JP6008199B2 - Lithium ion secondary battery - Google Patents

Lithium ion secondary battery Download PDF

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JP6008199B2
JP6008199B2 JP2013085966A JP2013085966A JP6008199B2 JP 6008199 B2 JP6008199 B2 JP 6008199B2 JP 2013085966 A JP2013085966 A JP 2013085966A JP 2013085966 A JP2013085966 A JP 2013085966A JP 6008199 B2 JP6008199 B2 JP 6008199B2
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binder
heat
resistant layer
binder group
positive electrode
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JP2014209414A (en
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秋田 宏之
宏之 秋田
匠 玉木
匠 玉木
島村 治成
治成 島村
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トヨタ自動車株式会社
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Description

  The present invention relates to a lithium ion secondary battery. In this specification, the “secondary battery” refers to a battery that can be repeatedly charged. The “lithium ion secondary battery” refers to a secondary battery that uses lithium ions as electrolyte ions and is charged and discharged by the movement of electric charges accompanying the lithium ions between the positive and negative electrodes. A battery generally referred to as a “lithium secondary battery” can be included in the lithium ion secondary battery in this specification.

  For example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2008-123996 discloses a separator used for, for example, a lithium ion secondary battery. In the separator disclosed in the publication, a heat-resistant layer containing 70% by volume or more of heat-resistant fine particles is formed on the surface of the porous resin membrane. Patent Document 1 lists a plurality of types of organic binders used for the heat-resistant layer. Moreover, it is disclosed that it may be used alone or in combination of two or more. However, the organic binder used for the heat-resistant layer is not specifically disclosed in terms of how to use two or more types together.

JP 2008-123996 A

  By the way, according to the knowledge of the present inventors, in the lithium ion secondary battery, when the diffusion of lithium ions by charging / discharging proceeds, the distribution of lithium ions in the electrode body may be uneven. Furthermore, for example, the lithium ion density may locally increase during overcharge. It becomes a factor that generates heat when the density of lithium ions increases. It is desirable that the lithium ion secondary battery has a structure in which heat generation due to such factors is appropriately suppressed. Here, a new structure is proposed for a lithium ion secondary battery having a separator with a heat-resistant layer, which can suppress a temperature rise during overcharging.

  The lithium ion secondary battery proposed here includes an electrode body including a positive electrode, a negative electrode, and a separator interposed between the positive electrode and the negative electrode, and a battery case containing the electrode body. . Here, the electrode body contains a LiBOB-derived film and Na. The separator includes a base material made of a plastic porous film and a heat-resistant layer made of a filler and a binder formed on the surface of the base material. The binder of the heat-resistant layer has a binder group A made of a binder having a softening temperature of 175 ° C. or higher and a binder group B made of a binder having a softening temperature lower than 175 ° C. When the average molecular weight of the binder of the binder group B is 10,000 to 500,000 and the weight of the binder group A is 100, the weight of the binder group B is 5 or more and 50 or less. Thereby, especially the temperature increase rate at the time of overcharge is suppressed low. Here, the “softening temperature” is a temperature at which the length of the sample greatly changes when the sample is heated by the TMA penetration method (conforming to JIS K7196) (softening temperature (also referred to as softening point)). ).

  In this case, the binder group A is preferably made of polyacrylic acid, for example. Here, polyacrylic acid is a polymer based on acrylic acid. Moreover, the binder group B is good to consist of at least one kind of binder, for example among PNVA and PNMA.

  In addition, the binder of the heat-resistant layer attached to the surface of the separator base material may have a higher binder group B ratio than the binder group B ratio in the entire heat-resistant layer. Moreover, the binder adhering to the filler F in the heat-resistant layer may have a larger proportion of the binder group A than the proportion of the binder group A in the entire heat-resistant layer.

  In addition, for example, the proportion of the pore diameter of 0.01 μm or more and 0.1 μm or less of the base material of the separator may be 45% or more and 90% or less of the whole. Moreover, 14 micrometers or more and 30 micrometers or less may be sufficient as the thickness of the base material of a separator, for example.

FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view showing a lithium ion secondary battery. FIG. 2 is a diagram showing an electrode body incorporated in a lithium ion secondary battery. FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the separator. FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram showing the state of the lithium ion secondary battery during charging. FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram showing a state of the lithium ion secondary battery during discharging. FIG. 6 is a schematic view schematically showing the heat-resistant layer of the separator proposed here. FIG. 7 is a schematic view schematically showing the function of the heat-resistant layer of the separator proposed here. FIG. 8 is a diagram illustrating a vehicle on which a secondary battery (assembled battery) is mounted.

  Hereinafter, a lithium ion secondary battery according to an embodiment of the present invention will be described. The embodiments described herein are, of course, not intended to limit the present invention in particular. Each drawing is schematically drawn, and the dimensional relationship (length, width, thickness, etc.) in each drawing does not reflect the actual dimensional relationship. Further, members / parts having the same action are denoted by the same reference numerals, and redundant description is omitted or simplified.

  Here, a structural example of a lithium ion secondary battery that can be applied will be described first, and then the lithium ion secondary battery proposed here will be described.

<< Lithium ion secondary battery 10 >>
FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view showing a lithium ion secondary battery 10. FIG. 2 is a diagram showing an electrode body 40 housed in the lithium ion secondary battery 10. Note that the lithium ion secondary battery 10 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 is merely an example of a lithium ion secondary battery to which the present invention can be applied, and is a lithium ion secondary battery to which the present invention can be applied. There is no particular limitation.

  As shown in FIG. 1, the lithium ion secondary battery 10 includes a battery case 20 and an electrode body 40 (in FIG. 1, a wound electrode body).

≪Battery case 20≫
The battery case 20 includes a case body 21 and a sealing plate 22. The case body 21 has a box shape having an opening at one end. Here, the case main body 21 has a bottomed rectangular parallelepiped shape in which one surface corresponding to the upper surface in the normal use state of the lithium ion secondary battery 10 is opened. In this embodiment, the case body 21 is formed with a rectangular opening. The sealing plate 22 is a member that closes the opening of the case body 21. The sealing plate 22 is a rectangular plate. The sealing plate 22 is welded to the peripheral edge of the opening of the case body 21 to form a substantially hexahedral battery case 20.

  As the material of the battery case 20, for example, a battery case 20 mainly composed of a metal material that is lightweight and has good thermal conductivity can be preferably used. Examples of such a metal material include aluminum, stainless steel, nickel-plated steel, and the like. The battery case 20 (case body 21 and sealing plate 22) according to the present embodiment is made of aluminum or an alloy mainly composed of aluminum.

  In the example shown in FIG. 1, a positive electrode terminal 23 (external terminal) and a negative electrode terminal 24 (external terminal) for external connection are attached to the sealing plate 22. A safety valve 30 and a liquid injection port 32 are formed on the sealing plate 22. The safety valve 30 is configured to release the internal pressure when the internal pressure of the battery case 20 rises to a predetermined level (for example, a set valve opening pressure of about 0.3 MPa to 1.0 MPa) or more. FIG. 1 shows a state in which the liquid injection port 32 is sealed with a sealing material 33 after the electrolytic solution is injected. An electrode body 40 is accommodated in the battery case 20.

≪Electrode body 40 (winding electrode body) ≫
As shown in FIG. 2, the electrode body 40 includes a strip-shaped positive electrode (positive electrode sheet 50), a strip-shaped negative electrode (negative electrode sheet 60), and strip-shaped separators (separators 72 and 74).

