JP5963287B2 - Digitally controlled lighting method and system - Google Patents

Digitally controlled lighting method and system Download PDF

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Publication number
JP5963287B2
JP5963287B2 JP2015090463A JP2015090463A JP5963287B2 JP 5963287 B2 JP5963287 B2 JP 5963287B2 JP 2015090463 A JP2015090463 A JP 2015090463A JP 2015090463 A JP2015090463 A JP 2015090463A JP 5963287 B2 JP5963287 B2 JP 5963287B2
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Prior art keywords
led
light
lighting
data
signal
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JP2015090463A
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JP2015149302A (en
Inventor
ミューラー,ジョージ ジー
ジー ミューラー,ジョージ
ライス,アイハー エイ
エイ ライス,アイハー
モーガン,フレデリック マーシャル
マーシャル モーガン,フレデリック
ブラックウェル,マイケル ケー
ケー ブラックウェル,マイケル
Original Assignee
フィリップス ライティング ノース アメリカ コーポレイション
フィリップス ライティング ノース アメリカ コーポレイション
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Priority to US7128197P priority Critical
Priority to US60/071,281 priority
Priority to US6879297P priority
Priority to US60/068,792 priority
Priority to US7886198P priority
Priority to US60/078,861 priority
Priority to US7928598P priority
Priority to US60/079,285 priority
Priority to US9092098P priority
Priority to US60/090,920 priority
Priority to PCT/US1998/017702 priority patent/WO1999010867A1/en
Priority to USPCT/US98/17702 priority
Priority to US09/213,537 priority patent/US6292901B1/en
Priority to US09/213,581 priority
Priority to US21360798A priority
Priority to US09/213,659 priority
Priority to US09/213,189 priority
Priority to US09/215,624 priority patent/US6528954B1/en
Priority to US09/213,537 priority
Priority to US09/213,659 priority patent/US6211626B1/en
Priority to US09/213,189 priority patent/US6459919B1/en
Priority to US09/215,624 priority
Priority to US09/213,548 priority patent/US6166496A/en
Priority to US09/213,548 priority
Priority to US09/213,607 priority
Priority to US09/213,540 priority patent/US6720745B2/en
Priority to US09/213,540 priority
Priority to US09/213,581 priority patent/US7038398B1/en
Application filed by フィリップス ライティング ノース アメリカ コーポレイション, フィリップス ライティング ノース アメリカ コーポレイション filed Critical フィリップス ライティング ノース アメリカ コーポレイション
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Description of Related Applications This application is based on the entire disclosure content of the following patent applications, and claims all the disclosure content, and the entire disclosure content is described by reference. Suppose: Multi-color LED lighting method and apparatus (PCT application, filing date Aug. 26, 1998, PCT application US 98/17702); Digitally controlled light emitting diode system and method (US provisional patent application No. 60 / 071,281, filing date December 17, 1997, inventors George Mueller and Ihor Lys); intelligent multicolor lighting (US Provisional Patent Application No. 60 / 068,792, filing date December 24, 1997, Inventors George Mueller and Ihor Lys); Digital lighting system (US Provisional Patent Application No. 60 / 078,861) Filing date March 20, 1998, inventor Ihor Lys); system and method for controlled illumination (US Provisional Patent Application No. 60 / 079,285, filing date March 25, 1998, inventor George) Mueller and Ihor Lys); a method of generating a number of simultaneously occurring high-speed pulse width modulated signals by software (US Provisional Patent Application No. 60 / 090,920, filing date June 26, 1998, inventor Ihor Lys); And 8 applications filed on the same date as this application (December 17, 1998), each with George Mueller and Ihor Lys as inventors and pending application numbers: Smart Light Bulbs; Protocol; Sensor / feedback type lighting method and system; High precision lighting method and Entertainment lighting systems; motion lighting systems and methods; lighting elements; and data transmission tracks. In addition to the above, the entire disclosure of each US patent and each US patent application referenced herein is hereby incorporated by reference.

2. Description of Related Art Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are known that receive an impulse from the circuit and convert the impulse into an optical signal when arranged in the circuit. LEDs are energy efficient, generate little heat, and have a long lifetime.

  There are many types of LEDs, including air gap type LEDs, GaAs light emitting diodes (two diodes are packaged in one unit to provide higher reliability than conventional single diode packages). Polymer LED, semiconductor LED, and other types. Most LEDs currently in use are red. Conventional applications of LEDs include applications in displays in environments with low ambient light, for example, flashing lights on modems and other computer components, and digital displays for watches. In recent years, improved LEDs have been used in two-dimensional arrays for longer life traffic signal lights. LEDs are also used in scoreboards and other display devices. Further, the LEDs are arranged in a two-dimensional array and are also used as a television screen. Most LEDs are red, yellow or white, but any color LED is possible, and moreover, a single LED can change to any color on the color spectrum in response to changing electrical signals. It is also possible to make it.

  It is well known that when a projection light of one color and a projection light of another color are superimposed, a third color can be produced as a result. It is also well known that nearly all colors in the visible spectrum can be created by superimposing three commonly used primary colors (red, blue and green) at different rates. The present invention takes advantage of the above effects by superimposing projection light from at least two light emitting diodes (LEDs) that emit light of different primary colors. For the purposes of the present invention, the term “primary color” above should be construed to encompass any color that can be superimposed to create another color.

  Computer networks for lighting using LEDs are also known. U.S. Pat. No. 5,420,582, issued to Phares, is one such network that is primarily intended for use in display devices and uses a different color LED to produce a single selectable color. Have been described. U.S. Pat. No. 4,845,481 issued to Havel is a technique for multicolor display devices. Havel uses a pulse width modulated signal to supply current to each LED with a specific duty cycle. U.S. Pat. No. 5,184,114 issued to Brown discloses an LED display system. US Pat. No. 5,134,387 issued to Smith et al. Is a technique for LED two-dimensional array screens.

  There are lighting systems that control a network connecting multiple individual lights with a central driver (which may be a computer controlled driver). Such lighting systems include stage lighting systems. The USITT DMX-512 protocol was developed to convey the flow of data from a stage console to a series of stage lights.

  The DMX-512 protocol was originally created to standardize the control of a stage dimmer with a stage console. The DMX-512 protocol is a digital multiple lighting control protocol that has signals that can control 512 devices, including dimmers, scrollers, relays that do not change the amount of light, movement Includes light parameters, or graphic lights in a computerized virtual reality set. The DMX-512 protocol is used for controlling a network connecting a plurality of devices. The DMX-512 protocol employs a digital signal code. When a transmitting device such as a lighting console transmits a digital code, a receiving device such as a dimmer converts the code into a function command, for example, a command that changes the amount of light to a specified level. In digital type systems, the integrity of the signal is less compromised while propagating over long cables compared to analog type control. When a coded 0/1 digit string is transmitted / received, the device performs the desired task.

  In terms of hardware, DMX-512 protocol information is exchanged between devices via a metal wire using the RS-485 hardware protocol. For this purpose, it is necessary to use two wires called a twisted pair. The first wire is called + data wire and the second wire is called -data wire. The voltage used for this line is typically + 5V. In one example, when a logical number 1 is transmitted, + data wire is set to + 5V, and −data wire is set to 0V. When transmitting a logical number 0, the + data wire is set to 0V and the -data wire is set to + 5V. This is very different from the more common RS-232 interface where one wire is always maintained at 0V. In RS-232, a logic one transmission is done by applying a voltage between + 6V and + 12V to the line, and a logic zero transmission is done by applying a voltage between -6V and -12V on the line. . RS-485 is generally considered more suitable for data transmission than RS-232. In RS-232, the receiving side must measure whether the input voltage is positive or negative. In RS-485, the receiving side only needs to determine which line has the higher voltage.

  The present specification provides lighting methods and systems that can overcome many of the shortcomings of conventional lighting systems. In embodiments, methods and systems for multicolor illumination are provided. In one embodiment, the present invention takes the form of a device that provides a computer controlled and efficient multicolor lighting network capable of achieving high performance and fast color selection and color change.

  Briefly, disclosed herein is a current control technique for a lighting assembly, possibly an LED system or LED lighting assembly, which is a pulse width modulation (PWM) current control. It may be technical, or each unit that is current controlled can be addressed as unique, and each unit can receive information about the lighting color over the computer lighting network Any other form of current control technique may be used. The term “current control technique” as used herein is intended to refer to PWM current control, analog current control, digital current control, and any other method and apparatus for current control.

  As used herein, the term “LED system” refers to any system that can receive an electrical signal and generate light of a color in response to that signal. Shall. Thus, the term “LED system” includes all types of light emitting diodes, light emitting polymers, semiconductor dies that generate light in response to current, organic LEDs, electroluminescent plates, and other similar systems. Should be interpreted. In some embodiments, an “LED system” refers to a single light emitting diode having a plurality of individually controllable semiconductor dies.

  LED systems are one type of illumination source. As used herein, the term “illumination source” refers to an LED system, an incandescent light source including a filament lamp, a flame light source such as a flame, and a light source utilizing light emitted from a candle such as a gas mantle or a carbon arch radiation source. Photoluminescence sources including gas discharges, fluorescent sources, phosphorous light sources, lasers, electroluminescent sources such as electroluminescent lamps, light emitting diodes, cathodoluminescent sources utilizing electron saturation, or galvanoluminescent sources, crystal luminescence Interpreted to include any illumination source, including a variety of light sources including sense sources, light sources utilizing luminescence from motion, thermoluminescence sources, triboluminescence sources, sonoluminescence sources, and radioluminescence sources It should be. In addition, light-emitting polymers that can generate primary colors can also be included in the illumination source.

  The term “lighting” should be construed to refer to the generation of a certain radiation frequency by the illumination source. The term “color” should be construed to refer to any radiation frequency in the spectrum. That is, the term “color” as used herein refers not only to frequencies in the visible spectrum but also to frequencies in the infrared and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum and other regions in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves. Should be interpreted.

  In yet another embodiment, the present invention includes a tree-type network configuration that connects a plurality of lighting units (nodes). In another embodiment, the present invention comprises a heat dissipating housing made from a thermally conductive material for housing a lighting assembly. The heat dissipating housing contains two stacked circuit boards, one of which holds the power supply module and the other of the circuit boards holds the light module. . In yet another embodiment, the LED board is thermally connected to a thermal diffusion plate separated from the LED board using a thermally conductive polymer and fasteners, and the LED board having a metal part in the center thereof. It can be regarded as essentially equivalent. The light module described above is suitable for convenient replacement with other light modules having a programmable current rating and thus a programmable maximum rated light intensity. Such other light modules may include organic LEDs, electroluminescent plates, and other modules in addition to conventional LEDs. Other embodiments of the present invention include embodiments that apply the general principles described herein in new ways.

  Disclosed herein is a computer controlled, high performance multicolor lighting network, perhaps an LED lighting network. The present specification also discloses a structure of an LED lighting network capable of both a linear connection of nodes and a tree-type configuration. The present specification also discloses a heat dissipating housing for housing lighting units of the lighting network. The present specification also discloses a current controlled LED lighting device that includes a plurality of lighting modules, each having an independent rated maximum current and each conveniently interchangeable. Also herein, an LED lighting assembly that is current controlled by a computer and is used as a general lighting device capable of emitting multiple colors in a 24-bit spectrum that can be continuously programmed. A lighting assembly is disclosed. Also disclosed herein are flashlights, inclinometers, thermometers, general ambient environment indicators and bulbs, each utilizing the general computerized current control principles of the present invention. Other aspects of the present disclosure will become apparent in the following detailed description.

  The present invention relates to a light using a digitally controlled LED and provides an application example thereof. The system and method according to the present invention involves the use of such lights in many technical fields where lighting technology is important. The system and method according to the present invention also includes such a system that allows the light as described above to react to a variety of different signals. The system and method according to the present invention also includes an improved network for distributing data and power.

  The system and method according to the present invention also make it possible to use LEDs as part of several items or over a wide range of several items in order to provide aesthetics and functional effects. Contains. The digitally controlled light emitting diode (LED) according to the present invention can be used in the invention in many technical fields, and such use will be described in more detail below.

Figure showing a light module according to the invention 1 shows the write module of FIG. 1 in data connection with the control data generator for the write module of FIG. Schematic of an embodiment of a light module Diagram showing a two-dimensional array of LEDs in an embodiment of a light module The figure which showed the power supply module in one embodiment of this invention Diagram showing circuit design for an embodiment of a light module FIG. 4 shows a circuit design for a two-dimensional array of LEDs in a light module in an embodiment of the invention. Diagram showing a two-dimensional array of LEDs that can be coupled to a circuit such as that shown in FIG. Schematic of electrical design in an embodiment of a light module Figure showing a power supply module for a light module according to the invention The figure which looked at the power supply module shown in FIG. 10 from the other side Figure showing a power supply circuit for a light module according to the invention Diagram showing a circuit for a power / data multiplexer A diagram illustrating a circuit for another embodiment of a power / data multiplexer. Flow chart showing each processing step in a modified pulse width modulation software routine Diagram showing a data transmission track type lighting system The figure which showed the circuit design for a certain data driver for the track type system shown in FIG. A diagram showing the circuit design for a termination device for the track-type system shown in FIG. A diagram showing an embodiment of a light module, wherein the light module is housed in a cylindrical housing. Diagram showing a modular light module Diagram showing a modular light module configured to mate with a halogen bulb socket Diagram showing circuit design for an embodiment of a light module Illustration of a modular housing for a light module The figure which showed the outline of the modular LED unit by one embodiment of this invention 1 illustrates a light module according to one embodiment of the invention. FIG. 5 shows a light module according to another embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 5 shows a light module according to yet another embodiment of the present invention. The figure which showed several LED arranged in the various structure shape used with the modular LED unit based on this invention The figure which showed the certain environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed a certain other environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed another environment where the modular LED unit concerning this invention can perform illumination The figure which showed embodiment of the form of the smart light bulb which concerns on this invention FIG. 69 shows the embodiment of FIG. 69 in a state of data connection with another device. FIG. 69 illustrates the embodiment of FIG. 69 connected to a plurality of other smart bulbs. Diagram showing a network of multiple smart light bulbs that are data-connected to each other Figure showing an application example of an optical buffer sensor / feedback format using a smart bulb Diagram showing a certain EKG sensor / feedback environment using smart bulbs Schematic showing an application example with sensor / feedback format Some common block diagrams related to color display thermometers Figure showing a certain color display speedometer Diagram showing a color display inclinometer Diagram showing a certain color display magnetic field strength meter Diagram showing a smoke alarm system A diagram showing a color display pH meter Diagram showing a crime prevention system that informs the existence of an object Diagram showing an electromagnetic radiation detector Figure showing a color display indicator for a telephone FIG. 2 illustrates a lighting system using a light module according to the present invention, which is related to an entertainment device. The figure which showed the outline of the system shown in FIG. Diagram showing the outline of the encoder for the system shown in FIG. The figure which showed the outline of the encoding method using the encoder shown in FIG. Diagram showing the outline of the decoder for the system shown in FIG. Diagram showing an embodiment of a high-precision lighting system Block diagram of a control module for the high precision lighting system shown in FIG. 1 illustrates an embodiment including a high-precision lighting system held in an operator's hand. Diagram showing fruit trees illuminated by multiple LED systems arranged in a two-dimensional array Illustration showing a fruit tree illuminated by natural light Schematic schematic showing the hilar tissue illuminated by an embodiment of an LED system attached to a medical device 1 illustrates an embodiment of an LED system attached to a medical device. 1 shows an embodiment of an LED system attached to an endoscope. 1 illustrates an embodiment of an LED system attached to a surgical headlamp. 1 illustrates one embodiment of an LED system attached to a surgical loupe. A diagram illustrating a method of treating a disease by irradiating with an embodiment of an LED system. Diagram showing the process of changing the perceived color of an object by changing the color of the light projected on the object A diagram showing the process of causing the illusion that the design works by changing the color of the light projected on the colored design A diagram showing a vending machine that causes the illusion that the design works by changing the color of the light projected on the colored design. A diagram showing a vending machine that changes the color of the light projected on a colored design to make it appear or disappear. Diagram showing a system for lighting a container Diagram showing a clothing product that is illuminated by the LED system

DETAILED DESCRIPTION The configuration and operation of various methods and systems that are embodiments of the present invention are described below. It should be construed that there are many other means for carrying out the invention of the present specification, and the embodiments described herein are exemplary forms and limit the present invention. Not what you want.

  Referring to FIG. 1, a light module 100 is depicted in block diagram form. The light module 100 described above includes two elements, a processing unit 16 and an LED system 120, which is depicted in FIG. 1 as a two-dimensional array of light emitting diodes. In this specification, the term “processing device” is used to indicate any method or system that performs processing in response to a signal or data, including a microprocessor, It should be construed to encompass integrated circuits, computer software, computer hardware, electrical circuits, application specific integrated circuits, personal computers, chips, and other devices capable of providing processing functions. The LED system 120 is controlled by the processing device 16 to produce controlled lighting. In particular, the processor 16 controls individual LEDs, semiconductor dies or the like with different colors in the LED system 120 to produce illumination of any color on the spectrum. The immediate color change, strobe and other effects, described in more detail below, can be generated by a light module, such as light module 100 depicted in FIG. The light module 100 described above can receive power and data. Through the processing unit 16, the light module 100 described above may be such that it can provide various functions attributable to the various embodiments of the present invention disclosed herein.

  Turning to FIG. 2, the light module 100 can be configured to be used alone or as part of the set of light modules 100 described above. Each light module 100 or set of light modules 100 may be provided with a data connection 500 that leads to one or more external devices, or in other embodiments to other light modules 100. Is possible. As used herein, the term “data connection” refers to network, data bus, wire, transmitter and receiver, circuit, video tape, CD, DVD disk, video tape, audio tape, computer tape, card. Or it should be construed to encompass any data transmission system, such as others. Thus, a data connection is a method or system that utilizes radio waves, ultrasound, auditory signals, infrared, light, microwave, laser, or electromagnetic signals, or other methods of transmitting or connecting data by means of transmission or connection. Any system can be included. That is, any method of using the spectrum of electromagnetic waves or other energy transfer mechanisms can provide a data connection as disclosed herein. In the embodiment of the present invention, the light module 100 may include a transmission unit, a reception unit, or both to facilitate communication, and the processing device 16 controls the communication capability in a conventional manner. May be programmed. The light module 100 can receive data from the transmitter 502 via the data connection 500, which is connected to the light module 100, even a conventional transmitter of communication signals. Or a part of a network or network. That is, the transmission unit 502 should be interpreted as including any device or method as long as it is a device or method for transmitting data to the write module 100. The transmission unit 502 may be connected to the control device 504 that generates control data for controlling the light module 100, or may be a part of the control device 504. In some embodiments of the invention, the controller 504 is a computer such as a notebook computer. The control data may be in any format that is suitable for controlling the processing device 16 to control the LED system 120. In the embodiment of the present invention, the control data is in a format according to the DMX-512 protocol, and the conventional software for generating the DMX-512 format instruction controls the light module 100. It is used on notebook computers or personal computers. In order to allow the write module 100 to operate in an independent manner in accordance with pre-programmed instructions, the write module 100 is also provided with a memory unit that stores instructions for controlling the processing unit 16. Also good.

  Turning to FIG. 3, an electrical schematic diagram of a light module 100 in one embodiment of the present invention is illustrated. 4 and 5 illustrate the LED containing side and the electrical connector side in an exemplary embodiment of the light module 100 as described above. In one embodiment, the light module 100 may be configured as a free-standing module configured as a standard product that can be replaced with any similarly configured light module. The light module 100 includes a common type of 10-pin electrical connector 110. In this embodiment, the connector 110 includes a male pin, described below, suitable for mating with a female portion of a complementary 10-pin connector. The pin 180 is a power supply pin. A DC potential source is connected to the light module 180 at pin 180. Pin 180 is electrically connected to the anode ends of light emitting diode (LED) sets 120, 140, and 160, fixing each anode end to a constant high potential.

  The LED system 120 includes a red LED set 121, a blue LED set 140, and a green LED set 160. The LED may be a conventional LED, such as an LED available from Nichia America Corporation, for example. The colors of these LEDs are primary colors in the sense that they can produce any color on the spectrum when overlaid at a preselected rate. In the present invention, the use of three primary colors is preferred, but it can be construed that the present invention functions in a similar manner even when only two primary colors are used, and can produce a variety of spectrally diverse colors. Similarly, different primary colors are arranged on a set of LEDs of the same color here, but the same effect is achieved even if a single LED including a plurality of semiconductor dies that emit a plurality of colors is used. Is recognized. Each of the LED sets 121, 140 and 160 is preferably a series / parallel LED two-dimensional array of the type described by Okuno in US Pat. No. 4,298,869, which is hereby incorporated by reference. Is included. In this embodiment, the LED system 120 consists of a set of LEDs 121 comprising three rows (not shown) connected in parallel, each consisting of nine red LEDs, and five blue or green LEDs each. It includes a set of LEDs 140 or 160 that includes five columns (not shown) connected in parallel. In general, the amount of potential that each red LED drops on the line is less than a blue or green LED, and may be about 2.1V compared to 4V for each blue and green LED. It is understood by those skilled in the art, and this is the basis for the different column lengths. This is because the number of LEDs in each column is determined by the amount of voltage drop desired between the anode end maintained at the power supply voltage and the cathode end of the last LED in the column. . Also, arranging each column in parallel is to ensure that the light module 100 can continue to function even if one LED on a column fails and thus the electrical circuit on that column is interrupted. This is a fail-safe measure. Each cathode end of three parallel connected columns of nine red LEDs each in LED set 121 is then connected together and leads to pin 128 of connector 110. Similarly, each cathode end of five parallel connected columns of five blue LEDs each in LED set 140 is coupled together and leads to pin 148 of connector 110. Each cathode end of five parallel connected columns of five green LEDs each in LED set 160 is coupled together and leads to pin 168 of connector 110. In order to program the maximum amount of current that will flow through each LED set on the light module 100, each LED set in the LED system 120 will be programmed with a programming resistor and final combination with other elements described below. Tied to Between pins 124 and 126 is a 6.2 Ω resistor 122. Between pins 144 and 146 is a 4.7 Ohm resistor 142. Between pins 164 and 166 is a 4.7 Ω resistor 162. Resistor 122 programs the maximum amount of current flowing through red LED set 121, resistor 142 programs the maximum amount of current flowing through blue LED set 140, and resistor 162 sets the maximum amount of current flowing through green LED set 160. Program. The value that these resistors should take is determined empirically based on the desired maximum light intensity in each set of LEDs. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 3, the resistor programs the red, blue and green currents to 70 mA, 50 mA and 50 mA, respectively.

  As shown in FIG. 6, a circuit 10 for light using digitally controlled LEDs includes an LED assembly 12 that has an LED output channel 14 and is controlled by a processor 16. Data and power are supplied to the circuit 10 via a data and power input unit 18. Address setting for the processing device 16 is performed by the switch unit 20 including each switch connected to the individual pins that make up the pin set 21 of the processing device 16. The oscillator 19 supplies a clock signal to the processing device 16 via pins 9 and 10 of the processing device 16.

  In an embodiment of the present invention, the data and power input unit 18 is, for example, a power supply end 1 that is a 24 V LED power supply end, for example, a processing device power supply end that is a 5 V processing device power supply end. 2. It has four pins including a data input line end 3 and a ground pin 4. The first power supply end 1 supplies power to the LED channel 14 of the LED assembly 12. The second processing apparatus power supply terminal 2 is connected to, for example, the power supply input unit 20 of the processing apparatus 16 to supply operating power to the processing apparatus 16, and further, the processing apparatus to fix the reset to a high potential. It may be connected to 16 pins 1. A capacitor 24 such as a 0.1 μF capacitor may be connected between the processing apparatus power supply end 2 and the ground. The data line end 3 is connected, for example, to a pin 18 of the processing device 16 and is used to program and dynamically control the processing device 16. The ground is connected to pins 8 and 19 of the processing device 16, for example.

  The LED assembly 12 may include, for example, an LED channel 14 that is supplied with power from the LED power supply end 1 and is controlled by a transistor. The LED channel 14 supplies power to at least one LED. As shown in FIG. 1, the LED assembly 12 includes a plurality of LEDs for each different color LED (eg, red, green, and blue), with each LED channel 14 being independently controlled by a transistor 26. A channel 14 may be provided. However, it is possible to control more than one channel 14 with a single transistor 26.

  As shown in FIG. 7, a plurality of LEDs 15 can be arranged in a series of two-dimensional arrays to receive signals through each LED channel 14. In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 7, a series of LEDs of different colors (red, green and blue) are connected to the output LED channel 14 from the circuit 10 of FIG. In addition, a plurality of LEDs 15 are arranged in a two-dimensional array so that data can be received according to a protocol such as the DMX-512 protocol so that many individual LEDs 15 can be controlled by programming the processing device 16. Also good.

  Referring to FIG. 6 again, each gate of the transistor 26 is controlled by the processing unit 16, thereby controlling the operation of each LED channel 14 and each LED 15. In the example shown, the output of the microprocessor appears at pins 12, 13 and 14 of the processing unit 16, which pins 12, 13 and 14 are then connected to the gate of the LED channel 14 of each LED 15. Still other pins of the processing device 16 can be used to control additional LEDs. Similarly, different pins of the processing device 16 can be used to control the LED 15 shown if appropriate modifications are made to the operation control commands of the processing device 16.

  A resistor 28 may be connected between the transistor 26 and ground. In the example shown, the resistor 28 associated with the red LED has a resistance value of 62Ω, and the resistor 28 associated with the green and blue LEDs each has a resistance value of 90Ω. A capacitor 29 may be connected between the first LED power supply terminal 1 and the ground. In the illustrated embodiment, this capacitor has a value of 0.1 μF.

  The processing device 16 can be connected to an oscillator 19. One preferred oscillator is a crystal tank circuit oscillator that provides a 20 MHz clock. This oscillator may be connected to pins 9 and 10 of the processing device 16. It is also possible to use an oscillator instead of this. The main items to consider regarding oscillator selection are consistency, operating speed and cost.

