins / cm 3 or less, preferably 5 × 10 16 spins / cm 3 or less. Is used. As the silicon nitride layer, a silicon nitride layer that releases less hydrogen and ammonia is used. The release amount of hydrogen and ammonia may be measured by TDS analysis. As the silicon nitride layer, a silicon nitride layer that does not transmit or hardly transmits oxygen is used.

  Next, an opening is formed in the gate insulating film 131, the insulating film 144, and the insulating film 145, and a conductive film 146 is formed in the opening so as to be in contact with the conductive film 133b (see FIG. 7D). The conductive film 146 can be formed using a method and a material similar to those of the wiring 122 and the like.

  Through the above steps, the transistor 162 is formed.

  Note that the transistor 162 is not limited to the top-gate structure described above, and a bottom-gate transistor can also be employed.

  In this embodiment mode, only the conductive film 133a and the conductive film 133b to be the source electrode and the drain electrode are formed by etching or the like after forming a resist mask by exposure using an electron beam. However, the present invention is not limited to this. In forming the multilayer film 130 and the gate electrode 134, a resist mask formed by exposure using an electron beam can also be used. By using a resist mask formed by exposure using an electron beam, the multilayer film 130 having a length in the channel length direction of 1 μm can be formed. In addition, by using the resist mask, the gate electrode 134 having a length in the channel length direction of 40 nm can be formed. By forming each part using an electron beam in forming the resist mask, the transistor 162 that fits in a square with one side of 1 μm to 25 μm can be formed.

  Since a transistor using a multilayer film has extremely small off-state current, stored data can be held for a very long time by using the transistor. That is, the refresh operation is not necessary or the frequency of the refresh operation can be extremely low, so that power consumption can be sufficiently reduced. Further, stored data can be retained for a long time even when power is not supplied.

  Further, a high voltage is not required for writing information, and there is no problem of deterioration of elements. Further, since data is written depending on the on / off state of the transistor, high-speed operation can be easily realized. Further, there is an advantage that an operation for erasing information required in a flash memory or the like is unnecessary.

  In addition, since a transistor including a material other than an oxide semiconductor can operate at a sufficiently high speed, the content stored therein can be read at a high speed.

  Further, the transistor having the above structure can have stable electric characteristics and high field-effect mobility when a channel is formed in the oxide semiconductor film 130b of the multilayer film 130. .

  Further, by shortening the distance between the conductive films 133a and 133b using a resist mask formed by exposure with an electron beam as an etching mask, the channel length can be shortened and the transistor 162 can be miniaturized. And high integration of the semiconductor device can be realized.

  Note that the structure and the like described in this embodiment can be combined as appropriate with any of the structures described in the other embodiments.

(Embodiment 2)
In this embodiment, an example of application of the semiconductor device described in the above embodiment will be described. Specifically, an example of a semiconductor device in which the semiconductor devices described in the above embodiments are arranged in a matrix is described.

  FIG. 9 is a block circuit diagram of a semiconductor device according to one embodiment of the present invention having a memory capacity of m × n bits.

  The semiconductor device according to one embodiment of the present invention includes m fourth wirings S2 (second signal lines) and fifth wirings WL (word lines), n second wirings BL (bit lines), and The third wiring S1 (first signal line) and a plurality of memory cells 200 (1, 1) to 200 (m, n) vertically m (rows) × n lateral (columns) (m, n Is a natural number) memory cell array 210, a drive circuit 211 connected to the second wiring and the third wiring, a drive circuit 213 connected to the fourth wiring and the fifth wiring, and reading The circuit 212 is configured by a peripheral circuit. As another peripheral circuit, a refresh circuit or the like may be provided.

  The driver circuit 211 controls the potential of the fourth wiring supplied to the gate electrode of the transistor 162 in the memory cell 200, and controls data writing. In addition, the potential of the fifth wiring supplied to the gate electrode of the transistor 161 in the memory cell 200 is controlled.

  The driver circuit 213 controls the potential of the third wiring supplied to one of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the transistor 162 in the memory cell 200 and controls retained data. In addition, the potential of the second wiring supplied to one of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the transistor 161 in the memory cell 200 is controlled.

  Further, the resistance between the first wiring and the second wiring differs depending on the potentials of the second wiring and the fifth wiring connected to the transistor 161, and data is read according to the resistance.

  The reading circuit 212 includes a transistor and a differential amplifier at the time of reading, and the resistance of the memory cell varies depending on the stored data “0” and “1”. Specifically, when the transistor 160 of the selected memory cell is on, the resistance state is low, and when the transistor 160 of the selected memory cell is off, the resistance state is high.

  When the memory cell is in a high resistance state, the potential of the second wiring is higher than the reference potential Vref, and data “1” is output from the output of the differential amplifier. On the other hand, when the memory cell is in a low resistance state, the potential of the second wiring is lower than the reference potential Vref, and data “0” is output from the output of the differential amplifier. In this way, the reading circuit can read data from the memory cell.

  Consider a memory cell 200 (i, j) as a representative of each memory cell. Here, the memory cell 200 (i, j) (i is an integer of 1 to m, j is an integer of 1 to n) includes the second wiring BL (j), the third wiring S1 (j), The fourth wiring S2 (i), the fifth wiring WL (i), and the first wiring are connected to each other. The first wiring potential Vs is applied to the first wiring. The second wirings BL (1) to BL (n) and the third wirings S1 (1) to S1 (n) are connected to the driver circuit 211 and the reading circuit 212 with the fifth wirings WL (1) to WL ( m) and the fourth wirings S2 (1) to S2 (m) are connected to the drive circuit 213, respectively.

  An operation of the semiconductor device illustrated in FIG. 9 will be described. In this configuration, writing and reading are performed for each row.

  When data is written to the memory cell 200 (i, 1) to the memory cell 200 (i, n) in the i-th row, the first wiring potential Vs is 0V, the fifth wiring WL (i) is 0V, The wirings BL (1) to BL (n) are set to 0V, and the fourth wiring S2 (i) is set to 2V. At this time, the transistor 162 is turned on. In the third wirings S1 (1) to S1 (n), a column in which data “1” is written is 2V, and a column in which data “0” is written is 0V. Note that when writing is completed, the fourth wiring S2 (i) is set to 0 V and the transistor 162 is turned off before the potential of the third wirings S1 (1) to S1 (n) is changed. Further, the non-selected fifth wiring is set to 0V, and the non-selected fourth wiring is set to 0V.

  As a result, the potential of a node (hereinafter referred to as nodeA) connected to the gate electrode of the transistor 160 of the memory cell in which data “1” has been written is about 2 V, and the node A of the memory cell in which data “0” has been written. The potential is about 0V. Further, the potential of the node A of the non-selected memory cell does not change.

  When reading is performed from the memory cell 200 (i, 1) to the memory cell 200 (i, n) in the i-th row, the first wiring potential Vs is 0 V, the fifth wiring WL (i) is 2 V, the fourth The wiring S2 (i) is set to 0V, the third wirings S1 (1) to S1 (n) are set to 0V, and the reading circuit connected to the second wirings BL (1) to BL (n) is set to the operating state. To do. In the read circuit, for example, data “0” and “1” can be read from the difference in resistance state of the memory cell. Note that the non-selected fifth wiring is set to 0V, and the non-selected fourth wiring is set to 0V. Note that the second wiring at the time of writing is set to 0 V, but may be charged in a floating state or a potential of 0 V or more. Although the third wiring at the time of reading is set to 0 V, it may be charged in a floating state or a potential of 0 V or higher.

  Note that data “1” and data “0” are definitions for convenience, and may be reversed. The operating voltage described above is an example. The operating voltage is such that the transistor 160 is turned off when the data is “0”, the transistor 160 is turned on when the data is “1”, the transistor 162 is turned on when writing, and is turned off when not writing. It may be selected so that the transistor 161 is turned on at the time of reading. In particular, the power supply potential VDD of the peripheral logic circuit may be used instead of 2V.

  Next, another example of the circuit configuration and operation of the memory element according to one embodiment of the present invention will be described.

  An example of a memory cell circuit included in the semiconductor device is illustrated in FIG. A memory cell 220 illustrated in FIG. 10 includes a first wiring SL, a second wiring BL, a third wiring S1, a fourth wiring S2, a fifth wiring WL, and a transistor 160 (first transistor). And a transistor 162 (second transistor) and a transistor 161 (third transistor). The transistor 160 and the transistor 161 are formed using a material other than an oxide semiconductor, and the transistor 162 is formed using an oxide semiconductor.

  The circuit of the memory cell 220 illustrated in FIG. 10 differs from the circuit of the memory cell 200 illustrated in FIG. 1 in the direction of the third wiring and the fourth wiring. That is, the circuit of the memory cell 220 in FIG. 10 has a configuration in which the third wiring is arranged in the fifth wiring direction (row direction) and the fourth wiring is arranged in the second wiring direction (column direction). .

  Here, the gate electrode of the transistor 160 and one of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the transistor 162 are electrically connected. The first wiring and the source electrode of the transistor 160 are electrically connected, and the drain electrode of the transistor 160 and the source electrode of the transistor 161 are electrically connected. The second wiring and the drain electrode of the transistor 161 are electrically connected, and the third wiring and the other of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the transistor 162 are electrically connected, and the fourth wiring The wiring and the gate electrode of the transistor 162 are electrically connected, and the fifth wiring and the gate electrode of the transistor 161 are electrically connected.