≪Positive electrode sheet 50≫
The positive electrode sheet 50 includes a strip-shaped positive electrode current collector foil 51 and a positive electrode active material layer 53. For the positive electrode current collector foil 51, a metal foil suitable for the positive electrode can be suitably used. For the positive electrode current collector foil 51, for example, a strip-shaped aluminum foil having a predetermined width and a thickness of about 15 μm can be used. An uncoated portion 52 is set along the edge on one side in the width direction of the positive electrode current collector foil 51. In the illustrated example, the positive electrode active material layer 53 is held on both surfaces of the positive electrode current collector foil 51 except for the uncoated portion 52 set on the positive electrode current collector foil 51. The positive electrode active material layer 53 contains a positive electrode active material. The positive electrode active material layer 53 is formed by applying a positive electrode mixture containing a positive electrode active material to the positive electrode current collector foil 51.

As the positive electrode active material, one type or two or more types of materials conventionally used in lithium ion batteries can be used without particular limitation. As a preferred example, an oxide containing lithium and a transition metal element as constituent metal elements such as lithium nickel oxide (for example, LiNiO 2 ), lithium cobalt oxide (for example, LiCoO 2 ), and lithium manganese oxide (for example, LiMn 2 O 4 ). And a phosphate containing lithium and a transition metal element as constituent metal elements, such as lithium oxide (lithium transition metal oxide), lithium manganese phosphate (LiMnPO 4 ), and lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 ).

《Conductive material》
Examples of the conductive material include carbon materials such as carbon powder and carbon fiber. One kind selected from such conductive materials may be used alone, or two or more kinds may be used in combination. As the carbon powder, various carbon blacks (for example, acetylene black, oil furnace black, graphitized carbon black, carbon black, graphite, ketjen black), graphite powder, and the like can be used.

《Binder》
Further, the binder adheres the positive electrode active material and the conductive material particles contained in the positive electrode active material layer 53, or adheres these particles and the positive electrode current collector foil 51. As such a binder, a polymer that can be dissolved or dispersed in a solvent to be used can be used. For example, in a positive electrode mixture composition using an aqueous solvent, a cellulose polymer (carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), etc.), a fluorine resin (eg, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polytetrafluoroethylene, etc.) (PTFE), tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene copolymer (FEP, etc.), rubbers (vinyl acetate copolymer, styrene butadiene copolymer (SBR), acrylic acid-modified SBR resin (SBR latex), etc.) A water-soluble or water-dispersible polymer such as can be preferably used. In the positive electrode mixture composition using a non-aqueous solvent, a polymer (polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), etc.) can be preferably employed.

≪Negative electrode sheet 60≫
As shown in FIG. 2, the negative electrode sheet 60 includes a strip-shaped negative electrode current collector foil 61 and a negative electrode active material layer 63. For the negative electrode current collector foil 61, a metal foil suitable for the negative electrode can be suitably used. As the negative electrode current collector foil 61, a strip-shaped copper foil having a predetermined width and a thickness of about 10 μm is used. On one side in the width direction of the negative electrode current collector foil 61, an uncoated portion 62 is set along the edge portion. The negative electrode active material layer 63 is formed on both surfaces of the negative electrode current collector foil 61 except for the uncoated portion 62 set on the negative electrode current collector foil 61. The negative electrode active material layer 63 is held by the negative electrode current collector foil 61 and contains at least a negative electrode active material. In the negative electrode active material layer 63, a negative electrode mixture containing a negative electrode active material is applied to the negative electrode current collector foil 61.

<Negative electrode active material>
As the negative electrode active material, one type or two or more types of materials conventionally used in lithium ion batteries can be used without any particular limitation. Preferable examples include carbon-based materials such as graphite carbon and amorphous carbon, lithium transition metal oxides, lithium transition metal nitrides, and the like.

<< Separators 72, 74 >>
As shown in FIG. 2, the separators 72 and 74 are members that separate the positive electrode sheet 50 and the negative electrode sheet 60. In this example, the separators 72 and 74 are made of a strip-shaped sheet material having a predetermined width and having a plurality of minute holes. For the separators 72 and 74, a porous film made of a resin, for example, a separator having a single layer structure or a separator having a laminated structure made of a porous polyolefin resin can be used. In this example, the width b1 of the negative electrode active material layer 63 is slightly wider than the width a1 of the positive electrode active material layer 53, as shown in FIG. Furthermore, the widths c1 and c2 of the separators 72 and 74 are slightly wider than the width b1 of the negative electrode active material layer 63 (c1, c2>b1> a1).

  The separators 72 and 74 insulate the positive electrode active material layer 53 and the negative electrode active material layer 63 and allow the electrolyte to move. FIG. 3 shows a cross section of the separators 72 and 74 proposed here. As shown in FIG. 3, the separators 72 and 74 include a base material 76 made of a plastic porous film and a heat-resistant layer 78 formed on the surface of the base material 76. The heat resistant layer 78 is made of a filler and a binder. The heat resistant layer 78 is also referred to as HRL (Heat Resistance Layer). The heat resistant layer 78 will be described in detail later.

<< Attachment of electrode body 40 >>
In this embodiment, as shown in FIG. 2, the electrode body 40 is flatly pushed and bent in one direction orthogonal to the winding axis WL. In the example shown in FIG. 2, the uncoated part 52 of the positive electrode current collector foil 51 and the uncoated part 62 of the negative electrode current collector foil 61 are spirally exposed on both sides of the separators 72 and 74, respectively. In this embodiment, as shown in FIG. 1, the electrode body 40 is arranged in the battery case 20 by gathering the intermediate portions of the positive and negative uncoated portions 52 (62) protruding from the separators 72 and 74. The positive and negative internal terminals 23, 24 are welded to the tip portions 23a, 24a.

  The electrode body 40 is accommodated in the battery case 20 as shown in FIG. An electrolyte is further injected into the battery case 20. The electrolytic solution enters the electrode body 40 from the axial direction of the winding axis WL (see FIG. 2).

≪Electrolytic solution (liquid electrolyte) ≫
As the electrolytic solution, the same non-aqueous electrolytic solution conventionally used for lithium ion batteries can be used without particular limitation. Such a non-aqueous electrolyte typically has a composition in which a supporting salt is contained in a suitable non-aqueous solvent. Examples of the non-aqueous solvent include ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate, diethyl carbonate, ethyl methyl carbonate, 1,2-dimethoxyethane, 1,2-diethoxyethane, tetrahydrofuran, 1,3-dioxolane, and the like. One kind or two or more kinds selected from the group can be used. Examples of the supporting salt include LiPF 6 , LiBF 4 , LiAsF 6 , LiCF 3 SO 3 , LiC 4 F 9 SO 3 , LiN (CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 , LiC (CF 3 SO 2 ) 3 and the like. Lithium salts can be used. As an example, a nonaqueous electrolytic solution in which LiPF 6 is contained in a mixed solvent of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate (for example, a mass ratio of 1: 1) at a concentration of about 1 mol / L can be given.

  The positive electrode current collector foil 51 and the negative electrode current collector foil 61 of the lithium ion secondary battery 10 are electrically connected to an external device through electrode terminals 23 and 24 penetrating the battery case 20. Hereinafter, the operation of the lithium ion secondary battery 10 during charging and discharging will be described.