  In some embodiments of the present invention, the processing device 16 is a programmable integrated circuit or a PIC chip such as a PIC 16C63 or PIC 16C66 from Microchip Technology. A complete description of the PIC 16C6X series of PIC chips (including both PIC 16C63 and PIC 16C66) is filed on Dec. 17, 1997, inventor Muller and Lys, US provisional patent application “Digitally controlled light emitting diodes”. System and method ", which is hereby incorporated by reference. Currently, PIC 16C66 is the preferred microprocessor, but any processor that has the ability to control each LED 15 of LED assembly 12 can be used. Therefore, an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) can be used instead of the processing device 16, for example. Similarly, other commercially available processing equipment can be used without departing from the invention.

  In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 8, a total of 18 LEDs 15 are arranged in three sets by color, which are arranged to form a substantially circular two-dimensional array 37. ing. It is also possible to independently control the exact intensity for each color set of the LEDs 15 using the processing device 16 so that any combination of colors and thus any color can be generated by the two-dimensional array 37.

  From the LED's responsiveness to changing electrical signals, the LED can be computer controlled through control of the electrical impulse transmitted to the LED. Therefore, by connecting the LED to the power source through a circuit controlled by the processing device, the user can strictly control the color and intensity of the LED. Because LEDs react relatively quickly to changes in electrical impulse, such changes in impulse can change the color and intensity state of the LED very quickly. By arranging the individual LEDs in a two-dimensional array and controlling the individual LEDs, it becomes possible to achieve very strict control of the lighting state through the use of a microprocessor. The processor 16 may be controlled by conventional means, such as a computer program, to send the appropriate electrical signal to the appropriate LED at any given time. The control format can be a digital format so that strict control is possible. Therefore, it is possible to change the entire lighting state in a highly controlled manner.

  Having described the electrical structure of one embodiment of the light module 100, attention is now directed to the example electrical structure illustrated in FIG. 9 for the power supply module 200 in one embodiment of the present invention. 10 and 11 are diagrams showing the power supply terminal side and the electrical connector side for an embodiment of the power supply module 200. As with the light module 100, the power supply module 200 may be self-supporting. Interconnection with the male pin set 110 is made through a complementary female pin set 210. The pin 280 is connected to a pin 180 for supplying power transmitted from the supply source 300 to the pin 280. Source 300 is shown as a functional block for simplicity. In practice, the source 300 may take various forms that generate a DC voltage. In this embodiment, the supply source 300 supplies a voltage of 24V through a connection terminal (not shown) connected to the pin 280 through a general-type transient response protection capacitor (not shown). ing. As described more fully in U.S. Pat. No. 4,298,869, source 300 can also supply a DC voltage after undergoing rectification and / or voltage conversion of an AC power source. Good to understand.

  Further connected to the pin connector 210 are three integrated circuits for current programming ICR 220, ICB 240 and ICG 260. Each of these integrated circuits may be a three-terminal adjustable regulator, such as part number LM317B available from National Semiconductor Corporation of Santa Clara, California. The entries in the LM317 data sheet are hereby incorporated by reference. Each regulator includes an input terminal, an output terminal and an adjustment terminal labeled I, O and A, respectively. The regulator functions to maintain a constant maximum current amount with respect to the current flowing into the input terminal and the current flowing out from the output terminal. This maximum amount of current is programmed in advance by setting a resistance between the output terminal and the adjustment terminal. This means that the regulator described above will produce a voltage of 1.25V through a fixed current setting resistor, so that the voltage at the input terminal will settle to whatever value is required to allow a certain amount of current to flow. It is to make it. Since each regulator functions similarly, only ICR 220 will be described here. First, current flows from the pin 228 to the input terminal of the ICR 220. The power supply module pin 228 is coupled to the light module pin 128 and receives current directly from the cathode end of the red LED system 121. Typically, resistor 122 is arranged between the output terminal and the adjust terminal of ICR 220 through pins 224/124 and 226/126, so that resistor 122 programs the amount of current to be defined by ICR 220. As a result, the output current from the adjustment terminal of the ICR 220 flows into the Darlington driver. In this manner, ICR 220 and resistor 122 associated with ICR 220 program the maximum amount of current that will flow through red LED system 120. Similar results are provided to blue LED set 140 by ICB 240 and resistor 142 and green LED set 160 by ICG 260 and resistor 162.

  Red, blue and green LED currents flow from nodes 324, 344 and 364, respectively, to another integrated circuit ICI 380. The ICI 380 may be a high current / high voltage Darlington driver, such as part number DS2003 available from National Semiconductor Corporation of Santa Clara, California. ICI 380 can be used as a current sink and can function to switch current between each set of LEDs and ground 390. As described in the DS2003 data sheet described herein by reference, the ICI includes six sets of Darlington transistors with appropriate on-board bias resistors. As shown, the use of a pair of Darlington transistors to sink current from each set of LEDs can double the current rating of ICI 380, In a known manner, nodes 324, 344 and 364 couple the current from each set of LEDs to the three pairs of Darlington transistors described above. Each of the three onboard Darlington pairs is used as a switch in the manner described below. The base of each Darlington pair is coupled to signal inputs 424, 444 and 464, respectively. That is, the input 424 is a signal input for switching the current flowing through the node 324, and hence the current flowing through the set 121 of red LEDs. Input 444 is a signal input for switching the current through node 344 and thus the current through blue LED set 140. Input 464 is a signal input for switching the current flowing through node 364 and thus the current flowing through green LED set 160. Signal inputs 424, 444 and 464 are coupled to signal outputs 434, 454 and 474 of microcontroller IC2 400, respectively, described below. In essence, as a high frequency square wave is flowing to each signal input, ICI 380 switches the current through the corresponding node at the same frequency and duty cycle. Thus, in operation, the state of signal inputs 424, 444 and 464 directly correlates with the opening and closing of the power supply circuit through each set of LEDs 121, 140 and 160.

  Next, the structure and operation of the microcontroller IC2 400 in the embodiment shown in FIG. 9 will be described. While any suitable programmed microcontroller or microprocessor can perform the software functions described herein, the preferred MICROCHIP brand PIC16C63 is the microcontroller IC2 400. . The main function of the microcontroller IC2 400 is to convert the numerical data received at the serial Rx pin 520 into three independent high frequency square waves having the same frequency but independent duty cycle at the signal outputs 434, 454 and 474. Is to convert to In FIG. 9, for maximum clarity, the microcontroller IC2 400 is partially stylized in a manner in which some of the 28 standard pins are omitted or integrated. It is drawn and its omission or integration can be understood by those skilled in the art. In addition, for certain other embodiments of the present invention, further details regarding certain similar microcontrollers are provided in conjunction with FIG.

  The microcontroller IC2 400 is supplied with power from a pin 450 connected to a DC power source 700 of 5V. The power source 700 is driven by the source 300 through a connection (not shown), preferably including a voltage regulator (not shown). An example of a voltage regulator is the LM340 three terminal positive regulator available from National Semiconductor Corporation of Santa Clara, California. The items described in the LM340 data sheet are described herein by reference. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that most microcontrollers, and many other independently integrated digital circuits, are rated for a power supply of at most 5V. The clock frequency of the microcontroller IC2 400 is set by a crystal 480 connected through an appropriate pin. Pin 490 is the ground voltage reference pin for microcontroller IC2400.

  Switch 600 is a 12-point dip switch that can be changed and mechanically set to designate microcontroller IC2 400 as unique. When the individual switches that make up the twelve mechanical switches in dip switch 600 are closed, a path is formed from pin 650 of microcontroller IC2 400 corresponding to that switch to ground 690. Twelve switches create 24 possible settings, which allows any microcontroller IC2 400 to take one of 4096 different IDs or addresses. In the embodiment of FIG. 9, since the DMX-512 protocol is adopted, only nine switches are actually used.

  When switch 600 is set, microcontroller IC2 400 “knows” its own address (“who is it”) and “listens” on serial line 520 for the data stream specifically assigned to the address. " A high-speed network protocol such as the DMX protocol may be used to assign each network data from a central network controller (not shown) to each individually addressed microcontroller IC2 400. The DMX protocol is described in the publication "DMX512 / 1990 digital data transmission standard for dimmers and controllers" of United States Theater Technology, which is also incorporated herein by reference. Basically, in the network protocol used here, a central controller (not shown) generates a stream of network data consisting of a series of data packets.

  Each packet includes a header at the beginning that is discarded after being checked for conformance, and then includes a series of character streams representing data for each device that is sequentially addressed. For example, if the data packet is directed to write number 15, 14 characters are discarded from the data stream and the device stores a character indicating 15. As in the preferred embodiment, if more than one character is required, the above address is considered the starting address and more than one character is stored and used. Each character corresponds to a decimal number from 0 to 255 and represents the desired intensity from “off” to “full” in linear increments (for simplicity, details about data packets such as headers and stop bits) Are omitted herein and these details will be well understood by those skilled in the art). In this way, each of the three LED colors is given a separate intensity value between 0 and 255. Each of these intensity values is stored in a corresponding register (not shown) in the memory portion of the microcontroller IC2400. When the central controller finishes discharging all data packets, it repeats a continuous refresh cycle. According to the standard, the refresh cycle is defined as a minimum of 1196 microseconds and a maximum of 1 second.

  The microcontroller IC2 400 is programmed to constantly “listen” for the corresponding data stream. At the time that the microcontroller IC2 400 is “listening” before the microcontroller IC2 400 detects a data packet directed at it, the microcontroller IC2 400 is at pins 434, 454 and 474. A routine designed to produce a square wave signal output is executed. The duty cycle of the rectangular wave is determined by the value in the color register. Since each register can take a value between 0 and 255, these values create 256 possible duty cycles that increase linearly within the range of 0% to 100%. Since the frequency of the square wave is uniform and is determined by the program running in the microcontroller IC2 400, these different individual duty periods represent changes in the width of the square wave pulse. This is known by the name of pulse width modulation (PWM).

  In one embodiment of the present invention, a PWM interrupt routine is provided using a simple counter that increments in cycles from 0 to 255 during each period of the square wave output to pins 434, 454 and 474. The When the counter goes around and returns to 0, all three signals are set high. Once the counter is equal to the register value, the signal output is changed low. When microcontroller IC2 400 receives new data, microcontroller IC2 400 freezes the counter, copies the new data to the working register, compares the new register value with the current count, and sets the output pin appropriately. Update and restart the counter from the exact time it was stopped. Therefore, the intensity value can be updated in the middle of the PWM cycle. There are at least two advantages to freezing the counter and simultaneously updating the signal output. The first advantage is that it enables each lighting unit to pulse / strobe as quickly as a strobe light does. Such strobe operation occurs when the central control device alternately transmits network data having a high intensity value and network data having an intensity value of 0 at high speed. When the counter is restarted without updating the signal output first, the phenomenon that the LEDs of different colors set to different pulse widths become inactive before and after is also observed with the naked eye. In incandescent light, this feature is not a problem because of the integral effects associated with the heating and cooling cycles of the lighting elements. In the present invention, LEDs are activated and deactivated in essence, unlike incandescent light elements. A second advantage is that the LED can be dimmed without causing the blinking phenomenon that would otherwise occur when the counter is reset to zero. The central controller can transmit a continuous dimming signal in generating a series of intensity values representing the light intensity reduction of each color LED uniformly formed at a constant rate. If the output signal is not updated before the counter is restarted, there is a possibility that an LED of a certain color will practice the duty cycle nearly twice without going through the zero current state during the duty cycle. For example, assume that the red register is set to 4 and the counter is set to 3 when the counter is frozen. Here, the counter is frozen just before the “off part” of the PWM cycle occurs for the red LED. Here, it is assumed that the network data changes the value of the red register from 4 to 2, and the counter is restarted without deactivating the output signal. Although the counter is greater than the intensity value in the red register, the output state remains “on”, which means that the maximum current remains in the red LED. On the other hand, the blue and green LEDs are turned off, perhaps at an appropriate time during the PWM cycle. This phenomenon is perceived by the human eye as red flickering during the light intensity dimming process. If the counter is frozen and the output is updated for the remaining time of the PWM cycle, the above disadvantages can be overcome and it can be ensured that no blinking phenomenon occurs.

  The microprocessor providing the digital control function of the LED of the present invention may be responsive to any electrical signal. That is, an external signal can be used to instruct the microprocessor to control the LED in the desired manner. The signal may be controlled by a computer program so that a programmed response to a given input signal is possible. Thus, signals that switch individual LEDs on or off, signals that change the color of individual LEDs over the entire color spectrum, or strobe LEDs at predetermined intervals that can be controlled to very short intervals, or It is possible to generate a blinking signal and a signal that changes the intensity of light from a single LED or collection of LEDs. In accordance with the present invention, a wide variety of signal generators can be used to provide significant benefits to the user. Input signals range from simple on / off or intensity signals, such as those emitted from light switches or dials or remote controls, to signals emitted from detectors such as ambient temperature and ambient light detectors. Good. The above-described exact digital control of LEDs arranged in a two-dimensional array, which is performed in response to a wide range of external signals, enables applications according to the invention in many technical fields.

  Next, a network interface for the microcontroller IC2 400 will be described. Jacks 800 and 900 are standard RJ-45 network jacks. Jack 800 is used as an input jack and is depicted as having only three inputs, signal inputs 860, 870 and ground 850, for simplicity. Network data flows into jack 800 and passes through signal inputs 860 and 870. These signal inputs are then coupled to an IC3 500, a standard RS-485 / RS-422 differential bus repeater, preferably a DS96177 available from National Semiconductor Corporation of Santa Clara, California. . The contents of the DS96177 data sheet are described herein by reference. Signal inputs 860, 870 flow from pins 560, 570 into IC3 500. This data signal is passed from pin 510 to pin 520 of microcontroller IC2 400. The same data signal as above is then returned from pin 540 of IC2 200 to pin 530 of IC3 500. Jack 900 is a jack used as an output jack and is depicted as having only five outputs, signal outputs 960, 970, 980, 990 and ground 950, for simplicity. Outputs 960 and 970 are branches directly from input lines 860 and 870, respectively. Outputs 980 and 990 are outputs coming directly from pins 580 and 590 of IC3500, respectively. It will be appreciated that the above-described assembly allows two network nodes to be connected to receive network data. Therefore, the network may be a daisy chain type as long as individual nodes are connected in series, or may be a tree type if two or more nodes are connected to the output of each individual node.

  From the above description, it can be seen that an addressable network of LED lighting or display units can be constructed from a collection of power modules each connected to a respective light module. As long as at least two primary color LEDs are used, any illumination or display color can be created by simply pre-selecting the light intensity emitted by each color LED. Furthermore, each color LED can emit light at any of 255 different luminances depending on the duty cycle of the PWM square wave, with maximum luminance caused by passing maximum current through the LED. Furthermore, the maximum brightness can be suitably programmed simply by adjusting the upper limit of the maximum allowable current using a current regulator programming resistor on the light module. Various maximum current rating light modules may thereby be conveniently replaced.

  In an alternative embodiment of the invention, a special power supply module 38 is provided, as depicted in FIG. The power supply module 38 may be located on any platform of the light module 100, such as, for example, the platform of the embodiment depicted in FIGS. The output of the power supply module 38 supplies power to a power and data input, such as the power and data input 18 of the circuit 10 of FIG. The power supply module 38 can take various types of voltage or current inputs including intermittent inputs and supply the circuit 10 with stable low noise power. In the embodiment depicted in FIG. 12, the power supply module includes an input 40 that may be a received electrical signal that would typically be alternating current. The received signal is then converted by a rectifying element 42 which is a bridge rectifier comprising four diodes 44 in an embodiment of the invention. The rectifying element 42 rectifies the AC signal into a low-noise DC signal. The power supply module 38 may further include a storage element 48 that may include one or more capacitors 50. The storage element stores the power supplied by the rectifying element 42 so that the power supply module 38 is powered at the input 18 of the circuit 10 of FIG. 6 even if the power to the input 40 of the power supply module 38 is intermittent. Can be supplied. In the example shown, one of the capacitors is an electrolytic capacitor with a value of 330 μF.

  The power supply module 38 may further include a booster converter 52. The booster converter takes low voltage direct current and boosts it to reduce noise in order to provide a higher voltage to the DC power input 18 of the circuit 10 of FIG. The booster converter 52 includes an inductor 54, a controller 58, one or more capacitors 60, one or more resistors 62, and one or more diodes 64. The resistor limits the data voltage swing of the signal to the processing device of circuit 10. The controller 58 may be a conventional controller suitable for booster conversion, such as LTC 1372 provided by Linear Technology. The teachings of the LTC1372 data sheet are incorporated herein by reference.

  In the illustrated embodiment, booster converter 52 can take approximately 10 volts of power and convert it to 24 volts of low noise power. The 24 volt power can be used to power circuit 10 and LED 15 of FIG.

  In certain embodiments of the invention, power and data are separate for data such as conventional electrical or power wires and RS-485 wires, as in most applications of the DMX-512 protocol. It is supplied to the circuit 10 and the LED 15 by conventional means such as wire. For example, in the embodiment of FIGS. 4 and 5, when the platform 30 is plugged into a conventional halogen lamp fixture 34 having only one power, a separate data wire provides data for controlling the LED 15. May be provided.

  In another embodiment, the power and serial data are simultaneously applied to a device that may be a lighting device such as the lighting device using the LED of FIG. 1 or any other device that requires both power and data. Supplied. Power and data may be supplied to multiple lighting devices with a single set of wires. In particular, in this embodiment of the present invention, power is supplied to the device along a two-wire data bus (and such as those typically used for illumination in applications where high power is required, such as halogen lamps (and If applicable, it is delivered (via power supply module 38).

  In one embodiment of the invention, power supply module 38 recovers power from the data line. In order to enable power recovery from the data line, a power data multiplexer 60 is provided that amplifies the received data stream and produces a logical data level, wherein one or more logical states are between the logical states. Has sufficient voltage or power to be recoverable. Referring to FIG. 13, in one embodiment of the present invention, a data input 64 is provided which is a line driver or other input for providing data. In an embodiment of the present invention, the data is DMX-512 protocol data for controlling lighting such as LEDs. It should be understood that the power data multiplexer 60 can also manipulate data for control of other devices according to protocols other than those described above.

  The power data multiplexer 60 may include a data input element 68 and a data output element 70. The data output element 70 may include an output element 72 that provides power and data coupled to a device such as the power supply module 38 of FIG. 12 or the input 18 of the circuit 10 of FIG. The data input element 68 may include a receiver 74 that may be an RS-485 receiver for receiving DMX-512 data or other conventional receivers for receiving data according to a protocol. The data input element 68 may further include a power supply 78 with a voltage regulator 80 to provide regulated power to the receiver 74 and the data output element 70. Data input element 68 provides a data signal to data output element 70. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 12, a TTL data signal is provided. Data output element 70 amplifies the data signal and determines the relative voltage direction of the output. In the embodiment shown, chip 82 amplifies the data signal to a 24 volt positive signal to represent a logic 1 and a high speed to amplify the data signal to a 24 volt negative signal to represent a logic zero. It consists of a PWM stepping motor driver chip. It should be understood that different voltages may be used to represent logic 1 and logic 0. For example, zero volts could represent a logic 0 and a particular positive or negative voltage could represent a logic 1.

  In this embodiment, the voltage is sufficient to supply power while maintaining the logical data value of the data stream. The chip 82 may be any conventional chip that can take an input signal and amplify it to a larger voltage in a selected direction. It should be understood that any circuit for amplifying data while maintaining the logical value of the data stream can be used for the power data multiplexer 60.

  The embodiment of FIGS. 12 and 13 includes any device for converting a data signal transmitted according to a data protocol in which certain data is represented by a non-zero signal into power supplied to an electrical device. Please understand. The device may be a light module 100 such as that depicted in FIG.

  In the embodiment of the present invention, the data supplied to the power data multiplexer 60 is data according to the USITT DMX-512 protocol, where a certain data stream is sent from a console such as a stage console to the DMX-512 network. Sent to all devices above. DMX-512 is enforced on the data. For this reason, the power data multiplexer 60 in the embodiment depicted in FIG. 13 or in another embodiment may be driven from a standard signal voltage and / or current level to a higher voltage, and usually to a higher current. It is guaranteed that 512 signals can be amplified.

  The resulting higher power signal from the power data multiplexer 60 is converted back to separated power by the power supply module 38 or by other circuitry having a diode rectification function and a power capacitor filtering function. be able to.

  The data stream from the power data multiplexer 60 can be recovered by a simple resistor divider that recovers the standard data voltage level signal supplied to the input 18. Resistance splitting can be achieved by resistor 84 of FIG.

  The power data multiplexer 62, when combined with the power supply module 38 and the array 37 attached to the modular platform 30, enables digitally controlled lighting with LEDs using existing wires and light fixtures. . In some systems, separate data or power wires are not required because the device can obtain power and data from a single set of wires. The power data multiplexer 60 is installed along a conventional data wire, and the power supply module 38 can be installed on the platform 30. In this way, by simply adding the power data multiplexer 60, inserting the modular platform 30 into a conventional halogen lamp fixture, and supplying DMX-512 data to the power data multiplexer 60, the user can perform digital control using LEDs. You can get a certified proof.

  It should be understood that the power supply module 38 can be supplied with standard 12 volt AC in an unmodified manner. That is, the power supply module can supply the array 37 from alternating current present in a conventional light fixture such as an MR-16 light fixture. If digital control is desired, a separate data wire can be provided if desired.

  Another embodiment of the power data multiplexer 60 is depicted in FIG. In this embodiment, a power supply between 12 and 24 volts connected to input terminal 899 is used.

  The voltage at 803 is 8 volts greater than the power supply. The voltage at 805 is about minus 8 volts. The voltage at 801 is 5 volts. The power data multiplexer 60 may include decoupling capacitors 807 and 809 for the input power supply. A voltage regulator 811 provides a supply of low noise 5 volt voltage that is decoupled by capacitor 813. A voltage regulator 815, which may be an LM317 voltage regulator available from National Semiconductor, forms an 18 volt voltage regulator with resistors 817 and 819 decoupled by capacitors 821 and 823. The teachings of the LM317 data sheet are described herein by reference. This is fed to an adjustable buck regulator 823, which can be an LT1375 buck regulator available from Linear Technology of Milpitas, California, operating in a voltage inverting configuration. The teachings of the LT1375 data sheet shall be described herein by reference. The resistances of resistors 817 and 819 are selected to produce minus 8 volts, diode 844 is for a higher voltage than shown in the data sheet, and inductor 846 is further coupled to capacitor 848, for example. It could be any conventional inductor with a value of 100 μH that would allow the use of a smaller and less expensive capacitor, and the supply was further bypassed by capacitor 852. The diode 854 may be version IN914 in a plastic package, and the frequency compensation capacitor 856 is sized appropriately for changes in other components according to the data sheet formula. The circuit produces -8 volts at 805.

  A boost regulator 825 may also be included which may be an LT1372 voltage regulator available from Linear Technology, Milpitas, California. The teachings of the LT1372 data sheet are described herein by reference. The boost regulator may be a standard design. The diode 862 may be a diode that has a higher voltage than taught by the data sheet. Inductor 864 and capacitor 839 may be appropriately sized according to the data sheet formula to produce a voltage 8 volts higher than this for an input voltage range between 12 and 24 volts. Capacitor 866 may be sized for frequency compensation specified values of inductor 864 and capacitor 868 according to data sheet guidelines. The set of resistors 827, 833, 837 together with the transistor 829 form a voltage feedback circuit. Resistors 833 and 837 form a voltage divider that produces a voltage proportional to output voltage 803 at feedback node pin 835. Resistor 827 and transistor 829 form a current mirror that draws current from feedback node pin 835 in proportion to the input voltage. Thus, the voltage at feedback node pin 835 is proportional to the output voltage minus the input voltage. The ratio of the resistance of resistor 833 to the resistance of resistor 837, which needs to be equal to resistor 827 for this subtraction to work, is chosen to produce 8 volts. Capacitor 839 may be used to further bypass the supply.

  Received data, which may take the form of a received RS-485 protocol data stream, is received by the receiver chip 841 at pins 843 and 845 and buffered to create a true complement data signal at pins 847 and 849, respectively. Is amplified. These signals are further buffered and inverted by element 851 to create a true complement data signal with substantial drive capability at pins 853 and 855, respectively.

  Each of the signals from pins 853 and 855 is then processed by an output amplifier. There are two output amplifiers 857 and 859 that may be substantially the same in design and function. In each case, the data signal entering the amplifier is connected to two interchanged series current sources 861 and 863, and at the connection of the two resistors 865 and 869, the first current source is resistor 865 and transistor 867. The second current source is composed of a resistor 869 and a transistor 871. Current source 863 will reduce the current by about 20 milliamps when the signal entering the amplifier is low, such as zero volts, and will not reduce the current when the signal is high, such as plus 5 volts. Another current source 861 will get about 20 milliamps when the signal is high, not when the signal is low. These currents are well known to analog circuit designers, consisting of transistors 877 and 879 and resistors 879 and 881 for current source 863 and transistors 885 and 887 and resistors 889 and 891 for current source 861. Supplied to two current mirrors 873 and 875, which are standard designs. The collectors of transistors 877 and 855 are connected together to form one current summing node. The net power delivered from these transistors to this node will be about 20 milliamps in the procurement direction (flowing into the node) when the input signal is low and in the decreasing direction (flowing out of the node) when the signal is high. Let's go. The transition from the low state to the high state occurs at the input signal, and the resulting 20 milliamp drop current causes capacitor 893 (and the parasitic capacitance at this node) to become the voltage at the node where diodes 895 and 897 begin to conduct. Until it reaches about minus 5 volts, discharging at a controlled rate of about 5 volts per microsecond, fixing the node voltage negative wander at minus 5 volts and preventing saturation of transistor 885. Transistors 889 and 901 form a standard designed bidirectional Class B voltage follower, with the voltage at the junction of their emitters following the transition at the node connected to capacitor 893. Specifically, transistor 899 is turned off, transistor 901 conducts, reduces the voltage at the gates of transistors 903 and 907, switches transistor 903 off, slowly turns transistor 907 on, and outputs current to output pin 909. From ground to ground. Field effect transistors 903 and 907, which may be of the type available from National Semiconductor, Santa Clara, California, also form a standard design Class B voltage follower. When the voltage at the current summing node is fixed at minus 5 volts, the voltage at the gate of 903 reaches -4.4 volts, and transistor 907 remains in its original state as long as the input signal remains high. right.