  The operation of the circuit of the memory cell 220 shown in FIG. 10 is the same as the operation of the circuit of the memory cell 200 shown in FIG.

  FIG. 11 is a block circuit diagram of a semiconductor device according to one embodiment of the present invention having a memory capacity of m × n bits.

  A semiconductor device according to one embodiment of the present invention includes m third wirings and fifth wirings, n second wirings and fourth wirings, and a plurality of memory cells 220 (1, 1) to Memory cell array 230 in which memory cells 220 (m, n) are arranged in a matrix of m vertical (rows) × n horizontal (columns) (m and n are natural numbers), second wiring, and fourth wiring The driving circuit 231 connected to the driving circuit 231, the driving circuit 233 connected to the third wiring and the fifth wiring, and the peripheral circuit such as the reading circuit 232. As another peripheral circuit, a refresh circuit or the like may be provided.

  The semiconductor device illustrated in FIG. 11 is different from the semiconductor device illustrated in FIG. 9 in the direction of the third wiring and the fourth wiring. That is, the semiconductor device in FIG. 11 has a configuration in which the third wiring is arranged in the fifth wiring direction (row direction) and the fourth wiring is arranged in the second wiring direction (column direction).

  As a representative of each memory cell, consider a memory cell 220 (i, j). Here, the memory cell 220 (i, j) (i is an integer of 1 to m, j is an integer of 1 to n) includes the second wiring BL (j), the fourth wiring S2 (j), The fifth wiring WL (i), the third wiring S1 (i), and the first wiring are connected to each other. The first wiring potential Vs is applied to the first wiring. The second wirings BL (1) to BL (n) and the fourth wirings S2 (1) to S2 (n) are connected to the driving circuit 231 and the reading circuit 232 and the third wirings S1 (1) to S1 ( m) and the fifth wirings WL (1) to WL (m) are connected to the drive circuit 233, respectively.

  An operation of the semiconductor device illustrated in FIG. 11 is described. In this configuration, writing is performed for each column and reading is performed for each row.

  In the case where data is written to the memory cell 220 (1, j) to the memory cell 220 (m, j) in the j-th column, the first wiring potential Vs is set to 0 V, and the fifth wiring WL (1) to WL (m). Is 0V, the second wiring BL (j) is 0V, and the fourth wiring S2 (j) is 2V. The third wirings S1 (1) to S1 (m) are set to 2V when writing data “1” and 0V when writing data “0”. Note that when writing is completed, the fourth wiring S2 (j) is set to 0 V and the transistor 162 is turned off before the potential of the third wirings S1 (1) to S1 (m) is changed. The non-selected second wiring is set to 0V, and the non-selected fourth wiring is set to 0V.

  As a result, the potential of a node (hereinafter referred to as nodeA) connected to the gate electrode of the transistor 160 of the memory cell in which data “1” has been written is about 2 V, and the node A of the memory cell in which data “0” has been written. The potential is about 0V. Further, the potential of the node A of the non-selected memory cell does not change.

  When reading is performed from the memory cell 220 (i, 1) to the memory cell 220 (i, n) in the i-th row, the first wiring is 0V, the fifth wiring WL (i) is 2V, and the fourth wiring. S2 (1) to S2 (n) are set to 0V, the third wiring S1 (i) is set to 0V, and the reading circuit connected to the second wirings BL (1) to BL (n) is set in an operating state. In the read circuit, for example, data “0” and “1” can be read from the difference in resistance state of the memory cell. Note that the non-selected fifth wiring is 0V, and the non-selected third wiring is 0V. Note that the second wiring at the time of writing is set to 0 V, but may be charged in a floating state or a potential of 0 V or more. Although the third wiring at the time of reading is set to 0 V, it may be charged in a floating state or a potential of 0 V or higher.

  Note that data “1” and data “0” are definitions for convenience, and may be reversed. The operating voltage described above is an example. The operating voltage is such that the transistor 160 is turned off when the data is “0”, the transistor 160 is turned on when the data is “1”, the transistor 162 is turned on when writing, and is turned off when not writing. It may be selected so that the transistor 161 is turned on at the time of reading. In particular, the power supply potential VDD of the peripheral logic circuit may be used instead of 2V.

  Since a transistor using a multilayer film has extremely small off-state current, stored data can be held for a very long time by using the transistor. That is, the refresh operation is not necessary or the frequency of the refresh operation can be extremely low, so that power consumption can be sufficiently reduced. Further, stored data can be retained for a long time even when power is not supplied.

  Further, a high voltage is not required for writing information, and there is no problem of deterioration of elements. Further, since data is written depending on the on / off state of the transistor, high-speed operation can be easily realized. Further, there is an advantage that an operation for erasing information required in a flash memory or the like is unnecessary.

  In addition, since a transistor including a material other than an oxide semiconductor can operate at a sufficiently high speed, the content stored therein can be read at a high speed.

  The transistor 162 has stable electric characteristics and high field-effect mobility by formation of a channel in the oxide semiconductor film included in the multilayer film described in Embodiment 1. It is.

  Further, the transistor 162 can shorten the channel length by shortening the distance between the source electrode and the drain electrode by using the resist mask formed by exposure using the electron beam described in Embodiment 1 as an etching mask. Further, miniaturization of the transistor 162 can be achieved, and high integration of the semiconductor device can be realized.

  Note that the structure and the like described in this embodiment can be combined as appropriate with any of the structures described in the other embodiments.

(Embodiment 3)
In this embodiment, an example of a circuit configuration, a manufacturing method, and an operation of a memory element, which are different from those in Embodiment 2, will be described.

  An example of a circuit diagram of a memory cell included in the semiconductor device is illustrated in FIG. A memory cell 240 illustrated in FIG. 12 includes a first wiring SL, a second wiring BL, a third wiring S1, a fourth wiring S2, a fifth wiring WL, a transistor 160 (first transistor), , A transistor 162 (second transistor) and a capacitor 164. The transistor 160 is formed using a material other than an oxide semiconductor, and the transistor 162 is formed using an oxide semiconductor.

  Here, the gate electrode of the transistor 160, one of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the transistor 162, and one electrode of the capacitor 164 are electrically connected. In addition, the first wiring and the source electrode of the transistor 160 are electrically connected, and the second wiring and the drain electrode of the transistor 160 are electrically connected, and the third wiring and the transistor 162 are connected. The other of the source electrode and the drain electrode is electrically connected, the fourth wiring and the gate electrode of the transistor 162 are electrically connected, the fifth wiring, and the other electrode of the capacitor 164 Are electrically connected.

  Next, the operation of the circuit will be specifically described.

  When writing to the memory cell 240, the first wiring is set to 0V, the fifth wiring is set to 0V, the second wiring is set to 0V, and the fourth wiring is set to 2V. When data “1” is written, the third wiring is set to 2V, and when data “0” is written, the third wiring is set to 0V. At this time, the transistor 162 is turned on. Note that when writing is completed, the fourth wiring is set to 0 V and the transistor 162 is turned off before the potential of the third wiring is changed.

  As a result, the potential of a node (hereinafter referred to as nodeA) connected to the gate electrode of the transistor 160 is about 2V after data “1” is written, and the potential of nodeA is about 0V after data “0” is written.

  When reading data from the memory cell 240, the first wiring is set to 0V, the fifth wiring is set to 2V, the fourth wiring is set to 0V, and the third wiring is set to 0V. The reading circuit connected to the second wiring Is in the operating state. At this time, the transistor 162 is turned off.

  A state of the transistor 160 in the case where the fifth wiring is 2 V is described. The potential of the node A that determines the state of the transistor 160 depends on the capacitance C1 between the fifth wiring and the node A and the capacitance C2 between the gate, the source, and the drain of the transistor 160.

  FIG. 13 shows the relationship between the fifth wiring potential and the node A potential. Here, as an example, it is assumed that the transistor 160 is C1 / C2 >> 1 in the off state and C1 / C2 = 1 in the on state. The threshold value of the transistor 160 is 2.5V. Under the condition that the fifth wiring potential in the graph shown in FIG. 13 is 2V, the node A is about 2V in the data “0” state, but the transistor 160 is in the off state. On the other hand, in the state of data “1”, nodeA is about 3.25 V, and the transistor 160 is turned on. The memory cell is in a low resistance state when the transistor 160 is on and in a high resistance state when the transistor 160 is off. Therefore, the read circuit can read data “0” and “1” from the difference in resistance state of the memory cell. Note that when reading is not performed, that is, when the fifth wiring potential is 0 V, the node “A” is about 0 V for the data “0” and the node A is about 2 V for the data “1”, and the transistor 160 is turned off in both cases. .

  Note that the third wiring at the time of reading is set to 0 V, but may be charged in a floating state or a potential of 0 V or more. Data “1” and data “0” are definitions for convenience and may be reversed.

  The operating voltage described above is an example. As for the potential of the third wiring at the time of writing, the data “0” and “1” are in a range in which the transistor 162 is turned off after writing and the transistor 160 is turned off when the fifth wiring potential is 0V. Each potential can be selected. The fifth wiring potential at the time of reading may be selected so that the transistor 160 is turned off when the data is “0” and the transistor 160 is turned on when the data is “1”. The threshold voltage of the transistor 160 is also an example. Any threshold value may be used as long as it does not change the state of the transistor 160 described above.

