JP5905272B2 - Method for producing optically anisotropic layer - Google Patents

Method for producing optically anisotropic layer Download PDF

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JP5905272B2
JP5905272B2 JP2012008468A JP2012008468A JP5905272B2 JP 5905272 B2 JP5905272 B2 JP 5905272B2 JP 2012008468 A JP2012008468 A JP 2012008468A JP 2012008468 A JP2012008468 A JP 2012008468A JP 5905272 B2 JP5905272 B2 JP 5905272B2
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JP2012168514A (en
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忠弘 小林
忠弘 小林
鋼志郎 落合
鋼志郎 落合
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住友化学株式会社
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  The present invention relates to a method for producing an optically anisotropic layer.

  A stereoscopic display device capable of displaying an image stereoscopically includes an optically anisotropic layer having a plurality of optically anisotropic regions having different slow axis directions, that is, a patterned optically anisotropic layer. . As a method for producing such a patterned optically anisotropic layer, the photo-alignable polymer layer is subjected to polarized light exposure through a photomask twice to form a patterned alignment film, and then a liquid crystal composition Is known (see Non-Patent Document 1 (patterning by two-step irradiation using a 4.3.2 mask)).

Edited by the Technical Information Association, "Complete Collection of Optical Film and Sheet Technology Focusing on Liquid Crystal Displays and Touch Panels", 1st Edition, Technical Information Association, Inc., September 30, 2008, p. 124-125

  In the conventional method for producing a patterned optically anisotropic layer as described in Non-Patent Document 1, at least two photomasks are used in accordance with a region where polarization exposure is performed, and polarization exposure is performed. Since the photomask is exchanged every time it is performed, a misalignment may occur in the pattern (optical anisotropy region) formed due to poor alignment of the photomask.

The present invention provides the following [1] to [5].
[1] A method for producing an optically anisotropic layer formed of a liquid crystal composition containing a polymerizable liquid crystal compound and having a plurality of optically anisotropic regions having slow axis directions different from each other, comprising (1) photoalignment Step of forming photo-alignable polymer layer for applying polymer to substrate, (2) First irradiating first polarized light through photomask so that the photo-alignable polymer layer satisfies the following requirements A and B Irradiation step, (3) After the irradiation of the first polarized light, the photo-alignable polymer layer is irradiated with the second polarized light having a vibration direction different from that of the first polarized light without using a photomask to form a patterned alignment film. Two irradiation steps, (4) a coating step of coating the liquid crystal composition on the patterned alignment film to form a coating film, and (5) a temperature at which the liquid crystalline component contained in the coating film becomes a liquid crystal state. Align liquid crystalline components by holding the coating film And (6) a production method comprising polymerizing a polymerizable liquid crystal compound contained in the film in which the liquid crystalline component is oriented.
Requirement A: The absorbance of the photoalignable polymer layer in the region irradiated with the first polarized light satisfies the formula (i).
A (b) / A (a) ≦ 0.95 (i)
[In the formula (i), A (a) represents the absorbance at a wavelength of 314 nm before irradiation with the first polarized light. A (b) represents the absorbance at a wavelength of 314 nm after irradiation with the first polarized light. ]
Requirement B: The birefringence of the photoalignable polymer layer in the region irradiated with the first polarized light satisfies the formula (ii).
Δn (550) ≧ 0.005 (ii)
[In the formula (ii), Δn (550) represents a birefringence at a wavelength of 550 nm. ]

[2] The production method according to [1], wherein the photoalignable polymer is a polymer capable of forming a crosslinked structure by light irradiation.

[3] The manufacturing method according to [1] or [2], wherein an angle formed by the vibration direction of the first polarized light and the vibration direction of the second polarized light is 70 ° to 90 °.

[4] The manufacturing method according to any one of [1] to [3], wherein the liquid crystal composition further includes a polymerization initiator and a solvent.

[5] A display device comprising an optically anisotropic layer produced by the production method according to any one of [1] to [4].

[6] A process for producing a laminate comprising a substrate and an optically anisotropic layer formed from a liquid crystal composition containing a polymerizable liquid crystal compound and having a plurality of optically anisotropic regions having different slow axis directions. (1) Step of forming a photo-alignable polymer layer by applying a photo-alignable polymer to the substrate, (2) The photo-alignable polymer layer is formed through a photomask so as to satisfy the following requirements A and B. A first irradiation step of irradiating a single polarized light; (3) after irradiation of the first polarized light, the photo-alignable polymer layer is irradiated with a second polarized light having a vibration direction different from that of the first polarized light without passing through a photomask; A second irradiation step for forming a patterned alignment film; (4) a coating step for applying the liquid crystal composition on the patterned alignment film to form a coating film; and (5) a liquid crystal property contained in the coating film. By keeping the coating film at a temperature at which the components become liquid crystal And (6) a polymerization process for polymerizing a polymerizable liquid crystal compound contained in the film in which the liquid crystalline component is aligned.
Requirement A: The absorbance of the photoalignable polymer layer in the region irradiated with the first polarized light satisfies the formula (i).
A (b) / A (a) ≦ 0.95 (i)
[In the formula (i), A (a) represents the absorbance at a wavelength of 314 nm before irradiation with the first polarized light. A (b) represents the absorbance at a wavelength of 314 nm after irradiation with the first polarized light. ]
Requirement B: The birefringence of the photoalignable polymer layer in the region irradiated with the first polarized light satisfies the formula (ii).
Δn (550) ≧ 0.005 (ii)
[In the formula (ii), Δn (550) represents a birefringence at a wavelength of 550 nm. ]

[7] The production method according to [6], wherein the photoalignable polymer is a polymer capable of forming a crosslinked structure by light irradiation.

[8] The method according to [6] or [7], wherein an angle formed by the vibration direction of the first polarized light and the vibration direction of the second polarized light is 70 ° to 90 °.

[9] The production method according to any one of [6] to [8], wherein the liquid crystal composition further includes a polymerization initiator and a solvent.

[10] A display device including the laminate manufactured by the manufacturing method according to any one of [6] to [9].

  According to the production method of the present invention, an optically anisotropic layer having a plurality of optically anisotropic regions having different slow axis directions can be easily obtained.

It is a figure which shows an example of a structure of the photomask used for the manufacturing method of this invention. It is a figure which shows an example of the patterned alignment film obtained using the photomask of FIG. It is the cross-sectional schematic of the 1st aspect of the display apparatus of this invention. It is a section schematic diagram of the 2nd mode of a display of the present invention. It is a schematic diagram explaining the function of a phase difference layer (optical anisotropic layer). It is a section schematic diagram of the 3rd mode of a display of the present invention. It is a section schematic diagram of the 4th mode of a display of the present invention.

The first production method of the present invention is an optically anisotropic layer formed from a liquid crystal composition containing a polymerizable liquid crystal compound and having a plurality of optically anisotropic regions having different slow axis directions. (1) a forming step of forming a photo-alignable polymer layer on a substrate, (2) a first irradiation step of irradiating the photo-alignable polymer layer with a first polarized light through a photomask, (3 ) A second irradiation step of forming a patterned alignment film by irradiating the second polarized light without passing through a photomask on the photo-alignable polymer layer after the first polarized irradiation, (4) a liquid crystal composition on the patterned alignment film (5) An alignment step in which the liquid crystalline component in the liquid crystal composition is maintained at a temperature at which the liquid crystalline state is brought into a liquid crystal state and the liquid crystalline component is aligned, and (6) the liquid crystal component is included in the aligned film. A polymerization step of polymerizing the polymerizable liquid crystal compound is included.
In addition, the second production method of the present invention includes an optically anisotropic layer formed of a liquid crystal composition containing a polymerizable liquid crystal compound and having a plurality of optically anisotropic regions having different slow axis directions, and a substrate. It is a manufacturing method of the laminated body containing, Comprising: It is a manufacturing method containing the said process (1)-(6).
And in the 1st and 2nd manufacturing method of this invention, the photo-alignment method is employ | adopted as a method of producing a patterned alignment film like said (2) 1st irradiation process and (3) 2nd irradiation process, In the (2) first irradiation step of this photo-alignment method, the gist is to control the change in absorbance of the photo-alignment polymer layer before and after irradiation with polarized light and the birefringence after irradiation within a predetermined range.

  The first and second production methods of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating an example of a configuration of a photomask. FIG. 2 is a diagram showing an example of a patterned alignment film obtained using the photomask shown in FIG. Note that the configuration of the photomask and the mode of the patterned alignment film are not limited to the configurations shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, and can be changed according to the desired pattern of the optically anisotropic layer.

  In the present invention, first, a photoalignable polymer is applied to a substrate to form a photoalignable polymer layer ((1) forming step), and the first polarized light is irradiated through the photomask 1 ((2) first irradiation step). ). In the photomask 1, a stripe-shaped air gap (polarized light transmitting portion) 2 is formed in a real part (light shielding portion) 3. By irradiating the first polarized light through the photomask 1, the alignment regulating force is applied to the portion corresponding to the gap 2 of the photomask 1, that is, the first pattern region 12 (see FIG. 2) of the patterned alignment film 56. Is granted. Further, at this time, by controlling the change in absorbance and birefringence of the photo-alignable polymer layer in the first irradiation step within a predetermined range, the first pattern region 12 can be irradiated with the second polarized light described later. The orientation regulating force imparted in the first irradiation step is retained.