  Once the input signal goes low, the current at the summing node changes direction, the capacitor 893 discharges at the same rate, and eventually is fixed at an input voltage value of plus 5 volts. The transistor 899 raises the voltage at the gates of the transistors 903 and 905, turns off the transistor 903, turns on the transistor 907, and procures current from the input side to the output side through the resistor 911. It will take about 500 nanoseconds for the voltage (ie, output) at the summing node to switch completely between zero and 24 volts (if the power input is up to 24 volts). It would also take about 250 nanoseconds to move between zero and 12 volts (if the power input is 12 volts). Transistor 905 and resistor 911 form a short circuit protection circuit that limits the current flowing through 903 to approximately 6 amperes. Diode 913 isolates the short circuit protection circuit when transistor 903 is not on. In this case, transistor 907 is not protected because the short circuit path is either to ground or to the other amplifier channel. In the first case, no current flows through transistor 907, but in the second case, other amplifier short-circuit protection will protect transistor 907.

  Because of the bridge rectifier at the input to the device as disclosed with respect to the description of the embodiment of FIG. 6, the power data multiplexer circuit depicted in FIGS. 13 and 14 has a data = 1 state and a data = 0 state. Both provide power to the device and do not rely on any data format at the input to maintain sufficient power to the device. Data is extracted for use in other embodiments of the invention.

  The circuit of FIG. 14 produces a controlled slew rate. That is, the generated power and data have a relatively smooth transition between a logic zero state and a logic one state. The controlled slew rate produced by the circuit of FIG. 14 reduces the magnitude of radio frequency interference that occurs, as will be more particularly described below with respect to the data track of the present invention.

  The input of the lamp is substantially similar to the termination circuit in the track type embodiment described below and has the same effect as the termination circuit, so the lamp itself terminates the line. This eliminates the need for a termination device on the line. Additional termination is only required for devices that are commanded to turn off, devices with low actual data wire impedance, or with long wires, or when there are many transitions to occur. Since this is a very unlikely combination of factors, certain configurations of additional termination devices are not actually required.

  For the embodiment in FIG. 14, 6 amps of power run 24 lights at 24 volts and 24 lights at 12 volts.

  In certain embodiments of the invention, a modified method and system is provided to provide a plurality of simultaneous high speed pulse width modulated signals. This method may be accomplished by computer software coding of the steps shown in flowcharts 202 and 205 of FIG. 15, or by computer hardware that is designed to accomplish these functions. In step 204, to generate a number N of PWM signals, the processing unit schedules an interruption with at least N short periods, possibly equal (as is the case in this embodiment). In this embodiment, this interruption is caused by a counter and interrupts the processor every 256 processor clock cycles. In step 208, a rough PWM value for each short period is calculated. In step 212, the vernier value for each PWM channel is calculated. The short period may be described as Pi that is the first short period 1 or the like.

  The interrupt routine executes the steps of flowchart 20 at each sub-cycle that begins with the interruption of step 213. In step 214, all PWM signals are updated with pre-calculated values corresponding to this particular short period. In most cases, this is accompanied by a single read from an array of pre-calculated values, followed by a single write to update multiple I / O pins on which the PWM signal is generated.

  In step 222, the processor advances the short cycle argument to point to the next short cycle.

  In auxiliary step 218, the time during which the PWM signal is on can be reduced or increased by changing the state of the signal for up to one half of the short period. There are two possible cases. A rough update puts the signal in the “off” state and the auxiliary routine switches it to the “on” state for up to half the time of the short cycle, or the rough update is “on” and the auxiliary routine Switches its signal “off” for a period of up to one-half of a short period.

  Using this method, each PWM signal can change multiple times per PWM period. This is advantageous because the software can use this property to increase the apparent PWM frequency while maintaining a relatively low interruption rate.

  The methods that have been disclosed so far consume at most about half the processor time compared to conventional PWM routines.

As an example, consider two signals A and B with a resolution of 20 counts programmed to 7 and 14 counts, respectively. These signals can be generated as follows.

  In this example, the pre-calculated update value at Pi = 1 is on for both signals. Then, while the interrupt routine continues to run, it spends some time with signal A on. Next, A turns off at the first “v” auxiliary step, and the interrupt routine executes the time delay code during the time before the signal is turned back on at the second “v”.

  The actual time between multiple updates and auxiliary updates at the beginning of a short period need not be known as long as the time spent between auxiliary updates is the desired time. While the auxiliary update occurs, the signal B switched on remains on and remains unaffected.

  When the second interruption occurs, both signals are switched off and the auxiliary routine now adds four additional counts to the period of signal B. In this example, only 35 percent of the processor time was consumed in addition to the time required for the two interruptions.

  Since only one auxiliary period is required for each signal generated, increasing the number of periods per PWM period will result in the majority of possible frequencies at the dedicated hardware PWM output of many possible PWM channel microprocessors. A non-uniform PWM waveform can be generated at a high frequency. The microprocessor still performs interruptions at fixed intervals.

  In order to change the duty cycle of the resulting signal, the software does not have to worry about synchronizing with the interrupt routine, and more importantly, it does not stop it, but roughly or auxiliary values in any order Any or all of these can be updated asynchronously. The interrupt routine never changes any variable that the main code changes, or vice versa. In this way, there is no need for any kind of interlock.

  This software routine can thus utilize a single timer to generate a plurality of PWM signals, each signal wave ultimately having a resolution of a single processor cycle. The microchip PIC microprocessor can generate three PWM signals, each having a resolution of 256 counts corresponding to a delay of 4 instructions. This allows a PWM period of 4882 Hertz with a period of just 1024 instructions, ie 20 MHz clock.

  Further, for counts between 64 and 192, the PWM waveform is a non-uniform 9,765 Hertz signal and the noise is much lower than conventional PWM generators in such processing devices.

  As described above, the LED array of the present invention is responsive to external electrical signals and data. As a result, it is desirable to have an improved distribution mechanism for data and signals in order to make full use of the advantages of the present invention. In some embodiments of the present invention, the data connection 500 may be a DMX or conventional lighting or lighting data network bus located in a track where LEDs are located. In this way, a truck with the ability to deliver a data signal may be operated inside a track lighting device for LEDs or conventional lights. The data signal can then be controlled by a microprocessor, allowing intelligent individual control of individual lamps or LEDs. It is within the scope of the present invention to provide distributed lighting that is responsive to both electrical and data control.

  The LED of the present invention is extremely sensitive to changes in the input signal. As a result, high speed data distribution is desirable to take advantage of the features of the present invention. In one embodiment of the present invention, a method for accelerating the communication speed of a DMX-512 network is provided. In particular, the DMX512 network transmits data at 250,000 baud. The DMX standard requires all receivers to recognize a break of at least 88 microseconds. After the mark is recognized, all devices wait to receive a start code and ignore the rest of the packet if anything other than zero is received. If a non-zero start code is sent before sending data at a higher baud rate, the device can respond to that higher baud rate more quickly. Instead, more than a certain number of channels are assigned to a high baud rate, but other devices are not stripped of the necessary data because they have already received their data from that frame. In order to prevent loss of synchronization, it may be desirable to frame multiple characters with the correct stop bit.

  The present invention is from a motherboard that includes the LED array of the present invention and communicates with a network and / or bus using DMX, Ethernet or other protocols to control a wide range of electrical devices. It may include a fully automated system chassis.

  In another embodiment of the present invention, the input signal for the microprocessor can be obtained from a lighting control network that does not have a direct current connection. A switch or remote control mounted on the wall can transmit the signals as programmed infrared, radio-frequency signals or other signals to a receiver that can transmit the signals to the microprocessor.

  Another embodiment provides a different track lighting system. Current track lighting systems typically support both the physical and electrical characteristics of a track made of a material consisting of a molded aluminum track that supports and houses a copper conductor and houses a molded plastic insulation. use. Conventional track lighting systems typically provide power and mechanical support to light fixtures that can be attached to a “track” at any location along its entire length without the use of tools by the customer.

  In the simplest form, the track provides only two conductors, and all light fixtures along the track receive power from the same two conductors. In this situation, all light fixtures attached to the truck are controlled by a single controller. It is impossible to remotely control (switch on or off, or dimm) a subset of light fixtures attached to the truck without affecting other light fixtures.

  Track systems typically include more than two conductors, mainly due to Underwriters Laboratories' requirements for individual ground conductors. Many systems have also strived to provide more than two current carrying conductors. The purpose of the additional power carrying conductor is typically either to increase the overall power carrying capacity of the truck or to provide separate control over a subset of light fixtures. Up to four “circuits” are known, ie tracks with current carrying conductors.

  However, even with four circuits, full flexibility cannot be achieved with conventional tracks for a number of reasons. First, light fixtures are assigned to subsets when inserted into a track. In this way, the light fixture will be affected by the signal for a particular subset. When there are more lights than circuits, it is impossible to control the lights individually using conventional systems. Also, light fixtures that can be modified somewhat (ie dimmed), but not easily used to transmit a significant amount of data, typically only receive power. Furthermore, information cannot be easily returned from the light fixture.

  The truck embodiments disclosed herein enable individual control of multiple light fixtures installed on the truck, while complying with the need for both safety and elimination of unintentional radio frequency generation. , Enabling robust two-way communication on that track. Disclosed herein is a method and system for creating an electrical signal to deliver data to a plurality of light fixtures attached to a track, where the truck delivers the signal to the light fixture. In order to ensure that the signal does not cause excessive unintended reflections.

  Referring to FIG. 16, in one embodiment, a user may wish to transmit lighting control data to a light fixture 6000 on a track 6002, preferably using industry standards. The light fixture 6000 may be a light module 100 such as those individually disclosed, or any other conventional light fixture that can be connected to a conventional track lighting track. In some embodiments, the data control standard is the DMX-512 standard described herein.

  DMX-512 specifies the use of standard RS-485 voltage signaling and input / output devices. However, using RS-485 requires that the network to which the light fixture 6000 is attached take the form of a bus composed of a long medium with controlled impedance, and that the network is connected to each bus endpoint. There is a problem with the track lighting application described here. These characteristics are usually not provided in typical track lighting systems that do not have a system of conductors with controlled impedance. In addition, track systems often have branches, or “T” s where one section of the track branches into multiple other sections, for cost, reliability, and installation reasons. It is not desirable to regenerate the signal electronically at a point. Thus, each section is “terminated” with its characteristic impedance, and for the purposes of RS-485, a properly terminated network cannot be achieved.

  However, through the present invention, it is possible to transmit a signal that conforms to a modification of the RS-485 specification that can be received by currently available devices that conform to the RS-485 specification.

  In order to effectively deliver data in this environment, a new data transmitter 6004 is required. A waveform driver controlled as a data transmitter 6004 is utilized to counteract the effects of transmission lines caused by multiple sections of the track. This driver design may be further optimized to minimize the amount of unintended radio frequency emissions and to comply with FCC and CE regulatory requirements. In addition, special termination networks may be utilized to ensure signal integrity.

  Certain features of the track system are related to each other. First, multiple sections of a track can be considered as a collection of individual transmission lines, each with a certain (generally unknown) characteristic impedance and a certain unknown length. it can. The light fixture attached to the truck has some load along the length of the transmission path. The RS-485 standard specifies that the minimum impedance of such a load will be at least 10.5 kilohms and specifies that the added capacitance should not exceed 50 pF. In a large lighting network, it is possible to envisage a track system consisting of dozens of sections, each up to several meters long. The total number of light fixtures can easily exceed 200 in only one room. In this way, the total load presented by the device being controlled alone may be less than 50 ohms with an additional 10,000 pF capacitance. In addition, leakage between the power conductor and the signal conductor in the track may occur. The track itself may have an additional capacitance of up to 25 pF per foot.

  Transmission paths that are shorter than a quarter of the wavelength of the highest frequency signal transmitted over them are analyzed and considered as aggregate loads. In other words, it is generally understood that the influence of the transmission line can be substantially ignored. In this way, any combination of load and track sections is a single as long as the maximum length from any one endpoint to any other endpoint is less than a quarter of the wavelength of the highest frequency signal delivered. It can be regarded as the total load. For digital signals, the highest frequency component is the edge where the signal transition between the two voltage states represents a logic one and a logic zero. The DMX-512 lighting control protocol defines a data transmission rate of 250,000 bits per second. The signal edge transition time required to reliably transmit such a signal is at least five times faster than its rate. That is, the transition must not occur longer than 800 nanoseconds to ensure reliable data transmission. Assume that a data driver can be constructed that can produce electrical signals that transition at this speed, that the speed of light is three times 108 meters per second, and that the speed of propagation in the track is about 70 percent of the speed of light. A safe limit for the maximum network length is about 42 meters. This is a suitable length for most applications. Assuming that the total length of the branched network may be up to two 42 meter track sections, the total capacitance added by the track itself will be an additional 7,000 pF for a total load of 17,000 pF. right.

  In order to effectively transmit data into such a network, a driver with significantly more power than a driver for the current RS-485 standard is required. In order to achieve a 5 volt transition, for a heavily loaded network as described above, the driver will preferably absorb at least 100 milliamps continuously for the resistive portion of the load, which will be absorbed by the capacitive load. At least 100 milliamperes can be supplied during the period. In this way, the driver output current is at least 200 milliamps to ensure a proper margin. A circuit design of a driver 6004 that meets these criteria is shown in FIG. Even if the transition is faster than 800 nanoseconds, the network will not fail, but it will increase the current required during the transient and cause excessive ringing at the slightly loaded track end, resulting in unintended radio frequency generated from the system. Will increase significantly. All of these effects are undesirable. At an 800 nanosecond transition time, most unintentional harmonics generated by the system are well below the 30 MHz starting frequency for CE testing, and higher harmonics have enough energy to violate requirements. I don't have it.

  In order to effectively propagate the signal along the length of the track, the track data conductor has a low resistance per unit length, ideally 1.5 volts of the signal as specified in the RS-485 standard. It is necessary to have a length less than that required to deliver to all receivers. In a heavily loaded network (with all loads at the end) this is about 0.09 ohms per foot. Since this includes an intermediate connector, the resistance of the track conductor should ideally be much lower than this number. Track dielectric effects will also contribute to signal degradation.

  In order to compensate for the track dielectric effect, a limited termination may be provided at the end of each branch. This termination is preferably not a pure resistance, but rather compensates only for the dielectric effect of the track. A suitable termination device 6008 circuit design is shown in FIG. This circuit effectively fixes the voltage between the data positive and data negative connections to plus 5 volts or minus 5 volts. Any overshoot of the signal may thus be absorbed by the branch regulator 6148 of FIG. The termination device 6008 effectively terminates the line without always drawing power from the data line.

  Then, retrieving data from the truck can be done to the electrical and mechanical attachment points of the truck itself (using any of the commonly used attachment methods such as spring clips, for example). It becomes a problem of installation. Many examples of track lighting installations are well known to those skilled in the art. One example is the hello power truck offered by Cooper Lighting.

  For example, once both power and data are available on the wire, the network version of the light module 100 described above, or any digitally controlled light intensity adjuster, can be used for individual control on the lighting unit. Can be achieved. The data can correspond not only to the brightness of light but also to control effects such as yoke, gobo control, and movement of the light focus. In addition, the system can be used to control non-lighting devices that are RS-485 compliant.

  By using this embodiment, a device that can respond on the same data conductor or a separate set using substantially similar drivers while the device is not selected for response (multiple drivers) In order to be able to be electrically disconnected from the data conductor, i.e. to allow sharing of the bus, possibly with additional circuit components. The device can send status information to the driver, or the information can be provided to the device through other means such as a frequency signal, an infrared signal, an acoustic signal, or other signal.

  Referring again to FIG. 17, the circuit design for the data driver 6004 includes a connector 6012 through which power is delivered to the data driver 6004, which can be nominally plus 12 volts of unregulated power. Power may be divided into an unregulated supply of plus 8.5 volts and a regulated supply of minus 3.5 volts by a shunt regulator 6014 consisting of resistor 6016, resistor 6018, and transistor 6020. Decoupling may be provided by capacitors 6022, 6024 and 6028. The shunt regulator 6014 may be a standard design well known to analog circuit designers. The 8.5 volt supply is further adjusted to produce a 5 volt supply by a voltage regulator 6030 which can be an LM78L05 ACM voltage regulator available from National Semiconductor, Santa Clara, California, and decoupled by a capacitor 6032 May be. The teachings of the data sheet for LU78L05ACM are incorporated herein by reference.

  The received RS-4895 data stream may be received on pins 6038 and 6040 by the RS-485 receiver chip 6034. The data stream is further buffered by receiver chip 6034 to produce a low noise amplified true complement data signal at pins 6042 and 6044, respectively. These signals are further buffered at pins 6050 and 6052, respectively, and reversed by buffer 6048 to produce a true complement data signal with significant drive activation. Each of these signals is then processed by an output amplifier. There are two output amplifiers 6054 and 6058 that are identical in design and function.

  Each amplifier 6054 and 6058 draws power from the power source described above, and both amplifiers share a bias voltage generator network comprised of resistors 6060, 6052 and 6064. Amplifier 6054 is comprised of all parts on the left side of this network of FIG. 17, while amplifier 6058 is comprised of all parts on the right side of this bias network. Only amplifier 6054 will be described because amplifier 6058 is substantially identical except that it is an inverted copy of the input to amplifier 6054.

  The bias network produces two bias voltages appearing at the bases of transistors 6068 and 6070, respectively, for example plus 6.4 volts and minus 1.4 volts. Transistor 6068 and resistor 6072 form a constant current source 6074 and source approximately 20 milliamps of current from the collector of transistor 6068. Similarly, transistors 6078 and 6080 provide a current sink 6082 to reduce 20 milliamps of current from the collector of transistor 6078. Diodes 6010, 6084, 6088, 6090, 6092 and 6094 form a current steering network 6098 that alternately receives 20 milliamps of current data line, or (if current is from transistor 6068, transistor 6102, resistor 6104, And through a 1 volt shunt regulator comprised of resistor 6108). When the received data line switches from a low state of zero volts to a high state of plus 5 volts, the current sink 6082 is routed through the diodes 6090 and 6092 because the voltage at the anode of 6090 is greater than the voltage at the anode of diode 6094. To reduce the current. Diodes 6084 and 6088 are reverse biased, and current will flow through 6010 and shunt regulator 6110, which consists of transistor 6102 and resistors 6104 and 6018. Since capacitor 6100 must be slowly charged from the current provided by transistor 6068, the circuit node at the anode of diode 6094 will not immediately follow the transition. Capacitor 6100 will charge at a rate of about 6.67 volts per microsecond and will reach about 4 volts after approximately 750 nanoseconds. At that point, the voltage at the collector of transistor 6068 increases as it forwards bias diodes 6084 and 6088, causing current source 6074 to advance into the input data line. As long as this data line is held high (at 5 volts), no more current will flow through diode 6010, shunt regulator 6110, and into capacitor 6100. The cathode of diode 6010 will remain at about 5.5 volts until the data line changes state to a low state of zero volts. During switching, as described above, transistor 6112 will serve as one common collector current buffer and will source as much current as needed in resistor 6114. This current will flow into the output at pin 6118 of output device 6120. The voltage at the output will thus be a slowly rising signal whose slope is adjusted by the charging of capacitor 6100 from current source 6074. A small base current is drawn from transistor 6068 by transistor 6112, but its impact on transition timing will be negligible.

  When the receive data line transitions to a low state, diodes 6084, 6088 and 6094 are biased forward, diodes 6090, 6092 and 6010 are reverse biased, and capacitor 6100 is through diode 6094 and through current sink 6082. It will discharge at a rate similar to the positive transition described above. Current from current sink 6074 will flow into the data line currently held at zero volts. The voltage at the anode of diode 6094 will reach minus 0.5 volts, and current will again flow through 6090 and 6092 instead of diode 6094 and transistor 6078, completing the downward transition. During this period, transistor 6129 will reduce as much current as necessary at pin 6118 of device 6120 through resistor 6128, causing it to follow the voltage at the anode of diode 6094. A small base current is drawn from transistor by transistor 6129, but its impact on transition timing will be negligible. Transistors 6130 and 6132 are combined with resistors 61114 and 6128 to protect transistors 6112 and 6129, respectively, in the event of a short circuit at the output, and provide the maximum possible output current (hence the current through transistors 6112 and 6130). Limit to about 250 milliamps.

  The waveform shaping performed by this circuit can be realized by a wide variety of circuits. The embodiment depicted in FIG. 17 is only one example of a circuit for creating a desired waveform shape. Any circuit that slows down and up transitions of the data signal can be considered an implementation of a waveform shaping circuit, as disclosed herein.

  Referring to FIG. 18, the termination circuit includes a bridge rectifier 6134 composed of diodes 6138, 6140, 6142 and 6144, resistors 6150 and 6152, and a shunt regulator 6148 composed of transistors 6154 and 6158. The circuit is a bidirectional voltage limiter that fixes the voltage across the input terminals to about 5.3 volts, regardless of the applied input polarity. Both shunt regulator 6148 and bridge rectifier 6134 are standard designs known by those familiar with analog circuit design. Capacitor 6150 improves the transient response of the voltage limiter.

  Excess energy stored in the transmission line will usually cause voltage wander exceeding 5.3 volts. The termination circuit 6008 of FIG. 18 will absorb excess energy because it fixes the voltage at the end of the transmission line to 5.3 volts. About 95 percent of the reflected energy may be absorbed by the circuit, and the resulting oscillation will have a negligible amplitude.

  The transistors disclosed herein may be of a conventional type such as those provided by Zetex. The semiconductor may be an industry standard type. Buffer 6048 may be an industry standard type and may be a 74HC04 type. Receiver chip 6034 may be a MAX490 receiver chip manufactured by Maxim Corporation of Sunvale, California. Other receiver chips may be used.

  Said embodiment may be in any number of different receptacles. Referring now to FIG. 19, the illumination unit of the present invention comprising a substantially cylindrical body section 602, a light module 604, a conductive sleeve 608, a power supply module 612, a second conductive sleeve 614 and a surrounding wall plate 618. FIG. Here, the light module 604 and the power supply module 612 are the electrical structure and software of the light module 100 and the power supply module 200 described above, or the light module 100 or other power disclosed herein. Other embodiments of the supply module are included. Assume that the screws 622, 624, 626, 628 allow the entire device to be mechanically connected. The entire device is mechanically connected by screws 622, 624, 626, 628. Body section 602, conductive sleeves 604 and 614, and enclosure plate 618 are preferably made from a material that conducts heat, such as aluminum. Body section 602 has an open end, a reflective interior, and an illuminated end to which module 604 is mechanically secured. The light module 604 is disk-shaped and has two sides. The illumination side (not shown) comprises a plurality of LEDs of various primary colors. The connection side holds an electrical connector male pin assembly 632. Both the illumination side and the connection side are coated with an aluminum surface so that heat is better transferred outward from the plurality of LEDs to the body section 602. Similarly, the power supply module 612 is disk-shaped and any usable surface is coated with aluminum for the same reason. The power supply module 612 has a connection side that holds an electrical connector female pin assembly 634 that is adapted to mate the pins from the assembly 632. The power supply module 612 has a power terminal side that holds a terminal 638 for connection to a DC power source. Any standard AC or DC jack may be used as appropriate.

  Sandwiched between the light module 602 and the power supply module 612 is a conductive aluminum sleeve 608 that substantially encloses the space between the modules 602 and 612. As shown, a disk-shaped enclosure plate 618 and screws 622, 624, 626 and 628 seal all of the components together, thus the conductive sleeve 614 is energized with the enclosure plate 618. It is sandwiched between modules 612. Once sealed together as a unit, the lighting device is connected to the data network as described above and may be attached in any convenient manner to illuminate the area. During operation, preferably light diffusing means will be inserted into the body section 602 to ensure that the LEDs on the light module 604 appear to emit a single uniform beam of light.

  Another embodiment of the light module 100 is depicted in FIG. One advantage of the array 37 is that it can be used to build lighting with LEDs that overcomes the need to provide different light fixtures for different lighting applications. In particular, in the embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 20, an array of LEDs 644, which may be the circular array 37 depicted in FIG. 8 or another array, is an MR-16 for a conventional halogen lamp. It may be placed on a platform 642 that is constructed for insertion into a light fixture, such as a light fixture. In other embodiments of the present invention, the platform 642 may be shaped to be plugged into, screwed into, or tied into a power source having the same configuration as a conventional bulb, halogen bulb, or other illumination source. In the embodiment of FIG. 20, a set of connectors 646 connects to a power source such as an electrical wire in the same manner as a conventional halogen bulb connector for MR-16 light fixtures.

  In the embodiment of the present invention depicted in FIG. 21, the platform 642 carrying the LED array 644 can be plugged into a conventional halogen lamp fixture. In this way, the user can have a light using an LED simply by plugging the modular platform 642 without changing the wiring or light fixture. The user can return to conventional lights by removing the modular platform 642 and installing a conventional halogen bulb or other illumination source. In this way, the user can use the same light fixture and wiring for a wide variety of lighting applications, including the LED system 120 in the various embodiments disclosed herein.

  Referring to FIG. 22, a schematic diagram is provided for a circuit design of a light module 100 suitable for inclusion in a modular platform such as platform 642 of FIG. The LED array 644 is composed of green, blue, and red LEDs. The processing device 16 provides functions similar to the processing device 16 described in connection with FIG. Data input pin 20 provides data and power to processing device 16. Data input pin 20 provides data and power to processing device 16. The oscillator 19 provides a clock function. The light module 100 allows the processing unit 16 to receive received electrical signals formatted according to a control protocol, such as the DMX-512 protocol, in a manner similar to that disclosed in the other embodiments described above, in the array 644 LEDs. Other circuit elements are included so that it can be converted into a control signal.