<Cross-sectional configuration of semiconductor device>
FIG. 14 illustrates an example of a structure of the semiconductor device. FIG. 14 shows a cross section of the semiconductor device. Here, the semiconductor device illustrated in FIG. 14 includes a transistor 160 using a material other than an oxide semiconductor in a lower portion and a transistor 162 and a capacitor 164 using an oxide semiconductor in an upper portion. Note that the transistor 160 and the transistor 162 have structures similar to those in Embodiment 1, and thus detailed description thereof is omitted.

<Method for Manufacturing Semiconductor Device>
Next, an example of a method for manufacturing the semiconductor device will be described. Hereinafter, a method for manufacturing the transistor 160 and the transistor 162 is similar to that in Embodiment 1, and thus description thereof is omitted. A method for manufacturing the capacitor 164 is described with reference to FIGS.

  After the transistor 162 is formed over the transistor 160, the insulating film 144 and the insulating film 145 are formed so as to cover the transistor 162. Next, an opening is formed in the gate insulating film 131, the insulating film 144, and the insulating film 145, a conductive film 146 is formed over the opening and the insulating film 145, and the conductive film is selectively etched to be conductive. A film 146 and a conductive film 147 are formed.

  Therefore, the capacitor 164 can be formed using the conductive film 133a, the gate insulating film 131, and the conductive film 147.

  Next, an example of a semiconductor device in which the semiconductor devices are arranged in a matrix will be described.

  FIG. 15 is a block circuit diagram of a semiconductor device according to one embodiment of the present invention having a memory capacity of m × n bits.

  A semiconductor device according to one embodiment of the present invention illustrated in FIG. 15 includes m fourth wirings and fifth wirings, n second wirings and third wirings, and a plurality of memory cells 240 (1 , 1) to memory cells 240 (m, n) arranged in a matrix of m vertical (row) × n horizontal (column) (m and n are natural numbers) matrix, The driving circuit 211 includes a peripheral circuit such as a driving circuit 211 connected to the third wiring, a driving circuit 213 connected to the fourth wiring and the fifth wiring, and a reading circuit 212. As another peripheral circuit, a refresh circuit or the like may be provided.

  As a representative of each memory cell, consider a memory cell 240 (i, j). Here, the memory cell 240 (i, j) (i is an integer of 1 to m, j is an integer of 1 to n) includes the second wiring BL (j), the third wiring S1 (j), The fourth wiring S2 (i), the fifth wiring WL (i), and the first wiring are connected to each other. The first wiring potential Vs is applied to the first wiring. The second wirings BL (1) to BL (n) and the third wirings S1 (1) to S1 (n) are connected to the driver circuit 211 and the reading circuit 212 with the fifth wirings WL (1) to WL ( m) and the fourth wirings S2 (1) to S2 (m) are connected to the drive circuit 213, respectively.

  An operation of the semiconductor device illustrated in FIG. 15 will be described. In this configuration, writing and reading are performed for each row.

  When data is written to the memory cell 240 (i, 1) to the memory cell 240 (i, n) in the i-th row, the first wiring potential Vs is 0 V, the fifth wiring WL (i) is 0 V, the second The wirings BL (1) to BL (n) are set to 0V, and the fourth wiring S2 (i) is set to 2V. At this time, the transistor 162 is turned on. In the third wirings S1 (1) to S1 (n), a column in which data “1” is written is 2V, and a column in which data “0” is written is 0V. Note that when writing is completed, the fourth wiring S2 (i) is set to 0 V and the transistor 162 is turned off before the potential of the third wirings S1 (1) to S1 (n) is changed. Further, the non-selected fifth wiring is set to 0V, and the non-selected fourth wiring is set to 0V.

  As a result, the potential of a node (hereinafter referred to as nodeA) connected to the gate electrode of the transistor 160 of the memory cell in which data “1” has been written is about 2 V, and the potential of nodeA is about 0 V after data “0” is written. It becomes. Further, the potential of the node A of the non-selected memory cell does not change.

  When reading is performed from the memory cell 240 (i, 1) to the memory cell 240 (i, n) in the i-th row, the first wiring potential Vs is 0 V, the fifth wiring WL (i) is 2 V, the fourth The wiring S2 (i) is set to 0V, the third wirings S1 (1) to S1 (n) are set to 0V, and the reading circuit connected to the second wirings BL (1) to BL (n) is set to the operating state. To do. At this time, the transistor 162 is turned off. Further, the non-selected fifth wiring is set to 0V, and the non-selected fourth wiring is set to 0V.

  A state of the transistor 160 at the time of reading will be described. As already described, assuming that C1 / C2 >> 1 in the off state and C1 / C2 = 1 in the on state, the relationship between the fifth wiring potential and the node A potential is expressed as shown in FIG. The The threshold voltage of the transistor 160 is 2.5V. In the non-selected memory cell, the fifth wiring potential is 0 V. Therefore, the node A of the memory cell having the data “0” is about 0 V, and the node A of the memory cell having the data “1” is about 2 V. The transistor 160 is turned off. In the memory cell in the i-th row, since the fifth wiring potential is 2V, the node A of the memory cell having the data “0” is about 2 V, and the transistor 160 is in the off state, but the memory having the data “1”. The node A of the cell becomes about 3.25 V, and the transistor 160 is turned on. The memory cell is in a low resistance state when the transistor 160 is on and in a high resistance state when the transistor 160 is off. As a result, only the memory cell having data “0” in the i-th row memory cell is in the low resistance state. The read circuit can read data “0” and “1” from the difference in load resistance connected to the second wiring.

  Note that the third wiring at the time of reading is set to 0 V, but may be charged in a floating state or a potential of 0 V or more. Data “1” and data “0” are definitions for convenience and may be reversed.

  The operating voltage described above is an example. As for the potential of the third wiring at the time of writing, the data “0” and “1” are in a range in which the transistor 162 is turned off after writing and the transistor 160 is turned off when the fifth wiring potential is 0V. Each potential can be selected. The fifth wiring potential at the time of reading may be selected so that the transistor 160 is turned off when the data is “0” and the transistor 160 is turned on when the data is “1”. The threshold voltage of the transistor 160 is also an example. Any threshold value may be used as long as it does not change the state of the transistor 160 described above.

  Another example of the circuit configuration and operation of the memory element according to one embodiment of the present invention will be described.

  An example of a memory cell circuit included in the semiconductor device is illustrated in FIG. A memory cell 260 illustrated in FIG. 16 includes a first wiring SL, a second wiring BL, a third wiring S1, a fourth wiring S2, a fifth wiring WL, a transistor 160, and a transistor 162. And a capacitive element 164. The transistor 160 is formed using a material other than an oxide semiconductor, and the transistor 162 is formed using an oxide semiconductor.

  The circuit of the memory cell 260 illustrated in FIG. 16 is different from the circuit of the memory cell 240 in FIG. 12 in the direction of the third wiring and the fourth wiring. That is, in the memory cell 260 in FIG. 16, the third wiring is arranged in the fifth wiring direction (row direction), and the fourth wiring is arranged in the second wiring direction (column direction).

  Here, the gate electrode of the transistor 160, one of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the transistor 162, and one electrode of the capacitor 164 are electrically connected. In addition, the first wiring and the source electrode of the transistor 160 are electrically connected, and the second wiring and the drain electrode of the transistor 160 are electrically connected, and the third wiring and the transistor 162 are connected. The other of the source electrode and the drain electrode is electrically connected, the fourth wiring and the gate electrode of the transistor 162 are electrically connected, the fifth wiring, and the other electrode of the capacitor 164 Are electrically connected.

  The operation of the circuit of the memory cell 260 shown in FIG. 16 is the same as the operation of the circuit of the memory cell 240 shown in FIG.

  FIG. 17 is a block circuit diagram of a semiconductor device according to one embodiment of the present invention having a memory capacity of m × n bits.

  The semiconductor device according to one embodiment of the present invention includes m third wirings and fifth wirings, n second wirings and fourth wirings, and a plurality of memory cells 260 (1, 1) to Memory cell array 270 in which memory cells 260 (m, n) are arranged in a matrix of m (rows) × n (columns) in width (columns) (m and n are natural numbers), a second wiring, and a fourth wiring The driving circuit 231 connected to the driving circuit 231, the driving circuit 233 connected to the third wiring and the fifth wiring, and the peripheral circuit such as the reading circuit 232. As another peripheral circuit, a refresh circuit or the like may be provided.

  The semiconductor device illustrated in FIG. 17 is different from the semiconductor device illustrated in FIG. 15 in the direction of the third wiring and the fourth wiring. That is, the semiconductor device in FIG. 17 has a configuration in which the third wiring is arranged in the fifth wiring direction (row direction) and the fourth wiring is arranged in the second wiring direction (column direction).

  As a representative of each memory cell, a memory cell 260 (i, j) is considered. Here, the memory cell 260 (i, j) (i is an integer of 1 to m and j is an integer of 1 to n) includes the second wiring BL (j), the fourth wiring S2 (j), The third wiring S1 (i), the fifth wiring WL (i), and the first wiring are connected to each other. The first wiring potential Vs is applied to the first wiring. The second wirings BL (1) to BL (n) and the fourth wirings S2 (1) to S2 (n) are connected to the driving circuit 231 and the reading circuit 232 and the third wirings S1 (1) to S1 ( m) and the fifth wirings WL (1) to WL (m) are connected to the drive circuit 233, respectively.

  The operation of the semiconductor device illustrated in FIG. 17 is the same as that of the semiconductor device illustrated in FIG. 15, and thus detailed description thereof is omitted.