  Next, the photomask is removed, and the second polarized light is irradiated onto the entire surface of the photo-alignable polymer layer without using the photomask ((3) second irradiation step). At this time, as described above, since the first pattern region 12 maintains the alignment regulating force derived from the first polarized light, the portion corresponding to the light shielding portion 3 of the photomask 1 that has not been irradiated with the first polarized light. That is, the alignment regulating force by the second polarized light is applied only to the second pattern region 13 (see FIG. 2) of the patterned alignment film 56. As a result, a patterned alignment film 56 having the first pattern region 12 and the second pattern region 13 having different slow axis directions as shown in FIG. 2 is obtained. In FIG. 2, there are two types of slow axis directions. (2) By repeating the first irradiation step, it is possible to form an optically anisotropic layer having three or more types of slow axis directions. .

  And by apply | coating a liquid-crystal composition on the obtained patterned alignment film 56 ((4) application | coating process), aligning a liquid crystalline component ((5) alignment process), and polymerizing a polymerizable liquid crystal compound ( (6) Polymerization step), a patterned optically anisotropic layer is obtained. Moreover, the laminated body containing the said optically anisotropic layer and a board | substrate is obtained by passing through the said process (1)-(6). As described above, (2) by controlling the physical properties of the photo-alignable polymer layer in the first irradiation step, (3) no photomask is required in the second irradiation step. Therefore, in the present invention, since the number of times the photomask is used is reduced, it becomes easy to manufacture an optically anisotropic layer having a plurality of regions with different slow axis directions, and the position of the alignment pattern due to poor photomask alignment. Deviation can be reduced. In addition, even when the manufacturing method of the present invention is applied to, for example, continuous manufacturing in the Roll to Roll format, if the photomask is used once, there is no need for the second pattern exposure. It becomes possible to largely suppress the fluctuation of the width. Furthermore, a stereoscopic display device capable of displaying an excellent image can be obtained by the obtained optically anisotropic layer or laminate.

1. Forming Step In the forming step (1), a photoalignable polymer is applied to a substrate to form a photoalignable polymer layer. Examples of the photoalignable polymer used in the present invention include a polymer having a photosensitive structure. When a polymer having a photosensitive structure is irradiated with light, the photosensitive structure of the irradiated portion is aligned by isomerization or cross-linking, and expresses a force for aligning the liquid crystal component in a certain direction (alignment regulating force).

  Examples of the photosensitive structure include a photosensitive structure that is isomerized by light irradiation such as an azobenzene structure, a spiropyran structure, a spirobenzopyran structure, and a fulgide structure; a maleimide structure, a chalcone type structure, a cinnamic acid type structure, 1,2- And a photosensitive structure that crosslinks by light irradiation, such as a vinylene structure and a 1,2-acetylene structure. Among these, as the photosensitive structure, those that are cross-linked by light irradiation are preferable, more preferably a chalcone type structure (structure represented by the formula (a)) and a cinnamic acid type structure (expressed by the formula (b)). Structure), maleimide structure, 1,2-vinylene structure, 1,2-acetylene structure, more preferably chalcone structure and cinnamic acid structure. A polymer having a photosensitive structure capable of forming a crosslinked structure requires a small amount of energy for the reaction, and is an irreversible reaction. Therefore, even when light irradiation is performed multiple times, the alignment control given by the first exposure is applied. Power can be kept stable.

[Wherein, Ar independently represents a phenylene group, a naphthalenediyl group or a biphenylene group. * Represents a bond. ]

  The photo-alignment polymer is a polymer obtained by radical polymerization of a monomer having a photosensitive structure and one or more radically polymerizable groups (preferably a vinyl group, an acryloyl group, a methacryloyl group, etc.); Polymerized monomer having amino group and dicarboxylic acid compound; Polymerized photosensitive structure, monomer having two or more carboxyl groups, and diamine compound; Other monomer having photosensitive structure Are obtained by chain polymerization such as anionic polymerization and cationic polymerization; coordination polymerization; ring-opening polymerization and the like. Among these, those obtained by radical polymerization of a monomer having a photosensitive structure and one or more radical polymerizable groups are preferable.

  When the photo-alignable polymer is obtained by radical polymerization of a monomer having a photosensitive structure and one radical polymerizable group, the photosensitive structure and the radical polymerizable group are bonded via an alkylene group in the monomer. It is preferable that The alkylene group preferably has 3 or more carbon atoms, more preferably 5 or more, and preferably 20 or less, more preferably 10 or less. The photosensitive structure and the radical polymerizable group may be bonded via an ester bond (—CO—O— or —O—CO—) or an ether bond (—O—).

  The photo-alignment polymer may be a copolymer obtained by polymerizing a plurality of types of monomers having different photosensitive structures. Further, the photo-alignment polymer may include a constituent component (structural unit) derived from a monomer having no photosensitive structure. In this case, the content of the constituent component (structural unit) derived from the monomer having a photosensitive structure among all the constituent components of the photoalignable polymer is preferably 50 mol% or more, more preferably 60 mol% or more, and still more preferably. It is 70 mol% or more, 95 mol% or less is preferable, More preferably, it is 90 mol% or less, More preferably, it is 80 mol% or less.

  The number-average molecular weight of the photoalignable polymer is preferably 20000 or more, more preferably 25000 or more, further preferably 30000 or more, preferably 100,000 or less, more preferably 80000 or less, and still more preferably 50000 or less. When the number average molecular weight is within the above range, the orientation becomes better when the liquid crystal composition is oriented in the subsequent step.

  Specific examples of the photo-alignment polymer include, for example, Japanese Patent No. 4450261, Japanese Patent No. 4011652, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2010-49230, Japanese Patent No. 4404090, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2007-156439, and Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2007. Examples thereof include materials described in JP-A No. 232934. These photo-alignment polymers may be used alone or in combination of two or more.

  The said board | substrate is not specifically limited, For example, glass, a plastic sheet, a plastic film, a translucent film etc. can be mentioned. Examples of the translucent film include polyolefin films such as polyethylene, polypropylene, norbornene-based polymers, polyvinyl alcohol films, polyethylene terephthalate films, polymethacrylate films, polyacrylate films, cellulose ester films, polyethylene naphthalate films. , Polycarbonate film, polysulfone film, polyethersulfone film, polyetherketone film, polyphenylene sulfide film, polyphenylene oxide film and the like. By using the base material, the patterned alignment film and the optically anisotropic layer can be easily handled without tearing. When the optically anisotropic layer obtained by the production method of the present invention is applied to a display device, a display element substrate on which a display element is formed may be used as the substrate. That is, a patterned alignment film and an optically anisotropic layer may be formed directly on the display element substrate (a polarizing layer may be formed).

  Examples of the coating method include a coating method using a coater such as a dip coater, a bar coater, a spin coater, an extrusion coating method, a direct gravure coating method, a reverse gravure coating method, a CAP coating method, a die coating method, an ink jet method, and the like. Is mentioned.

  The photo-alignment polymer is preferably applied after being dissolved in a solvent. When dissolved in a solvent, the viscosity can be lowered and unevenness in the thickness of the formed layer can be reduced. The solvent is not particularly limited, but specifically water; alcohol solvents such as methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol, ethylene glycol methyl ether, ethylene glycol butyl ether, propylene glycol monomethyl ether; ethyl acetate, Ester solvents such as butyl acetate, ethylene glycol methyl ether acetate, γ-butyrolactone, propylene glycol methyl ether acetate, ethyl lactate; ketone solvents such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone, 2-heptanone, methyl isobutyl ketone; pentane, Aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents such as hexane and heptane; Aromatic hydrocarbon solvents such as toluene and xylene; Nitriles such as acetonitrile Agent; tetrahydrofuran, ether solvents such as dimethoxyethane; chloroform, chlorinated solvents such as chlorobenzene; and the like. These solvents may be used alone or in combination of two or more.

  When the photoalignable polymer is dissolved and applied in a solvent, the solvent is removed and dried to form a photoalignable polymer layer. Examples of the drying method include natural drying, ventilation drying, and reduced pressure drying. The drying temperature is preferably 10 ° C or higher, more preferably 25 ° C or higher, preferably 250 ° C or lower, more preferably 200 ° C or lower. The drying time is preferably 5 seconds or more, more preferably 10 seconds or more, preferably 60 minutes or less, more preferably 30 minutes or less. When the drying temperature and drying time are within the above ranges, the photo-alignable polymer layer can be formed without adversely affecting the substrate.

  The film thickness of the photoalignable polymer film is preferably 10 nm or more, more preferably 70 nm or more, still more preferably 100 nm or more, preferably 10,000 nm or less, more preferably 1000 nm or less. If it is the said range, it will become easy to orientate a liquid-crystal composition to a desired angle by a post process.