≪Operation when charging≫
FIG. 4 schematically shows the state of the lithium ion secondary battery 10 during charging. At the time of charging, the electrode terminals 23 and 24 (see FIG. 1) of the lithium ion secondary battery 10 are in a state of being connected to the charger 90 by the switch 92, as shown in FIG. At this time, a voltage is applied between the positive electrode sheet 50 and the negative electrode sheet 60 by the action of the charger 90, and lithium ions (Li) are released from the positive electrode active material in the positive electrode active material layer 53 to the electrolyte solution 80. The charge is released from the positive electrode active material layer 53. The discharged electric charge is sent to the positive electrode current collector foil 51 and sent to the negative electrode sheet 60 through the charger 90. In the negative electrode sheet 60, charges are stored, and lithium ions (Li) in the electrolytic solution 80 are absorbed and stored in the negative electrode active material in the negative electrode active material layer 63. Thereby, a potential difference is generated between the negative electrode sheet 60 and the positive electrode sheet 50.

<< Operation during discharge >>
FIG. 5 schematically shows the state of the lithium ion secondary battery 10 during discharge. At the time of discharging, the electrode terminals 23 and 24 (see FIG. 1) of the lithium ion secondary battery 10 are in a state of being connected to the resistor 94 by the switch 92, as shown in FIG. At this time, due to the potential difference between the negative electrode sheet 60 and the positive electrode sheet 50, charges are sent from the negative electrode sheet 60 to the positive electrode sheet 50 through the resistor 94, and lithium ions stored in the negative electrode active material layer 63 are released to the electrolyte solution 80. The In the positive electrode, the lithium ions in the electrolytic solution 80 are taken into the positive electrode active material in the positive electrode active material layer 53.

  Thus, in the charge / discharge of the lithium ion secondary battery 10, lithium ions are occluded or released in the positive electrode active material in the positive electrode active material layer 53 and the negative electrode active material in the negative electrode active material layer 63. Then, lithium ions travel between the positive electrode active material layer 53 and the negative electrode active material layer 63 through the electrolytic solution 80.

<< Heat-resistant layer 78 >>
In the lithium ion secondary battery 10 described above, the separators 72 and 74 include a heat-resistant layer 78 on the surface of the substrate 76 as shown in FIG. The heat resistant layer 78 is made of a filler and a binder. Here, the separators 72 and 74 separate the positive electrode sheet 50 and the negative electrode sheet 60 but allow the passage of lithium ions (the circulation of the electrolyte). The heat-resistant layer 78 provided on the separators 72 and 74 is designed so as to impart heat resistance to the separators 72 and 74 and allow lithium ions to pass (circulate the electrolytic solution). The base material 76 of the separators 72 and 74 is, for example, a porous film made of a polyolefin-based resin. However, such a porous film may cause thermal contraction when the temperature becomes high, for example, about 150 ° C. . On the other hand, the heat resistance layer 78 is provided on the surface of the base material 76, whereby the heat resistance of the base material 76 is improved and the positive electrode sheet 50 or the negative electrode sheet 60 generates heat when generated in the base material 76. Thermal shrinkage can be kept small.

  Here, as shown in FIG. 2, the separators 72 and 74 are wider than the positive electrode active material layer 53 formed on the positive electrode sheet 50 and the negative electrode active material layer 63 formed on the negative electrode sheet 60. In the wound electrode body 40, the separators 72 and 74 are disposed so as to be interposed between the positive electrode active material layer 53 and the negative electrode active material layer 63. In such a state, when excessive heat shrinkage occurs in the separators 72 and 74, the positive electrode active material layer 53 and the negative electrode active material layer 63 protrude from the separators 72 and 74, and the other sheet (the positive electrode active material layer 53 may be used). For example, the negative electrode sheet 60 and the negative electrode active material layer 63 may contact the positive electrode sheet 50).

  It is desirable that the heat-resistant layer 78 formed on the separators 72 and 74 has a function of suppressing the thermal contraction of the base material 76 as much as possible. Furthermore, it is desirable that the heat-resistant layer 78 has a function capable of appropriately blocking the pores of the separators 72 and 74 and suppressing lithium ion diffusion at a preset temperature of around 170 ° C., for example. From such a viewpoint, the lithium ion secondary battery 10 provided with the separators 72 and 74 provided with a more advanced function is proposed.

  6 and 7 are schematic views showing the base material 76 and the heat-resistant layer 78 of the separators 72 and 74 of the lithium ion secondary battery 10 proposed here. As shown in FIG. 6, the heat-resistant layer 78 of the separators 72 and 74 includes a binder group A made of a binder having a softening temperature of 175 ° C. or higher and a binder group B made of a binder having a softening temperature lower than 175 ° C. include. Here, the binder group A and the binder group B are included in the heat-resistant layer 78 at a weight ratio in which the weight of the binder group B is about 5 to 50 when the weight of the binder group A is 100.

  FIG. 7 shows the state of the base material 76 and the heat-resistant layer 78 when the temperature of the separators 72 and 74 of the lithium ion secondary battery 10 is increased to around 170 ° C. (for example, from 165 ° C. to 175 ° C.). The heat-resistant layer 78 of the separators 72 and 74 includes a binder group A made of a binder having a softening temperature of 175 ° C. or higher and a binder group B made of a binder having a softening temperature lower than 175 ° C.

  As shown in FIG. 7, when the temperature rises to around 170 ° C. (for example, at least 175 ° C.), the binder group A having a high softening temperature maintains its shape in the heat-resistant layer 78, and the filler in the heat-resistant layer 78 The adhesion between F and the adhesion between the filler F and the substrate 76 are maintained. For this reason, the thermal contraction of the base material 76 is suppressed small in the separators 72 and 74 in which the heat resistant layer 78 is formed. Further, as shown in FIG. 7, the binder group B having a low softening temperature is softened and partially melted at a locally high temperature portion or the like. The binder group B that has been softened and partially melted fills the gaps in the heat-resistant layer 78 and the gaps in the base material 76 (also referred to as pores and voids). For this reason, for example, at a preset temperature of around 170 ° C., the heat-resistant layer 78 has a function of appropriately blocking the pores H of the separators 72 and 74 through which lithium ions pass (electrolyte circulation). Further, the binder group B that softens early and partially melts maintains the adhesion between the heat-resistant layer 78 and the base material 76.

  Here, the binder group A is made of, for example, polyacrylic acid. Further, the binder group B includes, for example, at least one kind of binder among PNVA and PNMA. For example, the binder of the binder group B may have an average molecular weight of 10,000 to 500,000. According to the knowledge of the present inventor, the above effects can be obtained more reliably by selecting the materials exemplified here as the binder of the binder group A and the binder of the binder B group.

Here, "acrylic acid" has the chemical formula CH 2 = CHCOOH
Of unsaturated carboxylic acids.
“Polyacrylic acid” is a polymer based on acrylic acid. The polyacrylic acid may include, for example, a copolymer of m acrylic acid + n ethyl acrylate (or methyl acrylate), or a copolymer of m acrylate nitrile + n ethyl acrylate (or methyl acrylate). In this case, for example, m: n = 5: 95 to 95: 5 is preferable.
“PNVA” is poly-N-vinylacetamide.
“PNMA” is poly-N-methyl-N-vinylacetamide.

  Here, as shown in FIG. 6, it is desirable that the binder adhered to the filler F in the heat-resistant layer 78 has a higher proportion of the binder group A than the proportion of the binder group A in the entire heat-resistant layer 78. Further, it is desirable that the binder of the heat-resistant layer 78 attached to the surface of the base material 76 has a higher proportion of the binder group B than the proportion of the binder group B in the entire heat-resistant layer 78.