  Since a transistor using a multilayer film has extremely small off-state current, stored data can be held for a very long time by using the transistor. That is, the refresh operation is not necessary or the frequency of the refresh operation can be extremely low, so that power consumption can be sufficiently reduced. Further, stored data can be retained for a long time even when power is not supplied.

  Further, a high voltage is not required for writing information, and there is no problem of deterioration of elements. Further, since data is written depending on the on / off state of the transistor, high-speed operation can be easily realized. Further, there is an advantage that an operation for erasing information required in a flash memory or the like is unnecessary.

  In addition, since a transistor including a material other than an oxide semiconductor can operate at a sufficiently high speed, the content stored therein can be read at a high speed.

  The transistor 162 has stable electric characteristics and high field-effect mobility by formation of a channel in the oxide semiconductor film included in the multilayer film described in Embodiment 1. It is.

  Further, the transistor 162 can shorten the channel length by shortening the distance between the source electrode and the drain electrode by using the resist mask formed by exposure using the electron beam described in Embodiment 1 as an etching mask. Further, miniaturization of the transistor 162 can be achieved, and high integration of the semiconductor device can be realized.

  Note that the structure and the like described in this embodiment can be combined as appropriate with any of the structures described in the other embodiments.

(Embodiment 4)
In this embodiment, an example of a circuit configuration and operation of a memory element, which are different from those in Embodiment 2 and Embodiment 3, will be described.

  FIG. 18 illustrates an example of a circuit diagram of a memory cell included in a semiconductor device. The memory cell 280a illustrated in FIG. 18A and the memory cell 280b illustrated in FIG. 18B are compared with the memory cell 200 illustrated in FIG. 1 and the memory cell 220 illustrated in FIG. This is a configuration in which the relationship of series connection of transistors is changed.

  Here, in the memory cell 280a illustrated in FIG. 18A, the gate electrode of the transistor 160 and one of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the transistor 162 are electrically connected. The first wiring and the source electrode of the transistor 161 are electrically connected, and the drain electrode of the transistor 161 and the source electrode of the transistor 160 are electrically connected. The second wiring and the drain electrode of the transistor 160 are electrically connected, and the third wiring and the other of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the transistor 162 are electrically connected, and the fourth wiring The wiring and the gate electrode of the transistor 162 are electrically connected, and the fifth wiring and the gate electrode of the transistor 161 are electrically connected.

  In addition, the direction of the third wiring and the fourth wiring of the memory cell 280b illustrated in FIG. 18B is different from that of the memory cell circuit illustrated in FIG. That is, the memory cell circuit illustrated in FIG. 18B has a structure in which the fourth wiring is arranged in the second wiring direction (column direction) and the third wiring is arranged in the fifth wiring direction (row direction). It is said.

  The operation of the memory cell 280a shown in FIG. 18A and the circuit of the memory cell 280b shown in FIG. 18B is similar to the operation of the memory cell 200 shown in FIG. 1 and the circuit of the memory cell 220 shown in FIG. Therefore, detailed description is omitted.

  Note that the structure and the like described in this embodiment can be combined as appropriate with any of the structures described in the other embodiments.

(Embodiment 5)
In this embodiment, an example of a circuit configuration and operation of a memory element, which is different from those in Embodiments 2 to 4, will be described.

  FIG. 19 illustrates an example of a circuit diagram of a memory cell included in a semiconductor device. The circuit of the memory cell 290 illustrated in FIG. 19 includes a capacitor between the node A and the first wiring, as compared with the circuit of the memory cell 200 illustrated in FIG.

  A memory cell 290 illustrated in FIG. 19 includes a first wiring SL, a second wiring BL, a third wiring S1, a fourth wiring S2, a fifth wiring WL, a transistor 160, a transistor 161, The transistor 162 and the capacitor 164 are included. The transistor 160 and the transistor 161 are formed using a material other than an oxide semiconductor, and the transistor 162 is formed using an oxide semiconductor.

  Here, the gate electrode of the transistor 160, one of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the transistor 162, and one electrode of the capacitor 164 are electrically connected. In addition, the first wiring, the source electrode of the transistor 160, and the other electrode of the capacitor 164 are electrically connected, and the drain electrode of the transistor 160 and the source electrode of the transistor 161 are electrically connected. ing. The second wiring and the drain electrode of the transistor 161 are electrically connected, and the third wiring and the other of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the transistor 162 are electrically connected, and the fourth wiring The wiring and the gate electrode of the transistor 162 are electrically connected, and the fifth wiring and the gate electrode of the transistor 161 are electrically connected.

  The operation of the memory cell circuit shown in FIG. 19 is the same as that of the memory cell circuit shown in FIG. By having such a capacitor 164, the holding characteristics are improved.

  Note that the structure and the like described in this embodiment can be combined as appropriate with any of the structures described in the other embodiments.

(Embodiment 6)
In this embodiment, unlike the transistor 162 used in the above embodiment, a transistor that can be applied to one embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS.

  A transistor 350 illustrated in FIG. 20 includes an oxide film 130a over a layer 300 having an insulating surface, an oxide semiconductor film 130b over the oxide film 130a, a conductive film 132a serving as a source electrode over the oxide semiconductor film 130b, and The conductive film 133a, the conductive film 132b and the conductive film 133b serving as the drain electrode over the oxide semiconductor film 130b, the oxide film 130c over the oxide semiconductor film 130b, the conductive film 133a, and the conductive film 133b, and the oxide film 130c The metal nitride film 302a and the metal nitride film 302b above, the oxide film 130c, the gate insulating film 131 on the metal nitride film 302a and the metal nitride film 302b, and the multilayer film 130 (oxide film 130a, A stacked film of the oxide semiconductor film 130b and the oxide film 130c) and the conductive film 133a and And a gate electrode 134 provided in a region which does not overlap with the conductive film 133b.

  A method for manufacturing the transistor 350 is described with reference to FIGS.

  An oxide film 130a and an oxide semiconductor film 130b which are part of the multilayer film 130 are formed in this order over the layer 300 having an insulating surface (see FIG. 24A). Note that for the layer 300 having an insulating surface, the substrate 100, the insulating film, or the like of the above embodiment can be used. Embodiment 1 can be referred to for materials and formation methods of the oxide film 130a and the oxide semiconductor film 130b.

  Next, the conductive film 132a and the conductive film 132b are formed over the oxide semiconductor film 130b. After that, the conductive films 133a and 133b are formed over the conductive films 132a and 132b (see FIG. 24B). Note that the conductive films 132a and 133a function as source electrodes, and the conductive films 132b and 133b function as drain electrodes.

  A peripheral portion overlapping with the gate electrode 134 of the conductive film 132a and the conductive film 132b may be formed in a staircase shape. The stepped peripheral portion can be formed by performing receding (reduction) of the resist mask and etching using the receded resist mask a plurality of times. When the peripheral portions of the conductive films 132a and 132b are stepped, the step coverage of the oxide film 130c can be improved. Embodiment 1 can be referred to for the materials of the conductive films 132a and 132b and the materials and formation methods of the conductive films 133a and 133b.

  Next, the oxide film 130c is formed over the oxide semiconductor film 130b, the conductive film 133a, and the conductive film 133b. After that, a metal nitride film is formed over the oxide film 130c, and the barrier film and the oxide film 130c are selectively etched so that a region overlapping with the gate electrode 134 of the oxide film 130c is exposed, and the metal nitride film 302a. Then, a metal nitride film 302b is formed (see FIG. 24C).

  Embodiment 1 can be referred to for a material and a formation method of the oxide film 130c.

  As the metal nitride film 302a and the metal nitride film 302b, titanium nitride, indium nitride, tin nitride, tantalum nitride, tungsten nitride, aluminum nitride, molybdenum nitride, or the like can be used.

  Next, the gate insulating film 131 is formed over the oxide film 130c, the metal nitride film 302a, and the metal nitride film 302b, and the multilayer film 130 (the oxide film 130a, the oxide semiconductor film 130b, and the oxide over the gate insulating film 131 is formed. A gate electrode 134 is formed in a region overlapping with the stacked film of the film 130c and not overlapping with the conductive films 133a and 133b (see FIG. 24D).

  Embodiment 1 can be referred to for materials and formation methods of the gate insulating film 131 and the gate electrode 134.

  Next, the insulating film 144 and the insulating film 145 are formed so as to cover the components formed in the above steps, and the oxide film 130c, the metal nitride film 302a, the metal nitride film 302b, the gate insulating film 131, and the insulating film Openings are formed in the film 144 and the insulating film 145, and the conductive films 304a and 304b are formed in contact with the conductive films 133a and 133b in the openings (see FIG. 21E).

  Embodiment 1 can be referred to for materials and formation methods of the insulating film 144 and the insulating film 145. The conductive film 146 in Embodiment 1 can be referred to for materials and formation methods of the conductive films 133a and 133b.

  As described above, the transistor 350 can be manufactured.

  Note that the structure and the like described in this embodiment can be combined as appropriate with any of the structures described in the other embodiments.

(Embodiment 7)
In this embodiment, one mode that can be applied to a multilayer film including an oxide semiconductor film in the transistor included in the display device described in the above embodiment will be described.

