JP5810863B2 - Friction roller reducer - Google Patents

Friction roller reducer Download PDF

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JP5810863B2
JP5810863B2 JP2011254816A JP2011254816A JP5810863B2 JP 5810863 B2 JP5810863 B2 JP 5810863B2 JP 2011254816 A JP2011254816 A JP 2011254816A JP 2011254816 A JP2011254816 A JP 2011254816A JP 5810863 B2 JP5810863 B2 JP 5810863B2
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roller
sun roller
sun
shaft
cam
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JP2013108575A (en
JP2013108575A5 (en
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一宇 田中
一宇 田中
松田 靖之
靖之 松田
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日本精工株式会社
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Description

  The present invention relates to an improvement of a friction roller type speed reducer that transmits torque from an electric motor to driving wheels in a state where the electric motor is incorporated in a driving system of an electric vehicle, for example.
[Description of prior art]
In order to improve the convenience of electric vehicles that have begun to spread in recent years, it is important to improve the efficiency of the electric motor in order to increase the travelable distance per charge. In order to improve this efficiency, it is effective to use a small electric motor that rotates at high speed, and to reduce the rotation of the output shaft of this electric motor before transmitting it to the drive wheels. Of the speed reducers used in this case, at least the first stage speed reducer directly connected to the output shaft of the electric motor has a very high operating speed, so friction and noise during operation can be reduced. It is conceivable to use a roller speed reducer. As a friction roller type speed reducer that can be used in such a case, for example, those described in Patent Documents 1 to 3 are known. Of these, the conventional structure described in Patent Document 3 will be described with reference to FIGS.
The friction roller speed reducer 1 includes an input shaft 2, an output shaft 3, a sun roller 4, an annular roller 5, a plurality of planetary rollers 6 and 6, each of which is an intermediate roller, a loading cam device 7, Is provided.
Among these, the sun roller 4 is concentric with each other with a pair of sun roller elements 8a and 8b divided in the axial direction around the input shaft 2 and with a gap interposed between the tip surfaces of each other. Of these, the sun roller element 8a is arranged so as to be rotatable relative to the input shaft 2. The outer peripheral surfaces of the two sun roller elements 8a and 8b are inclined surfaces that are inclined in a direction in which the outer diameter becomes smaller toward the respective front end surfaces, and these inclined surfaces serve as rolling contact surfaces. Therefore, the outer diameter of this rolling contact surface is small at the axially intermediate portion and becomes larger toward both ends.
The annular roller 5 has a circular shape as a whole, and is supported and fixed to a fixed portion such as a housing (not shown) in a state of being arranged concentrically with the sun roller 4 around the sun roller 4. . The inner peripheral surface of the annular roller 5 is a rolling contact surface inclined in a direction in which the inner diameter increases toward the axial center.
The planetary rollers 6 and 6 are disposed at a plurality of locations in the circumferential direction of the annular space 9 between the outer peripheral surface of the sun roller 4 and the inner peripheral surface of the annular roller 5. The planetary rollers 6, 6 are rotatable around planetary shafts 10, 10, which are rotation shafts, which are arranged in parallel with the input shaft 2 and the output shaft 3, respectively, via radial needle bearings. I support it. The base end portions of the planetary shafts 10 and 10 are supported and fixed to a carrier 11 that is a support frame that is coupled and fixed to the base end portion of the output shaft 3. The outer peripheral surfaces of the planetary rollers 6, 6 are convex curved surfaces having a partial arc shape on the generatrix, and are in rolling contact with the outer peripheral surface of the sun roller 4 and the inner peripheral surface of the annular roller 5, respectively.
  Further, the loading cam device 7 is provided between one sun roller element 8 a and the input shaft 2. For this purpose, a support ring 13 is locked to the intermediate portion of the input shaft 2 by a retaining ring 12, and the support ring 13 and the one sun roller element 8a are arranged in this order from the support ring 13 side. Further, a disc spring 14, a cam plate 15, and a plurality of balls 16, 16 each of which is a rolling element are provided. Then, the driven cam surfaces 17 and 17 and the driving cam surface 18 are respectively provided at a plurality of circumferential positions on the base end surface of the one sun roller element 8a and the one side surface of the cam plate 15 facing each other. , 18 are provided. Each of the cam surfaces 17 and 18 has a shape in which the depth in the axial direction is deepest in the central portion in the circumferential direction, and gradually becomes shallower toward both ends.