2. First Irradiation Step In the production method of the present invention, a photo-alignment method is employed as a method for forming the patterned alignment film. The photo-alignment method is a method of imparting alignment regulating force by irradiating the photo-alignable polymer layer after drying with polarized light (for example, linearly polarized ultraviolet rays). In the (2) first irradiation step, the photo-alignable polymer layer formed in the (1) forming step is irradiated with the first polarized light through a photomask. Thereby, in the photo-alignable polymer layer, the alignment regulating force can be applied only to the region corresponding to the light transmission portion formed on the photomask.

  As said photomask, what provided the light shielding film on films, such as inorganic glass or polyester, such as quartz glass and soda-lime glass, is mentioned, for example. The portion covered with the light-shielding film only needs to have a performance of shielding the polarized light, and the gap not covered has a performance of transmitting the polarized light. Since there is an influence of thermal expansion upon irradiation with polarized light, the base material used for the photomask is preferably a material having a small thermal expansion coefficient such as quartz glass.

  The polarized light source includes low-pressure mercury lamps (sterilization lamps, fluorescent chemical lamps, black lights), medium-pressure mercury lamps, high-pressure mercury lamps, ultra-high-pressure mercury lamps, metal halide lamps, mercury xenon lamps, xenon flash lamps, excimer lamps, A halogen lamp etc. can be mentioned. The light source is not limited as long as it can react the photosensitive part of the photo-alignable polymer layer, and for example, a commercially available high-pressure mercury lamp or metal halide lamp can be used.

  In order to convert non-polarized light into polarized light, there are methods such as using a Glan-Thompson prism or a wire grid polarizing element, or using a glass plate arranged so as to have a Brewster angle with respect to the optical axis. For example, polarized light can be obtained by using the methods described in Japanese Patent No. 4506212 and Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2006-3230609.

The irradiance of the first polarization may be optical alignment polymer reaction, when expressed in irradiance at a wavelength of 365 nm, preferably from 0.01 mW / cm 2 or more, more preferably 0.1 mW / cm 2 or more, More preferably, it is 1 mW / cm 2 or more, preferably 200 mW / cm 2 or less, more preferably 150 mW / cm 2 or less, and further preferably 100 mW / cm 2 or less. If the irradiance is within this range, the photo-alignment polymer can be reacted and the alignment regulating force can be effectively applied in a short time without decomposition.

In the first polarized light irradiation, since the integrated light amount changes depending on the irradiation time, the irradiation time is also an important factor. When exposed in the previous illuminance, integrated light quantity required is preferably 50 mJ / cm 2 or more, more preferably 100 mJ / cm 2 or more, more preferably 200 mJ / cm 2 or more, preferably 10000 mJ / cm 2 or less, more preferably 8000 mJ / cm 2 or less, more preferably 5000 mJ / cm 2 or less. When the integrated light quantity is within this range, it is possible to develop an alignment regulating force sufficient to align the liquid crystal composition in the subsequent process without alignment defects.

The maximum output wavelength of the first polarized light is preferably in the range of 300 nm to 500 nm.
Moreover, it is preferable that the light quantity originating in the light with a wavelength of 300 nm-500 nm is 50% or more among the emitted light quantities. By using polarized light having a wavelength in this range, the reaction of the photoalignable polymer proceeds efficiently.

  The polarized light irradiation is desirably substantially perpendicular to the plane of the photoalignable polymer layer. In this specification, the term “substantially perpendicular” indicates a range of preferably 70 ° to 90 °, more preferably 80 ° to 90 °, when the vertical direction is defined as 90 ° with respect to the plane of the photoalignable polymer layer. The closer the irradiation angle is to 90 °, the more efficiently the reaction of the photoalignable polymer proceeds.

In the present invention, in the first irradiation step, the physical properties of the photoalignable polymer layer and the irradiation condition of polarized light are controlled so as to satisfy the requirements A and B. By satisfying these requirement A and requirement B, even if the second polarized light is irradiated in the second irradiation step described later to the portion to which the alignment regulating force is given by the first polarized light in this step, it is derived from the first polarized light. The orientation regulating force to be maintained can be maintained.
In addition, when either of the requirements A and B is lacking, a sufficient alignment regulating force cannot be obtained, so that an alignment defect or the like occurs in the patterned optically anisotropic layer.

The requirement A is that the absorbance of the photoalignable polymer layer in the region irradiated with the first polarized light satisfies the formula (i).
A (b) / A (a) ≦ 0.95 (i)
[In the formula (i), A (a) represents the absorbance at 314 nm before irradiation with the first polarized light. A (b) represents the absorbance at 314 nm after irradiation with the first polarized light. ]

  The absorbance of the photo-alignment polymer can be measured using a spectrophotometer (for example, “manufactured by Shimadzu Corporation, UV-3150”). The A (b) / A (a) is preferably 0.9 or less, more preferably 0.7 or less. The A (b) / A (a) is preferably as small as possible, but is usually 0.5 or more. A (b) / A (a) can be controlled by adjusting the exposure amount of the first polarized light. Specifically, A (b) / A (a) can be reduced as the exposure amount of the first polarized light is increased. This exposure amount can be controlled, for example, by changing the irradiation time of polarized light.

The requirement B is that the birefringence of the photoalignable polymer layer in the region irradiated with the first polarized light satisfies the formula (ii).
Δn (550) ≧ 0.005 (ii)
[In the formula (ii), Δn (550) represents a birefringence at a wavelength of 550 nm. ]

Here, the birefringence Δn (λ) is determined as shown in the equation (X).
Δn (λ) = Re (λ) / d (X)
[In the formula (X), Δn (λ) represents the birefringence at the wavelength λnm, Re (λ) represents the retardation value at the wavelength λnm, and d represents the film thickness (nm). ]

The birefringence index Δn (550) in the formula (ii) can be obtained by measuring the retardation value and the film thickness of the photoalignable polymer layer as shown in the formula (X). The retardation value is measured for the photo-alignable polymer layer after irradiation with the first polarized light using a commonly used ellipsometer (for example, “M-200” manufactured by JASCO Corporation). Good.
The film thickness can be measured using a laser microscope (for example, “LEXT-3000” manufactured by Olympus Corporation). The Δn (550) can be controlled by adjusting the exposure amount of the first polarized light. Specifically, Δn (550) can be increased as the exposure amount of the first polarized light is increased.

  Here, since the direction of the slow axis in each optically anisotropic region is one type, when obtaining an optically anisotropic layer having three or more optically anisotropic regions having different slow axis directions, It is necessary to form optically anisotropic regions according to the number of slow axis directions. In this case, this (2) first irradiation step may be repeated. For example, when the direction of the slow axis of the optically anisotropic region is three types, after irradiating the first polarized light, the first polarized light, the second polarized light described later, is the third polarized light whose vibration direction is different. Then, the photo-alignment polymer layer is irradiated through a photomask. In this case, when irradiating the first polarized light, it is necessary to prevent the first polarized light from being irradiated to the portion (region) where the alignment regulation force is to be imparted by the third polarized light or the second polarized light. When irradiating, it is necessary to prevent the third change from being irradiated to the portion to which the alignment regulation force is to be applied by the second polarized light. In addition, (2) When performing a 1st irradiation process repeatedly, what is necessary is just to make the irradiation conditions of polarized light the same as said 1st polarized light. The polarization direction of polarization refers to the direction of vibration of light waves.

3. Second Irradiation Step (3) In the second irradiation step, the photo-alignable polymer layer irradiated with the first polarized light is irradiated with the second polarized light having a vibration direction different from that of the first polarized light without using a photomask. A patterned alignment film is formed. Since the vibration direction of the second polarized light is different from the vibration direction of the first polarized light, the obtained alignment film has a region having an alignment restricting force direction derived from the first polarized light and an alignment restricting force direction derived from the second polarized light. It becomes a patterned alignment film in which a region exists.

  As described above, since the control is performed so as to satisfy the requirements A and B in the (2) first irradiation step, even if the second polarized light is irradiated to the portion irradiated with the first polarized light, it is derived from the first polarized light. The orientation regulating force is maintained. Therefore, in the manufacturing method of the present invention, it is not necessary to use a photomask in the second irradiation step, and the operation becomes easy. In addition, since the number of times the photomask is used is reduced, misalignment of the alignment pattern due to poor photomask alignment can be reduced. Furthermore, when the manufacturing method of the present invention is applied to, for example, continuous manufacturing in the Roll to Roll format, if the photomask is used once, there is no need for the second pattern exposure. Fluctuations can be greatly suppressed.

The irradiance of the second polarization may be optical alignment polymer reaction, when expressed in irradiance at a wavelength of 365 nm, preferably from 0.01 mW / cm 2 or more, more preferably 0.1 mW / cm 2 or more, More preferably, it is 1 mW / cm 2 or more, preferably 200 mW / cm 2 or less, more preferably 150 mW / cm 2 or less, and further preferably 100 mW / cm 2 or less. If the irradiance is within this range, the photo-alignment polymer can be reacted and the alignment regulating force can be effectively applied in a short time without decomposition.