  At least one of the multilayer films including the oxide semiconductor film includes an oxide semiconductor including a crystalline portion in addition to an amorphous oxide semiconductor, a single crystal oxide semiconductor, and a polycrystalline oxide semiconductor (C Axis Crystalline Oxide). (Semiconductor: CAAC-OS)

  The CAAC-OS is not completely single crystal nor completely amorphous. A CAAC-OS is an oxide semiconductor having a crystal-amorphous mixed phase structure in which a crystal part and an amorphous part are included in an amorphous phase. Note that the crystal part is often large enough to fit in a cube whose one side is less than 100 nm. Further, in an observation image obtained by a transmission electron microscope (TEM), a boundary between an amorphous part and a crystal part included in the CAAC-OS is not clear. Further, a grain boundary (also referred to as a grain boundary) cannot be confirmed in the CAAC-OS by TEM. Therefore, in CAAC-OS, reduction in electron mobility due to grain boundaries is suppressed.

  The crystal part included in the CAAC-OS has a triangular shape when the c-axis is aligned in a direction parallel to the normal vector of the formation surface of the CAAC-OS or the normal vector of the surface, and is perpendicular to the ab plane. It has a hexagonal atomic arrangement, and metal atoms are arranged in layers or metal atoms and oxygen atoms are arranged in layers as viewed from the direction perpendicular to the c-axis. Note that the directions of the a-axis and the b-axis may be different between different crystal parts. In this specification, a simple term “perpendicular” includes a range from 85 ° to 95 °. In addition, a simple term “parallel” includes a range from −5 ° to 5 °. Note that part of oxygen included in the oxide semiconductor may be replaced with nitrogen.

  Note that in the CAAC-OS, the distribution of crystal parts may not be uniform. For example, in the formation process of the CAAC-OS, in the case where crystal growth is performed from the surface side of the oxide semiconductor, the ratio of crystal parts in the vicinity of the surface to be formed may be higher in the vicinity of the surface. Further, when an impurity is added to the CAAC-OS, the crystal part in a region to which the impurity is added becomes amorphous in some cases.

  Since the c-axis of the crystal part included in the CAAC-OS is aligned in a direction parallel to the normal vector of the formation surface of the CAAC-OS or the normal vector of the surface, the shape of the CAAC-OS (the cross-sectional shape of the formation surface) Or, depending on the cross-sectional shape of the surface, they may face different directions. Note that the c-axis direction of the crystal part is parallel to the normal vector of the surface where the CAAC-OS is formed or the normal vector of the surface. The crystal part is formed by film formation or by performing crystallization treatment such as heat treatment after film formation.

  There are three methods for forming the CAAC-OS.

  The first method is to form an oxide semiconductor film at a deposition temperature of 100 ° C. to 450 ° C. so that the c-axis of a crystal part included in the oxide semiconductor film is a normal vector of a formation surface or This is a method of forming crystal parts aligned in a direction parallel to the surface normal vector.

  In the second method, after the oxide semiconductor film is formed with a small thickness, heat treatment is performed at 200 ° C. to 700 ° C. so that the c-axis of the crystal part included in the oxide semiconductor film is This is a method of forming a crystal part aligned in a direction parallel to the normal vector or the surface normal vector.

  The third method is to form a first oxide semiconductor film with a small thickness, then perform a heat treatment at 200 ° C. to 700 ° C., and further form a second oxide semiconductor film. In this method, the c-axis of the crystal part included in the oxide semiconductor film is formed in a direction parallel to the normal vector of the surface to be formed or the normal vector of the surface.

  A transistor in which a CAAC-OS is used for an oxide semiconductor film has little change in electrical characteristics due to irradiation with visible light or ultraviolet light. Thus, a transistor in which the CAAC-OS is used for the oxide semiconductor film has favorable reliability.

  The CAAC-OS is preferably formed by a sputtering method using a polycrystalline oxide semiconductor sputtering target. When ions collide with the sputtering target, the crystal region included in the sputtering target is cleaved from the ab plane, and may be separated as flat or pellet-like sputtering particles having a plane parallel to the ab plane. is there. In this case, the CAAC-OS can be formed by allowing the flat or pellet-like sputtered particles to reach the deposition surface while maintaining the crystalline state.

  In order to form the CAAC-OS, it is preferable to apply the following conditions.

  By reducing the mixing of impurities during film formation, the crystal state can be prevented from being broken by impurities. For example, the concentration of impurities (such as hydrogen, water, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen) existing in the deposition chamber may be reduced. Further, the impurity concentration in the deposition gas may be reduced. Specifically, a deposition gas having a dew point of −80 ° C. or lower, preferably −100 ° C. or lower is used.

  Further, by increasing the heating temperature (for example, substrate heating temperature) of the film formation surface during film formation, migration of the sputtering particles occurs after reaching the film formation surface. Specifically, the film formation is performed at a temperature of a deposition surface of 100 ° C. to 740 ° C., preferably 150 ° C. to 500 ° C. By increasing the temperature of the film formation surface during film formation, when flat or pellet-like sputtering particles reach the film formation surface, migration occurs on the film formation surface, and the flat surface of the sputtering particles Adheres to the film formation surface.

  In addition, it is preferable to reduce plasma damage during film formation by increasing the oxygen ratio in the film formation gas and optimizing electric power. The oxygen ratio in the deposition gas is 30% by volume or more, preferably 100% by volume.

  As an example of the sputtering target, an In—Ga—Zn oxide target is described below.

InO X powder, GaO Y powder, and ZnO Z powder are mixed in a predetermined number of moles, and after pressure treatment, heat treatment is performed at a temperature of 1000 ° C. or higher and 1500 ° C. or lower, so that polycrystalline In—Ga—Zn oxidation is performed. Target object. In addition, the said pressurization process may be performed while cooling (or standing to cool), and may be performed while heating. X, Y and Z are arbitrary positive numbers. Here, the predetermined mole number ratio is, for example, 2: 2: 1, 8: 4: 3, 3: 1: 1, 1: 1: 1, 4 for InO X powder, GaO Y powder, and ZnO Z powder. : 2: 3 or 3: 1: 2. In addition, what is necessary is just to change suitably the kind of powder, and the mol ratio to mix that with the sputtering target to produce.

  Note that the structure and the like described in this embodiment can be combined as appropriate with any of the structures described in the other embodiments.

(Embodiment 8)
In this embodiment, the details of the multilayer film 130 that can be used for the transistor 162 described in the above embodiment will be described with reference to drawings.

  The band structure of the multilayer film 130 will be described with reference to FIGS.

  Note that an In—Ga—Zn oxide with an energy gap of 3.15 eV is used as the oxide film 130a, and an In—Ga—Zn oxide with an energy gap of 2.8 eV is used as the oxide semiconductor film 130b. An oxide film having the same physical properties as the oxide film 130a was used as the material film 130c. The energy gap near the interface between the oxide film 130a and the oxide semiconductor film 130b was 3 eV, and the energy gap near the interface between the oxide film 130c and the oxide semiconductor film 130b was 3 eV. The energy gap was measured using a spectroscopic ellipsometer (HORIBA JOBIN YVON UT-300). In addition, the thickness of the oxide film 130a was 10 nm, the thickness of the oxide semiconductor film 130b was 10 nm, and the thickness of the oxide film 130c was 10 nm.

  FIG. 22A is a diagram in which the energy difference between the vacuum level and the valence band upper end of each layer is measured while the multilayer film 130 is etched from the oxide film 130c, and the value is plotted. The energy difference between the vacuum level and the upper end of the valence band was measured using an ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) apparatus (PHI VersaProbe).

  FIG. 22B is a diagram in which the energy difference between the vacuum level and the conduction band bottom is calculated and plotted by subtracting the energy gap of each layer from the energy difference between the vacuum level and the valence band top.

  A part of the band structure schematically showing FIG. 22B is FIG. FIG. 23A illustrates the case where a silicon oxide film is provided in contact with the oxide film 130a and the oxide film 130c. Here, EcI1 represents the energy at the bottom of the conduction band of the silicon oxide film, EcS1 represents the energy at the bottom of the conduction band of the oxide film 130a, EcS2 represents the energy at the bottom of the conduction band of the oxide semiconductor film 130b, and EcS3 represents The energy at the lower end of the conduction band of the oxide film 130c is indicated, and EcI2 indicates the energy at the lower end of the conduction band of the silicon oxide film.

  As shown in FIG. 23A, in the oxide film 130a, the oxide semiconductor film 130b, and the oxide film 130c, the energy at the lower end of the conduction band changes continuously. This is because oxygen diffuses among the oxide film 130a, the oxide semiconductor film 130b, and the oxide film 130c.

  Note that in the case where the oxide film 130a and the oxide film 130c are oxide films having different physical properties, for example, when EcS3 has higher energy than EcS1, a part of the band structure is as illustrated in FIG. Shown in At this time, the oxide film 130a has In: Ga: Zn = 1: 3: 2 [atomic ratio], the oxide semiconductor film 130b has In: Ga: Zn = 1: 1: 1 [atomic ratio], and the oxide. The film 130c may have In: Ga: Zn = 1: 6: 4 [atomic ratio]. Alternatively, the oxide film 130a is In: Ga: Zn = 1: 3: 2 [atomic ratio], the oxide semiconductor film 130b is In: Ga: Zn = 3: 1: 2 [atomic ratio], and the oxide film 130c may be In: Ga: Zn = 1: 9: 6 [atomic ratio].