  In such a loading cam device 7, when the input shaft 2 is stopped, the balls 16, 16 are deepest on the cam surfaces 17, 18 as shown in FIG. Located in the part. In this state, the one sun roller element 8a is pressed toward the other sun roller element 8b by the elasticity of the disc spring 14. On the other hand, when the input shaft 2 rotates, the balls 16 and 16 move to shallow portions of the cam surfaces 17 and 18 as shown in FIG. Then, the distance between the one sun roller element 8a and the cam plate 15 is increased, and the one sun roller element 8a is pressed toward the other sun roller element 8b. As a result, the one sun roller element 8a is generated by the elasticity of the disc spring 14 and the balls 16, 16 riding on the cam surfaces 17, 18 toward the other sun roller element 8b. It is driven to rotate while being pressed by the larger force of the thrust to be applied.
  During operation of the friction roller type speed reducer 1 as described above, the distance between the two sun roller elements 8a and 8b is reduced by the axial thrust generated by the loading cam device 7. And the surface pressure of the rolling contact portion between the outer peripheral surface of the sun roller 4 constituted by both the sun roller elements 8a and 8b and the outer peripheral surface of the planetary rollers 6 and 6 increases. As the surface pressure increases, the planetary rollers 6 and 6 are pushed outward in the radial direction of the sun roller 4 and the annular roller 5. Then, the surface pressure of the rolling contact portion between the inner peripheral surface of the annular roller 5 and the outer peripheral surfaces of the planetary rollers 6 and 6 also increases. As a result, the surface pressures of the plurality of rolling contact portions, which are provided between the input shaft 2 and the output shaft 3 and are to be used for power transmission, each of which is a traction portion, are determined by It rises according to the magnitude of the torque to be transmitted between.
  When the input shaft 2 is rotated in this state, the rotation is transmitted from the sun roller 4 to the planetary rollers 6, 6, and the planetary rollers 6, 6 are rotating around the sun roller 4. Revolve. The revolving motion of these planetary rollers 6 and 6 can be taken out by the output shaft 3 through the carrier 11. The surface pressure of each of the traction portions is appropriate according to the magnitude of torque to be transmitted between the two shafts 2 and 3, and excessive slip occurs in each of the traction portions, or these It is possible to prevent the rolling resistance from increasing due to excessive surface pressure of each traction section.
  During the operation of the conventional friction roller type speed reducer 1 as described above, the planetary rollers 6 and 6 slightly move in the radial direction of the sun roller 4 and the annular roller 5 in accordance with the operation of the loading cam device 7. Although it is (for example, several hundred μm at the maximum), it is displaced. That is, when the torque input from the input shaft 2 is changed to the friction roller type speed reducer 1, the axial dimension of the loading cam device 7 is changed (expanded / reduced), and among the one sun roller element 8a, The radial dimension of the portion entering the inside of each planetary roller 6, 6 changes. Along with this change, the planetary rollers 6 and 6 are displaced in the radial direction of the sun roller 4 and the annular roller 5. In the conventional structure shown in FIG. Can only be allowed based on the elastic displacement. For this reason, when the torque changes, the planetary rollers 6 and 6 are not necessarily displaced smoothly in the radial direction, and the surface pressure of the traction portions tends to be uneven. And when it becomes non-uniform | heterogenous, the transmission efficiency of the said friction roller type reduction gear 1 will deteriorate.
[Description of Prior Invention]
In view of the circumstances as described above, as a friction roller type speed reducer that can smoothly displace the intermediate roller accompanying the change in the thickness of the loading cam device in the axial direction and obtains excellent transmission efficiency, There is an invention related to 2011-57869. The present invention is an improvement of the friction roller type speed reducer according to the present invention, and since many structural parts are common, first, an example of the structure of the embodiment of the prior invention will be described with reference to FIGS. Will be described.