  In an additional embodiment of the invention depicted in FIG. 23, there is a digitally controlled array 37 of LEDs 15 that may be the LED system 126 of the light module 100 according to embodiments other than those disclosed herein. A modular platform 648 is provided. Modular platform 648 may be made from a clear plastic material or similar material so that platform 648 is illuminated in any color provided by array 37. Modular platform 648 may include protrusions 652 and depressions 654 so that modular blocks can be formed that are interconnected to form a variety of three-dimensional shapes. A wall, floor, ceiling, or other object can be constructed from blocks where each block is illuminated in a different color by an array 37 of that block of LEDs 15. Blocks 648 can be interconnected. Such an object can be used to create a signal. That is, individual blocks of such objects can be illuminated in the form of symbols such as letters, numbers, or other designs. For example, the wall can be used as a color display or sign. Many different shaped modular blocks 648 can be constructed so that many different interlocking mechanisms can be constructed. In effect, the light module 100 may be placed in a variety of different geometric configurations and associated with a variety of lighting environments, as further disclosed herein.

  In another embodiment of the present invention, the arrayed LEDs are mounted on a pan or tilt platform in a manner similar to conventional stage lights. Known robot lights illuminate a conventionally made light beam from a bulb or vacuum tube onto a pan mirror or tilt mirror. The arrayed LEDs of the present invention may be installed directly on a pan or tilt platform, avoiding the need to accurately align the pan mirror or tilt mirror with the light source. In this way, an adjustable pan / tilt beam effect can be obtained similar to a mirror-based beam without a mirror. This embodiment allows for a pan / tilt beam effect in a more compact space than previously possible, since there is no need to separate between the light source and the mirror.

  Structural tiles using LEDs are also provided that include the ability to change color or brightness in a manner controlled by a microprocessor, through which walls, floors, or ceilings can be built. The tiles may be based on a modular system similar to toy plastic blocks. Multicolor tiles can be used to create multicolor dance floors or showers, or floor, wall or bathroom tiles.

  Modular lighting systems are also provided that allow the creation of various shapes that are illuminated based on a limited number of quasi-shapes. In this embodiment of the invention, a plurality of light emitting squares (or other geometric shapes) may be arranged in a larger one-dimensional, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional shape. Modular blocks could communicate through physical proximity or attachment. Modular multicolor lighting blocks can be configured in a variety of formats and shapes.

  As described above, embodiments of the present invention may be utilized in a variety of ways. By way of example, the following description provides various environments in which the LEDs of the present invention can be adapted for illumination and / or illumination.

  Turning now to FIG. 24, a modular LED unit 4000 is provided for illumination in the environment. Modular LED unit 4000 includes a light module 4002 similar to element 120 described in connection with FIG. 1 and a processing device 4004 similar to element 16 described in connection with FIG. The light module 4002 may include an LED 4006 having a plurality of colored semiconductor dies 4008, as shown in FIG. 25, to produce an emission range within a spectrum, eg, a series of frequencies within the visible spectrum. Each coloring die 4008 preferably represents a primary color and can individually generate a primary color of varying brightness. The primary colors from each of the dies 4008, when combined, can create a specific color that is in the color spectrum. On the other hand, a processing device 4004 may be provided to control the amount of current supplied to each of the semiconductor dies 4008. Depending on the amount of current supplied to each die, one primary color of constant brightness may be emitted therefrom. As a result, by controlling the brightness of the primary colors created from each die, the processor 4004 can essentially control the particular color illuminated from the LED 4006. Although FIG. 25 shows three colored semiconductor dies 4002, it should be understood that a range of radiation in the spectrum can be created using at least two colored dies.

  The modular unit 4000 may further include a mechanism (not shown) for facilitating communication between the control signal generator and the light module 4002. In one embodiment, the mechanism may comprise separate transmitters and receivers as described above in connection with FIG. However, it should be understood that the transmitter and receiver may be integrated into one mechanism. The modular unit 4000 may also include a power supply module 4010, as described in connection with FIG. 9, to provide current to the light module 4002 from a power source, such as an electrical output or a battery. Electrical connectors similar to the complementary male tweezers 632 and female tweezers 634 of FIG. 19 may be provided to allow current to be directed from the power supply module 4010 to the light module 4002. In this manner, the electrical connector may be designed to removably couple the light module 4002 to the power supply module 4010.

  In an alternative embodiment, the light module 4002 may include a plurality of LEDs 4006 shown in FIG. 25, as shown in FIG. Each LED 4006 has data similar to element 500 described above in connection with FIG. 2 for communication with a control signal generator or with other light modules 4002 in some embodiments of the invention. It may be part of a light module 4002 in which a communication link 4014 may be provided. In this manner, data such as the amount of current controlled by the processing device 4004 may be provided to a plurality of semiconductor dies 4008 in each of the LEDs 4006, so that a particular color may be generated.

  In another embodiment, a light module 4002 as shown in FIG. 27 may include a plurality of conventional light emitting diodes (LEDs) 4016. A conventional LED 4016 may represent the primary colors red, blue, and green. Thus, when a primary color from each of the LEDs 4016 is generated, a combination of multiple LEDs 4016 can create any frequency in the spectrum. Similar to the semiconductor die 4008, the brightness and / or illuminance of each LED 4016 may be varied by the processor 4004 to obtain a series of frequencies in the spectrum. A data communication link 4014 may be provided to facilitate communication between the plurality of LEDs 4016 and the processing device 4004.

  The modular LED unit 4000 may be interconnected to form a larger lighting assembly in some embodiments. In particular, the light module 4002 may include LEDs 4006 or 4016 arranged in a straight line in series on an elongated plate 4020 (FIG. 28A). LEDs 4006 or 4016 may also be arranged on a two-dimensional geometric panel 4022 (FIG. 28B) or to represent a three-dimensional structure 4024 (FIG. 28C). The elongated plate 4020, geometric panel 4022, or three-dimensional structure 4024 is flexible to allow the light module 4002 to adapt to the environment in which it is deployed without having to stick to any particular design. It should be understood that this may be a simple design.

  In one embodiment of the invention, the elongated plate 4020, the geometrical panel 4022 and the three-dimensional structure 4024 have a coupling mechanism (not shown) to allow coupling between the modular LED units 4000. May be provided. Specifically, the coupling mechanism allows a plurality of elongated plates 4020 to be joined together, a plurality of geometric panels 4022 to be connected to each other, or a plurality of three-dimensional structures 4024 to be coupled to each other. You can do it. The coupling mechanism is such that one of the elongated plate 4020, the geometrically shaped panel 4022, and the three dimensional structure 4024 can be interconnected to another of the elongated plate 4020, the geometrically shaped panel 4022 and the three dimensional structure 4024. May be designed. The coupling mechanism may allow either mechanical coupling or electrical coupling between the modular LED units 4000, but preferably electrical coupling and physical coupling between the modular LED units 4000. Both allow for. By providing an electrical connection between the modular LED units 4000, power and data signals can be directed to and between the modular LED units 4000. Furthermore, such a connection can provide power and data at one central location for distribution to all of the modular LED units 4000. In one embodiment of the present invention, data may be multiplexed with power signals to reduce the number of electrical connections between modular LED units 4000. On the other hand, the mechanical coupling may simply be a means for securely connecting the modular LED units 4000 to each other, and such functionality may be inherent by providing an electrical connection.

  The modular LED unit 4000 of the present invention may be made to be either a “smart” unit or a “dumb” unit. In some embodiments, the smart unit includes a microprocessor incorporated therein, for example, to control a desired lighting effect produced by the LED. The smart units may communicate with each other and / or the master controller via a network formed through the aforementioned electrical connection mechanism. It should be understood that the smart unit can operate in an independent manner, and if necessary, one smart unit can operate as a master controller for the other modular LED unit 4000. On the other hand, the dam unit does not include a microprocessor and cannot communicate with other LED units. As a result, the dam unit cannot operate in an independent manner and requires a separate master controller.

  The modular LED unit 4000 may be used for lighting in a series of different environments. A method of using an LED unit is to first install a modular LED unit 4000 with a light module 4002 in the environment, such as that provided in FIGS. 25-27, and then to at least one LED. To control the amount of current to which the particular amount of current supplied to it (ie, semiconductor die 4008 or a plurality of conventional LEDs) has a corresponding frequency in the spectrum, eg, the visible spectrum. Is generated.

  Environments that the modular LED unit 4000 may illuminate include those that require the use of a handheld flashlight 4029 (FIG. 29) or an indicator light. Examples of environments that use indicator lights include elevator floor buttons, elevator floor marking displays or panels, automobile instrument panels, automobile engine key areas, automobile anti-theft warning indicator lights, and individual units of stereo systems A dial pad button 4030 (FIG. 30), a voice mail answering part, a door chime button, a light status switch, a computer status indicator, a video monitor status indicator, and a clock. Including but not limited to. Other environments that the modular LED unit 4000 may illuminate include (i) wearable devices including, for example, jewelry, clothing products, shoes, glasses, gloves and hats, (ii) light wands 4031 (FIG. 31). ), Toy police cars, fire engines, ambulances, toys including music boxes, (iii) hygiene products including, for example, toothbrush 4032 (FIG. 32) and shavers.

  In accordance with another embodiment of the present invention, a modular LED unit 4000 having a plurality of LEDs 4006 or 4016 arranged linearly in series on an elongated plate 4020 may be used for illumination in the environment. One such embodiment shown in FIG. 33 includes a sidewalk 4033, eg, an aisle in an aircraft, a fashion show aisle or hallway. When used with a passageway, at least one elongated plate 4020 of LED 4006 or 4016 may be disposed along one side of passageway 4033 for use as a direction indicator light.

  Another such environment shown in FIG. 34 includes a cove 4034. When used with a cove, at least one elongated plate 4020 of LED 4006 or 4016 may be positioned adjacent to cove 4034 so that the LED elongated plate can illuminate the cove. In one embodiment, the elongated plate 4020 of the LED 4006 or 4016 may be installed within the housing 40345, in which case the housing is installed adjacent to the cove 4034.

  Another such environment shown in FIG. 35 includes a handrail 4035. When used with a handrail such as a handrail in a dark movie theater, at least one elongated plate 4020 of LEDs 4006 or 4016 may be disposed on the surface of the handrail 4035 to indicate to the user the location of the handrail.

  Another such environment shown in FIG. 36 includes a plurality of steps 4036 on the stairs. When used with multiple tiers, at least one elongated plate 4020 of LED 4006 or 4016 is positioned at the edge of the tier 4036 so that the user is informed of the location of the tier at night or when there is no light.

  Another embodiment shown in FIG. 37 includes a toilet bowl 4037. When used with a toilet bowl, at least one elongated plate 4020 of LED 4006 or 4016 may be placed around the edge of toilet bowl 4037 or toilet seat 403 so that if there is no light in the bathroom, the user can Be informed of the position of.

  Another environment shown in FIG. 38 includes a brake lamp 4038 held high in the rear of the vehicle. When used with a brake lamp held in an elevated position, at least one elongated plate 4020 of LED 4006 or 4016 can be placed in a receptacle 40385 provided previously for the brake lamp.

  Another environment shown in FIG. 39 includes a refrigerator door 4039. When used with a refrigerator door, at least one elongated plate 4020 of LEDs 4006 or 4016 may be placed on the refrigerator door handle 40395 so that, for example, if there is no kitchen light, the user The position of the handle can be instantly found to open the refrigerator door 4039.

  Another environment shown in FIG. 40 includes a tree 4040. When used with a tree, at least one elongated plate 4020 of LEDs 4006 or 4016 may be placed over the tree 4046 to allow its illumination. Tree 4040 will be another ornamental tree such as a Christmas tree or an artificial white Christmas tree. By changing the LED 4006 between various colors, the color of the tree 4040 can be changed.

  Another environment shown in FIG. 41 includes a building 4041. When used with a building, at least one elongated plate 4020 of LED 4006 or 4016 is positioned along the surface of building 4041, so that the illumination of the LED attracts the viewer's attention.

  In accordance with another embodiment of the present invention, a modular LED unit 4000 in which a plurality of LEDs 4006 or 4016 are arranged in a geometric panel 4022 may also be used for illumination in the environment. One such environment shown in FIG. 42 includes a floor 4042. When used with a floor, at least one geometric panel 4022 of LEDs 4006 or 4016 may be placed in at least one designated area in the floor 4042 to provide its illumination.

  Another environment in which LED 4006 or 4016 geometric panels 4022 may be used includes a ceiling 4043 as shown in FIG. When used with a ceiling, at least one geometric panel 4022 may be placed in at least one designated area of the ceiling 4043 to provide its illumination.

  Another environment in which the LED 4006 or 4016 geometric panel 4022 may be used includes a vending machine 4044 as shown in FIG. When used with a vending machine, at least one geometric panel 4022 may be placed on the back of the vending machine's front display 40445 to provide the illustrated display with illumination.

  Another environment in which the LED 4006 or 4016 geometric panel 4022 may be used includes an illumination surface 4045, as shown in FIG. When used with an illumination surface 4045, at least one geometric panel 4022 is placed on the back of the surface to provide illumination of the graphic design of the surface or illumination of an object placed on the surface. Can be done. Examples of such lighting surfaces may include advertising billboards of the type typically found on the transparent surface of a stand 40455 for exhibiting an airport or object 40458.

  Another environment in which the LED 4006 or 4016 geometric panel 4022 may be used includes a display signage 4046 as shown in FIG. When used with a display signboard such as an advertising bulletin board or advertising board, at least one geometric panel 4022 accommodates, for example, located in front of the signage to provide illumination of the design thereon. The portion 40465 can be disposed.

  Another environment in which the LED 4006 or 4016 geometric panel 4022 may be used includes a traffic light 4047 as shown in FIG. When used with a traffic light, at least one geometric panel 4022 can be placed in a housing 40475 for at least one of the signal lights. It should be noted that with conventional signal lights, geometrical panels 4022 may be required for each of the three signal lights. However, because the modular LED unit of the present invention can generate a range of colors including red, yellow, and green, new traffic signal lights may be designed to include an arrangement of only one modular LED unit. . A variety of different colors are provided in each signal light so that the appropriate signal is provided to a variety of users including those suffering from red / green color blindness.

  Another environment in which the LED 4006 or 4016 geometric panel 4022 may be used includes a direction sign 4048 as shown in FIG. When used with a directional signboard, at least one geometrically shaped panel 4022 may be placed in a directional signboard receiving section 40485.

  Another environment in which the LED 4006 or 4016 geometric panel 4022 may be used includes an information board 049 as shown in FIG. When used with an information board, at least one geometric panel 4022 is placed in front of the board 4049 so that information data can be provided to the reader. In one embodiment of the present invention, information boards include, but are not limited to, traffic information signs, voiceless radio 40495, scoreboards, price boards, electronic advertising boards, and large public television screens.

  In accordance with another embodiment of the present invention, a modular LED unit 4000 in which a plurality of LEDs 4006 or 4016 are arranged to represent a three-dimensional structure 4024 may also be used for illumination in the environment. One such environment shown in FIG. 50 includes a building block toy 4050. When used with an assembly block toy, at least one three-dimensional structure 4024 of the LED 4006 or 4016 may be placed on or in the assembly block toy 4050 to provide its illumination. It should be understood that the three-dimensional structure of the LED may be a design for representing any desired three-dimensional object.

  Additional environments in which the three-dimensional structure 4024 of the LED 4006 or 4016 may be utilized include a decorative display 4051 as shown in FIG. The LED 3D structure 4024 can be designed to represent any 3D object, as shown, so that the structure is built into the ornamental exhibit 4051 of interest, resulting in LED illumination. Provides an illuminated display of objects. Examples of decorative exhibits 4051 include Christmas tree ornaments, animal figures, disco lighting balls 40515, or any expressible natural or artificial object.

  Additional environments in which the three-dimensional structure 4024 of the LED 4006 or 4016 may be utilized include a building glass block 4052 as shown in FIG. 52 or a large character 4053 as shown in FIG. To take advantage of the three-dimensional structure 4024 with the glass block, at least one three-dimensional structure 4024 can be placed in the glass block 4052 for its illumination. In order to utilize the three-dimensional structure 4024 with the large character 4053, at least one three-dimensional structure 4024 can be placed on the character or in the character if the character 4053 is transparent.

  Additional environments in which the three-dimensional structure 4024 of the LED 4006 or 4016 may be utilized include a conventional lighting device 4054 as shown in FIG. To take advantage of the three-dimensional structure 4024 with a conventional lighting device 4054, at least one three-dimensional structure 4024, for example in the form of a conventional light bulb 40545, can be placed in a socket for receiving a conventional light bulb.

  Additional environments in which the three-dimensional structure 4024 of the LED 4006 or 4016 may be utilized include a warning tower 4055 as shown in FIG. In order to take advantage of the three-dimensional structure 4024 with the warning tower, at least one three-dimensional structure 4024 is disposed on the tower 4055 to serve as a warning indicator for an aircraft flying over the sky or a vessel located remotely. sell.

  Additional environments in which the three-dimensional structure 4024 of the LED 4006 or 4016 may be utilized include buoys as shown in FIG. To take advantage of the three-dimensional structure 4024 with the buoy 4056, at least one three-dimensional structure 4024 can be placed on the buoy 4056 for its illumination.

  Additional environments in which the LED 4006 or 4016 three-dimensional structure 4024 may be utilized include balls 4057 or packs 40571 as shown in FIG. In order to take advantage of the three-dimensional structure 4024 with the ball or pack, at least one three-dimensional structure 4024 can be placed inside the ball 4057 or the pack 40571 to increase the visibility of the ball or pack.

  In accordance with another embodiment of the present invention, two or more LEDs 4006 or 4016 are arranged linearly in a geometric panel 4022 or in an elongated plate 4020 as a three-dimensional structure 4024. The modular LED unit 4000 may be used for lighting in the environment. One such environment shown in FIG. 58 includes a decorative exhibit 4058. When used with a decorative display, at least one elongated plate 4020 of LED 4006 or 4016 and one of LED 4006 or 4016 geometric panel 4022 and three-dimensional structure 4024 provide illumination for the decorative display. Can be placed along the surface to provide. Examples of decorative exhibits 4058 can include Christmas tree ornaments 40585, animal figures, disco lighting balls, or any natural or artificial object that can be represented.

  Another such environment shown in FIG. 59 includes a bowling alley 4059. When used with a bowling alley, one of LED 4006 or 4016 elongate plate 4020, geometric panel 4022, and three-dimensional structure 4024 can be positioned along lane 40595, and LED 4006 or 4016 elongate plate 4020. One of the geometric panels 4022, and the three-dimensional structure 4024 can be placed on the ceiling, floor or wall of the bowling alley.

  Another such environment shown in FIG. 60 includes a stage set. When used with a stage set, one of LED 4006 or 4016 elongated plate 4020, geometric panel 4022, and three-dimensional structure 4024 can be placed on the ceiling, floor or wall of stage 4060, and LED 4006 or 4016 One of the elongated plates 4020, the geometrically shaped panels 4022, and the three-dimensional structure 4024 can be placed on the rest of the stage ceiling, floor or wall.

  Another such environment shown in FIG. 61 includes a swimming pool 4061. When used with a swimming pool, one of LED 4006 or 4016 elongate plate 4020, geometric panel 4022, and three-dimensional structure 4024 can be placed on the floor or wall of swimming pool 4061, and LED 4006 or One of 4016 elongate plates 4020, geometrically shaped panels 4022, and three-dimensional structures 4024 may be placed on the remaining one of the swimming pool floor or wall.

  Another such environment shown in FIG. 62 includes the cargo compartment 4062 of the space plane 40625. When used with a spacecraft cargo compartment, one of the LED 4006 or 4016 elongated plate 4020, geometric panel 4022, and three-dimensional structure 4024 can be placed on the ceiling, floor or wall of the cargo compartment 4062; In addition, one of the elongated plates 4020, geometry panels 4022, and three-dimensional structures 4024 of LEDs 4006 or 4016 can be placed on the remaining elements of the cargo compartment 4062 ceiling, floor or wall.

  Another such environment shown in FIG. 63 includes an airplane hangar 4063. When used with an aircraft hangar, one of the LED 4006 or 4016 elongated plate 4020, geometric panel 4022, and three-dimensional structure 4024 can be placed on the ceiling, floor, or wall of the hangar 4063; In addition, one of the LED 4006 or 4016 elongated plate 4020, geometrically shaped panel 4022, and three-dimensional structure 4024 can be placed on the rest of the hangar ceiling, floor or wall.

  Another such environment shown in FIG. 64 includes a warehouse 4064. When used with a warehouse, one of LED 4006 or 4016 elongated plate 4020, geometric panel 4022, and three-dimensional structure 4024 can be placed on the ceiling, floor or wall of warehouse 4064, and LED 4006 or One of 4016 elongated plates 4020, geometrically shaped panels 4022, and three-dimensional structures 4024 can be placed on the rest of the warehouse ceiling, floor or wall.

  Another such environment shown in FIG. 65 includes a subway station 4065. When used with a subway station, one of the LED 4006 or 4016 elongated plate 4020, geometric panel 4022, and three-dimensional structure 4024 can be placed on the ceiling, floor or wall of the subway station 4065. In addition, one of the elongated plates 4020, geometry panels 4022, and three-dimensional structures 4024 of the LEDs 4006 or 4016 can be placed on the rest of the ceiling, floor or wall of the subway station.

  Another such environment shown in FIG. 66 includes a boat port 6066. When used with a boat port, one of LED 4006 or 4016 elongated plate 4020, geometric panel 4022, and three-dimensional structure 4024 is attached to buoy 40664, dock 40664, light fixture 40666, or boat house 40668. In addition, one of the elongated plates 4020, geometry panels 4022, and three-dimensional structures 4024 of the LED 4006 or 4016 can be placed on a buoy, dock, light fixture, or the rest of the boathouse.

  Another such environment shown in FIG. 67 includes a fireplace 4067. When used with a fireplace, one of the LED 4006 or 4016 elongated plate 4020, the geometric panel 4022, and the three-dimensional structure 4024 can be placed on a fireplace imitation wall 40675, wall or floor, and the spectrum In addition, one of the LED 4006 or 4016 elongated plate 4020, the geometric panel 4022, and the three-dimensional structure 4024 is a simulated fireplace fireplace so that the appearance of a flame is simulated when the internal frequency is generated. , Walls, or the rest of the floor.

  Another such environment shown in FIG. 68 includes a lower surface 4068 of a motor vehicle 40585. When used with the underside of an automobile, one of the LED 4006 or 4016 elongated plate 4020, the geometrical panel 4022, and the three-dimensional structure 4024 allows illumination of the road surface through which the automobile passes. Can be placed on the underside of the car.

Although some special embodiments of the light module 4002 of the modular LED unit 4000 have been described in connection with a particular environment, it is not yet described, but only a light module and environment combination that can be easily imagined. It should be understood that it will be apparent to those skilled in the art to use light modules similar to those described in many different environments.

  From the foregoing, it will be appreciated that PWM current control of LEDs to produce multiple colors may be incorporated into a myriad of environments with or without a network. While several embodiments of the invention are described herein, it should be understood that other embodiments are within the scope of the invention.

  Another use of the present invention is as a light bulb. Using appropriate rectifiers and transformer means, the entire power supply module and light module can be placed in a traditional bulb housing, such as an Edison-fixed (screw-fixed) bulb housing. Each bulb can be programmed with a particular register value to function as a bulb of a particular color, including white. The current regulator can be programmed in advance to preset the light intensity by giving the desired current rating. Of course, the bulb may have a transparent or translucent section that allows light to pass around.

  Referring to FIG. 69, in one embodiment of the present invention, a smart light bulb 701 is provided. The smart bulb may include a housing 703 in which the processing device 05 and the illumination source 707 are placed. The housing may include a connector 709 for connection to a power source. A connection may also serve as a connection to a data source, such as data connection 500 disclosed herein with some other embodiments. The processing device may be a processing device 16 such as that disclosed elsewhere herein. The smart light bulb 701 may form one embodiment of the light module 100 that may be used in the various embodiments disclosed or included herein.

  In some embodiments, the housing 703 is configured to resemble the shape of a conventional housing for an illumination source, such as a halogen bulb. In one embodiment depicted in FIG. 69, a connector 709 is configured to mate with a conventional halogen bulb socket, and the illumination source 707 is such as the LED system 120 described above in connection with FIG. LED system.

  The processing device 705 may be similar to the processing device 16 disclosed in connection with the description of FIG. 1 above and further described elsewhere herein. That is, in one embodiment of the present invention, the smart light bulb 701 comprises a light module 100, such as the light module disclosed above. However, it should be understood that the smart bulb may have a wide variety of other configurations. For example, the housing 703 may be shaped to resemble an incandescent bulb, in which case the connector 709 would be a set of screws for screwing into a slot of a conventional incandescent light and the illumination source 707 would be the light source of the incandescent bulb . The housing 703 may be configured to resemble any conventional light bulb or fixture such as a headlamp, flashlight, warning light, signal light, or the like. Indeed, the housing 703 can take any geometric configuration appropriate to a particular lighting or display environment.

  The processing device 705 may be used to control the brightness of the illumination source, the color of the illumination source 707, and other features or elements included in the receptacle 703 that can be controlled by the processing device. In an embodiment of the invention, the processor 705 controls the illumination source 707 to produce any color in the spectrum, to quickly change between different colors, or to create a desired lighting condition. The illumination source placed in the receptacle 703 and associated with the processing device 705 will include any type of illumination source, including the series of such sources disclosed above.

  In the embodiment of the invention depicted in FIG. 70, the smart light bulb 701 may comprise a receiver 711 and / or a transmitter 713 that may be connected to the processing device 705. The receiver 711 can receive the data signals and relay them to the processing device 705. It should be understood that the receiver 711 may simply be an interface to a circuit or network connection, or may be a separate component that can receive other signals. In this way, the receiver receives a signal over a data connection 715 from another device 717. In an embodiment of the present invention, the other device is a laptop computer, the data connection is a DMX data track, and data is transmitted to the smart light bulb 701 according to the DMX-512 protocol. The processing unit 705 then processes the data to control the illumination source 707 in a manner similar to that described above in connection with other embodiments of the invention. The transmitter 713 may be controlled by the processing unit 705 to transmit data from the smart bulb 701 to the other device 717 over the data connection 715. The other device may be another smart light bulb 701, the light module 100 as described above, or any other device that can receive the signal data connection 715. In this way, the data connection 715 will be any connection of the types disclosed above. That is, using any electromagnetic spectrum or other energy transfer mechanism for the communication link will provide a data connection 715 between the smart bulb 701 and the other device 717. The other device 717 would be any device that can receive and respond to data, such as an alarm system, VCR, television, entertainment device, computer, equipment, etc.