  In this way, the oxide semiconductor layers stacked with the main component in common are not simply stacked, but are continuously stacked (here, in particular, a U-shaped structure in which the energy at the bottom of the conduction band changes continuously between the layers). The well structure is formed. That is, the stacked structure is formed so that there are no defects such as trap centers and recombination centers for the oxide semiconductor, or impurities that form a barrier that hinders carrier flow, at the interface between the layers. If impurities are mixed between the stacked oxide semiconductor layers, the continuity of the energy band is lost, and carriers disappear at the interface by trapping or recombination.

In order to form a continuous bond, it is necessary to use a multi-chamber type film forming apparatus (sputtering apparatus) having a load lock chamber to successively laminate each layer without exposure to the atmosphere. Each chamber in the sputtering apparatus is evacuated (1 × 10 −4 Pa to 5 ×) using an adsorption-type evacuation pump such as a cryopump so as to remove as much water as possible from the oxide semiconductor. It is preferable that it is about 10 −7 Pa). Alternatively, it is preferable to combine a turbo molecular pump and a cold trap so that a gas (particularly, a gas containing a carbon component or a water compound) does not flow backward from the exhaust system into the chamber.

  In order to obtain a high-purity intrinsic oxide semiconductor, it is necessary not only to evacuate the chamber to a high vacuum but also to increase the purity of the sputtering gas. Oxygen gas or argon gas used as a sputtering gas has a dew point of −40 ° C. or lower, preferably −80 ° C. or lower, more preferably −100 ° C. or lower. Can be prevented as much as possible.

  Here, in the band structure shown in FIG. 23A, for example, assuming that EcI2 is a gate insulating film and the gate electrode is on the left side of EcI2, the conduction that satisfies EcS1> EcS3 as shown in FIG. A structure having energy at the lower end of the belt is preferable. This is because current mainly flows through EcS2 in the vicinity of Ecs3 on the gate electrode side.

  Further, in the case where the oxide film 130c and the gate electrode are provided with the silicon oxide film interposed therebetween, the silicon oxide film functions as a gate insulating film, and the indium contained in the oxide semiconductor film 130b is diffused into the gate insulating film. This can be prevented by the material film 130c. In order to prevent indium from being diffused by the oxide film 130c, the oxide film 130c is preferably smaller than the amount of indium contained in the oxide semiconductor film 130b.

  In addition, as illustrated in FIG. 23B, the oxide film 130a and the oxide film 130c may be oxide films having similar physical properties. Although not shown in FIG. 21, EcS3 may have higher energy than EcS1.

  22 and 23 that the oxide semiconductor film 130b of the multilayer film 130 becomes a well, and a channel is formed in the oxide semiconductor film 130b in the transistor using the multilayer film 130. The multilayer film 130 can also be called a U-shaped well because the energy at the lower end of the conduction band changes continuously.

  Note that as shown in FIG. 24, trap states due to impurities and defects may be formed in the vicinity of the interface between the oxide film 130a and the oxide film 130c and an insulating film such as a silicon oxide film.

  Further, with the oxide film 130a and the oxide film 130c, the oxide semiconductor film 130b can be kept away from the trap level. Note that in the case where the energy difference between EcS1 or EcS3 and EcS2 is small, electrons in the oxide semiconductor film 130b may reach the trap level beyond the oxide film 130a or the oxide film 130c. By trapping electrons in the trap level, negative fixed charges are generated, and the threshold voltage of the transistor is shifted in the positive direction.

  Therefore, it is preferable that the energy difference between EcS1 and EcS3 and EcS1 is 0.1 eV or more, preferably 0.15 eV or more, because fluctuations in the threshold voltage of the transistor are reduced and stable electric characteristics are obtained. .

  Next, a model of crystal growth of the oxide semiconductor film 130b having high crystallinity is described with reference to FIGS.

  FIG. 25A is a schematic view illustrating a state where ions 1001 collide with a target 1000 including a polycrystalline oxide semiconductor having high orientation and a sputtered particle 1002 having crystallinity is separated. The crystal grains have a cleavage plane parallel to the surface of the target 1000. Further, the crystal grain has a portion having a weak bond between atoms. When the ion 1001 collides with the crystal grain, the interatomic bond is broken at a portion where the interatomic bond is weak. Therefore, the sputtered particle 1002 is cut by a cleavage plane and a portion having a weak bond between atoms, and peeled off in a flat plate shape (or a pellet shape). Note that the plane equivalent circle diameter of the sputtered particles 1002 is 1/3000 or more and 1/20 or less, and preferably 1/1000 or more and 1/30 or less, of the average grain size of crystal grains. The equivalent circle diameter of a surface means a diameter of a perfect circle that is equal to the area of the surface.

  Alternatively, part of the crystal grains is separated from the cleavage plane as particles and exposed to plasma, whereby bonds are broken from portions where bonds between atoms are weak, and a plurality of sputtered particles 1002 are generated.

  By using an oxygen cation as the ion 1001, plasma damage during film formation can be reduced. Therefore, when the ions 1001 collide with the surface of the target 1000, it is possible to suppress the crystallinity of the target 1000 from being lowered or becoming amorphous.

  Here, as an example of the target 1000 including a polycrystalline oxide semiconductor having high orientation, FIG. 26A illustrates a crystal of an In—Ga—Zn oxide as viewed in parallel with the ab plane of the crystal. The structure is shown. In FIG. 26A, the portion surrounded by the broken line is enlarged and shown in FIG.

  For example, in a crystal grain included in the In—Ga—Zn oxide, a first layer including a gallium atom and / or a zinc atom and an oxygen atom, a gallium atom and / or a zinc atom, and oxygen illustrated in FIG. A plane between the second layer having atoms is a cleavage plane. This is because oxygen atoms having negative charges in the first layer and the second layer are located at a short distance (see a box in FIG. 26B). Thus, the cleavage plane is a plane parallel to the ab plane. In addition, since the crystal of the In—Ga—Zn oxide illustrated in FIG. 26 is a hexagonal crystal, the above-described flat crystal grains tend to have a hexagonal column shape having a regular hexagonal surface with an inner angle of 120 °.

  The sputtered particle 1002 is preferably charged positively. The timing at which the sputtered particles 1002 are positively charged is not particularly limited. Specifically, the sputtered particles 1002 may be positively charged by receiving charges when the ions 1001 collide. Alternatively, when plasma is generated, the sputtering particles 1002 may be charged positively by exposure to plasma. Alternatively, the ion 1001 which is an oxygen cation may be positively charged by bonding to the side surface, the upper surface, or the lower surface of the sputtered particle 1002.

  Hereinafter, how the sputtered particles are deposited on the deposition surface will be described with reference to FIG. In FIG. 27, sputtered particles that have already been deposited are indicated by dotted lines.

  In FIG. 27A, the deposition surface 1003 has a surface on which several layers of oxide semiconductor films are deposited. Note that an amorphous film 1004 is formed below the deposition surface 1003. FIG. 27A shows that the sputtered particles 1002 are positively charged, so that the sputtered particles 1002 are deposited on the deposition surface 1003 in a region where other sputtered particles 1002 are not deposited. This is because the sputtered particles 1002 are positively charged and the sputtered particles 1002 repel each other.

  FIG. 27B is a cross-sectional view corresponding to the dashed-dotted line X-Y in FIG. The sputtered particles 1002 deposited in this manner have crystal c-axes aligned in a direction perpendicular to the deposition surface 1003, and the oxide semiconductor film 130 b becomes a CAAC-OS (C Axis Crystalline Oxide Semiconductor). . As described above, the oxide semiconductor film 130b can form a crystal with the c-axis aligned over the amorphous film 1004.

  In this manner, the oxide semiconductor film obtained by deposition has a uniform thickness and becomes an oxide semiconductor film in which crystal orientation is uniform. The mechanism by which the sputtered particles are deposited randomly so that the positively charged sputtered particles interact with each other and the c-axis is aligned in a direction perpendicular to the film formation surface is not physically deposited. It can be expressed as epitaxial growth or epitaxial deposition.

  By using a target including a polycrystalline oxide semiconductor having high orientation by the above method, an oxide semiconductor film 130b having a uniform thickness and a uniform crystal orientation can be formed. .

  Note that the structure and the like described in this embodiment can be combined as appropriate with any of the structures described in the other embodiments.

(Embodiment 9)
In this embodiment, the case where the semiconductor device described in any of the above embodiments is applied to an electronic device will be described with reference to FIGS. In this embodiment, a computer, a mobile phone (also referred to as a mobile phone or a mobile phone device), a portable information terminal (including a portable game machine or an audio playback device), a camera such as a digital camera or a digital video camera, or an electronic paper A case where the above-described semiconductor device is applied to an electronic device such as a television device (also referred to as a television or a television receiver) will be described.

  FIG. 28A illustrates a laptop personal computer, which includes a housing 701, a housing 702, a display portion 703, a keyboard 704, and the like. At least one of the housing 701 and the housing 702 is provided with the semiconductor device described in the above embodiment. Therefore, a laptop personal computer is realized in which information is written and read at high speed, memory can be retained for a long time, and power consumption is sufficiently reduced.

  FIG. 28B illustrates a personal digital assistant (PDA). A main body 711 is provided with a display portion 713, an external interface 715, operation buttons 714, and the like. A stylus 712 for operating the portable information terminal is also provided. In the main body 711, the semiconductor device described in any of the above embodiments is provided. Therefore, a portable information terminal can be realized in which writing and reading of information are performed at high speed, storage for a long period of time is possible, and power consumption is sufficiently reduced.