In the second polarized light irradiation, since the integrated light amount changes depending on the irradiation time, the irradiation time is also an important factor. When exposed in the previous illuminance, integrated light quantity required is preferably 10 mJ / cm 2 or more, more preferably 20 mJ / cm 2 or more, more preferably 30 mJ / cm 2 or more, preferably 6000 mJ / cm 2 or less, more preferably 5000 mJ / cm 2 or less, more preferably 4000 mJ / cm 2 or less. When the integrated light quantity is within this range, it is possible to develop an alignment regulating force sufficient to align the liquid crystal composition in the subsequent process without alignment defects.

The maximum output wavelength of the second polarized light is preferably in the range of 300 nm to 500 nm.
Moreover, it is preferable that the light quantity originating in the light with a wavelength of 300 nm-500 nm is 50% or more among the emitted light quantities. By using polarized light having a wavelength in this range, the reaction of the photoalignable polymer proceeds efficiently. Moreover, it is desirable that the polarized light irradiation is substantially perpendicular to the plane of the photoalignable polymer layer. Here, “irradiation of the second polarized light is substantially perpendicular to the plane of the photo-alignment polymer layer” means that the direction perpendicular to the plane of the photo-alignment polymer layer is 90 as in the case of irradiation of the first polarization When it is defined as °, it means that irradiation with the second polarized light is performed in a range of 70 ° to 90 °. The closer the irradiation angle is to 90 °, the more efficiently the reaction of the photoalignable polymer proceeds.

  It is preferable that an angle formed by the vibration direction of the first polarized light and the vibration direction of the second polarized light is substantially orthogonal. Here, “the angle formed by the vibration direction of the first polarized light and the vibration direction of the second polarized light” refers to a smaller angle among the angles formed by the vibration direction of the first polarized light and the vibration direction of the second polarized light. . “Substantially orthogonal” means 70 ° to 90 °, preferably 85 ° to 90 °, more preferably 90 °. If the angle between the vibration direction of the first polarization and the vibration direction of the second polarization is substantially orthogonal, the direction of the slow axis of the region irradiated with the first polarization and the delay of the region irradiated with the second polarization A patterned optically anisotropic layer in which the direction of the phase axis is substantially orthogonal can be produced. By combining such a patterned optically anisotropic layer with a polarizing layer, a patterned polarizing plate having a region for converting natural light to right circularly polarized light and a region for converting left circularly polarized light can be produced. The patterned polarizing plate is useful as a polarization conversion member for a stereoscopic display device. In addition, the vibration direction of polarized light means the vibration direction of the light wave as described above.

4). Coating process In the coating process (4), the liquid crystal composition is coated on the patterned alignment film formed in the (3) second irradiation process to form a coating film. The liquid crystal composition includes a polymerizable liquid crystal compound. The polymerizable liquid crystal compound is a compound having liquid crystallinity and has one or more polymerizable groups in the molecule. The polymerizable group means a group involved in the polymerization reaction of the polymerizable liquid crystal compound. Examples of the polymerizable group include a vinyl group, vinyloxy group, 1-chlorovinyl group, isopropenyl group, 4-vinylphenyl group, acryloyloxy group, methacryloyloxy group, oxiranyl group, and oxetanyl group. Among them, acryloyloxy group, methacryloyloxy group, vinyloxy group, oxiranyl group and oxetanyl group are preferable, and acryloyloxy group is more preferable.

The polymerizable liquid crystal compound preferably has two or more ring structures in the molecule, and more preferably has three or more ring structures. Examples of the ring structure include a phenyl ring, a cyclohexane ring, a naphthalene ring, a pyrimidine ring, a pyridine ring, and a thiophene ring. Among these, a phenyl ring and a cyclohexane ring are preferable. The linking group connecting the ring structure, -CO-O -, - CH 2 -CH 2 -, - CO-S -, - CO-NH -, - CH = CH -, - N = N -, - C ≡C— and the like, and —CO—O— is preferable among these.

  Specific examples of the polymerizable liquid crystal compound include, for example, “3.8.6 Network (fully crosslinked type)” of Liquid Crystal Handbook (Edited by Liquid Crystal Handbook Editorial Committee, published by Maruzen Co., Ltd., October 30, 2000). Among the compounds described in "6.5. 1 Liquid crystal material b. Polymerizable nematic liquid crystal material", compounds having a polymerizable group, polymerizable liquid crystal compounds disclosed in JP 2010-31223 A, and the like are mentioned. It is done. In addition, as the polymerizable liquid crystal compound, a commercially available product may be used, and specifically, “Palio Color (registered trademark) LC242” commercially available from BASF Japan Ltd. may be mentioned. These polymerizable liquid crystal compounds may be used alone or in combination. The liquid crystal composition may include a liquid crystal compound having no polymerizable group.

  The liquid crystal composition preferably contains a solvent. The solvent may be any solvent that dissolves the components contained in the liquid crystal composition and is inert to the polymerization reaction of the polymerizable liquid crystal compound. Specifically, methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol Alcohol solvents such as ethylene glycol methyl ether, ethylene glycol butyl ether, propylene glycol monomethyl ether and phenol; ester solvents such as ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, ethylene glycol methyl ether acetate, γ-butyrolactone, propylene glycol methyl ether acetate and ethyl lactate; Ketone solvents such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone, 2-heptanone, methyl isobutyl ketone; aliphatics such as pentane, hexane, heptane Hydrocarbon solvents: toluene, aromatic hydrocarbon solvents such as xylene; nitriles solvents such as acetonitrile; tetrahydrofuran, ether solvents such as dimethoxyethane; chloroform, chlorinated solvents such as chlorobenzene; and the like. These solvents may be used alone or in combination.

The amount of the solvent used is preferably 50% by mass to 95% by mass in the liquid crystal composition. In other words, the solid content in the liquid crystal composition is preferably 5% by mass or more, more preferably 10% by mass or more, further preferably 15% by mass or more, and preferably 50% by mass or less, more preferably 40% by mass. Hereinafter, it is more preferably 35% by mass or less. When the solid content is 5% by mass or more, the obtained retardation layer does not become too thin, and a birefringence necessary for polarization conversion is provided.
When the solid content is 50% by mass or less, the liquid crystal composition has a low viscosity, so that the film thickness of the retardation layer is less likely to be uneven. Here, solid content is content of the component remove | excluding the solvent from the composition with respect to the composition whole quantity. The viscosity of the liquid crystal composition is preferably 0.1 mPa · s or more, preferably 10 mPa · s or less, more preferably 7 mPa · s or less, from the viewpoint of applicability.

The liquid crystal composition preferably contains a polymerization initiator. Examples of the polymerization initiator include a thermal polymerization initiator and a photopolymerization initiator. A photopolymerization initiator is preferred because a polymerizable liquid crystal compound can be polymerized at a low temperature.
Examples of the photopolymerization initiator include benzoin compounds, benzophenone compounds, alkylphenone compounds, acylphosphine oxide compounds, triazine compounds, iodonium salts, and sulfonium salts. A commercial item can also be used as said photoinitiator. Specifically, Irgacure (registered trademark) 907, Irgacure 184, Irgacure 651, Irgacure 819, Irgacure 250, Irgacure 369 (all are manufactured by BASF Japan Ltd.), Sake All (registered trademark) BZ, Sake All Z , SEIKO ALL BEE (all manufactured by Seiko Chemical Co., Ltd.), kayacure (registered trademark) BP100 (manufactured by Nippon Kayaku Co., Ltd.), CYRACURE (registered trademark) UVI-6992 (Dow Chemical Co., Ltd.) Manufactured), Adeka optomer SP-152, Adeka optomer SP-170 (all manufactured by ADEKA), TAZ-A, TAZ-PP (all manufactured by DKSH Japan), TAZ-104 (Sanwa Chemical) Etc.).

  The liquid crystal composition may contain additives such as a chiral agent, a polymerization inhibitor, a photosensitizer, and a leveling agent as necessary.

  Examples of the chiral agent include “Liquid Crystal Device Handbook” (Chapter 3, Section 4-3, TN, Chiral Agent for STN, 199 pages, edited by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 142nd Committee, 1989), Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2007-269640. JP, 2007-269639, JP, 2007-176870, JP, 2003-137878, JP, 2000-51596, JP, 2007-169178, JP, 9-506088, etc. Can be mentioned.

  Examples of the polymerization inhibitor include hydroquinones having a substituent such as hydroquinone or alkyl ether, catechols having a substituent such as alkyl ether such as butylcatechol, pyrogallols, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl, and the like. Examples include radical scavengers such as a -1-piperidinyloxy radical, thiophenols, β-naphthylamines, and β-naphthols.

  Examples of the photosensitizer include xanthones such as xanthone and thioxanthone, anthracene having a substituent such as anthracene and alkyl ether, phenothiazine, and rubrene.

  As a leveling agent, for example, an additive for radiation curable coatings (BYK-352, BYK-353, BYK-361N manufactured by Big Chemie Japan), a coating additive (manufactured by Toray Dow Corning: SH28PA, DC11PA, ST80PA). ), Paint additives (manufactured by Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd .: KP321, KP323, X22-161A, KF6001) or fluorine-based additives (manufactured by DIC Corporation: F-445, F-470, F-479), etc. Can be mentioned.