  In the separator substrate, for example, the ratio of the pore diameter of 0.01 μm or more and 0.1 μm or less is preferably 45% or more and 90% or less of the whole. Moreover, the thickness of the base material of a separator is good in it being 14 micrometers or more and 30 micrometers or less, for example.

  Furthermore, the lithium ion secondary battery 10 may add LiBOB to the electrolytic solution. According to the knowledge of the present inventor, by adding LiBOB to the electrolyte, for example, a LiBOB-derived film is formed on the negative electrode active material during the initial charge, and the resistance of the lithium ion secondary battery is kept low in terms of battery characteristics. be able to. Moreover, the lithium ion secondary battery 10 may contain Na. According to the knowledge of the present inventor, for example, a LiBOB-derived film in the electrode body or a place where the density of lithium ions locally increases in a place where Na is present. And in overcharge etc., it may generate heat locally at the place concerned.

  In such a case, as shown in FIG. 6, a heat-resistant layer 78 including a binder group A made of a binder having a softening temperature of 175 ° C. or higher and a binder group B made of a binder having a softening temperature lower than 175 ° C. However, the separators 72 and 74 may be formed. In this case, the pores H of the separators 72 and 74 are blocked by the softening and melting of the binder group B, as shown in FIG. Further, the binder group A maintains the shape of the heat-resistant layer 78 and the adhesion with the base material 76 (that is, the adhesion between the fillers F and the adhesion between the filler F and the base material 76). For this reason, diffusion of lithium ions is locally restricted with respect to the local heat generation, and heat generation can be suppressed at an initial stage while maintaining the function of the lithium ion secondary battery 10 as a whole. it can.

《Test example》
Tables 1 and 2 show test examples for the heat-resistant layer 78 described above.

《Evaluation cell》
Here, first, the evaluation cells of the test examples in Tables 1 and 2 will be described.

≪Evaluation cell positive electrode≫
In forming the positive electrode active material layer in the positive electrode, a positive electrode mixture was prepared. Here, the positive electrode mixture includes a ternary lithium transition metal oxide (LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 ) as a positive electrode active material, acetylene black (AB) as a conductive material, and polyfluoride as a binder. Vinylidene chloride (PVDF) was used. The mass ratio of the positive electrode active material, the conductive material, and the binder was positive electrode active material: conductive material: binder = 90: 8: 2. A positive electrode mixture was prepared by mixing these positive electrode active material, conductive material, and binder with ion-exchanged water. Next, the positive electrode mixture was applied in order to one side of the positive electrode current collector foil and dried to prepare a positive electrode (positive electrode sheet) in which the positive electrode active material layer was coated on both sides of the positive electrode current collector foil.

Here, an aluminum foil (thickness: 15 μm) was used as the positive electrode current collector foil. The amount of the positive electrode mixture applied to the positive electrode current collector foil is approximately equal on both surfaces of the positive electrode current collector foil, and after the positive electrode material mixture is dried, 9.8 mg / cm 2 or more per one surface of the positive electrode current collector foil It was set to be 15.2 mg / cm 2 or less. Moreover, after drying, the mixture density of the positive electrode active material layer was adjusted to 1.8 g / cm 3 or more and 2.8 g / cm 3 or less by rolling using a roller press. In the evaluation cell exemplified here, the coating amount of the positive electrode mixture was set to 11 mg / cm 2 per one surface of the positive electrode current collector foil. Moreover, the mixture density of the positive electrode active material layer after rolling was set to 2.2 g / cm 3 .

≪Negative electrode of evaluation cell≫
In forming the negative electrode active material layer in the negative electrode, a negative electrode mixture was prepared. Here, the negative electrode mixture used amorphous coated graphite as the negative electrode active material, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and binder as the thickener. As the binder, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), which is a rubber-based binder, was used. The mass ratio of the negative electrode active material, the thickener (CMC), and the binder (SBR) was negative electrode active material: CMC: SBR = 98: 1: 1. A negative electrode mixture was prepared by mixing these negative electrode active materials, CMC, and SBR with ion-exchanged water. Next, the negative electrode mixture was applied in order on one side of the negative electrode current collector foil and dried to prepare a negative electrode (negative electrode sheet) in which the negative electrode active material layers were coated on both sides of the negative electrode current collector foil.

Here, a copper foil (thickness: 10 μm) was used as the negative electrode current collector foil. The amount of the negative electrode mixture applied to the negative electrode current collector foil is approximately equal to both sides of the negative electrode current collector foil, and after the negative electrode material mixture is dried, 4.8 mg / cm 2 or more per side of the negative electrode current collector foil It was set to be 10.2 mg / cm 2 or less. Further, after drying, the mixture density of the negative electrode active material layer was adjusted to 0.8 g / cm 3 or more and 1.4 g / cm 3 or less by rolling using a roller press. In the evaluation cell exemplified here, the coating amount of the negative electrode mixture was set to 7.2 mg / cm 2 per one surface of the negative electrode current collector foil. Moreover, the mixture density of the negative electrode active material layer after rolling was 1.1 g / cm 3 .

≪Base material for evaluation cell separator≫
As a separator base material, a porous sheet (polyethylene (PE) layer of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) having a three-layer structure (PP / PE / PP) was sandwiched between layers of polypropylene (PP). Three-layer structure (PP / PE / PP porous sheet), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) two-layer structure (PP / PE) porous sheet, polypropylene (PP) single-layer structure A porous sheet having a single layer structure of polyethylene (PE) was appropriately selected.

≪Heat resistant layer of evaluation cell separator≫
As shown in FIG. 3, a separator in which a heat-resistant layer (heat-resistant layer 78 in FIG. 3) was formed on the substrate (substrate 76 in FIG. 3) was appropriately selected. The heat-resistant layer contains a filler and a binder.

≪Filler of heat-resistant layer of evaluation cell≫
Here, an inorganic filler was used as the filler of the heat-resistant layer. Here, alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) and boehmite were used as the inorganic filler. For example, the average particle size (D50) of alumina is 0.2 μm or more and 1.2 μm or less, and BET (specific surface area by gas adsorption method) is 1.3 m 2 / g or more and 100 m 2 / g or less. . Boehmite has, for example, an average particle diameter (D50) of 0.2 μm or more and 1.8 μm or less, and a BET (specific surface area by gas adsorption method) of 2.8 m 2 / g or more and 100 m 2 / g or less. Good. In the evaluation cell exemplified here, alumina having an average particle diameter (D50) of about 0.1 μm and a BET specific surface area of about 90 m 2 / g was used as the alumina. In addition, boehmite having an average particle diameter (D50) of 0.1 μm and a BET specific surface area of 110 m 2 / g was used as boehmite.

  Here, the average particle size (D50) is measured with a laser scattering type particle size measuring device (for example, Microtrack HRA, manufactured by Nikkiso Co., Ltd.), and D50 (particle size at a cumulative distribution rate of 50% by mass) is used as the average particle size. It is good to ask. The BET specific surface area can be measured using, for example, a specific surface area measuring device manufactured by Shimadzu Corporation.

≪Binder for heat-resistant layer of evaluation cell≫
Moreover, the polyacrylic acid mentioned above, PVP, PNVA, and PNMA were used suitably for the binder of a heat-resistant layer. Here, “PVP” is polyvinylpyrrolidone. Here, polyacrylic acid and PVP were set to a binder group A having a high softening temperature. In addition, PNVA and PNMA were set to a binder group B having a relatively low softening temperature. As the thickener for the heat-resistant layer, water-based CMC or MC (methyl cellulose) and organic NMP (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) were appropriately used. Here, although the heat-resistant layer was formed on one surface of the separator here, the resistance increase rate or excess described later may be applied regardless of whether the surface on which the heat-resistant layer is formed is opposed to the positive electrode sheet or the negative electrode sheet. In terms of the rate of temperature rise during charging, substantially the same effect was obtained. In addition, when the base material of the separator was a PE single layer, the heat resistant layer was opposed to the negative electrode.