  FIG. 28C illustrates an electronic book mounted with electronic paper. The electronic book 720 includes two housings, a housing 721 and a housing 723. The housing 721 and the housing 723 are provided with a display portion 725 and a display portion 727, respectively. The housing 721 and the housing 723 are connected by a shaft portion 737 and can be opened and closed with the shaft portion 737 as an axis. The housing 721 includes a power source 731, operation keys 733, a speaker 735, and the like. At least one of the housing 721 and the housing 723 is provided with the semiconductor device described in the above embodiment. Therefore, an electronic book can be realized in which information is written and read at high speed, memory can be stored for a long time, and power consumption is sufficiently reduced.

  FIG. 28D illustrates a mobile phone, which includes two housings, a housing 740 and a housing 741. Further, the housing 740 and the housing 741 can be slid to be in an overlapped state from the deployed state as illustrated in FIG. 28D, and thus can be reduced in size to be portable. The housing 741 includes a display panel 742, a speaker 743, a microphone 744, operation keys 745, a pointing device 746, a camera 747, an external connection terminal 748, and the like. The housing 740 includes a solar cell 749 for charging the mobile phone, an external memory slot 750, and the like. The antenna is incorporated in the housing 741. At least one of the housing 740 and the housing 741 is provided with the semiconductor device described in the above embodiment. Therefore, a mobile phone in which information is written and read at high speed, memory can be stored for a long time, and power consumption is sufficiently reduced is realized.

  FIG. 28E illustrates a digital camera, which includes a main body 761, a display portion 767, an eyepiece portion 763, operation switches 764, a display portion 765, a battery 766, and the like. In the main body 761, the semiconductor device described in any of the above embodiments is provided. Therefore, a digital camera can be realized in which writing and reading of information are performed at high speed, storage for a long period of time is possible, and power consumption is sufficiently reduced.

  FIG. 28F illustrates a television device which includes a housing 771, a display portion 773, a stand 775, and the like. The television device 770 can be operated with a switch included in the housing 771 or a remote controller 780. The housing 771 and the remote controller 780 are each equipped with the semiconductor device described in the above embodiment. Therefore, a television device which can write and read information at high speed, can store data for a long time, and has sufficiently reduced power consumption is realized.

As described above, the electronic device described in this embodiment includes the semiconductor device according to any of the above embodiments. For this reason, an electronic device with reduced power consumption is realized.
<Reference example>

  In order to describe the “low off-state current” of a transistor in which a channel is formed in the oxide semiconductor film in the multilayer film, the results of obtaining the off-state current of the transistor including the multilayer film will be described below.

<Measurement of off-state current of transistor using multilayer film>
First, the measurement sample will be described.

  First, a base insulating film was formed on a silicon substrate. As the base insulating film, silicon oxynitride having a thickness of 300 nm was formed by a CVD method.

  Next, a first oxide film was formed over the base insulating film. The first oxide film was formed to a thickness of 5 nm by a sputtering method using a target that was an In—Ga—Zn oxide (In: Ga: Zn = 1: 3: 2 [atomic ratio]). The film was formed by using 30 sccm of argon gas and 15 sccm of oxygen gas as a film forming gas, a pressure of 0.4 Pa, a substrate temperature of 200 ° C., and a DC power of 0.5 kW.

  Next, an oxide semiconductor film was formed over the first oxide film. The oxide semiconductor film was formed to a thickness of 15 nm by a sputtering method using a target that is an In—Ga—Zn oxide (In: Ga: Zn = 1: 1: 1 [atomic ratio]). The film was formed by using 30 sccm of argon gas and 15 sccm of oxygen gas as a film forming gas, a pressure of 0.4 Pa, a substrate temperature of 300 ° C., and DC power of 0.5 kW.

  Next, a second oxide film was formed over the oxide semiconductor film. The second oxide film was formed to a thickness of 5 nm by a sputtering method using a target that was an In—Ga—Zn oxide (In: Ga: Zn = 1: 3: 2 [atomic ratio]). The film was formed by using 30 sccm of argon gas and 15 sccm of oxygen gas as a film forming gas, a pressure of 0.4 Pa, a substrate temperature of 200 ° C., and a DC power of 0.5 kW.

  Next, heat treatment was performed to desorb water, hydrogen, and the like contained in the oxide semiconductor film. Here, after heat treatment was performed at 450 ° C. for 1 hour in a nitrogen atmosphere, heat treatment was performed at 450 ° C. for 1 hour in an oxygen atmosphere.

  Next, a conductive film is formed over the base insulating film and the second oxide film, a mask is formed over the conductive film by a photolithography process, and part of the conductive film is etched using the mask, A source electrode and a drain electrode were formed. Note that a tungsten film having a thickness of 100 nm was formed as the conductive film to be the source electrode and the drain electrode.

  Next, a gate insulating film was formed over the second oxide film, the source electrode, and the drain electrode. A silicon oxynitride film having a thickness of 30 nm was formed as a gate insulating film by a CVD method.

  Next, a gate electrode was formed on the gate insulating film. A tantalum nitride film having a thickness of 30 nm was formed by a sputtering method, and a tungsten film having a thickness of 135 nm was formed on the tantalum nitride by a sputtering method. A mask was formed on the tungsten film by a photolithography process, and the tantalum nitride and part of the tungsten film were etched using the mask to form a gate electrode.

  Next, an interlayer insulating film was formed so as to cover each component. As the interlayer insulating film, an aluminum oxide film having a thickness of 70 nm was formed by a sputtering method, and a silicon oxynitride film having a thickness of 300 nm was formed on the aluminum oxide film by a CVD method.

  The transistor has a channel length L = 0.73 μm, a channel width W = 1 cm, and a length Loff between the gate electrode and the source electrode (or drain electrode) is 0.67 μm.

  Through the above process, a sample transistor was manufactured.

  Next, the leakage current result of the manufactured transistor will be described.

  The measurement conditions were a dry atmosphere, a dark state of Vgs = −4 V, Vds = 1 V, and two conditions of 85 ° C. and 125 ° C.

As shown in FIG. 29, at 85 ° C. and 125 ° C., low off-state currents of 1 × 10 −21 A / μm or less and 1 × 10 −19 A / μm or less are shown over time.

  From the above, it was confirmed that the off-state current of the transistor including a multilayer film was extremely low.

100 substrate 101 element isolation insulating film 103 high concentration impurity region 104 low concentration impurity region 105 gate electrode 106a gate insulating film 106b gate insulating film 107 high concentration impurity region 108 low concentration impurity region 109 gate electrode 110 wiring 111 wiring 112 wiring 113 wiring 114 Wiring 115 wiring 116 insulating film 117 wiring 118 wiring 119 wiring 120 wiring 121 insulating film 122 wiring 123 wiring 124 insulating film 130 multilayer film 130a oxide film 130b oxide semiconductor film 130c oxide film 131 gate insulating film 132 conductive film 132a conductive film 132b conductive film 133 conductive film 133a conductive film 133b conductive film 134 gate electrode 135 sidewall insulating film 136 sidewall insulating film 144 insulating film 145 insulating film 146 conductive film 147 conductive film 160 Jistor 161 Transistor 162 Transistor 170 Protective film 171 Semiconductor region 172 Channel formation region 173 Channel formation region 174 Resist mask 175 Resist mask 200 Memory cell 210 Memory cell array 211 Driver circuit 212 Read circuit 213 Driver circuit 220 Memory cell 230 Memory cell array 231 Driver circuit 232 Read circuit 233 Drive circuit 240 Memory cell 250 Memory cell array 260 Memory cell 270 Memory cell 280a Memory cell 280b Memory cell 290 Memory cell 300 Insulating surface layer 302a Metal nitride film 302b Metal nitride film 304a Conductive film 304b Conductive film 350 Transistor 701 Housing Body 702 Housing 703 Display unit 704 Keyboard 711 Main body 712 Stylus 713 Display 714 Operation buttons 715 External interface 720 Electronic book 721 Case 723 Case 725 Display unit 727 Display unit 731 Power supply 733 Operation key 735 Speaker 737 Shaft unit 740 Case 741 Case 742 Display panel 743 Speaker 744 Microphone 745 Operation key 746 Pointing device 747 Camera 748 External connection terminal 749 Solar cell 750 External memory slot 761 Main body 763 Eyepiece 764 Operation switch 765 Display 766 Battery 767 Display 770 Television apparatus 771 Housing 773 Display 775 Stand 780 Remote controller 1000 Target 1001 Ion 1002 Sputtered particle 1003 Deposition surface 1004 Amorphous film

Claims (5)