When the optically anisotropic layer obtained by the production method of the present invention is used as a polarizing layer, the liquid crystal composition may contain a dichroic dye. The dichroic dye is not particularly limited and may be a dye or a pigment. The absorption wavelength of the dichroic dye is preferably in the range of visible light, 300 nm to 700 nm. The dichroic dye may be used alone, or a plurality of dichroic dyes such as red, green and blue may be used in combination. Specific examples of the dichroic dye include dichroic dyes such as perylene, naphthalene, azo, and anthraquinone. If it is the above pigment | dyes, the dispersion | distribution to a polymer (polymer obtained by superposing | polymerizing a polymeric liquid crystal compound etc.) is easy and preferable.
The amount of the dichroic dye used is preferably 50 parts by mass or less, more preferably 20 parts by mass or less, and still more preferably 10 parts by mass or less with respect to 100 parts by mass of the polymerizable liquid crystal compound.

  The liquid crystal composition can be prepared by stirring the above-described polymerizable liquid crystal compound, polymerization initiator, solvent and the like at 60 ° C. to 90 ° C. for about 0.5 hours to 2 hours.

  Examples of the method of applying the liquid crystal composition include a method of applying using a coater such as a dip coater, a bar coater, and a spin coater, an extrusion coating method, a direct gravure coating method, a reverse gravure coating method, a CAP coating method, a die coating method. Examples thereof include a coating method and an ink jet method.

  The formed coating film preferably removes volatile components such as a solvent contained in the coating film. Examples of the drying method include a natural drying method, a ventilation drying method, and a vacuum drying method. The drying temperature is preferably 0 ° C to 250 ° C, more preferably 50 ° C to 220 ° C. The drying time is preferably 10 seconds to 60 minutes, and more preferably 30 seconds to 30 minutes.

5. Alignment Step In the (5) alignment step, the liquid crystal component is aligned by maintaining the coating film formed in the (4) coating step at a temperature at which the liquid crystal component contained in the coating film becomes a liquid crystal state. Forming a deposited film. In the (4) coating step, drying (heating) when removing the solvent may also serve as the (5) orientation step. As described above, the patterned alignment film has a region having an alignment regulating force direction derived from the first polarized light and a region having an alignment regulating force direction derived from the second polarized light. When the liquid crystalline component is aligned by use, it is patterned into regions having different slow axis directions.

  By maintaining the coating film (preferably, the film from which the solvent has been removed from the coating film) at a temperature at which the liquid crystal component contained in the coating film becomes a liquid crystal state, the liquid crystal component contained in the coating film is subjected to each optical difference. In the isotropic region, it can be monodomain oriented to impart birefringence. The liquid crystal component is a polymerizable liquid crystal compound contained in the liquid crystal composition and a liquid crystal compound having no polymerizable group. The orientation temperature is preferably 0 ° C. or higher, more preferably 10 ° C. or higher, further preferably 50 ° C. or higher, preferably 250 ° C. or lower, more preferably 150 ° C. or lower, and still more preferably 120 ° C. or lower.

6). Polymerization Step In the polymerization step (6), a polymerizable liquid crystal compound contained in a film in which the liquid crystalline component formed in the alignment step (5) is aligned is polymerized. The patterned optically anisotropic layer is formed as a cured film that retains the liquid crystal phase by polymerizing in a state where the components contained in the coating film are oriented, that is, in a state where the liquid crystal component contained in the coating film exhibits a liquid crystal phase. Can be obtained.

  The polymerization method is not particularly limited, but when the polymerizable liquid crystal compound is a polymerizable liquid crystal compound having a photopolymerizable group, it is a photopolymerization method, and when the polymerizable liquid crystal compound is a polymerizable liquid crystal compound having a thermopolymerizable group, a thermal polymerization method is used. Polymerize. Here, the photopolymerizable group means a group capable of polymerizing a compound by light irradiation or a group capable of polymerizing a compound by an active radical or an active acid generated from a polymerization initiator by light irradiation. The thermopolymerizable group refers to a group capable of polymerizing a compound by the action of heat or a group capable of polymerizing a compound by an active radical or an active acid generated from a polymerization initiator by the action of heat.

  In the production method of the present invention, the polymerizable liquid crystal compound is preferably polymerized by a photopolymerization method. According to the photopolymerization method, polymerization can be performed without heating to a high temperature, so that deformation of the substrate due to heat can be prevented. In addition, it is easy to manufacture industrially. The photopolymerization method is also preferable from the viewpoint of film formability. Examples of the light source used in the photopolymerization method include visible light, ultraviolet light, and laser light. From the viewpoint of handleability, ultraviolet light (wavelength 300 nm to 420 nm) is preferable. The light irradiation may be performed at a temperature at which the component contained in the coating film exhibits a liquid crystal phase. At this time, an optically anisotropic layer further patterned by masking or the like can be obtained.

The irradiance of ultraviolet light at the time of photopolymerization is not particularly limited as long as the polymerizable liquid crystal compound is polymerized, and is preferably 0.01 mW / cm 2 or more, more preferably 0.1 mW when expressed in intensity at a wavelength of 365 nm. / Cm 2 or more, more preferably 1 mW / cm 2 or more, preferably 400 mW / cm 2 or less, more preferably 300 mW / cm 2 or less, and even more preferably 250 mW / cm 2 or less. When the irradiance is within this range, the polymerizable liquid crystal compound can be polymerized to fix the alignment.

Further, the integrated light quantity of ultraviolet light is 100 mJ / cm 2 or more is preferable when the photopolymerization, more preferably 500 mJ / cm 2 or more, more preferably 1000 mJ / cm 2 or more, preferably 6000 mJ / cm 2 or less, more preferably is 4000 mJ / cm 2 or less, more preferably 3000 mJ / cm 2 or less. If the integrated light quantity is within this range, the liquid crystal composition can be aligned without alignment defects.

  When the optically anisotropic layer obtained in the present invention is caused to function as a retardation layer, it is preferable to adjust the retardation value of each optically anisotropic region of the optically anisotropic layer. Specifically, when the optically anisotropic layer is a λ / 4 plate, Re (550) is 113 nm to 163 nm, preferably 135 nm to 140 nm, particularly preferably 137.5 ± in any optically anisotropic region. In the case of a λ / 2 plate, Re (550) is 250 nm to 300 nm, preferably 273 nm to 277 nm, particularly preferably 275.0 ± 0. 5 nm is preferable.

The retardation value of the optically anisotropic layer can be adjusted by appropriately changing the coating amount of the liquid crystal composition and the content of the polymerizable liquid crystal compound in the liquid crystal composition. In addition, since the retardation value (retardation value, Re (λ)) of the obtained optically anisotropic layer is determined as shown in Expression (Y), in order to obtain a desired retardation value, an optical difference value is obtained. The film thickness d of the isotropic layer may be adjusted.
Re (λ) = d × Δn (λ) (Y)
[In the formula, Re (λ) represents a retardation value at a wavelength λnm, d represents a film thickness, and Δn (λ) represents a birefringence at a wavelength λnm. ]
However, the film thickness of the optically anisotropic layer is preferably 0.1 μm or more, more preferably 0.2 μm or more, further preferably 0.5 μm or more, preferably 10 μm or less, more preferably 5 μm or less, still more preferably. Is 3 μm or less.

  As described above, after (1) forming step, (2) first irradiation step, (3) second irradiation step, (4) coating step, (5) orientation step, and (6) polymerization step, An optically anisotropic layer is formed by the first manufacturing method. Such a production method can be regarded as a method for obtaining a laminate in which an optically anisotropic layer and a substrate are laminated. That is, the second production method of the present invention is a method for producing a laminate (a laminate in which an optically anisotropic layer and a substrate are laminated) including the steps (1) to (6).

  The production method of the present invention may include a step of forming an antireflection layer on the optically anisotropic layer formed in the polymerization step (6). By having the antireflection layer, it is possible to reduce the generation of reflected light derived from external light, and it is also possible to suppress interference between the emitted light for display from the optically anisotropic layer and the reflected light. It becomes. Furthermore, the optically anisotropic layer can be protected by the antireflection layer.

  The material constituting the antireflection layer is not particularly limited, and for example, a layer composed of at least one selected from the group consisting of a metal film, a metal oxide film, a metal fluoride film, a polymer material film, fine particles, and the like. And known antireflection (AR) films, low reflection (LR) films, moth-eye type antireflection films, and antireflection layers possessed by these films, and the like.

  Examples of the metal include silver. Examples of the metal oxide include silicon oxide, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, tantalum oxide, yttrium oxide, and zirconium oxide. Examples of the metal fluoride include calcium fluoride and magnesium fluoride. Polymer materials include siloxane polymer, bis (4-methacryloylthiophenyl) sulfide, vinyl naphthalene, vinyl phenyl sulfide and 4-methacryloxyphenyl-4′-methoxyphenyl thioether, fluorine-containing (meth) acrylate, fluorine-containing itaconic acid Polymers such as esters, fluorine-containing maleates, fluorine-containing silicon compounds, polyvinyl alcohol resins, polyvinyl acetal resins such as polyvinyl butyral and polyvinyl formal, cellulose resins such as cellulose acetate butyrate, (meth) acrylic resins such as butyl acrylate , Urethane resin, polyester resin, epoxy resin and the like.