<< Molecular weight of binder of binder group B >>
About the binder used for the binder group B, the thing from which molecular weight differs was prepared. Here, commercially available binders having the molecular weights shown in Tables 1 and 2 were obtained and tested.

≪Method for producing heat-resistant layer of evaluation cell≫
Here, the heat-resistant layer is a paste in which a filler and a binder are kneaded (hereinafter referred to as “HRL paste”). Here, the heat-resistant layer of the manufactured separator contains two types of binders, binder group A and binder group B. Here, two types of kneading methods of the produced HRL paste were adopted. For example, water or NMP may be used as the solvent for the HRL paste.

<< HRL paste kneading method 1 >>
HRL paste kneading method 1 (method 1) is a method of first mixing the binder and filler of binder group A and kneading sufficiently (first kneading), and then mixing the binder of binder group B and kneading lightly (second kneading). . Here, an ultrasonic disperser (here, CLEAMIX manufactured by M Technique Co., Ltd.) was used as the kneading machine. In the kneading method 1, first, in the first kneading, the binder and the filler of the binder group A are charged at a predetermined ratio into the container of the dispersing machine. In the first kneading, preliminary dispersion was performed for 5 minutes at a rotational speed of 15000 rpm, and then main dispersion was performed for 15 minutes at a rotational speed of 20000 rpm. Next, in the second mixture, a predetermined amount of binder group B binder is required in the container of the disperser, together with the binder group A binder and filler paste kneaded in the first kneading, and 0.5% at 15000 rpm. Minute (30 seconds) dispersion was performed.

<< HRL paste kneading method 2 >>
In the HRL paste kneading method 2 (method 2), the binder of the binder group A, the binder of the binder group B and the filler are mixed together and sufficiently kneaded. Here, as a kneader, an ultrasonic disperser (here, CLEARMIX manufactured by M Technique Co., Ltd.) is used, and a binder of binder group A, a binder of binder group B, and a filler and a filler are mixed in a predetermined ratio in the container of the disperser. To input. Then, preliminary dispersion was performed for 5 minutes at a rotational speed of 15000 rpm, and then main dispersion was performed for 15 minutes at a rotational speed of 20000 rpm.

<< Production of heat-resistant layer >>
The heat-resistant layer may be applied using, for example, a gravure coating method. Here, the gravure roll was rotated at a speed higher than the conveying speed of the separator base material, and coating was performed while feeding the separator base material. Specifically, the gravure roll speed was 3.8 m / min, and the coating speed was 3 m / min. The speed ratio between the gravure roll and the separator was 1.27. The gravure roll used has an art of 100 lines per inch and a cell volume of 19.5 cm 3 / m 2 .

≪Assembly of evaluation cell≫
Here, a flat square evaluation cell was prepared as the evaluation cell. That is, the positive electrode sheet and the negative electrode sheet are flattened by bending a wound electrode body made using a separator, accommodated in a rectangular battery case, filled with a non-aqueous electrolyte, sealed, A type evaluation cell was constructed. In addition, the conditions of the wound electrode body (see FIG. 2) are the same for each sample, as specifically defined here. For example, here, the wound electrode body has a width of 140 mm, a height of 55 mm, and a thickness of 12 mm. The positive electrode sheet had a mixture density of 2.2 g / cm 3 , a thickness of 65 μm (foil 15 μm), a length of 3 m, a width of 115 mm, and a coating width of 98 mm. The negative electrode sheet had a mixture density of 1.1 g / cm 3 , a thickness of 77 μm (foil of 10 μm), a length of 3.1 m, a width of 117 mm, and a coating width of 102 mm.

<Electrolyte>
Here, as the non-aqueous electrolyte, ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) are in a predetermined volume ratio (EC: DMC: EMC = 3: 4: 3). Then, an electrolytic solution in which 1.1 mol / L LiPF 6 as a lithium salt was dissolved in a mixed solvent was used. Further, LiBOB was appropriately added to the electrolytic solution. The amount of LiBOB added to each sample is as shown in Tables 1 and 2 described later. Here, LiBOB is lithium bisoxalate borate, represented by the following chemical formula, and also expressed as LiB (C 2 O 4 ) 2 .

<< LiBOB reaction >>
LiBOB (LiB (C 2 O 4 ) 2 ) added to the electrolyte of the lithium ion secondary battery is decomposed at the first charge, and, for example, as shown by the following chemical reaction formula, Gas (CO or CO 2 ) is generated, and a film (for example, Li 2 C 2 O 4 + B 2 O 3 ) is generated. Here, the chemical reaction formula of LiBOB can be exemplified as 2LiB (C 2 O 4 ) 2 → Li 2 C 2 O 4 + B 2 O 3 + 3CO + 3CO 2 ;

<< Containing Na >>
Further, such a lithium ion secondary battery may contain Na (sodium). For example, Na can be included as an impurity in the positive electrode active material and the negative electrode active material. Na is also contained as an impurity in alumina and boehmite used as a filler contained in the heat-resistant layer of the separator. For this reason, Na may be contained in the lithium ion secondary battery.

In the purification process of alumina or boehmite used as a filler, for example, bauxite, which is a main ore containing aluminum, contains only 40% to 60% alumina. The remaining components of bauxite are silica (silicon dioxide), various iron oxides and titanium dioxide. To purify alumina and boehmite, bauxite is first washed with a hot solution of sodium hydroxide at approximately 250 ° C. In this process, alumina is dissolved by a reaction shown in the following chemical formula.
Al 2 O 3 + 2OH + 3H 2 O → 2 [Al (OH) 4 ]

Here, other components (other components other than Na) included as impurities do not dissolve in the reaction, and are removed by filtration. However, Na remains as a sodium aluminate solution. Then, the addition of 0.4 mol times to 0.6 mol times of an alumina gel obtained by mixing aluminum sulfate solution (SO 4 2-conversion) to the sodium aluminate solution (Na 2 O equivalent) as a seed A method for producing aluminum hydroxide characterized by this is disclosed in, for example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2001-19424.

The aluminum hydroxide thus produced is dehydrated in a hot aqueous solution (hydrothermal treatment at 200 ° C.), which is AlO (OH) [orAl 2 O 3 .H 2 O], which is obtained as boehmite. . Further, when aluminum hydroxide is heated to about 1050 ° C., dehydration occurs and alumina (α-alumina) is generated. Some Na remains in the alumina and boehmite obtained from the above production process.

《Na elution amount》
Here, the Na elution amount (Na elution amount) shown in Tables 1 and 2 is, for example, that the positive electrode, the negative electrode, and the separator are cut into a predetermined size and immersed in the electrolytic solution for a predetermined time. Na can be quantified by ICP emission analysis. Here, the positive electrode, the negative electrode, and the separator were each cut into a 30 cm × 5.4 cm square, immersed in 3 cc of an unused electrolytic solution at room temperature for 4 days, and Na in the electrolytic solution was quantified by ICP emission analysis. Here, iCAP6300 manufactured by Thermo Fisher Scientific was used as the ICP emission analyzer.

<< Evaluation of Evaluation Cell >>
Here, the produced evaluation cell was subjected to, for example, a predetermined conditioning process, and the resistance increase rate and the temperature increase rate during overcharge were evaluated.