  Referring to FIG. 71, the smart light bulb 701 may be part of a collection of smart light bulbs that are similarly configured. One smart bulb can transmit data to the receiver 713 of one or more other smart bulbs 701 by using the transmitter 711. In this way, a plurality of smart light bulbs 701 may be installed in a master / slave arrangement, whereby the master smart light bulb 701 controls the operation of one or more other slave smart light bulbs 701. The data connection 715 between the smart bulbs 701 may be any type of data connection 715 including those described in connection with FIG.

  The smart light bulb 701 may be part of a network of such smart light bulbs 701 as depicted in FIG. By using each transmitter 711 and receiver 713 of the smart light bulb 701, as well as the processing device 705, each smart light bulb 701 in the network 718 is as disclosed in connection with the description of FIG. Queries may be sent and received over similar data connections 715. In this way, the smart light bulb 701 can determine the configuration of the network in which the smart light bulb 701 is provided. For example, the smart light bulb 701 can process the signal from another smart light bulb 701 to determine which of the light bulbs are masters and which are slaves in a master / slave relationship.

  Each smart light bulb 701 may include an additional processing function. For example, each smart bulb 701 is responsive to an external data signal for lighting control. For example, in the embodiment depicted in FIG. 73, a light detector 719 may be placed in close proximity to the window 722 to sense external lighting conditions. The light detector 719 detects changes in the external lighting conditions to modify the illumination of the indoor space 725, to compensate for the external lighting conditions sensed by the light detector 719, or otherwise to react to it. , Signal 723 may be transmitted to one or more smart bulbs 701. In this way, indoor lights in the indoor space 725 can be switched on or change color in response to changes in the external lighting conditions at the time of sunrise or sunset. It would also be possible to have the light detector 719 measure the color temperature and brightness of the external environment and send a signal 723 that instructs it to create a color temperature and brightness similar to the light module 701. In this way, the indoor light could mimic an external sunset using the internal sunset in the interior space 725. In this manner, smart bulb 701 may be used in a variety of sensor and feedback applications, as disclosed in connection with the other embodiments described herein.

  Referring to FIG. 74, in another embodiment, multiple smart light bulbs 701 may be placed on the data network 727. The data network may propagate signals from the controller 729. The control device may be any device that can send a signal to the data network 727. The controller of the embodiment depicted in FIG. 74 is an electrocardiogram (EKG) machine. The EKG machine 729 has a plurality of sensors 731 that measure the electrical activity of the heart of the patient 733. The EKG machine 729 can be programmed to send control data to the smart bulb 701 over the network 727 when the EKG machine 729 measures a particular state of electrical activity measured by the sensor 731. In this way, for example, the light bulb will illuminate in one particular color, such as green, for normal heart activity, but could change to another color to reflect a particular heart problem. For example, an arrhythmia is reflected by a flashing red illumination signal to the smart bulb 701, a yellow signal to the smart bulb 701 if the pulse is fast, and so on.

  A smart light bulb as depicted in FIG. 70 can be programmed to operate in an independent manner. In this way, with pre-programmed instructions, the smart bulb 701 changes the color of the brightness in the desired way, and thus the light can be designed to shine a specific color at a specific time of day. Etc. Smart bulb 701 may include an algorithm for modifying the illumination from smart bulb 701 to reflect the state of smart bulb 701. For example, a light bulb may display a specific lighting pattern when the LED system 707 is near the end of its useful life, when there is a problem with the power source, and so on.

  The present invention may be used as a general purpose indicator light for any specified environmental condition. FIG. 75 shows a general functional block diagram of such an apparatus. Also shown in FIG. 75 is an exemplary chart showing the duty cycle of the three color LEDs during an exemplary period. As an example of an environmental indicator light, the power supply module can be coupled to an inclinometer. The inclinometer measures a general tilt angle with respect to the center of gravity of the earth. The inclinometer angle signal can be converted through an A / D converter and connected to the data input of the processing unit 16 of the power supply module. The processor 16 can then be programmed to assign a different color to each distinct tilt angle by using a look-up table that associates the angle with the LED color register value. Another indicator light is used to provide a visual temperature display that can be easily read. For example, a digital thermometer can be connected to provide a temperature reading to the processing device 16. Each temperature will be associated with a specific set of register values and thus a specific color output. A plurality of such “color thermometers” can be located in a large space, such as a storage refrigerator, to allow a simple visual inspection of the temperature in three dimensions.

  In another embodiment of the invention, the signal generator may be an ambient condition detector such as a light meter or a thermometer. In this way, the lighting state may change according to the surrounding state. For example, the arrayed LEDs may be programmed to intensify the room light as external sunlight entering the room decreases at the end of the day. The LED may be programmed to compensate for changes in color temperature through a feedback mechanism.

  When coupled to a transducer, many embodiments of the present invention are possible that tie some ambient conditions to the LED system. As used herein, the term “transducer” should be understood to include all methods and systems for converting physical quantities into electrical signals. The electrical signal can instead be manipulated by electronic circuitry, digitized by an analog to digital converter, and sent to a processing device such as a microcontroller or microprocessor for processing. The processing device will then be able to send information to adjust the characteristics of the light emitted by the LED system of the present invention. In this way, the physical conditions of the environment including, for example, external forces, temperature, molecular number, and electromagnetic radiation can be matched to a particular LED system. Note also that other systems including liquid crystal, fluorescence and outgassing can be used.

  In certain embodiments, thermocouples, thermistors, or integrated circuit (IC) temperature sensors and temperature transducers such as the light module 100 of the present invention can be used to make a color thermometer. As previously mentioned, such a thermometer will emit a certain set of colors from the LED system to indicate the ambient temperature. Thus, the inside of an oven or refrigerator with such an LED system could emit different colored light to indicate when a certain temperature has been reached.

  FIG. 76 shows a general block diagram for a color thermometer. Element 1000 is an IC temperature sensor such as LM335. This is a two-terminal temperature sensor with an accuracy of about ± 1 ° C. in the range of −55 ° C. to 125 ° C. More information on LM335 can be found in the research paper by Paul Horowitz and Winfield Hill, The Art of Electronics. The entire contents of this research paper are described in this specification. Element 1001 is an analog to digital (A / D) converter that converts the voltage signal from the IC temperature sensor into binary information. As described above, this is sent to a microcontroller or microprocessor 1002, such as the MICROCHIP brand PIC16C63, or other processing device, such as the processing device 16 described above. The output from the microcontroller or microprocessor 1002 goes to a switch 1003 which is a high current / voltage Darlington driver, part number DS2003, available from National Semiconductor, Santa Clara, California, as described above. Element 1003 switches the current from LED system 1004. Also shown in FIG. 76 as element 1009 is an exemplary chart showing the duty cycle of the three color LEDs during an exemplary period.

  The enlarged view of FIG. 76 is a general view that can be applied to other subsequent embodiments. These embodiments are similar to each other to the extent that the different environmental conditions described above are associated with the LED system. Different embodiments are different from one another in order to have various transducers suitable for the indicated environmental conditions. In this way, another suitable transducer replaces the temperature sensor 1000 in subsequent embodiments.

  A power supply module (not shown in FIG. 76) can be included in the color thermometer. The signal from the temperature transducer 100 can be converted by the A / D converter 1001 and connected to the data input of the microcontroller 1002 in the power supply module. The microcontroller can then be programmed to assign a range of temperatures to another color by using a look-up table that links the temperature to the LED color register value.

  In another specific embodiment, a force transducer such as a differential transformer, strain gauge, or piezoelectric device and the LED system of the present invention can be used to tie a range of forces to the corresponding LED system. FIG. 77 shows a color velocity meter 1010 having a force transducer 1011 such as a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) connected to an A / D converter 1017 connected to the LED system 1012 of the present invention. Show. The housing unit 1013 houses the force transducer 1011 and the LED system 1012. The receptacle has fasteners to secure the receptacle and contents to a rotating object such as a bicycle wheel 1015. The fastener shown in FIG. 77 is a clamp 1016, although other fasteners such as screws or rivets that allow the color speedometer to be secured to the wheel edge 1018 can be used.

  Such a color speed meter 1010 could be used to “verify” the angular velocities of various rotating objects. In this way, as in the example of FIG. 77, the LED system 1012 coupled to the force transducer 1011 could be attached to the bicycle wheel 1015 slightly away from the center of the wheel 1015. The reference mass m of the transducer (not shown) can exert the force mω2r, that is, the angular velocity ω can be confirmed. Each different force or range of forces will produce a certain color emanating from the LED system 1012. In this way, the wheel edge 1018 will appear different colors depending on the angular velocity.

  Another particular embodiment comprising a force transducer is represented in FIG. 78 where a color inclinometer 1012 is illustrated. The inclinometer 1020 has a force transducer 1021 such as a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) that is further connected to an A / D converter 1027 that is connected to the LED system 1022 of the present invention. A receptacle (not shown) encloses the force transducer 1021 and the LED system 1022. The container has fasteners (not shown) for securing the container and contents to an object such as an aircraft for which it is desired to determine its inclination. For example, the fasteners may consist of screws, clamps, rivets, or glue to secure the inclinometer 1020 to, for example, an aircraft console.

  A power supply module (not shown) can be connected to the inclinometer. The inclinometer 1020 measures a general inclination angle with respect to the center of gravity of the earth. The inclinometer angle signal is converted by the A / D converter 1027 and coupled to the data input of the microcontroller in the power supply module. The microcontroller can then be programmed to assign tilt angles to different colors by using a look-up table that ties the angles to LED color register values. Color inclinometers may be used for safety, such as in an aircraft cockpit, or for novelty, such as to illuminate sails of sailing vessels that sway in the water.

  In another embodiment, the light module 100 of the present invention can be used in a color intensity meter as an indicator light for magnetic field strength. FIG. 79 shows such an intensity meter 1036 having a magnetic field transducer 1031 coupled to an LED system 1032 via an A / D converter 1037. The magnetic field transducer can include any of a Hall effect probe, a flip coil, or a nuclear magnetic resonance field strength meter.

  The magnetic field transducer 1031 changes the magnetic field intensity to an electric signal. This signal is instead converted to binary information by an A / D converter 1037. The information can then be transmitted as an input to a microcontroller that controls the LED system 1032 to illuminate various colored lights corresponding to the magnetic field strength. This embodiment has wide application not only in the operation of instruments that rely on magnetic fields to operate, such as magnetic resonance devices, magnetrons, and magnetically focused electronic devices, but also in the field of geology and prediction. there will be.

  In another embodiment, the light module 100 of the present invention can be used in the smoke warning system shown in FIG. Smoke alarm system 1040 is a variety of ionization or light (photoelectric) types that are electrically coupled to LED system 1042 of one embodiment of the present invention via an A / D converter (not shown). The smoke detector 1041 is provided. The LED system 1042 need not be in close proximity to the smoke detector 1041. In particular, the smoke detector 1041 is in a room that can ignite, but the LED system 1042 may be in another room, such as a bedroom or bathroom, where it would be advantageous to be alerted.

  As those skilled in the art will appreciate, the smoke detector 1041 may be either of two types, an ionization type or a light (photoelectric) type. When the latter is used, a detection chamber within the smoke detector 1041 is utilized whose shape typically prevents the light sensitive element (eg, photovoltaic cell) from “seeing” the light source (eg, LED). As smoke from the fire enters the chamber, it scatters the light so that the light sensitive element can immediately detect the light. Within the smoke detector 1041, which utilizes ionization techniques, the radioactive material ionizes air molecules between a set of electrodes in the detection chamber. The resulting charged air molecules allow a current to be generated between the electrodes. However, the presence of smoke in the chamber reduces the amount of charged air particles, thus reducing the current. Thus, with both types of smoke detectors, the current intensity indicates the concentration of smoke particles in the detection chamber. This current strength can be converted by the A / D converter into binary information that can be sent to the microprocessor controlling the LED system 1042. By using a look-up table, this binary information can dominate the range of frequencies that are emitted from the LED system 1042 corresponding to various smoke concentrations. For example, a green light or a red light can be emitted when the smoke particle concentration is below or above a certain threshold. The present invention could alert a person to a potential fire even if he or she cannot hear the smoke detector alarm (for example, the person is deaf or listening to music). Or take a shower). Also, conventional detectors convey only two pieces of information. That is, the alarm is off or on when there is enough smoke in the detection chamber. The smoke alarm system of the present invention will also convey information about the amount of smoke present by emitting a characteristic color.

  Smoke is just one type of particle whose concentration can be indicated by the light module 100 of the present invention. Using other particle detectors, such as ionization chambers, Geiger counters, scintillators, solid state detectors, surface barrier detectors, Cherenkov detectors, drift chambers, energy represented by alpha particles, electrons, or x-rays or gamma rays Other types of concentrations, such as photons, can be represented by LED lights colored in various colors.

  In another specific embodiment of the present invention, the light module 100 of the present invention may be used to construct an electronic pH color meter for indicating the acidity of a solution by displaying a colored light. it can. FIG. 81 depicts a color pH meter 1050 comprising a pH meter 1051 that is electrically coupled to the LED system 1052 via an A / D converter (not shown).

  The electronic pH meter may be of a type known to those skilled in the art. A possible example of an electronic pH meter that can be used is the Corning pH Bench Meter 430 that provides digital measurements and automatic temperature calibration. The meter produces an analog recorder output that can be converted to a digital signal by an A / D converter. The signal can then be sent to a microcontroller that controls the LED system 1052 that can emit colors corresponding to various pH levels.

  In addition to the pH meter described above, a meter having an ion special electrode that produces an analog signal corresponding to a particular type of concentration in the solution can be used. These meters typically measure the voltage developed between a silver chloride-coated reference electrode and indicator light electrode immersed in a concentrated solution of potassium chloride. The indicator light electrode is separated from the analyte by a membrane through which analyte ions can diffuse. It is the nature of the membrane that characterizes the type of ion special electrode. Electrode types include glass, liquid ion exchangers, solids, neutralizing carriers, coated wires, field effect transistors, gas detection, or biological membranes. The reference electrode can communicate with a solution whose concentration is to be determined through a porous plug or gel. As described above, embodiments of the LED system for the present invention can be electrically connected to such meters in order to couple certain ion concentrations to various color emissions.

  In another specific embodiment, the light module 100 of the present invention could be used to create a security system to indicate the presence of an object. FIG. 82 shows the reception of electromagnetic signals to the identification badge 1060, the LED system 1061 of the present invention, the electromagnetic radiation detector 1066 connected to the A / D converter (not shown), the transmitting receiver 1062, and the badge 1060. Such a system comprising a security release network 1063 having a transmitter 1064 is shown.

  The security release network 1063 responsive to the transmission receiver 1062 recognizes individuals who have appropriate security release authority for a room at a certain point in time. The badge 1060 itself may include a transmitter receiver 1062, an electromagnetic radiation detector 1066 connected to an A / D converter, and an LED system 1061 that reacts to a security release network 1063 so that the badge 1060 The color is changed depending on whether or not the user has the release authority to approach a specific receiver. On top of that, an ID badge 1060 with LED system 1061 changes color in response to the control network depending on whether the person wearing it is “permitted” to be in a certain area. As a result, another person determines whether the person can be there. This could also tell others whether the person has to be “accompanied” around the area or can freely hang around. The advantage is that it includes the concepts of day-based control, zone-based control, and mobile control zone or fast zone modification. For example, the maintenance staff would be allowed to be in the area only when no other object is present. For example, in a military aircraft hangar, a cleaner may be allowed only when the plane is not there. As another example, a security zone within a factory may be used for the purpose of keeping people safe, but when the factory shuts down, a larger area becomes accessible.

  In another embodiment, the light module 100 of the present invention can be used to change the lighting conditions of a room. FIG. 83 shows a photodiode, phototransistor, photomultiplier tube, channel plate multiplier, charge coupled device, or A / D converter (not shown) that is electrically connected to the LED system 1072. Also depicted is an electromagnetic radiation detector 1071 such as a connected enhanced silicon multiplier target (ISIT).

  The light module 100 can be programmed to enhance room light as the sunlight entering the room decreases at the end of the day and also compensate for changes in color temperature through a feedback mechanism. In particular, the user measures the color temperature of a particular lighting state with the electromagnetic radiation detector 1071, identifies the signal from the electromagnetic radiation detector 1071 in the desired state, and connects the microprocessor of the present invention to the electromagnetic radiation detector 1071. And the LED system 1072 of the present invention is dimmed over various illumination conditions until the signal from the electromagnetic radiation detector 1071 indicates that the desired condition has been obtained. By periodically changing the LED system and checking the signal from the electromagnetic radiation detector 1071, the light module 100 may be programmed to maintain accurate lighting conditions in the room.

  In another embodiment, the room light or telephone light may help identify the person making the call or its intent. FIG. 84 shows a colored telephone indicator light 1080 comprising the LED system 1082 of the present invention, an output port 1083 that is either serial or parallel, and a connection wire 1084 that connects the system to a caller ID box 1085.

  By emitting a distinctive color, you will be able to recognize when a phone call is being made. In this way, a person could program the light module 100 so that the LED system 1082 emits red light, for example when a call is made from a certain phone. Instead, the desire to designate the caller's call as urgent will be communicated to the recipient by a specific color indication. In this way, a person may program the light module 100 to emit a red light to the LED system 1082 if, for example, the caller specifies that the call is urgent. Yet another telephone application includes a series of colors to indicate to the receiver how long the caller has been waiting. For example, the LED system 1082 can emit a green, amber, or red light depending on whether the caller has been waiting for less than 1 minute, 1 minute, 2 minutes, and 3 minutes or more, respectively. right. This last feature is particularly useful when the phone has multiple lines, and it is important to track the diverse people who have been put on hold.

  The disclosure has dealt with physical conditions that could be indicated by using the LED system of the present invention. In addition, it can be shown in this way that acceleration, sound, light intensity, chemistry, density, dislocation, distance, capacitance, charge, conductivity, current, field strength, frequency, impedance, inductance, power, Other such conditions including resistance, voltage, heat, flow, friction, humidity, height, light, spectrum, mass, position, pressure, torque, linear speed, viscosity, wind direction, and wind speed.

  In an embodiment of the present invention, the signal generator is a conventional remote control device used to control an electronic device through radio frequency signals or infrared signals. The remote control device includes a transmitter, a control switch or button, and a microprocessor and circuitry corresponding to the control that causes the transmitter to transmit a predetermined signal. In this embodiment of the present invention, one or more microprocessors controlling the LEDs are connected to the receiver via a circuit and can process and execute instructions from the remote control device according to the transmitted signal. it can. The remote control device may be provided with additional functions, such as buttons or control devices, formed from LEDs and illuminated to change color or brightness in response to changes in signals sent from the remote control device. In this way, the lever itself being pressed to change the color of the indoor light being controlled from red to bluish purple may change in response to the indoor light. This effect enables the user to control the light even in a state where the actual LED is not visible and in a state where it is difficult to see the true color of the LED controlled by interference from another light source.

  In other embodiments of the present invention, the signal input device for controlling the microprocessor may be a light switch for control and ambient environment settings. In particular, a physical light switch mechanism, such as a dial, slide bar, lever or toggle, includes one or more LEDs that react to external signals generated by the switch, so that the switch can be used like an indoor light. When changing an array of simple microprocessor controlled LEDs, the switch itself changes color in a manner that matches the changes in the room. The signal could be used to control multicolor lights, monitors, televisions, etc. Any control switch, dial, knob, or button that changes color in relation to the controlled output light is within the scope of the present invention.

  In another embodiment of the present invention, the input control device can transmit a badge, card, or radio frequency signal, infrared signal, or other signal to a receiver that controls the microprocessor that controls the arrayed LEDs of the present invention. Other objects may be configured. In this way, the badge constitutes an interface for indoor color settings. The badge or card is programmed to send a signal that reflects the individual lighting preference of the individual microprocessor so that when a person is in proximity to the receiver for the light, the room light or other lighting is The color or brightness may be changed. The state of the desired lighting environment is automatically replicated via the indoor lighting network. Badges also contain other personal data such as music preferences, temperature preferences, security preferences, etc., so that the badges are tied to networked electronic components that react to signals. Would send to the receiver. In this way, by stepping into the room, an individual automatically lights, music, and temperature by an array of LEDs or other lights, a compact disc player or similar sound source, and a microprocessor that controls a thermostat. Can be changed.

  In another embodiment of the invention, the arrayed LEDs may be placed on an elevator floor, ceiling, or wall, and the LEDs may be responsive to an electrical signal indicative of the floor. In this way, the color of the light in the elevator (or the floor, ceiling or wall that the light strikes) may change according to the floor of the elevator.

  In another embodiment of the present invention depicted in FIG. 85, signal generator 504 may be a television signal, stereo signal, or other conventional electronic entertainment signal generator. That is, the lighting control signal can be embedded in any music, compact disc, television, video tape, video game, computer website, cybercast or other broadcast, cable, broadband, or other communication signal. Thus, for example, a signal for a microprocessor is such that when the television signal is processed by the receiver, the microprocessor processes a certain portion of the bandwidth of the television signal in the signal relating to the indoor lights. It may be embedded inside. In this embodiment, the color and brightness of the room as well as other lighting effects may be controlled directly through the television signal. In this way, the television signal is instructed to be dimmed at certain points in the presence of the signal in the room, etc., changed to other colors at other points, and blinked at other points. Good. The signal can control each LED, resulting in a variety of effects that are more particularly described herein. Among other things, a wash with a selected color may enhance the visual effect during certain television or movie scenes. For example, in a movie or in a blast scene in a computer game, room lights will flash a certain sequence or change to a specified color. The sunset scene in the movie could be imitated by the sunrise created by the light in the room. Alternatively, a music CD, DVD disc, audio tape, or VHS tape could contain room color, brightness or lighting position data. The present invention is not limited to television signals, but to music, film, so that the lighting environment, i.e. certain lights, can be a source of entertainment, whether at home, at work or in the theater. It may also be embedded in any other signal-based entertainment source such as a website.

  Referring to FIG. 85, the signal generator 504 may be any device capable of generating entertainment signals such as a television broadcast camera. Referring to FIG. 86, lighting control data may be added to the signal generated by the signal generator by using a data encoder or multiplexer 508. Methods and systems for adding data to television signals and other entertainment signals are known to those skilled in the art. For example, there is a standard for inserting closed caption data in a vertical blanking interval of a television broadcast signal in order to display text with captions for a hearing impaired person on a part of a television screen. Similar techniques can be used to insert lighting control data into the same or similar portions of the television signal. In an embodiment of the invention, a multiplexer detects a horizontal sync pulse that identifies the beginning of a television line, counts a predetermined amount of time after the pulse, and replaces the television signal data for the predetermined amount of time after the pulse. Or supplement. In this way, a combined signal of control data superimposed on the television signal may be created. Similar techniques may be used for other types of signals.

  Once the signal is encoded, it can be transmitted to the user's entertainment device 514 by a transmitter, circuit, telephone line, cable, video tape, compact disc, DVD, network, or any other type of data connection 512. May be sent to the place. Decoder 518 may be designed to separate lighting control data from entertainment signals. Decoder 518 may be a decoder box similar to a decoder box used to decode closed closed caption signals or other combined signals. Such a decoder, for example, detects a horizontal sync pulse, counts the time after the horizontal sync pulse, and outputs an output channel between the channel for the entertainment device 514 and another channel dedicated to lighting control data. It may be switched according to a later time. Other techniques for reading or decoding data from the combined signal are possible, such as optical reading of black and white pixels superimposed on the television screen. Any system that extracts lighting control data from the entertainment signal and adds lighting control data to the entertainment signal may be used. The entertainment signal may then be relayed to the entertainment device 514 so that the signal is played in a conventional manner. The lighting control data may be separated from the entertainment signal once by the decoder 518 and then relayed to the lighting module or module 100 for controlled lighting. The signal may be relayed to the light module 100 by any conventional data connection 522, such as by infrared, radio wave, or other transmission, or by a circuit, network, or data track.

  The systems and methods provided herein include a system for combining lighting control with another signal. One such embodiment is the entertainment system disclosed herein. Although the depicted embodiment is an entertainment system, other signals, such as signals used for informational, educational, business or other purposes, are also described as lighting control signals as described herein. It should be understood that they are combined and are within the scope of the disclosure herein.

  The entertainment system may include a lighting source 501 that may be part of a group of such lighting sources 501. The illumination source 501 may be a light module 100 such as that disclosed above in this embodiment of the invention. Referring to FIG. 85, the illumination source 501 can be disclosed with reference to the space 503 in which the entertainment system 561 is located. The lighting system may include an illumination source 501 as well as an entertainment device 514. The illumination source 501 can include a receiver 505 for receiving a control signal for controlling the illumination source 501. The control signal may be any type of control signal that can control the device such as a radio frequency signal, an electrical signal, an infrared signal, an acoustic signal, an optical signal, or any other energy signal.

  Entertainment system 561 can include a decoder 518 that can decode the received signal and transmit the signal to illumination source 501 by transmitter 522. The illumination system may further include a signal generator 504 depicted in schematic form in FIGS. The signal generator 504 may generate any form of entertainment signal regardless of whether it is a video signal, an audio signal, a data packet, or some other signal. In the embodiment depicted in FIG. 85, signal generator 504 generates a television signal that is transmitted to satellite 507. Referring to FIG. 86, signal generator 504 may include a multiplexer and may be associated with an encoder 508 that may combine the signal from signal generator 504 with control data from control data generator 509. The encoded signal 508 may then be transmitted to the decoder 518 by the transmitter 512. Once decoded by decoder 518, the signal may be re-divided into an entertainment signal component and a lighting control data component. The entertainment signal may be sent to the entertainment device 514 by a circuit or other entertainment means. The control data may be transmitted by a transmitter, circuit, network or other conventional connection 522 to an illumination source that is the light module 100 as disclosed above in the embodiment depicted in FIG. As a result, the lighting control is tied to the entertainment signal so that the lighting produced by the lighting source 501 can be matched to the entertainment signal played on the entertainment device 514. In this way, for example, the room lights may be synchronized and controlled to change simultaneously with changes in events occurring in the program being displayed on the television.