  Examples of the fine particles include inorganic fine particles such as barium sulfate, talc, kaolin, calcium sulfate, silica gel, and silica particles containing metal fine particles; polymethacrylic acid methyl acrylate resin fine particles, acrylic styrene resin fine particles, polymethyl methacrylate resin fine particles, silicon resin fine particles, Organic fine particles such as polystyrene resin fine particles, polycarbonate resin fine particles, benzoguanamine resin fine particles, melamine resin fine particles, polyolefin resin fine particles, polyester resin fine particles, polyamide resin fine particles, polyimide resin fine particles, or polyfluoroethylene resin fine particles; JP 2010-84018 Examples include hollow organic-inorganic hybrid fine particles described in the publication.

  The antireflection layer may be a single layer or a multilayer of two or more layers. The thickness of the antireflection layer and the thickness of each layer in the case of multiple layers may be appropriately selected depending on the number of layers, the refractive index of the substance used for each layer, and the like. The antireflection layer is formed by a method of applying a solution containing the material on the optically anisotropic layer, or a method of bonding a film having a layer formed from the material on the optically anisotropic layer. be able to. As a method for forming the antireflection layer, for example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2003-114302, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 7-56002, Japanese Patent No. 4190337, Japanese Patent No. 4259957, Japanese Patent No. 4032771, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2010-122599. The method described is mentioned.

  The production method of the present invention may include a step of forming a known antifouling layer, antistatic layer, and hard coat layer on the light emitting side of the antireflection layer, if necessary. Moreover, you may include the process of peeling from the board | substrate the optically anisotropic layer and patterned alignment film which were formed on the board | substrate. Furthermore, in addition to the step of peeling from the substrate, a step of peeling the optically anisotropic layer from the patterned alignment film may be further included. Further, a step of attaching another substrate on the optically anisotropic layer formed on the substrate and transferring the optically anisotropic layer to the other substrate may be included.

7). Display Device The present invention also includes a display device provided with the optically anisotropic layer or laminate obtained in the above process. Display devices include liquid crystal display devices, organic electroluminescence (EL) display devices, plasma displays, field emission display devices (field emission display (FED)), display devices having surface conduction electron-emitting devices (SED), and electronic paper. Etc.

  Examples of usage of the optically anisotropic layer in the display device include a polarizing layer and a retardation layer. For example, when a dichroic dye is contained in the liquid crystal composition forming the optically anisotropic layer, the optically anisotropic layer can function as a polarizing layer and can be used as an alternative to a polarizing plate. Further, when the anisotropy of the liquid crystal component in the optically anisotropic layer is adjusted, it can function as a retardation layer, and can be applied to many display devices as described below.

  3 and 4 are schematic cross-sectional views showing a liquid crystal display device as an example of the liquid crystal display device of the present invention. The liquid crystal display devices 51A and 51B include a backlight 52 that is a surface light source that emits natural light, a polarizing plate 53 having a transmission axis (not shown) in a specific direction along the plate surface, and a display element substrate on which a liquid crystal display element is formed. 54, a polarizing layer 55, a patterned alignment film 56, and a retardation layer 57 are provided. In the liquid crystal display device 51 </ b> B shown in FIG. 4, an antireflection layer 58 is formed on the light emission side of the retardation layer 57. These liquid crystal display devices 51 </ b> A and 51 </ b> B are provided with the patterned alignment film and the optically anisotropic layer obtained by the manufacturing method of the present invention as the patterned alignment film 56 and the retardation layer 57.

  The display substrate 54 on which the liquid crystal display element is formed is filled with a low-molecular liquid crystal composition that is a display medium between two substrates. One of the two substrates is provided with a black matrix, a color filter, a counter electrode, a photo spacer, an alignment film, etc., and the other substrate has a liquid crystal driving electrode, a wiring pattern, a thin film transistor, an alignment. A film or the like is provided. Examples of the liquid crystal display device include a transmissive type, a reflective type, and a transflective type. The operation mode of the liquid crystal cell is not particularly limited, and any of twisted nematic, vertical alignment, OCB (Optically Compensated), IPS (In-Plane Switching), and the like may be used. As shown in FIG. 5, the display element substrate 54 has a plurality of rectangular pixels A1, A2,...; B1, B2,.

  The polarizing layer 55 has a transmission axis 70a in a specific direction along the main surface 50 (oriented obliquely at 45 degrees with respect to the horizontal direction, as schematically shown in FIG. 5). The retardation layer 57 includes a plurality of retardation regions (optical anisotropy regions) 71A having slow axes 71a and 71b that intersect with the transmission axis 70a at different angles along the principal surface 50. 71B.

  The function of the retardation layer 57 in the liquid crystal display devices 51A and 51B will be described with reference to FIG. FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram for explaining the function of the retardation layer (optically anisotropic layer). Here, only the display element substrate 54, the polarizing plate 55, and the retardation layer 57 are shown, and the photo-alignment film 56 and the like are omitted. As shown in FIG. 5, the slow axis 71a of the phase difference region 71A is oriented in the vertical direction, while the slow axis 71b of the phase difference region 71B is oriented in the horizontal direction. That is, when viewed from the light exit side F, the slow axis 71a of the phase difference region 71A intersects the direction of the transmission axis 70a of the polarizing layer 55 (this is assumed to be 0 degree) at 45 degrees, The slow axis 71b of the phase difference region 71B intersects at 135 degrees.

  With such an arrangement, the phase difference regions 71A and 71B convert the linearly polarized light from the polarizing layer 55 into circularly polarized light that is opposite to each other, and each emits it to the light emitting side F. In this example, the light that has passed through the polarizing layer 55 and then passed through the retardation region 71A is emitted as left circularly polarized light, while the light that has passed through the polarizing layer 55 and then passed through the retardation region 71B. Is emitted as right circularly polarized light. Therefore, an observer uses glasses (not shown) having in each lens a circularly polarizing plate that converts right circularly polarized light into linearly polarized light and a circularly polarizing plate that converts left circularly polarized light into linearly polarized light. The image emitted from the display device can be observed as a stereoscopic image. As described above, a stereoscopic image can be displayed by using the retardation layer 57 (optically anisotropic layer) having a plurality of retardation regions (optically anisotropic regions) 71A and 71B having different slow axis directions. A display device can be provided.

  6 and 7 are schematic cross-sectional views showing a display device other than the liquid crystal display device as an example of the liquid crystal display device of the present invention. Examples of the display devices 61A and 61B other than the liquid crystal display device include an organic EL display device, a plasma display, a field emission display device, a display device having a surface conduction electron-emitting device, and electronic paper. The display devices 61A and 61B include a display element substrate 62 on which display elements are formed (a plurality of pixels are arranged), a polarizing layer 63, a patterned alignment film 64, and a retardation layer 65. In the display device 61 </ b> B shown in FIG. 7, an antireflection layer 66 is formed on the light emitting side of the retardation layer 65. These display devices 61A and 61B are provided with the patterned alignment film and the optically anisotropic layer obtained by the production method of the present invention as the patterned alignment film 64 and the retardation layer 65, and the liquid crystal display device 51A. , 51B, a stereoscopic image can be displayed.

  When the display device is an organic EL display device, a display element substrate on which an organic EL display element is formed is used as the display element substrate 62. In the display element substrate, first, an organic film such as an anode and a light-emitting layer and a cathode are laminated on a glass substrate provided with a transparent electrode to form an organic EL element and a wiring pattern. Next, for example, a metal cap (protection plate) formed of SUS, Al, or the like is placed on each organic EL element laminated on the transparent electrode glass, and adhered to the transparent electrode glass with an adhesive. Finally, it can be produced by dividing the transparent electrode glass for each organic EL element. As a method for producing a display element substrate on which an organic EL display element is formed, for example, a method described in Japanese Patent No. 3626728 may be mentioned.

  When the display device is a plasma display, a display element substrate on which a plasma display element is formed is used as the display element substrate 62. The display element substrate includes a front plate made of a glass substrate formed by arranging scan electrodes for performing surface discharge and sustain electrodes, and a back plate made of a glass substrate formed by arranging data electrodes. The scan electrode, the sustain electrode, and the data electrode are arranged to face each other in parallel so as to form a matrix and to form a discharge space in the gap. The outer periphery is sealed with a sealing material such as glass frit. Discharge cells partitioned by barrier ribs are provided between both the front and rear substrates, and a phosphor layer is formed in the cell space between the barrier ribs. In the plasma display device having such a configuration, ultraviolet rays are generated by gas discharge, and phosphors of each color of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) are excited by the ultraviolet rays to emit light. Color display is performed, and a typical example is Japanese Patent No. 4226648.