<< conditioning >>
Next, the evaluation cell constructed as described above was injected for 10 hours after injecting the electrolytic solution, and initial charging was performed after the battery voltage became 2.0 V or higher. The conditioning process is performed by the following procedures 1 and 2.
Procedure 1: After reaching 4 V with a constant current charge of 1.5 C, pause for 5 minutes.
Procedure 2: After the procedure 1, when charging is performed for 1.5 hours by constant voltage charging or when the charging current becomes 0.1 A, the charging is stopped and rested for 5 minutes.

≪Measurement of rated capacity≫
Next, the rated capacity is measured by the following procedures 1 to 3 at a temperature of 25 ° C. and a voltage range of 3.0 V to 4.1 V for the evaluation cell after the conditioning process.
Procedure 1: After reaching 3.0V by constant current discharge of 1C, discharge by constant voltage discharge for 2 hours, and then rest for 10 seconds.
Procedure 2: After reaching 4.1 V by constant current charging at 1 C, charge for 2.5 hours by constant voltage charging, and then rest for 10 seconds.
Procedure 3: After reaching 3.0 V by constant current discharge of 0.5 C, discharge at constant voltage discharge for 2 hours, and then stop for 10 seconds.
Rated capacity: The discharge capacity (CCCV discharge capacity) in the discharge from the constant current discharge to the constant voltage discharge in the procedure 3 is defined as the rated capacity. In this test battery, the rated capacity is about 4.0 Ah.

≪SOC adjustment≫
The SOC adjustment is performed by the following procedures 1 and 2. Here, the SOC adjustment may be performed after the conditioning process and the measurement of the rated capacity. Here, in order to make the influence of temperature constant, SOC adjustment is performed in a temperature environment of 25 ° C.
Procedure 1: Charge with a constant current of 3V to 1C to obtain a charged state of approximately 60% of the rated capacity (SOC 60%: 3.73V).
Procedure 2: After procedure 1, charge at constant voltage for 2.5 hours.
Thereby, the test battery can be adjusted to a predetermined state of charge.

≪Rise of increase in resistance Z (%) before and after high load charge / discharge cycle≫
Here, the resistance increase rate (%) in Tables 1 and 2 is an increase rate of IV resistance before and after the high load charge / discharge cycle as follows. The high load characteristics of the evaluation cell were evaluated based on the increase rate of the IV resistance.

  Here, specifically, the high load charge / discharge cycle is performed for 0.1 second at a current of 30 C in a temperature environment atmosphere of −30 ° C. from a state adjusted to SOC 60% in a temperature environment atmosphere of 25 degrees. (End voltage 6.5V) Charge. Then, after a 30-second rest period, the battery is discharged with a current of 0.5 C for 10 seconds (end voltage 1 V). Here, the above was regarded as one charge / discharge cycle, and 4000 cycles were repeated. Before and after that, the IV resistance in a SOC 60% state of charge (SOC) was measured in an environment of 25 ° C.

  The IV resistance of the evaluation cell is increased by the high load charge / discharge cycle. The rate of increase in resistance Z (%) is expressed by Z (%) = {(Y−), with IV resistance X measured before the high load charge / discharge cycle and IV resistance Y measured after the high load charge / discharge cycle. X) / X} × 100.

≪IV resistance measurement method≫
The IV resistance was measured for each sample in an SOC of 60% state of charge (SOC) in an environment of 25 ° C. Here, the IV resistance is a constant current discharge at a predetermined current value (I) for 10 seconds, and the voltage (V) after the discharge is measured. Then, based on the predetermined current value (I) and the voltage (V) after the discharge, I plotted on the X-axis and I on the Y-axis, and plotted based on the plots obtained by each discharge. And the slope is taken as IV resistance. Here, IV resistance (mΩ) was obtained based on the voltage (V) after each discharge obtained by performing constant current discharge at current values of 0.3C, 1C, and 3C.

<Temperature increase rate during overcharge (%)>
Moreover, the temperature increase rate (%) at the time of overcharge was evaluated by, for example, the temperature increase rate after 10 minutes with respect to the temperature when charging was performed in a predetermined overcharge state and the charging current was cut off. Here, in an overcharged state, charging is performed at 10C until the voltage limit value is 25V in an atmospheric environment of 25 degrees, and the temperature T1 when the charging current is cut off and the temperature T2 after 10 minutes are measured. did. And temperature increase rate (%) = {(T2-T1) / T1} * 100 was calculated | required.

  Each evaluation cell and its evaluation value are as shown in Tables 1 and 2. Tables 1 and 2 are obtained by dividing one table into two.

  Here, as shown in Table 1 and Table 2, regarding the binder group A, even if polyacrylic acid and PVP are replaced, the influence on the resistance increase rate and the temperature increase rate during overcharge is small. In addition, regarding the binder group A, even if PNVA and PNMA are replaced, the influence on the resistance increase rate and the temperature increase rate during overcharge is small (for example, Samples 13 and 14, Samples 18 and 19, Samples 23 and 24). Samples 28 and 29, Samples 32 and 33, Samples 37 and 38). Further, the kind of filler in the heat-resistant layer has little influence on the resistance increase rate and the temperature increase rate during overcharge even if alumina and boehmite are replaced.

<< Sample 1-7 and Sample 10-36 >>
Here, in Table 1 and Table 2, for example, as shown in Sample 1-7 and Sample 10-36, the binder included in the heat-resistant layer is when the weight of the binder group A is 100. When the weight of the binder group B was about 5 to 50, the rate of increase in resistance before and after the high load charge / discharge cycle and the rate of increase in temperature during overcharge were kept low.

<< Sample 1-9 >>
Here, in Sample 1 to Sample 9 in Table 1, the amount of LiBOB added to the electrolytic solution is changed stepwise. Here, for example, when the amount of LiBOB added to the electrolyte solution is 0.01 mol / L to 0.05 mol / L as in Samples 1 to 7, the resistance before and after the high load charge / discharge cycle is particularly high. There was a tendency to keep the rate of increase and the rate of temperature increase during overcharging low.

  Further, for example, in Sample 8 in which the amount of LiBOB added to the electrolytic solution was 0.005 mol / L, the resistance increase rate before and after the high load charge / discharge cycle tended to be large. Thus, when the amount of LiBOB added to the electrolytic solution is too small, the rate of increase in resistance tends to increase. Further, in Sample 9 in which the amount of LiBOB added to the electrolytic solution was 0.06 mol / L, the temperature increase rate during overcharging tended to be high. Thus, when there was too much quantity of LiBOB added to electrolyte solution, there existed a tendency for the temperature rise at the time of overcharge to become high.

<< Sample 10-52 >>
Here, for Sample 10-52, the amount of LiBOB added to the electrolytic solution was 0.025 mol / L.

<< Sample 10-15 and Sample 37-39 >>
In Samples 10-15 and 37-39, the molecular weight of the binder used in the binder group B is changed stepwise. The molecular weight of the binder used for the binder group B is preferably about 10,000 to 500,000. For example, in Sample 10-15 in which the molecular weight of the binder used in the binder group B is approximately 10,000 to 500,000, the resistance increase rate before and after the high load charge / discharge cycle is suppressed to a small value, and the temperature increase during overcharge The rate was kept low.