  It should be appreciated that any type of entertainment signal can be combined or multiplexed with the control signal to allow control of the lighting source 501 by the entertainment device 514. For example, the entertainment device may be a television, computer, compact disc player, stereo, radio, video cassette player, DVD player, CD-ROM drive, tape player, or other device. It should be understood that the entertainment device 514 is a device for display for one or more of the signals for purposes other than entertainment. Thus, although the depicted embodiment is an entertainment device 514, it should be understood that educational purposes, informational purposes, or other purposes and devices are within the scope disclosed herein. It should be understood that the particular system for combining the data, transmitting the data, and decoding the data for use by the device 514 and the illumination source 501 will depend on the particular application. In this manner, the transmitter used in the embodiment depicted in FIGS. 85 and 86 can be a circuit, network, or other method or system for connecting or transmitting decoded signals. Will be replaced. Similarly, the connection between the decoder 518 and the illumination source 501 may be a transmitter, circuit, network, or other connection method that delivers data to the illumination source 501.

  The illumination control driver 509 that generates the control data may be any data generation program that can generate data to control the illumination source 501. In an embodiment of the present invention, the control driver is similar to that disclosed in connection with FIG. In this case, the data will be transmitted according to the DMX-512 protocol.

  In the embodiment of the invention depicted in FIG. 87, encoder 508 is depicted in schematic form in an embodiment where the signal is a television signal. In this embodiment, video signal 511 enters the device at signal generators 504-513. Control data 515 may enter encoder 508 from lighting control driver 509 at 517. Other data or signals may come from 519 and 521. These other signals may be used to control the encoder 508, change the operating mode of the controller 508, or for other purposes. Other signals 521 may be some other type of multiplexed signal related to video signal 511. For example, the other signal 521 may be closed caption or text multiplexed data that would be multiplexed with the video signal. The encoder 508 can include a synchronization detector 523. The sync detector 523 may detect a horizontal sync pulse in the video signal 511. The synchronization detector may then send signal 525 to timing and control circuit 527.

  Timing and control circuit 527 may count a predetermined amount of time after a horizontal sync pulse detected by sync detector 523 and control a series of gates or switches 529, 531, 533, and 535. In particular, the timing and control circuit 527 may be used to open one of the gates 529, 531, 533 and 535 while keeping the other gates closed. Thus, the signal at node 537 of FIG. 87 represents a signal specifically selected from among signals 511, 515, 519 and 521 having an open gate among gates 529, 531, 533 and 535. By opening and closing different gates at different times, the timing and control circuit 527 can generate a combined signal at 537 that captures various data at different points in the output signal.

  In an embodiment, the present invention provides an analog to digital converter 539, amplifier 541, or other one to convert the signal into an appropriate format or provide the appropriate signal strength for use. One or more components may be included. The final result is an output combined signal 543 that reflects multiple types of data. In an embodiment, the combined signal is a combined video signal 511 with illumination control data 515 that can control the illumination source 501 depicted in FIG.

  Referring to FIG. 88, a depiction of the timing and operation of the control circuit 527 is provided. For each of the signals 511, 519, 515 and 521, the gate of the signal may be kept on or off (ie, open or closed) at a predetermined time after detection of the sync pulse by the sync detector 523. The timing and control circuit thus assigns the time period after detection of the sync pulse to the various signals and only one of the gates 529, 531, 533 and 535 is open at any particular time. In this way, the gate for the video signal 511 is open for the time immediately after the detection of the synchronization pulse and for the time after the opening and closing of the gate. The gates for data signal 519, control data 515 and other signals 521 can be opened in sequence, and no gate is open at the same time as any other gate. This approach establishes a combined signal without interference between configuration signals 511, 519, 515 and 521, as reflected by the schematics of FIGS.

  With reference to FIG. 89, an embodiment of a decoder 518 is provided. In this embodiment, the decoder 518 is a decoder box for video signals. The received signal at 545 may be a combined signal created by the encoder 508 of FIG. The detector 547 may detect a horizontal or other synchronization pulse in the combined signal 545 and send a signal 549 to the control circuit 551 to establish the timing of the control circuit 551. The combined signal 545 may be sent to a timing and control circuit 551 that may process the received combined signal 545 as a function of arrival time or using other information. In one embodiment, the decoder may separate the received signal according to the time of arrival as determined by the synchronization detector 547. Thus, by encoding the gate opening timing as depicted in FIG. 88, the timing and control circuit 551 can separate the video, control data, and other data according to the time of arrival. In this way, the timing and control circuit 551 can transmit the video signal 553 to the entertainment device 514. The timing and control circuit 551 can similarly transmit control data 555 to an illumination source 501 which can be a light module such as that depicted above. Other data can be sent to another device 557.

  Other elements can be included between the timing and control circuit 551 and the respective devices. For example, if a digital-to-analog converter 559 is placed between the timing and control circuit 551 and the entertainment device 514, an analog signal may be used in the entertainment device 514. It should be understood that the timing and control approach depicted in FIG. 89 is only one example of many approaches for decoding the combined signal. For example, the signal may be a data packet, in which case the packet contains specific information about the type of signal, including information specifying which illumination source 501 it is intended to control. Let's go. In this case, timing and control 551 will include a shift register to accept the data packet and output it to the appropriate device.

  The embodiments depicted in FIGS. 85-89 are merely illustrative, and many embodiments of circuits or software for creating such a system will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art. For example, many systems and methods for inserting data into a signal are known. For example, closed caption data, vertical interval time code data, non-real-time video data, sample video data, North American basic teletex data, world system teletex data, European Broadcasting Union data, and Nielsen automated measurement lineup data, and entry video Provided to contain signals. One such system is disclosed in US Pat. No. 5,844,615 to Nuber et al., The disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference. Systems and methods for nesting signals within television signals are also known. One such system is disclosed in US Pat. No. 5,808,689 to Small et al., The entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference. Other applications include surround sound in which certain acoustic data is combined with the signal, which can be a movie, music, or video signal. Such surround sound systems are known to those skilled in the art. Such a system is disclosed in US Pat. No. 5,708,718 to Ambourn et al., The entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference. Any system for superimposing or combining data with signals to control a device that can also propagate lighting control information created by a lighting control driver to control a lighting source is provided by the present invention. It should be understood that it is within range.

  In television embodiments, different portions of the television signal are used for different purposes. Some part of the signal is used for visible images displayed on the screen. Another part is used for audio signals. The other is an overscan area. Another part is the vertical blanking interval. Another part is the horizontal blanking interval. Any part of the signal can be used to propagate the data. In some embodiments, the data is located in one of the portions such as a horizontal blanking interval or a vertical blanking interval that does not interfere with the display on the screen. However, it is known that a typical television does not display all of the display portion of the television signal. Thus, the initial portion of the television display signal could also be replaced with lighting control data without substantially detracting from the appearance of the image viewed by the user of the entertainment device 514.

  In an embodiment, the user uses a light detector to measure the color temperature of a particular lighting state, identify a signal from the light detector in the desired state, and connect the processing device of the present invention to the light detector. However, the arrayed LEDs of the present invention may be dimmed over a variety of illumination conditions until the signal from the photodetector indicates that the desired condition has been obtained. By periodically changing the LED and checking the signal from the photodetector, the arrayed LEDs of the present invention can be programmed to maintain accurate lighting conditions in the room. This illumination compensation function may be effective in many technical fields. For example, a photographer may use an optical detector to measure ideal conditions, such as near sunset where warm colors stand out, and use the arrayed LEDs of the present invention to determine their exact condition. Could be re-established. Similarly, a surgeon in a surgical scene will be able to establish ideal lighting conditions for a particular type of surgery and reestablish or maintain those lighting conditions in a controlled manner. Furthermore, for flexible digital control of the arrayed LEDs of the present invention, any number of lighting conditions can be programmed for maintenance or re-establishment. In this way, the photographer can select a series of options depending on the desired effect, and the surgeon can select various lighting conditions depending on the surgical condition. For example, different objects have different sharpness under different colors of light. If the surgeon is seeking high contrast, the lighting conditions can be reprogrammed to create maximum contrast between the various elements that must be seen in the surgery. Instead, the surgeon, photographer, or other user may vary the lighting conditions over a wide range until the conditions appear optimal.

  The ability to change lighting conditions at short intervals and continuously or separately in a wide range of colors allows for numerous technical advantages in the field that depend on controlled lighting. Certain embodiments of the present invention in the field of controlled lighting are described as follows.

  The present disclosure further provides systems and methods for high precision illumination. High precision illumination should be understood to include systems and methods that aim a light at a specified target to achieve a predetermined effect. The present invention provides a light source that does not generate excessive heat within the illuminated area. The present invention further provides an easy alternation of the color of light being used for illumination. The present invention further delivers illumination to the target material through a durable and manipulable device.

  The present invention provides a system for illuminating material, including an LED system, a processing device, and a positioning system. The LED system is adapted to generate a series of frequencies in the spectrum, and the processing device is adapted to control the amount of current supplied to the LED system, so that a specific amount of current supplied to it. Generates a corresponding frequency in the spectrum, and the positioning system can position the LED system in spatial relationship with the material, whereby the LED system illuminates the material. In one embodiment, the processing device can react to signals related to material characteristics. In some embodiments, the positioning system can be directed by a part of the operator's body. In another embodiment, the position determination system can include a remote control system. In another embodiment, the illumination system described herein can include a robotic vision system.

  The present invention includes the steps of providing an LED system, providing a processing device, thereby placing an LED system in which the LED system illuminates the material in spatial relationship with the material, and generating light from the LED system. A method for illuminating a material is provided. As described above, the LED system is adapted to generate a series of frequencies in the spectrum, and the processing device is adapted to control the amount of electricity supplied to the LED system, so that it is supplied to it. A specific amount of current produces a corresponding color in the spectrum. In one embodiment, the method includes providing an image capture system, where the image capture system is adapted to record an image of the material. The practice of the method may include determining a range of frequencies in the spectrum to illuminate the material and controlling the LED system to produce a corresponding color in the spectrum. Materials that are illuminated by these methods may include biological material. The biological material may include living organisms. The disclosed inventive method includes selecting a lighting condition created in a material, illuminating the material at a series of frequencies created by the LED system, and a set of colors from the series of frequencies created by the LED system. , Whereby a set of colors creates the lighting state in the material. The practice of the method of the present invention may include the additional step of illuminating the material with a selected set of colors.

  The present invention determines the step of selecting a region of material for evaluation, illuminating the region of material with an LED system, determining at least one characteristic of light reflected from the region, where the feature is color and brightness. And comparing the characteristics of the light reflected from the region with a set of known light parameters, whereby the set of known light parameters is associated with the characteristics of the material, A method for evaluating a material is provided. According to one embodiment of the method, the set of known optical parameters is related to the abnormal characteristics of the material. In one embodiment, the material to be evaluated includes a biological material.

  The present invention provides a system for illuminating a body part, including a power source, an LED system connected to the power source, wherein the LED system is adapted to illuminate body tissue, a body part. And is adapted to illuminate a medical instrument adapted to position the LED system in close proximity and a microprocessor for controlling the LED system. In one embodiment, the microprocessor is responsive to signals related to the characteristics of the body part. The characteristic of the body part may be a structural state. In one embodiment, the body part is illuminated in vivo. In one embodiment, the body part includes a lumen. In certain embodiments, the medical device is adapted for insertion within a body cavity.

  The present invention determines at least one feature of a body part region for evaluation, illuminating the body part region with an LED system, light reflected from the region, wherein the feature is Selecting from a group including color and brightness and comparing the characteristics of the light reflected from the region to a set of known light parameters, where the set of known light parameters is associated with the state of the body part A method for diagnosing a condition of a body part is provided. In one embodiment of the method, the set of known light parameters relates to the pathological state of the body part. The method may include the additional step of administering a drug to the patient, where the drug is delivered to the body part, thereby altering the characteristics of the light reflected from the region of the body part.

  The present invention provides an LED system for generating a series of frequencies in a spectrum, selecting a set of colors from a series of colors, whereby the set of colors causes a change in a material, changing A method for achieving a change in a material is provided that includes illuminating the material with an LED system for a predetermined period of time in order to be effective in causing In one embodiment, the material being illuminated may comprise a biological material. The biological material may include living organisms. The living organism may be a vertebrate. In one embodiment, the method may include illuminating the environment surrounding the living organism.

  The present invention provides an LED system comprising a plurality of colored semiconductor dies to generate a series of frequencies in the spectrum, selecting a set of colors from a series of colors, whereby the set of colors is within a patient. Provided is a method for treating a patient condition comprising the steps of producing a therapeutic effect and illuminating a region of the patient with a set of colors for a predetermined period of time to be effective in increasing the therapeutic effect. . In some embodiments, the patient area comprises the outer surface of the patient. In another embodiment, the patient region comprises a body part. According to one embodiment of these methods, a drug can be administered to a patient, wherein the drug is delivered to the patient's area, whereby the drug illuminates the patient's area with a set of colors. Modify the therapeutic effect.

  The present invention includes a power terminal, an LED system, a current sink coupled to the LED system, a current sink with an input responsive to an activation signal that allows current flow through the current sink, an address having a modifiable address A control device that can be specified, a control device connected to the input and having a timer for generating an activation signal in a predetermined portion of the timing cycle, and further reacting to data indicating the predetermined portion of the timing cycle corresponding to a modifiable address An addressable control device with a receiver to perform and an LED system can be arranged in spatial relationship with the material, thereby providing an illumination system including a positioning system for the LED system to illuminate the material.

  Other embodiments of the invention will be described in part below and in part will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the following description.

  In the embodiment depicted below, the LED system is used to generate a range of colors in the spectrum. As the term is used herein, “LED system” refers to an array of colored semiconductor dies. The colored semiconductor die is also called a light emitting diode, or LED. An array of colored semiconductor dies may include a plurality of colored semiconductor dies that are grouped together into one structural unit. Alternatively, the array of colored semiconductor dies may comprise a plurality of structural units, each comprising at least one colored semiconductor die. The LED system may further comprise a plurality of structural units, each unit comprising a plurality of color developing semiconductor dies. As long as at least two primary color LEDs are used, any illumination color or display color can be generated simply by preselecting the light intensity emitted by each color LED. Further, as described in part in the specification, each color LED can emit light at any of a number of different luminances depending on the duty cycle of the PWM square wave, and the maximum luminance pulse is Generated by passing maximum current through the LED. As used herein, the term brightness is understood to refer to the brightness of light. As an example, as described in part above, the maximum brightness of an LED or LED system adjusts the upper limit for the maximum allowable current using a programming resistor for a processing device on the light module. You can program conveniently just by doing.

  In one embodiment of the invention, a multicolor illumination system is provided for illuminating the material. As used herein, the terms “illumination” and “illuminate” may refer to either direct illumination, indirect illumination, or transmitted illumination. Illumination should be understood to include any spectral emission frequency including visible, ultraviolet, infrared, etc. Illumination may refer to energy that includes any range of spectral frequencies. The illumination can be viewed or measured directly so that the reflected light observed by the viewer or sensor is reflected at an angle substantially equivalent to the angle of incident light with respect to the surface. Illumination is observed or measured indirectly so that the reflected light observed by the observer or sensor is reflected at an angle different from the incident light angle with respect to the surface. Direct or indirect illumination can be directed at the surface of the material. The surface may be a naturally occurring surface such as a body part or a geological formation. Alternatively, the surface may be a device surface. The surface may have a three-dimensional topology. A plurality of objects can be fixed on the surface.

  The term “material” as used herein encompasses all possible materials that can be targeted for illumination. The term “transmitted illumination” refers to an illumination method in which light is directed at least partially through the material, where the characteristics of the light after passing through the material are observed by an observer or sensor. As an example of transmitted illumination, illumination from the gastroscope may be irradiated through the stomach wall and the soft tissue overlying it so that the site where the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube is placed can be specified. it can. As another example of transmitted illumination, light can be directed to the surface of a tissue mass to determine whether it is cystic or solid. The cystic mass is said to transmit light, ie, light passes through the mass and becomes visible by an observer away from the location of the incident light.

  FIG. 90 depicts an embodiment of a lighting system 2020. The embodiment shown in FIG. 90 shows a positioning system 2010, a control module 2012, an LED assembly 2014, and a target material 2018. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 90, the target material 2018 is represented as the surface of the device. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the target material 2018 may be any material and is not limited to the illustrated embodiment. In FIG. 90, an embodiment of the illumination system 2020 is shown directing incident light 2022 toward the material 2018. FIG. 90 further illustrates an LED assembly 2014 that includes a sensor system 2024 and an LED system 2028. In one embodiment, a plurality of LEDs or an array of LEDs form an LED system 2028, each LED being controlled by the control module 2012. The LED system 2028 is understood to comprise a plurality of colored semiconductor molds to produce a range of colors in the spectrum. The LED system 2028 can comprise the light module 100 or smart bulb 701 disclosed above. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 90, the sensor system 2024 can provide a signal related to the characteristics of the light reflected from the material 2018 to the sensor system 2024. In alternative embodiments, the sensor system 2024 can respond to other features of the material 2018. The sensor system 2024 can be fixed to the LED system housing, or the sensor system 2024 can be arranged in parallel with the LED system 2028. Other arrangements of the sensor system 2024 relative to the LED system 2028 are readily conceivable by those skilled in the art. Alternatively, embodiments that do not provide a sensor system are possible.

  FIG. 90 further depicts an LED cable 2034 that can send electrical signals to the positioning arm 2032, the control module 2012, and the LED system 2028 and send data signals to the LED system 2028. Optionally, the data signal can be sent from the sensor system 2024 to a sensor module (not shown). The LED cable 2034 can propagate these sensor signals. The control module 2012 in the illustrated embodiment associates a processing device for the LED system, a power supply for the LED system, a sensor module for the sensor system, and a signal received by the sensor system 2024 with the processing device described above. As a result, the signal received by the sensor module affects the output characteristics of the LED system 2028. The control module may further include a position control device (not shown). In the illustrated embodiment, the position determination system 2010 includes a position determination arm 2032, a position controller and a position determination cable 2038. This depiction of the position determination system is exemplary only. As used herein, position determination system is understood to include any system in which the LED system can be arranged in a spatial relationship with the material being illuminated, whereby the LED system illuminates the material. Thus, the positioning system can include any type of device in which the LED system can be placed. The positioning system may include an operator that can place the LED system in a spatial relationship with the material being illuminated, whereby the LED system illuminates the material. The positioning system may further include such LED cables if the LED cables are adapted to place the LED system in a spatial relationship with the material being illuminated.

  Multiple positioning systems that match the characteristics of the particular material being illuminated can be envisioned by those skilled in the art. For example, a positioning system that has been applied for microscopic surgery can be controlled by a control module suitable for attaching to a microscope for surgery and receiving positioning input from a microsurgeon. As an option for a positioning system used in microscopic surgery or other surgical procedures, the foot pedal system uses a foot pedal actuated button, pedal or slide to provide positioning input. Can be provided. As an alternative option, the microsurgeon can adapt the placement in the sterile area by covering the manual control device with a sterile plastic bag or sheet so that the manual control device can be handled manually without interfering with the aseptic technique. .

  As an example of a positioning system, a standard surgical light fixture can be equipped with an LED system as disclosed herein. Standard surgical light fixtures can place the LED system in a spatial relationship with the material being illuminated, whereby the LED system illuminates the material. This positioning system can be manually adjusted in a standard manner well known to those skilled in the surgical field. Alternatively, the position determination system may be controlled in response to signals input from a separate control module. The position determination system changes its position to illuminate the material specified by the operator in response to a direct input to the control module or in response to a signal transmitted to the sensor device. be able to. Other embodiments of the position determination system can be envisioned by those skilled in the art. The scope of the term “positioning system” is not limited by the embodiment shown in this figure. A plurality of other location determination systems may be included as well as the systems and methods described herein.

  FIG. 90 illustrates an embodiment of a positioning system 2010 in which the LED assembly 2014 is located at the end of the positioning arm 2032. In this embodiment, the position control device can transmit a signal to the position determination arm 2032 to adjust its spatial position. These signals can propagate through the positioning cable 2038. Alternatively, the signal can be transmitted by infrared, by radio frequency, or by other methods known in the art. Remote access to the control module 2012 allows the lighting system 2020 to be controlled from a considerable distance, for example in underwater or aerospace applications. Remote access allows control of the lighting system 2020 even when the lighting system 2020 is operating in an inappropriate or undesirable environment. It is understood that remote access to the control module provides remote control. Techniques for remote control are well known to those skilled in the art.

  In the illustrated embodiment, the positioning arm 2032 has a plurality of joints 2040 that allow its three-dimensional movement. In the illustrated embodiment, the joint 2040 is arranged to provide the flexibility required by a particular technical application. The position determination can be achieved by other mechanisms in addition to the mechanism depicted in FIG. These mechanisms are well known to those skilled in the art. As depicted in FIG. 90, the proximal end of the position determination arm 2032 is fixed to the base 2026. The joints that connect the positioning arm 2032 to the base 2026 may be arranged to allow movement along an axis parallel or perpendicular to the axis of movement allowed by the other joints 2040.

  The position determination system depicted in FIG. 90 is only one embodiment of the system described herein. As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, a number of other embodiments are available. In one embodiment, the positioning system 2010 can be configured to be applied to large ones such as thin plate or steel evaluation. Alternatively, the positioning system 2010 can be adapted for position adjustment with a microscope. The light provided by the illumination system can be used for multiple precision applications. Fine three-dimensional control of the illumination pattern can accurately direct light to a three-dimensional position. In an alternative embodiment, the signal from the sensor module can be used to control or activate the position controller, so that the positioning system 2010 moves the LED assembly 2014 in response to the received sensor data. Can be operated. An illumination system comprising an LED system 2028 allows a selection of predetermined colored light to facilitate visualization of the target material 2018. The flash effect achieved by the embodiments of the lighting system can enable a dynamic process frozen frame image technology or increase the resolution of images acquired using conventional image technology modalities. .

  Illumination system embodiments can be used to take micrographs. In another embodiment of the present invention, the lighting system 2020 can be used to enhance the quality of robot vision system applications. In many robot vision system applications such as semiconductor chip position detection during the manufacturing process, barcode matrix reading, position detection of the robotic device being manufactured, the robot camera is used to identify and respond to shapes or contrasts. Needed to react. Various lighting conditions can dramatically affect such a visual system. A method for increasing the accuracy of such a system includes creating a single color image from a series of dark and bright images taken under a plurality of different flash illumination sequences. For example, the user can flash a red strobe light to obtain a red frame, a green strobe light to obtain a green frame, and a blue strobe light to obtain a blue frame. The flash effect allows the resolution of the image required by the robot vision system to be increased by the robot camera. Other embodiments are envisioned by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope of the invention.

  FIG. 91 shows a schematic diagram of the control module 2012 in more detail. In the illustrated embodiment, the control module 2012 includes a power supply 2044, a first microprocessor 2048 for LEDs, a sensor module 2050 suitable for receiving signals from a sensor fixed to the end of a positioning arm, and a position. A housing portion 2042 for receiving the control device 2052 is provided. The illustrated embodiment specifically includes a second microprocessor 2054 for relating data received by the sensor module 2050 to data for controlling the LED system. The position controller 2052 is adapted to adjust the three-dimensional position of the position determination arm. The position controller 2052 may include an input device 2058 for receiving signals or data from an external source. As an example, data can be input from a control panel operated by an operator. The data may take the form of three-dimensional coordinates in which the positioning system is commanded to move, or may take any other form envisioned by those skilled in the art. Data can also be entered through a computer program that performs calculations to identify the three-dimensional coordinates that the positioning system is commanded to move. The input device 2058 can be configured to receive data received through a three-dimensional simulator or virtual reality device using a computer. Additional examples of input device 2058 may be envisioned by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope of the present invention. The control module 2030 depicted in FIG. 91 further includes a sensor module 2050 that is suitable for receiving signals from sensors secured to the distal end of the positioning arm. The sensor module 2050 can be configured to receive any type of signal, as partially described above. The sensor module 2050 may comprise a light meter for measuring the brightness of light reflected by the surface being illuminated. While other sensor modules and sensor systems may be utilized without departing from the scope of the present invention, sensor module 2050 may comprise a colorimeter, spectrophotometer, or spectrograph. A spectrophotometer is understood to be an instrument for measuring the intensity of light of a specific wavelength transmitted or reflected by a substance or solution and providing a quantitative measure of the amount of material in a substance that absorbs light. The Data received in the sensor module 2050 can also be used to evaluate material characteristics. In one embodiment, sensor module 2050 can be configured to provide a data output to output instrumentation 2060. The output data may include values that are comparable to a known set of values using algorithms well known to those skilled in the art. The relationship between the output data and the set of known values can be defined to produce meaningful information about the material being illuminated by the lighting system.

  FIG. 92 depicts an embodiment of a lighting system 2056 that can be directed by a part of the operator's body. The embodiment shown in FIG. 92 depicts a lighting system 2056 that is held in an operator's hand 2062. In the illustrated embodiment, the LED system 2064 is located at the end of a handheld wand 2068 that can be directed toward the material 2070 placed in the operator's hand 2062. LED cable 2072 connects LED system 2064 to a power source (not shown). LED cable 2072 transmits power and data signals to LED system 2064. In an alternative embodiment, a sensor may be placed at the end of the handheld wand 2068 to provide data sensing means as described above. The signal from the sensor can be transmitted through the LED cable 2072 in one embodiment. However, in another embodiment, the handheld wand 2068 can include an image technology system for video image technology. This image technology system can enable, for example, display of real-time images on a video screen. Alternatively, the imaging technology system may allow still image or video capture through appropriate software and hardware configurations. Illuminating the material 2070 with a wide variety of colors may result in significantly different images, as described in part above. Flashing the light provided by the illumination system 2056 can capture still images and increase resolution. The hand-held system can be used for any application where it is advantageous to use the operator's hand 2062 to position the lighting system. In some embodiments, the system can be held entirely by hand as shown in FIG. In an alternative embodiment, the wand carrying the LED can be fixed to the framework that supports it, thereby facilitating the placement of the wand by direct manipulation by the operator's hand. However, in another embodiment, the lighting system can be placed on the operator's hand by a band or glove so that the position of the lighting system can be managed by movement of the operator's hand. In other embodiments, the lighting system can be secured or held to other body parts directed thereby.