  When the display device is a field emission display device, a field emission display substrate is used as the display element substrate 62. The field emission display substrate is formed by forming a large number of minute cathode electrodes (microchips) as electron emission sources in each pixel region, and exciting the microchip in the corresponding pixel region in accordance with a predetermined electric signal. A phosphor provided on the electrode side is caused to emit light, and for example, a display substrate described in JP-A-10-125262 can be mentioned.

  When the display device is a display device having a surface conduction electron-emitting device, a display substrate having a surface conduction electron-emitting device is used as the display device substrate 62. A display substrate having a surface conduction electron-emitting device emits phosphors by applying a voltage between nano-order slits made of ultrafine particle films and emitting electrons by a tunnel effect.

  When the display device is electronic paper, a method using a liquid crystal such as cholesteric liquid crystal as a display element of the display element substrate 62, organic EL, reflective film reflective display, electrophoresis, twist ball, electrochromic method, mechanical reflection A type display or the like may be employed.

  The present invention will be described more specifically with reference to the following examples. However, the present invention is not limited to the following examples, and may be appropriately modified and implemented within a range that can meet the purpose described above and below. All of which are within the scope of the present invention. Unless otherwise specified, “%” and “parts” in the examples are% by mass and parts by mass.

Preparation Example 1
[Production of photo-alignment polymer (Z)]
The monomer represented by the formula (Za) was produced by the method described in Macromol. Chem. Phys. 197, 1919-1935 (1996). 1.5 parts of the monomer (Za) obtained and 0.1 part of methyl methacrylate were dissolved in 16 parts of tetrahydrofuran and reacted at 60 ° C. for 24 hours. Next, the reaction solution was allowed to cool to room temperature and then dropped into a mixed solution of toluene and methanol to obtain a copolymer (Z). The number average molecular weight of the copolymer (Z) was 33,000. In the copolymer (Z), the content of the structural component derived from the monomer (Za) was 75 mol% with respect to all the constituent components.

The polystyrene equivalent number average molecular weight (Mn) of the obtained copolymer (Z) was measured using the GPC method under the following conditions.
Device: HLC-8220GPC (manufactured by Tosoh Corporation)
Column; TOSOH TSKgel MultiporeH XL- M
Column temperature: 40 ° C
Solvent; THF (tetrahydrofuran)
Flow rate: 1.0 mL / min
Detector; RI
Standard material for calibration; TSK STANDARD POLYSTYRENE F-40, F-4, F-288, A-5000, A-500

[Confirmation of physical properties of photo-alignment polymer layer]
1. Physical Properties of Photoalignable Polymer Layer with a Film Thickness of 307 nm A 5% by mass cyclopentanone solution of the photoalignable polymer represented by the formula (Z) is applied to a glass substrate and dried at 120 ° C. for 3 minutes to obtain a film thickness of 307 nm. The photo-alignable polymer layer was formed. Next, using a spot cure (SP-7, manufactured by Ushio Electric Co., Ltd.) with polarized UV irradiation jig, linearly polarized light is irradiated for 300 seconds (integrated light amount 4500 mJ / cm 2 ) at an irradiance of 15 mW / cm 2 at a wavelength of 365 nm. Irradiated. For the photoalignable polymer layer, A (b) / A (a) and Δn (550) were determined as follows, and the results are shown in Table 1.

[Change in absorbance]
Using a UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-3150, manufactured by Shimadzu Corporation), the photo-alignable polymer layer was irradiated with linearly polarized light at an absorbance (A (a)) at a wavelength of 314 nm before being irradiated with linearly polarized light. Absorbance (A (b)) at a wavelength of 314 nm was measured.

[Birefringence]
The retardation value at a wavelength of 550 nm of the photo-alignable polymer layer after irradiation with linearly polarized light was measured with an ellipsometer (M-220, manufactured by JASCO Corporation). Moreover, the film thickness of the photo-alignment polymer layer was measured using a laser microscope (OLS-3000, manufactured by Olympus Corporation). The birefringence was determined from the retardation value and the film thickness using the formula (X).

2. Physical Properties of Photoalignable Polymer Layer with a Film Thickness of 334 nm A 5 mass% cyclopentanone solution of the photoalignable polymer represented by the formula (Z) is applied to a glass substrate and dried at 120 ° C. for 3 minutes to obtain a film thickness of 334 nm. The photo-alignable polymer layer was formed. Next, using a spot cure (SP-7, manufactured by Ushio Electric Co., Ltd.) with polarized UV irradiation jig, linearly polarized light is irradiated for 300 seconds (integrated light amount 4500 mJ / cm 2 ) at an irradiance of 15 mW / cm 2 at a wavelength of 365 nm. Irradiated. With respect to the photoalignable polymer layer, A (b) / A (a) and Δn (550) were determined by the same method as described above, and the results are shown in Table 2.

Preparation Example 2 [Preparation of liquid crystal composition]
The components described in Table 3 were mixed to prepare liquid crystal composition 1.

Polymerizable liquid crystal compound: LC242 (a compound represented by the formula (LC242), manufactured by BASF Japan)
Polymerization initiator: Irgacure 369 (manufactured by BASF Japan)
Leveling agent: BYK361N (by Big Chemie Japan)
Solvent: PGMEA (propylene glycol 1-monomethyl ether 2-acetate, manufactured by Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.)

Example 1
A 5% by mass cyclopentanone solution of the photoalignable polymer represented by the formula (Z) was applied to a glass substrate and dried at 120 ° C. for 3 minutes to form a 307 nm-thick photoalignable polymer layer.
Subsequently, on the obtained photo-alignable polymer layer, as shown in FIG. 1, a photomask 1 (in which a striped gap portion (polarized light transmitting portion) 2 is formed in a real portion (light-shielding portion) 3 ( SUS, the width of the gap and the real part is 280 μm), and from a direction perpendicular to the plane of the photo-alignable polymer layer, using a spot cure with polarized UV irradiation jig (SP-7, manufactured by Ushio Electric Co., Ltd.) Under the conditions described in Table 4, linearly polarized light was irradiated.
Next, by removing the photomask and irradiating the entire surface of the photo-alignable polymer layer with the second polarized UV, the first pattern region 12 and the second pattern having different slow axis directions as shown in FIG. A patterned alignment film having regions 13 was formed. The second polarized UV was irradiated with linearly polarized light that oscillated in a direction rotated by 90 ° with respect to the vibration direction of the first polarized UV under the irradiation conditions shown in Table 4.
The liquid crystal composition 1 was applied to the surface subjected to polarized UV using a spin coater to form a coating film. This coating film was kept at 100 ° C. to obtain a film in which the liquid crystal components in the liquid crystal composition were aligned.
Then, it cools to room temperature and superpose | polymerizes a polymeric liquid crystal compound by irradiating for 1 minute with the irradiance of 40 mW / cm < 2 > in wavelength 365nm using Unicure (VB-15201BY-A, Ushio Electric Co., Ltd. make). Thus, an optically anisotropic layer (retardation layer) was produced.

Examples 2 and 3
An optically anisotropic layer (retardation layer) was produced on a glass substrate in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the second polarized UV condition was changed to the condition described in Table 3.

Reference example 1
The first polarization UV condition is 2 minutes (integrated light amount 1800 mJ / cm 2 ) at a radiation irradiation of 15 mW / cm 2 at a wavelength of 365 nm, and the second polarization UV condition is 5 minutes (integration at a wavelength of 365 nm with an irradiance of 15 mW / cm 2. An optically anisotropic layer (retardation layer) was produced on a glass substrate in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the amount of light was changed to 4500 mJ / cm 2 ).
The absorbance (A (a)) at a wavelength of 314 nm before irradiation with linearly polarized light is 1.415, the absorbance at a wavelength of 314 nm after irradiation with linearly polarized light (A (b)) is 1.100, and A ( b) / A (a) = 0.78. In addition, the phase difference value (Re (550)) at a wavelength of 550 nm of the photo-alignable polymer layer after irradiation with linearly polarized light is 1.35 nm, the thickness is 304 nm, and the birefringence (Δn (550)) at a wavelength of 550 nm. ) Was 0.004.

<Measurement of optical properties>
The retardation value (nm) and the orientation angle of the optically anisotropic layer are measured with a measuring machine (KOBRA-WPR, manufactured by Oji Scientific Instruments) without peeling off the optically anisotropic layer produced on the glass substrate. Measured. Since the glass substrate used for the substrate has almost no birefringence, the retardation value of the optically anisotropic layer produced on the glass substrate can be obtained even if it is measured without peeling. Table 5 shows the measurement results of the orientation angle of the liquid crystal component in the optically anisotropic layer and the retardation value at a wavelength of 549 nm. In the optically anisotropic layer, when the orientation angles of the portion corresponding to the first pattern region 12 and the portion corresponding to the second pattern region 13 of the patterned alignment film are different, the regions having different slow axis directions are used. It means that there is.

<Observation of surface state>
The obtained optically anisotropic layer was observed at a magnification of 400 times using a polarizing microscope (BX51, manufactured by Olympus Corporation). “A” indicates that no alignment defect was observed on the surface, and “B” indicates that an alignment defect was observed. The results are shown in Table 5.