  Here, in Sample 10-15, the above-described method 1 is adopted as a method for kneading the HRL paste. In this case, the binder group A composed of binders having a softening temperature of 175 ° C. or higher tends to be present around the filler in the heat-resistant layer. For this reason, even if it becomes a high temperature state of 170 degreeC-200 degreeC at the time of an overcharge, the coupling | bonding of a filler and a filler is maintained and the shape of a heat-resistant layer is maintained. On the other hand, the binder group B composed of binders having a softening temperature lower than 175 ° C. is a low molecular weight binder, and in the method 1 described above, there is a tendency to exist in the vicinity of the boundary between the base material and the heat-resistant layer. For this reason, the binder group B is softened (in this case, including a partially dissolved state) when a high temperature state of 170 ° C. to 200 ° C. is reached during overcharging, and a part of the softened binder group B is a base material. The heat-resistant layer (filler) and the base material are maintained in a strongly bonded state by entering the pores.

  In contrast, in Sample 37, PNVA having a molecular weight of approximately 8,000 is used for the binder group B, but the temperature increase rate during overcharge tends to increase. In Sample 38, PNMA having a molecular weight of approximately 9,000 is used for the binder group B. In this case, the temperature increase rate during overcharge also tends to increase. This is considered to be because the binder group B is too soft when overheated at a high temperature of 170 ° C. to 200 ° C. and cannot be maintained in a state where the heat-resistant layer (filler) and the base material are firmly bonded. . In Sample 39, PNVA having a molecular weight of approximately 600,000 is used for the binder group B. In this case, the temperature increase rate during overcharge also tends to increase. This is presumably because the binder group B is difficult to soften and the heat-resistant layer (filler) and the substrate cannot be firmly bonded.

<< Sample 16-21 and Sample 41-43 >>
In Samples 16-21 and 41-43, when the weight of the binder group A is 100, the weight ratio of the binder groups A and B is appropriately set so that the weight of the binder group B is about 5 to 50. changed. Here, the molecular weight of the binder used for the binder group B was 200,000. In this case, in Sample 16-21 in which the weight of the binder group B is about 5 to 50 when the weight of the binder group A is 100, the temperature increase rate at the time of overcharging is kept low. When the weight of the binder group B is about 5 to 50 when the weight of the binder group A is 100, the binder group B is melted at an early stage to limit the diffusion of lithium ions, and the heat-resistant layer It is considered that the effect of maintaining the adhesion between the substrate and the substrate is obtained.

  On the other hand, in the sample 41 in which the weight of the binder group B is 3 when the weight of the binder group A is 100, the temperature increase rate during overcharge tends to increase. This is because the binder of the binder group B having a relatively low melting and softening temperature in the binder of the heat-resistant layer is small, and the effect of limiting the diffusion of lithium ions by the binder group B melting early is considered to be small. It is done.

  Further, in the sample 42 in which the weight of the binder group B is 60 when the weight of the binder group A is 100, or in the sample 43 in which the weight of the binder group B is 70 when the weight of the binder group A is 100, etc. There was a tendency for the rate of temperature rise during overcharging to increase. This is considered that the binder ratio of the binder group A having a relatively high melting and softening temperature in the binder of the heat-resistant layer is relatively small, and the effect of suppressing the thermal contraction of the separator substrate is small.

<< Sample 22-30 and Sample 45-47 >>
In Samples 22-30 and 45-47, the proportion of the pore diameter of 0.01 μm or more and 0.1 μm or less in the base material is changed stepwise. Here, the molecular weight of the binder used for the binder group B was 220,000. In this case, as shown in Sample 22-30, when the proportion of the pore diameter of 0.01 μm or more and 0.1 μm or less in the base material is about 45% or more and 90% or less, the load is high. While the rate of increase in resistance before and after the charge / discharge cycle is kept small, the rate of temperature rise during overcharge is kept low.

  Here, according to the knowledge of the present inventor, when there are many pore diameters larger than 0.1 μm, when the binder group B is melted due to a temperature rise during overcharging, it is easy to delay the filling of the pores of the base material. . In addition, when the pore diameter is smaller than 0.01 μm, the pores of the base material disappear during overcharging, and the binder group B can enter the pores of the base material even when the binder group B melts. Therefore, the bond between the heat-resistant layer and the base material cannot be sufficiently secured, and the heat-resistant layer and the base material tend to peel off.

  For example, in sample 45, the proportion of the pore diameter of 0.01 μm or more and 0.1 μm or less in the substrate was approximately 40. In sample 46, the ratio of the pore diameter of 0.01 μm or more and 0.1 μm or less in the base material was approximately 91. In sample 47, the proportion of the pore diameter of 0.01 μm or more and 0.1 μm or less in the substrate was approximately 92. In these cases, the temperature increase rate during overcharge tends to be high. This is presumably because the proportion of the appropriate pore diameter of 0.01 μm or more and 0.1 μm or less in the substrate was too small or too large.

<< Sample 31-36 and Sample 49-51 >>
In Samples 31-36 and 49-51, the thickness of the separator substrate is changed stepwise. Here, the molecular weight of the binder used for the binder group B was 250,000. Here, in Samples 31-36, the thickness of the separator substrate is 14 μm or more and 30 μm or less, and the rate of increase in resistance before and after the high-load charge / discharge cycle can be kept small, and the rate of temperature rise during overcharge is kept low. It has been.

  Here, according to the knowledge of the present inventor, for example, if the base material of the separator is too thick as in samples 50 and 52, the rate of increase in resistance before and after the high load charge / discharge cycle tends to increase. Moreover, when the base material of a separator is too thick, the quantity of the pore diameter of a base material will increase, and the quantity of the binder group B required in order to interrupt | block the pore of a base material will become relatively small. For this reason, it is considered that there is a delay in blocking the pores of the separator substrate during overcharge, and the temperature tends to rise during overcharge. In addition, for example, if the separator substrate is too thin as in sample 49, the strength of the substrate is insufficient, so that part of the substrate is broken, or the shutdown function by the separator (suppresses the diffusion of lithium ions, the battery It is considered that the temperature tends to rise during overcharging because the function to stop the reaction) becomes insufficient and the leakage current increases.

<< Samples 40, 44, 48, 52 >>
Samples 40, 44, 48, and 52 employ the kneading method 2 described above as the HRL paste kneading method when the heat-resistant layer is produced. Others used the mixed method 1. Here, the sample 40 can be contrasted with the sample 13. Sample 44 may be contrasted with sample 18. Sample 48 can be contrasted with sample 23. Sample 52 can be contrasted with sample 32. In samples 40, 44, 48, and 52, the temperature increase rate during overcharge tends to increase.

  Thus, when producing a heat-resistant layer using two types of binders, binder group A and binder group B, the HRL paste is first kneaded with the binder group A binder and filler, and then kneaded sufficiently. In addition, the binder of the binder group B may be mixed lightly.

  In this case, as schematically shown in FIG. 6, the binder of the heat-resistant layer 78 attached to the surface of the base material 76 tends to have a higher proportion of the binder group B than the proportion of the binder group B in the entire heat-resistant layer 78. is there. Furthermore, the binder adhering to the filler F in the heat-resistant layer 78 tends to have a higher binder group A ratio than the binder group A ratio in the entire heat-resistant layer 78. Thereby, it is considered that the fillers in the heat-resistant layer and the filler and the base material can be firmly bound to each other, and the tendency to withstand the expansion and contraction due to the high load charge / discharge cycle and to keep the resistance increase rate low is conspicuous.