  In another embodiment of the invention, the LEDs are displayed in proximity to the product that requires illumination. In this way, an improved flashlight, light ring, wristband, or glove creates an array of LEDs that allow the user to change the lighting conditions on the product until the ideal condition is recognized. Can be included. This embodiment of the present invention is useful for applications that require the user to work with the user's hand in close proximity to the surface, such as surgery, mechanical assembly, or repair, particularly when the user has a large light source. It can be particularly valuable when it is not usable or when the product is sensitive to the heat generated by conventional lights.

  In one embodiment of the method for illuminating the material, an LED system can be used as described above. According to this embodiment, an LED system and a processing device are provided. Thus, practicing this method may include placing the LED system in a spatial relationship with the material being illuminated. Placement can be done manually or mechanically. The mechanical arrangement can be driven by input from the operator. Alternatively, the mechanical arrangement can be driven by a set of data or a set of algorithms provided electronically. A first microprocessor may be provided to control the LED system. In certain embodiments, a second microprocessor may be provided to position the positioning system with respect to the illuminated material. However, in another embodiment, a third microprocessor may be provided to process data input from the sensor system or input from the control panel. Each microprocessor can be associated with its respective other microprocessor, so that changes in one function can be related to changes in other functions.

  The method according to one embodiment may further include providing an image capture system for recording an image of the material. As used herein, image capture systems include techniques that use film-based methods, techniques that use digital methods, and techniques that use any other method for image capture. The image capture system further includes a method for recording an image as a set of electronic signals. Such an image may be present in a computer system, for example. With current technology, video images can be captured on film, as video on magnetic tape, or in digital format. Images captured using analog technology can be converted to digital signals and captured in digital form. Once captured, the image can be further processed using Photoipulative software such as Adobe Photoshop ™. Photomanipulative software is well known in the art to allow image modification to enhance favorable visual features. Once captured, images can be published using a variety of media including paper, CD-ROM, floppy disk, other disk storage systems, or published on the Internet. The term recording here refers to the capture of any image, whether permanent or temporary. The image capture system further includes moving images, whether using film, videotape, digital methods, or any other method for capturing moving images. Including those techniques to record. The image capture system further includes those techniques that allow the capture of still images from moving images. The term image as used herein may include a plurality of images. In one embodiment, a photography system may be provided in which the illuminated material is photographed using a film-based method. In this embodiment, the LED system can be flashed to allow stationary photography of moving material.

  In an alternative embodiment, the sensor system can be arranged to identify the characteristics of the light reflected by the material, and the LED system can be optimally illuminated so that the material achieves the desired photographic effect. Can be controlled to reproduce the desired set of light features. Industrial and medical effects can be achieved, but this effect may be an aesthetic effect. For example, the set of ambient light features in the operating room can be identified by the surgeon and replicated during the operation. Certain types of lighting conditions may be more suitable for certain surgeries. As another example, photography can be performed using an LED system to give certain features to photographic illumination. As is well known in the art, certain light shades and hues highlight certain colors for photography. Different lighting systems used for photography can have different hues and hues recorded in the photograph. For example, incandescent lighting is known to produce a more reddish skin tone, while fluorescent lighting is known to produce a bluish skin tone. LED systems can be used to provide a consistent tone and hue of a photographic subject from one lighting environment to another lighting relationship. Other desired photographic effects can be envisioned by those skilled in the art.

  As one embodiment of a method for illuminating a material, a predetermined range of colors can be selected in the spectrum. The LED system can then generate these colors and control to illuminate the material thereby. The illuminated material may be a non-biological substance. It should be understood that in certain embodiments, a chemical reaction or a reagent of its component can be illuminated according to this method, whereby illumination affects the characteristics of the chemical reaction. In another embodiment, the method of illumination can be directed at the biological material. As used herein, the term biological material includes any material related to biology. The term biology refers to the science of life and phenomena of living organisms. Thus, biological materials are cells, tissues, organs, body parts, cellular elements, living organisms, biological products, chemical or organic created by biological materials or through biotechnology. Or any other biologically relevant substance. In addition, however, the term biological material may refer to material that was previously part of a living organism, including material that is extracted from living organisms and that no longer exists. . Pathological species are encompassed by the term biological material. Although living organisms appear as one particular embodiment of a biological material, this usage is not intended to narrow the scope of the term biological material as it is used herein. In one embodiment of a method for illuminating a biological material, the biological material may be a living organism. Living organisms include cells, microorganisms, plants, animals, or any other living organism.

  As an embodiment of a method for illuminating a material, a predetermined desired illumination state can be selected and the material can be illuminated in a series of colors until the desired state is achieved. A series of colors can be selected according to this method, whereby the selected color can create a desired state. If necessary, the additional steps of this embodiment include illuminating the material with a selected color to achieve the desired effect. This method can be applied to both non-biological and biological materials.

  It should be understood that a method for illuminating a living organism can have a special effect on its structure, physiology, or psychological habit. As an embodiment of a method for illuminating a living organism, these techniques can be directed to cells, microorganisms, plants or animals. These embodiments can comprise, without limitation, microbial applications, clonal applications, cell cultures, agricultural applications, aquaculture, livestock applications or human applications. As an example, plant growth can be accelerated by precisely controlling the spectrum of light they are bathing and growing. FIG. 93 illustrates an embodiment of this method whereby a plurality of LED systems 2074 illuminate a plant 2078 that bears fruit being grown in a greenhouse environment. The size and number of fruits 2080 attached to these plants 2078 is advantageously compared to the results of the method shown in FIG. Observed with less fruit 2080. As an additional example, cell growth in cultured tissue can be improved by illuminating the cell or medium with light having a constant spectral quality. As another example, best breeding and animal health can be achieved by illuminating the material with a range of colors within the spectrum. As another example, duplicating the spectrum of light in its source water for marine species in the aquarium can greatly extend its lifetime during the capture period. For example, the Red Sea spectrum has been found to be clearly different from the Cape Cod underwater spectrum. According to this method embodiment, the lighting conditions of the Red Sea can be replicated with a healthy effect in a tank containing the Red Sea species. As an additional example, an organism's rhythm that varies over a period of about 24 hours can be awakened by illuminating the organism of interest with light of varying spectral characteristics.

  As an embodiment of the illumination method, the material selects the area of the material to be evaluated, illuminates the area with an LED system, determines the characteristics of the light reflected from the area, and those characteristics of color and / or brightness Can be evaluated by comparing to a set of known optical parameters related to the characteristics of the material being evaluated. The feature being evaluated may be a normal feature or an abnormal feature. As an example, the integrity of a single tooth can be assessed by directing a particular color of light on the tooth to identify those areas that are corroding. The structural state of the materials can be evaluated by illuminating the materials and looking for anomalies in the reflected light. This method embodiment is applicable to biological materials. For example, in forensic medicine, fillings for various types of teeth can be distinguished by how they reflect a particular spectrum of light. This enables identification based on dental records for purposes of use in court. Embodiments of this method involving biological materials are adapted for use in a wide variety of medical applications, as will be described in further detail hereinafter.

  In another embodiment of the invention, a multicolor illuminator is provided for surgical illumination, as described in part above. The relative color contrast of different body organs is typically low. By changing the color state in a controlled manner, the surgeon or assistant increases this relative contrast to maximize the visibility of important surgical features including internal organs and surgical instruments. be able to. In this way, if the surgeon is trying to avoid nerve tissue during surgery, the light designed to create the maximum explicit contrast between the color of the nerve tissue and the other tissue allows for maximum accuracy will do. The surgical light of the present invention may be in any conventional configuration, such as a large theater light, or it may be attached to a surgical instrument such as an endoscope, surgical gloves, clothes or a scalpel. .

  FIG. 95 depicts one embodiment of a system for illuminating a body part in accordance with the present invention. This design shows a conventional surgical retractor 2084 with a medical instrument for placing the LED system in close proximity to a body part, here the LED system 2088 is secured to the front surface of its contraction surface 2090. Illuminated surgical retractor 2084 is similar to a Richardson-type retractor that is well known in the art. Other medical devices can also be utilized to carry the LED system 2088 without departing from the scope of these systems and methods. A medical device carrying an LED system can be used to illuminate a body part.

  In the embodiment depicted in FIG. 95, a conventional surgical retractor 2084 is shown lifting a segment of body tissue, here depicted as the edge of the liver 2104. Illumination from the LED system 2088 is directed to a part of the body, here the gallbladder 2110 and the hepatic hilar 2112. As used herein, the term body part refers to any part of the body. The term, whether the body part is described in anatomical terms, physiological terms, or local anatomical terms, It is meant to include any body part. The body part may be of any size, whether macroscopic or microscopic. The term body part may refer to a body part in vivo or in vitro. The term in vitro should be understood to refer to any body part that has been removed from the body, regardless of whether the body part is alive or not. Part of the body in vitro may contain organs for transplantation or replantation. Part of the body in vitro may contain pathological or forensic species. An ex vivo body part may refer to a body part in a test tube. The term body part should be further understood to refer to the anatomical components of the organ. As an example, the appendix is understood to be an anatomical component of an organ known as the intestine.

  In the illustrated embodiment, the hepatic portal 2112 is an anatomical region that is part of the body. Hepatic portal 2112 is understood to carry multiple other body parts, including portal vein 2114, liver artery 2118, hepatic plexus, hepatic duct, and hepatic lymphatic vessel. The hepatic duct 2120 from the liver 2104 and the gallbladder duct 2124 from the gallbladder 2110 converge to form the common bile duct 2118. All these tubes are part of the body as the term is used here. Distinguishing these body parts from each other can be difficult in certain surgical situations. In the depicted embodiment, the LED system 2088 is directed to the hepatic portal 2112 during gallbladder procedures to facilitate identification of relevant body parts. By directing light of different colors to separate body parts, the operator can more easily determine which body part is which, which is essential for surgery.

  Multiple other uses of these lighting systems can be readily envisioned by those skilled in the relevant art. The embodiment depicted in FIG. 95 shows a hand-held retractor 2084 used in an open surgical procedure, but the illumination system described herein can be used for endoscopic surgery, thoracoscopy or Can be used in laparoscopy. The distinction between various body parts at one site, such as the hilar 2112 may be particularly difficult during laparoscopic procedures. As an alternative embodiment, the relevant anatomical structure is preserved during the laparoscopic procedure using the LED system secured to the laparoscopic instrumentation and thereby partially excised The structure can be easily identified and illuminated.

  Other endoscopic applications will be apparent to those skilled in the art. As an exemplary embodiment, the LED system is for assessment of intra-ductal anatomy in the gastrointestinal organ, in the cardiovascular organ, in the tracheobronchial organ, or in the genitourinary organ. Can be combined with endoscopic instrumentation. A lumen is understood to be a part of the body within the meaning of the latter term. The term lumen should be understood to refer to the interior space of a hollow tubular structure. The term body part further includes a wall of a hollow tubular structure surrounding the lumen. Subcutaneous use of the illumination system can be envisaged to allow identification of body parts during endoscopic myocutaneous flap elevation. Such identified body parts may include nerves, blood vessels, muscles and other tissues. Other embodiments can be readily envisioned by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope of the systems disclosed herein.

  In FIG. 95, LED system 2088 is shown arranged at the distal edge of retractor 2084 that is mounted on the lower surface of retractor 2090 of retractor 2084. This arrangement ensures that the retracting surface 2090 of the retractor 2084 does not affect the body system, here the edge of the liver 2104, so that the contraction force on the edge of the liver 2104 does not affect the LED system 2088. And the LED system 2088. The LED system 2088 in the illustrated embodiment is arranged linearly along the retractor's retracting surface 2090. Here, the power supply cord 2108 is shown integrated with the handle 2106 of the retractor 2084. The system described herein can be adapted for multiple medical devices without departing from the scope of the present invention. For example, a malleable retractor or diver retractor can carry an LED system. Other retractors for specialized surgical applications can be similarly adapted to carry LED systems in any arrangement with respect to the contraction surface that meets the specific surgical needs. As an example, the LED system can be mounted on a flexible probe to illuminate specific tissue where the probe does not perform a contraction function. In an embodiment, the LED system can be directed to lymph nodes at the armpit or at the heel site after percutaneous access and subcutaneous incision, and these lymph nodes are blackened for malignant melanoma. Illuminate with a bright color selected to preferentially illuminate lymph node features such as tissue replacement sites. Lymph node illumination is simultaneously assessed through endoscopy or video endoscopy using minimally invasive techniques, thereby resulting in complete surgical lymph node resection with sequelae The need can be reduced. This example is provided as an illustration of embodiments of the application of the technology disclosed herein, but other examples and illustrations may be devised by those skilled in the art that fall within the scope of the present invention. it can.

  Multiple arrays of LEDs can be envisioned by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope of the present invention. The LED array can be placed in proximity to the target organ by a surgical instrument. As used herein, the term proximity is close so that illumination directed at the targeted body part is effective in achieving the clinical purpose intended by the operator. Refers to the degree of that. In this way, proximity to the target body part is determined by the operator's medical judgment. Since the LED system does not generate heat, it can be placed very close to the target body part and other body parts without damaging the tissue. In an embodiment, the lighting assembly can be directed to a microscopic surgical structure without causing thermal damage. The brightness of light available from the LED system is a feature that affects how close the LED system needs to be placed to achieve the clinical purpose of the operator.

  As an alternative embodiment, the LED system can be combined with other features of the medical device. The term medical instrument as used herein includes surgical instruments. For example, the LED system can be combined with an ablation device or smoke aspirator used in surgery. FIG. 96 depicts one embodiment of a surgical instrument that combines multiple other portions of the device with an LED system. In FIG. 96, a Bobby cautery assembly 2132 is depicted that is well known in the surgical arts. The ablation assembly 2132 includes an ablation tip 2134 and a handheld wand 2138. Embedded in the standard style wand 2138 is an array of control buttons 2140, which are well known to those skilled in the art. At the end of the handheld wand 2138 is an LED system 2144. Power and data signals to LED system 2144 are propagated through LED cable 2148 that is secured to the upper surface of handheld wand 2138. The LED cable 2148 is joined to the bobby power supply cord 2152 at the proximal end of the instrument to form a single unified device cable 2150. In an alternative embodiment, the LED cable can be included in the bobby wand housing 2136 proximate to the bobby power supply cord 2152.

  The depicted embodiment allows the surgeon to direct the LED light to a particular structure and identify it anatomically as part of a cautery incision. The spectral capacity of the LED system 2144 is effective, for example, in identifying blood vessels. Blood vessels that are implanted in tissue can be particularly difficult to identify. The surgeon can make an incision with the ablation tip 2134 of the illustrated embodiment while directing light from the LEDs selected to highlight the vasculature. The tissue itself will be distinguishable from the vasculature based on the response of each set of structures to light illumination from the LED system 2144. The contrast between the tissue that requires an incision and the blood vessel that must be preserved will be highlighted by light illumination from the LED system 2144. Thus, the surgeon will be able to identify which structure is safe to extend beyond the boundary by cautery incision. In this way, the surgeon will be able to more easily preserve blood vessels as required by the surgical procedure. Instead, the surgeon will be able to identify blood vessels that are implanted in the tissue and take precautions to effectively coagulate or tie them before spreading beyond them. The illustrated embodiment represents only one example of a possible arrangement of combined surgical devices that utilize an LED system. Other sequences can be envisioned by those skilled in the art. For specialized surgical applications, specialized combinations may be required. For example, certain instruments are utilized in neurosurgery and microsurgery. The same principles shown in the depicted embodiment of FIG. 96 can be applied to surgical concern fabrication appropriate for these purposes.

  As an alternative embodiment, the LED system can be combined with a sensor system that provides a signal that correlates with some characteristic of the part of the body being illuminated. As an example, FIG. 93C shows an LED assembly 2100 secured to a nasal endoscope 2092 that has been inserted into a nasal conduit 2094 to evaluate an intranasal or pituitary tumor 2098. Endoscope 2092 is shown in this view entering through nostril 2096 and through nasal airway 2086. Tumor 2098 is shown here on the upper surface of nasal airway 2086. The LED assembly 2100 can include an LED system (not shown) and a sensor system (not shown). While LED systems can illuminate structures in the nasal cavity and structures in the Turkish eyelids in a range of colors, the sensor system can provide data regarding the characteristics of the reflected light. Tumor 2098 can be identified by how it reflects the range of light used to illuminate it. The sensor system provides information about the characteristics of the reflected light and allows the operator to identify the tumor 2098 away from them. Furthermore, such an endoscope 2092 can be combined with means well known to those skilled in the art for excising or removing a portion of a lesion.

  The illumination system described here can be used for both direct illumination and micro-illumination. Micro-illumination is understood to refer to a method for examining a tissue, anatomical structure, or body organ by the passage of light through it. For example, fine-graining the structure helps to determine whether it is cystic or solid. One embodiment of the illumination system can utilize LEDs to direct light of various colors across the structure, so that an overview of the structure when exposed to such micro-illumination can be identified. Or it can contribute to diagnosis. Micro-illumination using LED light can be directed to multiple structures. In addition to soft tissues and organs, the teeth can be micro-lit to assess their integrity. Additional embodiments may utilize the LED as a catheter placed in the body with a lumen structure such as a tube. Illuminating the interior of the structure helps the surgeon to confirm its location during surgery. For example, in certain surgical situations, the position of the ureter is difficult to determine. Using an LED system placed in the lumen to finely illuminate the ureter helps the surgeon find the ureter during the incision and avoid damaging it. Such an LED system could be placed cystoscopically, eg retrogradely as a catheter, before initiating the open phase of the surgical procedure. In this embodiment, the LED system is particularly effective. Not only can the color of the LED be changed to maximize the visibility of the micro-illuminated structure, the LED avoids the tissue heating problems associated with conventional light sources.

  Assessment of the tissue illuminated by the illumination system embodiments described herein may be performed through direct examination. In an alternative embodiment, the assessment can be performed by examining the tissue using a video camera. In an exemplary embodiment, the organization will be visualized on the screen. Adjusting the colors on the video monitor screen can enhance the specific effects being evaluated by the surgical team. As an alternative embodiment, the illumination system can be combined with a sensor module, as described in part above, whereby the brightness of the reflected light can be measured. As an example, the sensor module could provide spectroscopic analysis, color clock analysis, or spectrophotometer analysis of the light signal reflected from the illuminated area. Other types of sensor modules can be devised by those skilled in the relevant art. The sensor module can be combined with a direct examination to evaluate the tissue. Alternatively, the sensor module can provide a means for remote assessment of tissue in an area that cannot be used for direct examination, as an alternative to video visualization or as an adjunct to video visualization. Examples of such areas are well known in the surgical arts. Other regions can be identified by those skilled in the art who are familiar with the particular anatomical site and associated methods of surgical access, but examples of such regions are endoscopes that conduct the nose to the pituitary gland. May include mirror access, endoscopic assessment of cerebral ventricles, and endoscopy in the spine. In addition to the previously described embodiments for use in living tissue, implementations to allow assessment of forensic tissue or specimens used in pathology using the illumination system disclosed herein Forms can be devised.

  FIG. 98 depicts an embodiment of an illumination system in which the LED system 2154 is mounted within a conventional surgical headlamp 2158 device. In the illustrated embodiment, the LED system 2154 is secured to the headband 2160 using attachment methods that are well known to those skilled in the art. However, advantageously, the LED system 21454 of the illustrated embodiment may be significantly lighter than a conventional headlamp. This reduces the burden on the wearer and makes the headlamp device more comfortable during long treatments. As depicted here, the LED system 2154 is connected to a power supply cord 2156. However, unlike conventional headlamp devices, the power supply cord 2156 for the LED system 2154 is lightweight and not bulky. Thus, the power supply cord 2156 does not have to be carried on the surgeon's head in a configuration that predisposes to twisting the headband and collides with several overhead devices in the operating room, but around the headband 2160 itself. Can be deployed. Furthermore, the power supply cord utilized by the LED system avoids problems inherent in fiber optic systems currently known in the surgical arts. In conventional surgical headlamps such as those utilized by those skilled in these arts, light is delivered to the lamp through a plurality of fiber optic filaments that are bundled within a cable. With systems currently known in the art, individual fiber optic filaments are easily broken during normal use, while the brightness of the light produced by the headlamp is reduced. In contrast, power supply cord 2156 for LED system 2154 does not include fiber optic elements, but instead includes wires that propagate power to LED system 2154. This provides a more durable lighting device than is known in the art. Furthermore, the LED system 2154 is lightweight enough to be integrated with the surgeon's magnifier 2164.

  Although the LED system in the illustrated embodiment is secured to the headband 2160, an alternative embodiment completely eliminates the headband 2160 and integrates it into the surgeon's glasses or magnifier 2164. Can be made possible. FIG. 99 depicts an embodiment of this latter configuration. In this embodiment, LED system 2166 is shown integrated with frame 2168 of loupe 2164. The LED system 2166 can be positioned above the frame 2168 as depicted in this figure, or it can be arranged in any spatial relationship to the frame 2168 which is advantageous for the surgical field illumination surface. Can do. In this embodiment, the power supply cord 2162 can be disposed along the vine 2170 of the loupe 2164.

  The method of the present invention includes a method for diagnosing a state of a body part. A method for diagnosing a state of a body part selects an area of the body for evaluation, illuminates the area with an LED system, and determines the characteristics of light reflected from the body part And comparing the features with known features, where the known features are related to the state of the body part. These methods can be applied to normal non-pathological conditions of body parts. Alternatively, these methods can be used to identify a pathological state of a body part.

  It should be understood that various body parts reflect light differently depending on their anatomical or physiological state. For example, a body part lacking local blood when exposed to room light is a color called "blackish" or "purplish blue" by those skilled in the art. It can be perceived as a purplish color. Thus, ischemia can sometimes be diagnosed by direct examination under room light. However, there are a number of situations in which the state of the vessels of a part of the body cannot be assessed by examination under room light. For example, it may be difficult to see ischemia in muscles or red organs. Furthermore, skin ischemia is difficult to evaluate with room light in people with dark skin. The method of the present invention includes embodiments that allow a diagnosis of ischemia to be made by illuminating a body part with an LED system and comparing the reflected light with known light characteristics indicative of ischemia. . These methods further make this diagnosis early if the room light does not reveal a color change, but the LED system illumination can allow the perception of a more subtle color change. To be able to. A spectroscopic system or another type of sensor system can be utilized to assess the color and / or brightness of light reflected from an illuminated body part, if desired. For example, the systems and methods of the present invention can be adapted for the diagnosis of early circulatory system intermediate treatment following vascular treatment. Common vascular procedures that are complicated by intermediate circulatory procedures include surgical vascular remodeling or vascular regeneration, surgical replantation, free tissue transfer, embolectomy, percutaneous angioplasty Including related endovascular inflammation treatment and medical thrombus therapy. The systems and methods disclosed herein provide for an LED system that can be implanted and removed, and by providing a sensor system that can be implanted and removed, the former system allows illumination to be transmitted to any body in the body. The latter system is used to receive color data from light reflected or absorbed by the target body part. Systems and methods adapted for the assessment of internal body parts may be advantageous, for example, in monitoring embedded skin flaps. The lack of heat generated by the LED system makes it feasible to implant it without exposing the surrounding tissue to thermal stress. Those skilled in the relevant art can identify other conditions besides ischemia that can be diagnosed using the methods disclosed herein. The full spectrum of light that can be used from the LED systems disclosed herein is particularly advantageous for the diagnosis of multiple conditions.

  As an additional example of the method described herein, the LED system can be used to illuminate the retina for ophthalmic examinations. Variations in the color of the light can facilitate ophthalmic examinations such as diagnosis of retinal bleeding or evaluation of retinal blood vessels. Practitioners of these techniques could also look into other types of retinopathy that are appropriate for diagnosis using these methods. In one embodiment, the LED system can be integrated with a slit lamp device for ophthalmic examination. In additional embodiments, the LED system can be adapted for use in ophthalmic surgery. As an example, an LED system can help locate mature or super-grown cataracts and can help surgical resection of cataracts.

  In one embodiment of these methods for diagnosing a state of the body part, the method may comprise administering to the patient a drug delivered to the body part, whereby the drug is Alter the characteristics of light reflected from a part. A drug is any substance that affects the living body that can be used for administration into a patient's tissue. The drug may include drugs, radioisotopes, vitamins, vital dyes, microorganisms, cells, proteins, chemicals, or any other substance that is believed to affect the living body. The drug can be administered by any route that allows the drug to be delivered to the part of the body being evaluated. Administration may include intravenous injection, intramuscular injection, arterial injection, food intake, inhalation, topical administration, delivery from below the meninges, intraluminal or intravesical delivery, subcutaneous delivery, or other routes . The overall spectrum of light provided by the systems and methods disclosed herein is advantageously utilized in combination with certain administered drugs.

  Examples of drugs known to modify the characteristics of light reflected from parts of the body are fluorescein, applied topically for administration to the eye, or to assess local perfusion of vessels It is a vital dye that is injected intravenously. Fluorescein glows green when illuminated by a Wood's lamp. However, wood lamps are not adaptable to many surgical situations because of their physical configuration. Fluorescein administered to a distant body part cannot be illuminated with a wood lamp, nor can fluorescence be seen too far to be examined on a part of the body. Following administration of a vital dye such as fluorescein, the tissue can be illuminated with an LED system to produce a characteristic pattern of reflected light. This reflected light can be evaluated by remote visualization or direct visualization by a photodetector system. Other drugs are well known to those skilled in the art, whereby their administration allows the assessment of the part of the body that is exposed to LED lighting.