  1. A first wiring;
    A second wiring;
    A third wiring;
    A fourth wiring;
    A fifth wiring;
    A plurality of storage elements are connected in parallel between the first wiring and the second wiring,
    One of the plurality of storage elements is
    A first transistor having a first gate electrode, a first source electrode, and a first drain electrode;
    A second transistor having a second gate electrode, a second source electrode, and a second drain electrode;
    A third transistor having a third gate electrode, a third source electrode, and a third drain electrode,
    The first transistor is provided on a substrate including a semiconductor material;
    The second transistor includes a first oxide film, an oxide semiconductor film on the first oxide film, and a second oxide film on the oxide semiconductor film,
    The energy of the bottom of the conduction band of the first oxide film is close to the oxide semiconductor also true sky level Ri by energy at the lower end of the conduction band of the film,
    The energy at the bottom of the conduction band of the second oxide film is closer to the vacuum level than the energy at the bottom of the conduction band of the oxide semiconductor film,
    The second source electrode and the second drain electrode are provided on the oxide semiconductor film,
    The second oxide film has a region provided on the second source electrode and the second drain electrode and in contact with the oxide semiconductor film,
    The first gate electrode and one of the second source electrode or the second drain electrode are electrically connected,
    The first wiring and the first source electrode are electrically connected,
    The first drain electrode and the third source electrode are electrically connected,
    The second wiring and the third drain electrode are electrically connected,
    The third wiring and the other of the second source electrode or the second drain electrode are electrically connected,
    The fourth wiring and the second gate electrode are electrically connected,
    The semiconductor device, wherein the fifth wiring and the third gate electrode are electrically connected.
  2. A first wiring;
    A second wiring;
    A third wiring;
    A fourth wiring;
    A fifth wiring;
    A plurality of storage elements are connected in parallel between the first wiring and the second wiring,
    One of the plurality of storage elements is
    A first transistor having a first gate electrode, a first source electrode, and a first drain electrode;
    A second transistor having a second gate electrode, a second source electrode, and a second drain electrode;
    A capacitive element;
    The first transistor is provided on a substrate including a semiconductor material;
    The second transistor includes a first oxide film, an oxide semiconductor film on the first oxide film, and a second oxide film on the oxide semiconductor film,
    The energy at the bottom of the conduction band of the first oxide film is closer to the vacuum level than the energy at the bottom of the conduction band of the oxide semiconductor film ,
    The energy at the bottom of the conduction band of the second oxide film is closer to the vacuum level than the energy at the bottom of the conduction band of the oxide semiconductor film,
    The second source electrode and the second drain electrode are provided on the oxide semiconductor film,
    The second oxide film has a region provided on the second source electrode and the second drain electrode and in contact with the oxide semiconductor film,
    The first gate electrode, one of the second source electrode or the second drain electrode, and one electrode of the capacitor are electrically connected,
    The first wiring and the first source electrode are electrically connected,
    The second wiring and the first drain electrode are electrically connected,
    The third wiring and the other of the second source electrode or the second drain electrode are electrically connected,
    The fourth wiring and the second gate electrode are electrically connected,
    The semiconductor device, wherein the fifth wiring and the other electrode of the capacitor are electrically connected.
  3. A first wiring;
    A second wiring;
    A third wiring;
    A fourth wiring;
    A fifth wiring;
    A plurality of storage elements are connected in parallel between the first wiring and the second wiring,
    One of the plurality of storage elements is
    A first transistor having a first gate electrode, a first source electrode, and a first drain electrode;
    A second transistor having a second gate electrode, a second source electrode, and a second drain electrode;
    A third transistor having a third gate electrode, a third source electrode, and a third drain electrode,
    The first transistor is provided on a substrate including a semiconductor material;
    The second transistor includes a first oxide film, an oxide semiconductor film on the first oxide film, and a second oxide film on the oxide semiconductor film,
    The first oxide film includes indium and gallium,
    The oxide semiconductor film includes indium and gallium,
    The second oxide film includes indium and gallium;
    The atomic ratio of gallium in the first oxide film is higher than the atomic ratio of gallium in the oxide semiconductor film,
    The atomic ratio of gallium in the second oxide film is higher than the atomic ratio of gallium in the oxide semiconductor film,
    The second source electrode and the second drain electrode are provided on the oxide semiconductor film,
    The second oxide film has a region provided on the second source electrode and the second drain electrode and in contact with the oxide semiconductor film,
    The first gate electrode and one of the second source electrode or the second drain electrode are electrically connected,
    The first wiring and the first source electrode are electrically connected,
    The first drain electrode and the third source electrode are electrically connected,
    The second wiring and the third drain electrode are electrically connected,
    The third wiring and the other of the second source electrode or the second drain electrode are electrically connected,
    The fourth wiring and the second gate electrode are electrically connected,
    The semiconductor device, wherein the fifth wiring and the third gate electrode are electrically connected.
  4. A first wiring;
    A second wiring;
    A third wiring;
    A fourth wiring;
    A fifth wiring;
    A plurality of storage elements are connected in parallel between the first wiring and the second wiring,
    One of the plurality of storage elements is
    A first transistor having a first gate electrode, a first source electrode, and a first drain electrode;
    A second transistor having a second gate electrode, a second source electrode, and a second drain electrode;
    A capacitive element;
    The first transistor is provided on a substrate including a semiconductor material;
    The second transistor includes a first oxide film, an oxide semiconductor film on the first oxide film, and a second oxide film on the oxide semiconductor film,
    The first oxide film includes indium and gallium,
    The oxide semiconductor film includes indium and gallium,
    The second oxide film includes indium and gallium;
    The atomic ratio of gallium in the first oxide film is higher than the atomic ratio of gallium in the oxide semiconductor film,
    The atomic ratio of gallium in the second oxide film is higher than the atomic ratio of gallium in the oxide semiconductor film,
    The second source electrode and the second drain electrode are provided on the oxide semiconductor film,
    The second oxide film has a region provided on the second source electrode and the second drain electrode and in contact with the oxide semiconductor film,
    The first gate electrode, one of the second source electrode or the second drain electrode, and one electrode of the capacitor are electrically connected,
    The first wiring and the first source electrode are electrically connected,
    The second wiring and the first drain electrode are electrically connected,
    The third wiring and the other of the second source electrode or the second drain electrode are electrically connected,
    The fourth wiring and the second gate electrode are electrically connected,
    The semiconductor device, wherein the fifth wiring and the other electrode of the capacitor are electrically connected.
  5. In any one of Claims 1 thru | or 4,
    The second source electrode includes a first conductive film on the oxide semiconductor film, and a second conductive film on the first conductive film,
    The second drain electrode includes a third conductive film on the oxide semiconductor film, and a fourth conductive layer on the third conductive film, and
    Wherein the second conductive film distance of the fourth conductive film is rather narrower than the interval of the first conductive film and the third conductive film,
    The length of the second gate electrode in the channel length direction is wider than the distance between the second conductive film and the fourth conductive film, and the distance between the first conductive film and the third conductive film. semi conductor arrangement characterized by narrower.
JP2012229749A 2012-10-17 2012-10-17 Semiconductor device Active JP6026844B2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2012229749A JP6026844B2 (en) 2012-10-17 2012-10-17 Semiconductor device

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2012229749A JP6026844B2 (en) 2012-10-17 2012-10-17 Semiconductor device

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
JP2014082357A JP2014082357A (en) 2014-05-08
JP6026844B2 true JP6026844B2 (en) 2016-11-16

Family

ID=50786279

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
JP2012229749A Active JP6026844B2 (en) 2012-10-17 2012-10-17 Semiconductor device

Country Status (1)

Country Link
JP (1) JP6026844B2 (en)

Family Cites Families (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH04133439A (en) * 1990-09-26 1992-05-07 Sharp Corp Manufacture of field effect transistor
JP2515947B2 (en) * 1992-05-29 1996-07-10 株式会社日立製作所 Superconducting element
KR101788521B1 (en) * 2009-10-30 2017-10-19 가부시키가이샤 한도오따이 에네루기 켄큐쇼 Semiconductor device
JP5497417B2 (en) * 2009-12-10 2014-05-21 富士フイルム株式会社 Thin film transistor, manufacturing method thereof, and apparatus having the thin film transistor

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
JP2014082357A (en) 2014-05-08

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US10056385B2 (en) Semiconductor device including write access transistor whose oxide semiconductor layer including channel formation region
KR101913111B1 (en) Semiconductor device
JP5116901B1 (en) Nonvolatile latch circuit
TWI556236B (en) Semiconductor device
US9153589B2 (en) Semiconductor device
US9054201B2 (en) Semiconductor device
US8614916B2 (en) Semiconductor device and driving method thereof
US9806079B2 (en) Semiconductor device
US9705005B2 (en) Semiconductor device
CN102598249B (en) Semiconductor device
CN102576708B (en) Semiconductor device
KR101403629B1 (en) Semiconductor device
TWI648824B (en) The semiconductor device
US9349735B2 (en) Semiconductor device
JP5727818B2 (en) Method for manufacturing semiconductor device
US8654582B2 (en) Non-volatile semiconductor memory device equipped with an oxide semiconductor writing transistor having a small off-state current
KR20120091450A (en) Nonvolatile latch circuit and logic circuit, and semiconductor device using the same
KR20120098760A (en) Semiconductor device
JP2019071486A (en) Semiconductor device
US9053969B2 (en) Semiconductor device
US9042161B2 (en) Memory device
US9905557B2 (en) Semiconductor device
JP6415647B2 (en) Semiconductor device
TWI644440B (en) Semiconductor device
JP6622379B2 (en) Semiconductor device

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
A621 Written request for application examination

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A621

Effective date: 20150722

A131 Notification of reasons for refusal

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A131

Effective date: 20160412

A977 Report on retrieval

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A971007

Effective date: 20160414

A521 Written amendment

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A523

Effective date: 20160420

TRDD Decision of grant or rejection written
A01 Written decision to grant a patent or to grant a registration (utility model)

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A01

Effective date: 20160920

A61 First payment of annual fees (during grant procedure)

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A61

Effective date: 20161013

R150 Certificate of patent or registration of utility model

Ref document number: 6026844

Country of ref document: JP

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: R150

R250 Receipt of annual fees

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: R250