  As described above, in the lithium ion secondary battery 10 proposed here, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 3, the separators 72 and 74 are made of a base material 76 made of a plastic porous film, and the base material 76. A heat-resistant layer 78 made of a filler and a binder is provided on the surface. In this case, the binder of the heat-resistant layer 78 may include a binder group A made of a binder having a softening temperature of 175 ° C. or higher and a binder group B made of a binder having a softening temperature lower than 175 ° C. Further, when the weight of the binder group A is 100, the weight of the binder group B is preferably 5 or more and 50 or less. Thereby, especially the temperature increase rate at the time of overcharge is suppressed low.

  Here, a sample in which polyacrylic acid or PVP is used as the binder group A is illustrated, but the binder group A is particularly preferably made of polyacrylic acid. The polyacrylic acid used for the binder group A is not limited to the example described above. The polyacrylic acid that can be used for the binder group A includes, for example, a polymer based on acrylic acid, for example, 30% or more, 50% or more, or 70% or more of the monomers being polymerized, or Polyacrylic acid in which 80% or more is acrylic acid may be included. In addition, for example, ethyl acrylate or methyl acrylate may be polymerized in polyacrylic acid at a rate of 30% or more, 50% or more, 70% or more, or 80% or more.

  Moreover, the binder group B is good to consist of at least one kind of binder, for example among PNVA and PNMA. Here, a sample in which PNVA or PNMA is used as the binder group A is illustrated, but the binder group B is not limited thereto, and a plurality of types of binders may be mixed. Further, the binder of the binder group B may have an average molecular weight of 10,000 to 500,000, for example.

  Further, for example, as shown in FIG. 6, the binder of the heat-resistant layer 78 attached to the surface of the separator substrate 76 may have a higher proportion of the binder group B than the proportion of the binder group B in the entire heat-resistant layer 78. . Further, the binder adhering to the filler F in the heat-resistant layer 78 may have a larger proportion of the binder group A than the proportion of the binder group A in the entire heat-resistant layer 78. Thereby, the temperature increase rate at the time of overcharge is more reliably suppressed low. Further, when the heat resistant layer 78 is produced using two types of binders of the binder group A and the binder group B, the HRL paste is mixed with the binder and the filler of the binder group A first, and then kneaded sufficiently. The binder of the binder group B may be mixed lightly. As a result, the above-described structure can be realized, and the rate of temperature increase during overcharging can be suppressed more reliably.

  Further, the base material 76 of the separators 72 and 74 may be, for example, 45% or more and 90% or less of the total pore diameter of 0.01 μm or more and 0.1 μm or less. Further, the thickness of the base material 76 of the separators 72 and 74 may be, for example, 14 μm or more and 30 μm or less. Thereby, the temperature increase rate at the time of overcharge is more reliably suppressed low.

  In addition, as shown in FIG. 1, the lithium ion secondary battery 10 includes an electrode body 40 including a positive electrode sheet 50 as a positive electrode, a negative electrode sheet 60 as a negative electrode, and separators 72 and 74, and an electrode body 40. It is good to have the battery case 20 accommodated. In this case, the LiBOB-derived film may be included in the electrode body. The electrode body may contain Na.

  Thus, when the electrode body contains a LiBOB-derived film or contains Na, there is a tendency that the distribution of lithium ions diffused into the electrode body due to charge / discharge is uneven. In other words, in this case, there may be a site where the density of lithium ions diffused into the electrode body due to charge / discharge is locally high. In a region where the density of lithium ions diffused into the electrode body due to charge / discharge is locally high, the temperature tends to increase during overcharge. For this reason, when the electrode body includes a LiBOB-derived film or Na, as described above, the heat-resistant layer 78 including two types of binder groups A and B in the binder is formed. It is preferable to use the separators 72 and 74 that are made. In this case, by using the separators 72 and 74 in which the heat-resistant layer 78 including the two types of binder groups A and B in the binder is used, the lithium ion secondary battery 10 has an effect of keeping the temperature increase rate during overcharging low. Can be expected.

  The lithium ion secondary battery according to one embodiment of the present invention has been described above, but the present invention is not limited to any of the above-described embodiments, and various modifications can be made.

  For example, in the lithium ion secondary battery, for example, the electrode body housed in the battery case is a wound electrode body that is flatly pushed and bent, but the wound electrode body may be cylindrical. The electrode body may not be a wound electrode body, but may be a stacked electrode body in which a positive electrode and a negative electrode are stacked via a separator. The structure of the lithium ion secondary battery is not limited to the above, and may be a so-called cylindrical (for example, 18650 type) battery or a so-called laminated battery.

  For example, the lithium ion secondary battery disclosed herein can suppress the rate of temperature increase during overcharging to a small value. For this reason, a lithium ion secondary battery with high safety and stable performance can be provided. Therefore, for example, as shown in FIG. 8, it is particularly suitable as a vehicle driving battery 1000 that requires high safety and stable performance. Here, the vehicle driving battery 1000 may be in the form of an assembled battery formed by connecting a plurality of the lithium ion secondary batteries in series. The vehicle 1 provided with the vehicle driving battery 1000 as a power source typically includes an automobile, particularly an automobile provided with an electric motor such as a hybrid automobile (including a plug-in hybrid car) and an electric automobile.

10 Lithium ion secondary battery (secondary battery)
20 Battery case 21 Case body 22 Sealing plate 23 Positive electrode terminal 24 Negative electrode terminal 30 Safety valve 32 Injection port 33 Sealing material 40 Winding electrode body (electrode body)
50 positive electrode sheet 51 positive electrode current collector foil 52 uncoated part 53 positive electrode active material layer 60 negative electrode sheet 61 negative electrode current collector foil 62 uncoated part 63 negative electrode active material layers 72 and 74 separator 76 base material 78 heat resistant layer 80 electrolytic solution 90 Battery charger 92 Switch 94 Resistance 100 Lithium ion secondary battery 1000 Battery for driving a vehicle (assembled battery)
F Filler H Separator substrate pore WL

Claims (3)

  1. An electrode body comprising a positive electrode, a negative electrode, and a separator interposed between the positive electrode and the negative electrode, and a battery case containing the electrode body and an electrolyte solution ,
    The electrode body includes a LiBOB-derived film added to the electrolytic solution at a concentration of 0.01 mol / L to 0.05 mol / L, and Na,
    The separator is
    A substrate made of a plastic porous membrane;
    A heat-resistant layer formed of a filler and a binder, formed on the surface of the substrate;
    The binder of the heat-resistant layer is
    A binder group A comprising a binder having a softening temperature of 175 ° C. or higher;
    And a binder group B made of a binder having a softening temperature lower than 175 ° C.
    The average molecular weight of the binder of the binder group B is 10,000 to 500,000,
    Is 100 the weight of the binder group A, Ri der weight of 5 or more and 50 or less of the binder group B,
    The binder of the heat-resistant layer attached to the surface of the base material has a larger proportion of the binder group B than the proportion of the binder group B in the entire heat-resistant layer,
    The binder attached to the filler in the heat-resistant layer has a higher proportion of the binder group A than the binder group A in the entire heat-resistant layer,
    In the base material of the separator, the proportion of the pore diameter of 0.01 μm or more and 0.1 μm or less is 45% or more and 90% or less of the whole,
    The thickness of the separator substrate is 14 μm or more and 30 μm or less,
    Lithium ion secondary battery.
  2.   The lithium ion secondary battery according to claim 1, wherein the binder group A is made of polyacrylic acid.
  3.   The lithium ion secondary battery according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the binder group B includes at least one kind of binder of PNVA and PNMA.
JP2013085966A 2013-04-16 2013-04-16 Lithium ion secondary battery Active JP6008199B2 (en)

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