  As an example, glioma is understood to have a different vital dye intake than other brain tissues. After administration of the vital dye, directing the LED system to the glioma allows a more complete excision of the tumor and protects the surrounding normal brain tissue. This ablation can be performed under a moving microscope to which an LED system for illuminating brain tissue can be fixed. This is particularly advantageous in this setting because there is no heat generated by the LED system. As an additional example, the LED system can be combined with a fluorescein dye that is applied topically to the surface of the eye for ophthalmic evaluation. As yet another example, an LED system combined with fluorescein may cause skin ischemia for patients whose skin coloration may interfere with the assessment of skin ischemia using conventional methods such as wood lamp lighting. Enable diagnosis. As disclosed in part above, advantageously, these systems and methods are useful for the evaluation of a body part after the administration of a drug is ingested by the body part in the human body. Can be directed to a part of the human body.

  The method according to the invention can be used to cause a change of material. In these method embodiments, an LED system is provided that selects a set of colors from a spectrum known to cause a change in the illuminated material and is effective in causing the change to occur. By illuminating the material with the LED system for a time period, a change in the material can be caused. The methods disclosed herein are directed to a plurality of materials that can be either non-biological materials or biological materials. Biological material can include living organisms. Living microorganisms may include vertebrates. Living organisms can include invertebrates. Biological materials can be exposed to achieve changes due to their structure, physiology or psychological effects. For example, a person with a seasonal emotional disorder called Depressive Syndrome has been found to be psychologically affected by exposure to light of known characteristics for a given period of time . Lighting can be provided directly to living organisms, for example to people with seasonal emotional disorders. Alternatively, lighting can be provided to the environment surrounding the person. For example, the illumination can be realized by room light with an LED system that can give the light a predetermined characteristic.

  As an embodiment of these methods, the patient's condition can be treated. This practice may include providing an LED system, selecting a color set that produces a therapeutic effect, and illuminating the affected area with the color set. A therapeutic effect is understood to be any effect that improves health or a satisfactory state. According to this embodiment, a pathological condition can be treated. Instead, normal conditions can be treated to make them more satisfactory. The illuminated area may include the outer surface of the patient, i.e. the skin or any part of the skin. The external surface of the patient can be illuminated directly or via ambient lighting in the environment. These methods are equally applicable to the internal part of the patient.

  FIG. 100 illustrates an embodiment of these methods. This figure depicts a patient 2180 suffering from external damage 2172, here a cheek 2174. The LED system 2178 is directed to provide illumination directly to the lesion 2172. Here, the LED system 2178 is shown secured to the end of the positioning system 2182. Other arrangements for placing the LED system can also be envisioned by those skilled in the art. It should be understood that illuminating skin damage with different spectra of light can be effective. For example, acne, penile Bowen's disease, and certain other skin cancers have responded to treatment with lighting. As another example, it has been found that certain intranasal conditions are responsive to light therapy. In one embodiment of these methods, a drug can be administered to the patient that modifies or enhances the therapeutic effect of the set of light colors directed to the area being treated.

  A wide variety of drugs are well known to those skilled in the art relating to phototherapy and photodynamic therapy. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is understood to include certain procedures that include administering a drug to a patient and illuminating the patient with a light source. Laser light is typically used for PDT. Since the illumination provided by the LED system can provide illumination over the entire spectrum, including the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light spectrum, the LED system can also be used for therapeutic applications that rely on invisible light wavelengths. Many applications of local lighting have already been described in the related art. Since LED technology has the additional advantage of avoiding heat generation, longer illumination can be achieved without tissue damage.

  While the embodiment depicted in FIG. 100 shows an LED system 2178 that is directed to the skin of a patient 2180, various embodiments of the method apply the LED system to illuminate parts of the body. can do. The therapy can be directed to the internal or external body part using a manner well known to those skilled in the art for accessing a specific body part. As previously mentioned, open surgical techniques or techniques that use an endoscope can be utilized to access internal parts of the body. For example, intraluminal tumors can be treated using these methods as applied through an endoscope such as a colonoscope or cystoscope. Alternatively, light therapy can be provided after the surgical procedure or during the surgical procedure. For example, after surgical excision of a tumor, drugs taken by a microscopic tumor remaining in the surgical area can be administered and illuminated by an LED system to sterilize the tumor nodules remaining in the surgical area. These methods can be used as a temporary suppression method in order to reduce the burden caused by the tumor after the entire excision. As another implementation, these methods can be directed to translocated lesions that can be accessed directly or using an endoscope.

  These embodiments described herein are exemplary only. A wide variety of high precision illumination embodiments can be envisioned by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope of the present invention.

  In other embodiments of the present invention, LEDs are used to produce attractive and effective decorative or aesthetic effects. Such applications include eyeglass rims using multicolored LEDs, LED screwdrivers, artistic lamps such as multicolored LED sources for Lava lamps or multicolored light sources for display, and fire flashing. In a variety of environments, such as the environment disclosed above, including decorative fire or imitation flaws using LEDs whose pattern and color are simulated, light-up toothbrushes or hairbrushes using LEDs or other lighting devices Including placing the LED. The LEDs may be placed on the ceiling fan blades to produce artistic effects or special lighting patterns for display. In particular, pattern creation is possible by adding LEDs to the fan blades. Also, through them, decoration simulation / candles using LEDs that can respond to stress, temperature, pressure, cavitation, temperature or moisture, light ropes using multicolored LEDs, LED battery charge indicator lights, and LED to sensor A feedback mechanism is in accordance with the present invention. Thus, an LED placed near the body can serve as a skin temperature and skin moisture feedback color display mechanism. Also provided are multicolor handheld wands or indicator lights using LEDs. In particular, wands similar to the well-known glow sticks are widely used in modern dance / nightclubs and for dance expressions. The multicolor electronic version allows color control functions as well as remote synchronization via the master lighting controller if the LED is connected to the receiver and the master controller includes a transmitter. Personal devices using LEDs are reusable, unlike current devices using chemical techniques. The master controller can also control other LED elements such as beverage coasters made from LEDs in a controlled and synchronized manner. Such a control device is for controlling an LED disco ball, which may be controlled to simulate blinking of a conventional disco ball with the LED placed on the outside, ie, a three-dimensional outer surface such as a sphere. Can be used for For example, effects simulated by the ball include ball flashing, spot movement, color change, line illumination, and planar illumination.

  The present invention allows the user to control the LEDs at the individual diode level. The effect created by producing a series of colors of light in the spectrum allows for many useful applications in a wide range of technical fields. As an example of those effects, a controlled LED can create a color washer that can be instantaneously varied, separately or continuously, over a wide range of colors and brightness, and that can flicker or change over a wide range of frequencies. it can. Applying a continuous spectral range of color washers produces many special effects, some of which are aesthetically attractive, functionally valuable, or both. For example, influencing the same object with different colors of light can result in a very different appearance, for example, as a white object is readily apparent when shown under a so-called “black light” . An observer looking at the object will perceive a color change in the object being observed. In this way, a red object illuminated with red light appears very different from a red object illuminated with blue light. The former will be bright red, while the latter may appear purple or black. When an object with color contrast is seen under colored light, very different effects can occur. For example, a red and white checkerboard pattern may appear completely red under red light, while a checkerboard pattern is evident under white light. By flashing red light and white light in an alternating time sequence on such a pattern, white squares on the checkerboard appear to appear and disappear. More complex patterns, such as patterns in multicolored paintings, can produce striking effects such as figures that appear to disappear, or figures that undergo dramatic color changes for the viewer. Visual movement, color changes, and appearances and disappearances can be animated from a single still photo, painting, design or image, simply as a result of controlled lighting changes. Similarly, by selecting appropriate light conditions, dynamic changes can be made in the relative contrast of differently colored elements. Elements with little contrast under constant lighting conditions can be perceived as having dramatic contrast under different color conditions. In addition, the spectrum of light generated according to embodiments of the present invention extends to infrared and ultraviolet light, allowing effects such as fluorescence to be incorporated into exhibits. The lighting changes used may be pre-programmed, or may vary depending on the lighting system, such as the proximity of the person, the surrounding lighting conditions, the location of the exhibit, or the time of the day. May react to the environment.

  As an example, it is assumed that the upper part of FIG. 101 shows a numeral 88 in which the upper half (3100) of 8 is colored green and the lower half (3150) of 8 is colored red. When illuminated with white light, the number 88 thus colored appears to have green in the upper half (3100) and red in the lower half (3150). As shown in the middle of FIG. 101, when illuminated with green light, the upper half of 88 (310) will still appear green, while the lower half (3150), which was initially red, will appear black. When illuminated with red light as illustrated at the bottom of FIG. 101, the upper half (3100), which was initially green, will appear black and the lower half will appear red. In this way, by gradually changing the color of the lighting, the various parts of the numbers will alternately stand out or settle down to black. As will be apparent to those skilled in the art, this technique can be used to create images that are made to appear and disappear as the color of the illumination light is changed. In addition, the effect of other colors can be improved. For example, shining blue light on the two halves of the number will produce a blue-green color in the upper half 3100 and purple in the lower half 3150.

  As a second example, a pair of interlocking circles (left 3200, right 3205) are shown in the upper part of FIG. As shown above, when illuminated with white light, the drawings are intended to represent the following colors. That is, the left crescent shaped portion (3210) represents green, the right crescent shaped portion (3220) represents red, the overlapping region (3230) is black, and the background (3240) is white. As illustrated in the middle of FIG. 102, when illuminated with green light, the left crescent-shaped portion (3210)) appears green and the right crescent-shaped portion (3220), which was initially red, is now Black, the overlapping area (3230) remains black, and the originally white background (3240) appears green. In this way, the left crescent shaped part (3210) is no longer distinguishable from the background (3240) and the entire rightmost circle (3205) now appears black. As shown at the bottom of FIG. 102, when illuminated with red light, the left crescent-shaped part (3210), which was originally green, now appears black and the right crescent-shaped part (3220) appears red. The overlapping region (3230) appears black and the originally white background (3240) now appears red. In this way, the right-side crescent-shaped portion (3220) cannot be distinguished from the background (3240), and the leftmost circle (3200) appears black. By changing the illumination color from green to red over time, the circle appears to move from right to left, giving the viewer the illusion of movement. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the variation in this example allows the creation of a myriad of displays that function similarly, and can enhance the animation effect from a single image or object.

  The nature of the lighting system of the present invention allows a gradual change in color from one side of the system to another. Furthermore, the color change gradually progresses along the system and actually simulates the movement of the color change. Furthermore, the light can be delivered in a fixed manner or by blinking or changing the light. Flicker can also be programmed to occur with simultaneous color changes. These capabilities that can be commanded by the microprocessor can further enhance and activate the effects described above.

  Similar effects can be obtained by passing the colored light through a transparent or translucent colored screen such as a stained glass window or photographic slide placed between the light source and the viewer.

  It will also be apparent to those skilled in the art that these effects can be used in more complex exhibits to create the illusion of alternating movements that emerge from the background and disappear into the background and objects. Museum exhibits, diorama, display cases, retail exhibits, vending machines, display signs, information boards (including traffic information signs, silent radio, scoreboards, price boards, and advertising boards), advertising exhibits, and observations Such an effect is particularly advantageous when used in applications such as other situations where it is desired to attract the attention of a person. Since light generated according to embodiments of the present invention may include ultraviolet and infrared light, an object can incorporate effects such as fluorescence that are inherent to illumination with such light.

  A vending machine contemplated by the present invention includes a soda vending machine, a snack vending machine, a gumball vending machine, a cigarette vending machine, a condom vending machine, or a new vending machine. It is a commercially available device. The illumination provided in accordance with the present invention can be used to attract the attention of the viewer in a variety of ways. For example, a fictitious olive vending machine (3300) using a pigeon as a logo is depicted in FIG. When seen in the standard white light depicted at the top of FIG. 103, the back plate of the machine (3310) is white, the body of the pigeon (3320) is black, and the top of the wing (3330). The set is intended to be green and the lower set of feathers (3340) is intended to be red. When the color of illumination in the machine is changed to red as in the middle of FIG. 103, the lower set of feathers (3340), which was initially red, will now be against the back plate (3310) that now appears red. Become invisible. The top set of originally green wings (3330) appears black under red light, so the pigeon image appears black with the wings lifted. If the illumination color in the machine is changed to green as illustrated in the lower part of FIG. 103, the upper set of wings (3330), which were initially green, are now invisible to the back plate (3310). . The lower set of wings (3340), originally red, now appears black in green light. In this way, the image of the pigeon appears black in the upper body with the wings lifted. Thus, although there is no actual movement, the pigeon image appears to flapping its wings. An illusion is created just by changing the color of the light. It should be appreciated that many different colored objects can be used and much more complex effects can be achieved by illuminating the object with a wide variety of colors in the spectrum from infrared to visible to ultraviolet.

  The vending machine of this embodiment and related embodiments may include an LED system (3370) that illuminates the vending machine. The LED system may in embodiments include a light module 100, a smart light bulb 701, or another embodiment of an LED system that includes those disclosed herein. As a result, the LED system has one or more features and provides one or more functions of various other embodiments disclosed elsewhere herein. It should be noted that the light source need not be located inside the vending machine and may be located outside the vending machine at any location that allows the light source to illuminate the vending machine. Those skilled in the art will recognize many opportunities to create exhibits that utilize the color changing attributes of the lighting system of the present invention.

  As another technique that can be used by the example olive machine, an object or design may be made to appear or disappear as the color of the light changes. If the olive dispenser names the pigeon “Oliver”, this name may be shown in the vending machine (3300) as shown in FIG. The back plate of the vending machine (3310) is white (Fig. 104, top), and displayed there is a red colored dove (3350) and a green lettering dove name "Oliver" (3360) It is. When the lighting in the vending machine turns green (FIG. 104, center), the lettering (3360) strikes the green background (3310) and disappears, but the dove (3350) appears black. When the illumination turns red (FIG. 104, bottom), the pigeon (3350) disappears against the now red background and the lettering (3360) appears black. In this way, simply changing the color of the light will change the exhibits in the vending machine between pigeons and pigeon names. This type of exhibition is eye-catching and is useful for advertising purposes.

  Furthermore, the effect of grabbing attention can be achieved independently of a specific exhibit made exclusively to take advantage of the color change characteristics of the lighting system of the present invention. The light may be placed in or around the exhibit so that the color change of the light itself serves to attract attention to the exhibit. In one embodiment, the light is placed behind the exhibit, such as behind the non-opaque backplate of the vending machine, so that the color change of the light is sufficient to attract the viewer's attention.

  The examples are intended for illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. Those skilled in the art can easily devise other methods of using the illumination system disclosed herein to achieve a wide variety of effects that attract the attention of the observer, and these effects are achieved by the present invention. Is included.

  The present invention allows a user to change the lighting environment by changing light between different colors while collecting feedback from the surrounding environment or data from spectral sensors. Such light change may include a variable periodic frequency color washing light change effect using an arrayed LED. The variation may thus flash rapidly between colors, or may slowly change the entire spectrum in a programmed order. The light-changing effect can otherwise make inconspicuous objects appear very clearly and aesthetically attractive. In addition, objects such as paintings may appear very lively when illuminated regularly with various colors of light. The attractive lighting effects of variable frequency variation allow an improved dynamic lighting environment in areas where lighting attracts customers, such as in retail stores, restaurants, museums and the like. It may be particularly useful when used with art exhibits, such as in an art gallery, where known works of art are radically altered by different lighting conditions. For example, in a work of art, the lighting state may be controlled to reproduce the light intended by the creator, such as sunlight. In addition, the illumination system of the present invention can be used to project infrared and ultraviolet light in addition to the more common visible wavelengths, these frequencies being used to elicit fluorescence and other interesting effects Can be used.

  In one embodiment of the present invention, a light using digitally controlled LEDs according to the present invention is used to illuminate non-opaque objects for display purposes. In one aspect of the invention, the object is a container that contains a fluid, both of which are substantially transparent. In one aspect, the container is a bottle of gin, vodka, rum, water, soda water, soft drink, or other beverage. An example of such an exhibit is depicted in FIG. 105, where a beverage container (3500) is placed on a pedestal (3510) that is illuminated by an LED system (3370). In addition, a light source may be placed on the coaster to illuminate individual drinks from below. The LED system may include, in embodiments, another embodiment of the LED system, such as the light module 100, the smart bulb 701, or others disclosed herein. As a result, the LED system may have one or more features and provide one or more functions of various embodiments disclosed elsewhere herein. In another aspect, the object is a substantially transparent liquid tank, such as an aquarium or an aquarium. In yet another aspect, the object is an opaque solid object such as an ice sculpture, a glass figurine, a crystal product, or a plastic sculpture. In another aspect, the light source is placed in a Lava lamp to provide its illumination.

  The present invention also allows for attractive effects or projection of artworks. In particular, in an embodiment of the present invention, an illumination source using LEDs is used for a transparent image or pattern. This system is an LED light source with a series of lenses and / or diffusers and objects containing clear transparent and opaque areas such as patterns, stencils, gobos, photographic slides, LCD displays, micromirror devices, etc., and a final shaping lens May be used. This embodiment only requires a light source, a patterned object, and a surface that receives the projection. For example, this embodiment can be used to project a logo or sign on a ceiling, floor, or wall, or on a sidewalk outside the company. In alternative embodiments, the light may be projected onto a cloud, screen, or fabric surface. The present invention is particularly advantageous in this respect because it allows a change in the color of the projection, in combination with a light source that does not generate heat.

  The dimming effect of the present invention may be used to create improved display case lighting, such as multicolor display case lighting. Illumination may be provided as part of a modular lighting system or in a stand-alone control panel. In general, the present lighting system may be used to modify lighting environments such as work environments, museums, restaurants, and the like. Certain applications require special illumination, such as in museums where low UV illumination or non-heated illumination may be required. In other applications, such as cooling display cases or lighting of edible objects such as food, the non-heat-generating light source of the present invention provides a variable color of light while providing a significant amount of heat. Has advantages over incandescent lighting. Standard fluorescent lighting, which still emits little heat, is often considered unattractive. The present invention projects a controlled variable spectrum attractive illumination without heat while maintaining the flexibility to change the parameters of the emitted light.

  The LED system of the present invention may be embedded in a garment to allow light to be projected from the garment (FIG. 106). The LED is mounted on a flexible circuit board and covered with latex, vinyl, plastic, cotton or the like. This embodiment includes a method for making a lightweight flexible material suitable for the structure of a garment. A sandwich structure of dough and silicon is provided and illuminated by the LED. Conventional garments that use LEDs include a plurality of separate LEDs arranged in a pattern formed by words or spots of light. The garment using the LED of the present invention can illuminate the cloth of the garment without protruding. Clothing using the LED of the present invention may be controlled via radio frequency or infrared signals by a remote control device or a master control device having a transmitter element. Clothing can be tailored to the wearer by allowing the LED to be placed close to the body, for example, the appearance of the wearer to simulate the appearance of naked or certain types of clothing. Can be changed. The garment can be combined with a sensor to allow the LED system to display the user's condition, such as heart rate.

  The usefulness of such clothes appears in many ways. The LED display surface so placed in the garment can be used to produce a shining pattern, a visual effect, etc., purely for effect. The LED display surface can represent a real world image, such as the surrounding environment, or simply reflect the surrounding conditions by changing color in response to external data such as temperature, lighting conditions, or pressure. These exhibits may react to the proximity of similar clothing and receive data from transmitters in the environment. In one embodiment, exhibits placed on clothes are responsive to pressure. The garment of this embodiment may be worn at a sporting event to provide visual evidence of rule violation contact. For example, a batter hitting a ball during a baseball game will have its visible evidence on the part of the clothes hit in this way. In addition, the garment will include appropriate processing equipment so that recent data can be repeated on the garment, effectively creating an “immediate replay” of past events. The garments in these and related embodiments may include the sensors required for such reaction requirements.

  In another embodiment, the display surface on the garment may be a medical image display surface. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging data could be represented in three dimensions on the surface of clothes worn by the patient as an aid to the physician visualizing the information. Similarly, such garments could serve as wearable video display screens for any application, such as televisions, video games, and display surfaces associated with them. The garment could also be programmed to display a series of predetermined images. For example, a picture of a person wearing a set of costumes is taken, the person wears an LED display garment, and the photographic data is adjusted for optimal correspondence with the LED garment before the image is instantaneous for the garment. It may be displayed sequentially on the clothes to simulate the change. Images can also be remotely controlled. One skilled in the art could envision many related uses of this embodiment.

  Although the present invention has been disclosed and described in detail with respect to the preferred embodiments presented herein, various modifications and improvements thereto will become readily apparent to those skilled in the art. Accordingly, the spirit and scope of the present invention should be limited only by the following claims.

Claims (16)

  1. A lighting device,
    A plurality of LEDs for generating a first radiation having at least a first spectrum and a second radiation having a second spectrum different from the first spectrum;
    At least one processor connected to at least some LEDs to control at least a first intensity of the first radiation and a second intensity of the second radiation;
    An optical element arranged corresponding to a plurality of LEDs and illuminated by a first radiation and a second radiation to illuminate an object with mixed light having a variable color based on the first radiation and the second radiation Including
    At least one processor controls the LEDs at the individual diode level to generate a color wash effect applying a time-varying spectral range with a variable frequency based on the mixed light by the optical element, A lighting device that controls a first intensity of the first radiation and a second intensity of the second radiation.
  2.   The plurality of LEDs is adapted to output a first radiation having at least a first spectrum and a second plurality of LEDs adapted to output a second radiation having at least a second spectrum. The lighting device according to claim 1, comprising two or more LEDs.
  3.   The at least one processor is configured to independently control at least a first intensity of the first radiation and a second intensity of the second radiation to generate a color wash effect. The lighting device described in 1.
  4.   The lighting device according to claim 1, wherein the at least one processor is configured as an addressable processor capable of receiving at least one control signal including address information and lighting information.
  5.   The lighting device according to claim 1, wherein the optical element is a geometric panel, and the device is configured as a building panel.
  6.   The lighting device according to claim 5, wherein the device constitutes at least a part of a building interior or exterior surface.
  7.   The lighting device according to claim 5, wherein the device is configured as at least one of a wall panel, a floor panel, and a ceiling panel.
  8.   The lighting device according to claim 5, wherein the lighting device is configured in combination with at least one panel device having another geometric shape according to any one of claims 1 to 4.
  9.   A building comprising a building panel according to claim 5 and comprising a surface on which the panel is mounted.
  10.   The building of claim 9, wherein the surface includes an outer surface of the building, and the building panel is attached to the outer surface of the building.
  11.   An interior space including the building panel according to claim 5, wherein the building panel is configured to illuminate the interior space.
  12.   The interior space according to claim 11, wherein the interior space includes at least one of a passage, a ceiling, a floor, a door, and an exhibition.
  13.   A plurality of modules, each of which includes a first LED adapted to output at least one first radiation and a second LED adapted to output at least one second radiation. The illuminating device according to any one of claims 1 to 4, which is configured as follows.
  14. The at least one processor includes a plurality of processors, and each of the plurality of modules includes at least one processor of the plurality of processors, and the at least one processor is generated from a corresponding module. Configured to independently control at least a first intensity of the first radiation and a second intensity of the second radiation,
    The lighting device according to claim 13.
  15.   The lighting device according to claim 1, wherein the lighting device is a light bulb.
  16. A method for generating an illumination effect by mixed light on an object,
    A) generating, from a plurality of LEDs, a first radiation having at least a first spectrum and a second radiation having a second spectrum different from the first radiation;
    B) illuminating the object with light mixed by the first and second radiation via the optical element when both the first and second radiation are generated;
    C) Controlling the LEDs at an individual diode level to generate a color wash effect applying a time-varying spectral range of a variable cycle frequency based on the mixed light, so that at least a first of the first emission Independently controlling the intensity and the second intensity of the second radiation;
    Said method.
JP2015090463A 1997-08-26 2015-04-27 Digitally controlled lighting method and system Expired - Lifetime JP5963287B2 (en)

Priority Applications (28)

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US7128197P true 1997-12-17 1997-12-17
US60/071,281 1997-12-17
US6879297P true 1997-12-24 1997-12-24
US60/068,792 1997-12-24
US7886198P true 1998-03-20 1998-03-20
US60/078,861 1998-03-20
US7928598P true 1998-03-25 1998-03-25
US60/079,285 1998-03-25
US9092098P true 1998-06-26 1998-06-26
US60/090,920 1998-06-26
PCT/US1998/017702 WO1999010867A1 (en) 1997-08-26 1998-08-26 Multicolored led lighting method and apparatus
USPCT/US98/17702 1998-08-26
US21360798A true 1998-12-17 1998-12-17
US09/213,659 1998-12-17
US09/213,189 1998-12-17
US09/215,624 US6528954B1 (en) 1997-08-26 1998-12-17 Smart light bulb
US09/213,537 1998-12-17
US09/213,659 US6211626B1 (en) 1997-08-26 1998-12-17 Illumination components
US09/213,189 US6459919B1 (en) 1997-08-26 1998-12-17 Precision illumination methods and systems
US09/215,624 1998-12-17
US09/213,548 US6166496A (en) 1997-08-26 1998-12-17 Lighting entertainment system
US09/213,548 1998-12-17
US09/213,607 1998-12-17
US09/213,540 US6720745B2 (en) 1997-08-26 1998-12-17 Data delivery track
US09/213,540 1998-12-17
US09/213,581 US7038398B1 (en) 1997-08-26 1998-12-17 Kinetic illumination system and methods
US09/213,537 US6292901B1 (en) 1997-08-26 1998-12-17 Power/data protocol
US09/213,581 1998-12-17

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JP2007186183A Expired - Lifetime JP4451899B2 (en) 1997-08-26 2007-07-17 Digitally controlled lighting method and system
JP2009051067A Expired - Lifetime JP5081181B2 (en) 1997-08-26 2009-03-04 Digitally controlled lighting method and system
JP2011086460A Expired - Lifetime JP5864881B2 (en) 1997-08-26 2011-04-08 Digitally controlled lighting method and system
JP2014115668A Expired - Lifetime JP5775953B2 (en) 1997-08-26 2014-06-04 Digitally controlled lighting method and system
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JP2009051067A Expired - Lifetime JP5081181B2 (en) 1997-08-26 2009-03-04 Digitally controlled lighting method and system
JP2011086460A Expired - Lifetime JP5864881B2 (en) 1997-08-26 2011-04-08 Digitally controlled lighting method and system
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JP2011175976A (en) 2011-09-08
JP4451899B2 (en) 2010-04-14
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