Example 4
A 5% by mass cyclopentanone solution of the photoalignable polymer represented by the formula (Z) was applied to a glass substrate and dried at 120 ° C. for 3 minutes to form a photoalignable polymer layer having a thickness of 334 nm.
Subsequently, on the obtained photo-alignable polymer layer, as shown in FIG. 1, a photomask 1 (in which a striped gap portion (polarized light transmitting portion) 2 is formed in a real portion (light-shielding portion) 3 ( SUS, the width of the gap and the real part is 280 μm), and from a direction perpendicular to the plane of the photo-alignable polymer layer, using a spot cure with polarized UV irradiation jig (SP-7, manufactured by Ushio Electric Co., Ltd.) Irradiation with linearly polarized light was performed under the conditions described in Table 6.
Next, by removing the photomask and irradiating the entire surface of the photo-alignable polymer layer with the second polarized UV, the first pattern region 12 and the second pattern having different slow axis directions as shown in FIG. A patterned alignment film having regions 13 was formed. The second polarized UV was irradiated with linearly polarized light that oscillated in a direction rotated by 90 ° with respect to the vibration direction of the first polarized UV under the irradiation conditions shown in Table 6.
The liquid crystal composition 1 was applied to the surface subjected to polarized UV using a spin coater to form a coating film. This coating film was kept at 100 ° C. to obtain a film in which the liquid crystal components in the liquid crystal composition were aligned.
Then, it cools to room temperature and superpose | polymerizes a polymeric liquid crystal compound by irradiating for 1 minute with the irradiance of 40 mW / cm < 2 > in wavelength 365nm using Unicure (VB-15201BY-A, Ushio Electric Co., Ltd. make). Thus, an optically anisotropic layer (retardation layer) was produced.

<Observation of pattern boundary line>
In Example 4, the width of the pattern boundary of the formed retardation layer was measured using a polarizing microscope (BX51, manufactured by Olympus Corporation). It was confirmed that the thickness of the boundary line was 1.8 μm.

Comparative Example 1
[Preparation of patterned retardation layer using photomask twice]
A 5% by mass cyclopentanone solution of the photoalignable polymer represented by the formula (Z) was applied to a glass substrate and dried at 120 ° C. for 3 minutes to form a photoalignable polymer layer having a thickness of 334 nm.
Subsequently, on the obtained photo-alignable polymer layer, as shown in FIG. 1, a photomask 1 (in which a striped gap portion (polarized light transmitting portion) 2 is formed in a real portion (light-shielding portion) 3 ( SUS, the width of the gap and the real part is 280 μm), and from a direction perpendicular to the plane of the photo-alignable polymer layer, using a spot cure with polarized UV irradiation jig (SP-7, manufactured by Ushio Electric Co., Ltd.) Irradiation with linearly polarized light was performed under the conditions described in Table 6. When placing the photomask, a marker was placed on the edge of the mask.
Next, a photomask in which the real part (light-shielding part) 3 shown in FIG. 1 is a gap part (polarized light transmission part) and the gap part 2 is a real part is placed on the marker so that the end part is aligned, and photo-alignment is performed. The patterned alignment film having the first pattern region 12 and the second pattern region 13 having different slow axis directions as shown in FIG. 2 was formed by irradiating the polymerizable polymer layer with the second polarized UV. . The second polarized UV was irradiated with linearly polarized light that oscillated in a direction rotated by 90 ° with respect to the vibration direction of the first polarized UV under the irradiation conditions shown in Table 6.
The liquid crystal composition 1 was applied to the surface subjected to polarized UV using a spin coater to form a coating film. This coating film was kept at 100 ° C. to obtain a film in which the liquid crystal components in the liquid crystal composition were aligned.
Then, it cools to room temperature and superpose | polymerizes a polymeric liquid crystal compound by irradiating for 1 minute with the irradiance of 40 mW / cm < 2 > in wavelength 365nm using Unicure (VB-15201BY-A, Ushio Electric Co., Ltd. make). Thus, an optically anisotropic layer (retardation layer) was produced.

  When the width of the pattern boundary obtained in Comparative Example 1 was measured using a polarizing microscope, the thickness of the boundary line was 7.2 μm, and the deviation of the width was larger than in Example 4. It was confirmed.

  According to the production method of the present invention, an optically anisotropic layer having a plurality of optically anisotropic regions having different slow axis directions can be easily obtained without pattern displacement.

1: Photomask,
2: void part,
3: Real part,
51A, 51B, 61A, 61B: Liquid crystal display device 52: Backlight 53: Polarizing plate 54, 62: Display element substrate 55, 63: Polarizing layer 56, 64: Patterned alignment film 57, 65: Retardation layer 70a: Transmission Axis 71a, 71b: slow axis 71A, 71B: phase difference region (optical anisotropy region)

Claims (8)

  1. A method for producing an optically anisotropic layer formed from a liquid crystal composition containing a polymerizable liquid crystal compound and having a plurality of optically anisotropic regions having different slow axis directions,
    (1) A photo-alignment polymer layer forming step of applying a photo-alignment polymer to a substrate;
    (2) A first irradiation step of irradiating the photo-alignable polymer layer with a first polarized light through a photomask so as to satisfy the following requirements A and B:
    (3) A second irradiation step of forming a patterned alignment film by irradiating the photo-alignable polymer layer with a second polarized light having a vibration direction different from that of the first polarized light without passing through a photomask after the irradiation with the first polarized light. ,
    (4) A coating step of coating the liquid crystal composition on the patterned alignment film to form a coating film,
    (5) An alignment step of forming a film in which the liquid crystalline component is aligned by holding the coating film at a temperature at which the liquid crystalline component contained in the coating film is in a liquid crystal state, and
    (6) A production method comprising a polymerization step of polymerizing a polymerizable liquid crystal compound contained in a film in which the liquid crystal component is aligned.
    Requirement A: The absorbance of the photoalignable polymer layer in the region irradiated with the first polarized light satisfies the formula (i).
    A (b) / A (a) ≦ 0.95 (i)
    [In the formula (i), A (a) represents the absorbance at a wavelength of 314 nm before irradiation with the first polarized light. A (b) represents the absorbance at a wavelength of 314 nm after irradiation with the first polarized light. ]
    Requirement B: The birefringence of the photoalignable polymer layer in the region irradiated with the first polarized light satisfies the formula (ii).
    Δn (550) ≧ 0.005 (ii)
    [In the formula (ii), Δn (550) represents a birefringence at a wavelength of 550 nm. ]
  2.   The production method according to claim 1, wherein the photo-alignment polymer is a polymer capable of forming a crosslinked structure by light irradiation.
  3.   The manufacturing method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein an angle formed by the vibration direction of the first polarized light and the vibration direction of the second polarized light is 70 ° to 90 °.
  4.   The manufacturing method according to claim 1, wherein the liquid crystal composition is a liquid crystal composition further containing a polymerization initiator and a solvent.
  5. A method for producing a laminate comprising a substrate and an optically anisotropic layer formed from a liquid crystal composition containing a polymerizable liquid crystal compound and having a plurality of optically anisotropic regions having different slow axis directions,
    (1) A photo-alignment polymer layer forming step of applying a photo-alignment polymer to a substrate;
    (2) A first irradiation step of irradiating the photo-alignable polymer layer with a first polarized light through a photomask so as to satisfy the following requirements A and B:
    (3) A second irradiation step of forming a patterned alignment film by irradiating the photo-alignable polymer layer with a second polarized light having a vibration direction different from that of the first polarized light without passing through a photomask after the irradiation with the first polarized light. ,
    (4) A coating process for forming a coating film by applying the liquid crystal composition on the patterned alignment film,
    (5) An alignment step of forming a film in which the liquid crystalline component is aligned by holding the coating film at a temperature at which the liquid crystalline component contained in the coating film is in a liquid crystal state, and
    (6) A production method comprising a polymerization step of polymerizing a polymerizable liquid crystal compound contained in a film in which the liquid crystal component is aligned.
    Requirement A: The absorbance of the photoalignable polymer layer in the region irradiated with the first polarized light satisfies the formula (i).
    A (b) / A (a) ≦ 0.95 (i)
    [In the formula (i), A (a) represents the absorbance at a wavelength of 314 nm before irradiation with the first polarized light. A (b) represents the absorbance at a wavelength of 314 nm after irradiation with the first polarized light. ]
    Requirement B: The birefringence of the photoalignable polymer layer in the region irradiated with the first polarized light satisfies the formula (ii).
    Δn (550) ≧ 0.005 (ii)
    [In the formula (ii), Δn (550) represents a birefringence at a wavelength of 550 nm. ]
  6. The production method according to claim 5 , wherein the photo-alignment polymer is a polymer capable of forming a crosslinked structure by light irradiation.
  7. The manufacturing method according to claim 5 or 6 , wherein an angle formed by the vibration direction of the first polarized light and the vibration direction of the second polarized light is 70 ° to 90 °.
  8. The manufacturing method according to any one of claims 5 to 7 , wherein the liquid crystal composition is a liquid crystal composition further containing a polymerization initiator and a solvent.
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