  The friction roller type speed reducer 1a, which is an example of the embodiment of the present invention, rotationally drives the sun roller 4a by the input shaft 2a, and rotates the sun roller 4a via a plurality of intermediate rollers 19 and 19. The rotation is transmitted to the annular roller 5a, and the rotation of the annular roller 5a is taken out from the output shaft 3a. Each of the intermediate rollers 19, 19 rotates only around the rotation shafts 20, 20 provided at the center thereof, and does not revolve around the sun roller 4 a. This sun roller 4a is formed by concentrically combining a pair of sun roller elements 8c, 8c having the same shape, and a pair of loading cams at a position sandwiching both the sun roller elements 8c, 8c from both sides in the axial direction. Devices 7a and 7a are installed. Each of these components is housed in a stepped cylindrical housing 21 having a large diameter in the middle in the axial direction and a small diameter at both ends.
  The base half of the input shaft 2a (the right half of FIG. 13) is located inside the input side small diameter cylindrical portion 22 of the housing 21 and a multi-row ball bearing unit 23, and the output shaft 3a is also the output side small diameter cylindrical portion. Each is supported rotatably by a double row ball bearing unit 25 inside 24. A labyrinth seal 26 is provided between a pair of ball bearings constituting the double row ball bearing unit 25, and foreign matter enters the housing 21 through the installation portion of the output shaft 3a located on the outer space side. It is preventing. The input shaft 2a and the output shaft 3a are arranged concentrically with each other, and the tip of the input shaft 2a is placed inside a circular recess 27 formed at the center of the base end surface of the output shaft 3a. It is supported by a radial rolling bearing 28 such as a bearing or a needle bearing. With this configuration, the support rigidity (particularly radial rigidity) of the front half portion (left half portion in FIG. 13) of the input shaft 2a is secured while ensuring the freedom of relative rotation between the input shaft 2a and the output shaft 3a. Secured. The base end portion of the output shaft 3a is connected to the annular roller 5a by a connecting portion 29 having an L-shaped cross section. In the case of this example, the inner peripheral surface of the annular roller 5a is a cylindrical surface whose inner diameter does not change with respect to the axial direction, and the inner diameter side of the large-diameter cylindrical portion 30 provided in the middle portion of the housing 21 in the axial direction. It arrange | positions concentrically with this solar roller 4a in the surrounding part of the solar roller 4a.
  The two sun roller elements 8c, 8c are concentric with the input shaft 2a around the front half of the input shaft 2a so as to be able to rotate relative to the input shaft 2a, and have their front end surfaces (opposing each other). Are arranged with a gap between them. The pair of cam plates 15a and 15a constituting the both loading cam devices 7a and 7a are positioned at two positions of the intermediate portion and the tip portion of the input shaft 2a, and the sun roller elements 8c and 8c are pivoted. It is fitted and fixed at positions sandwiched from both sides in the direction so as to rotate in synchronization with the input shaft 2a. Then, the driven cam surfaces 17 and 17 are driven at a plurality of positions in the circumferential direction between the base end surfaces of the sun roller elements 8c and 8c and the one side surfaces of the cam plates 15a and 15a, which face each other. Side cam surfaces 18 and 18 are provided, and balls 16 and 16 are sandwiched between the cam surfaces 17 and 18 to constitute both loading cam devices 7a and 7a. The shape of each of the cam surfaces 17 and 18 may be basically the same as that of the above-described conventional structure, but may be appropriately changed according to the required performance. In any case, each of the cam surfaces 17 and 18 has a depth in the axial direction that gradually changes in the circumferential direction, and is deepest at the center in the circumferential direction, and also becomes shallower toward both ends.
  By arranging the loading cam devices 7a, 7a on both sides in the axial direction of the sun roller 4a, when torque is input to the input shaft 2a, the rollers 4a, 5a, 19 are The surface pressure of each traction portion, which is a rolling contact portion between the peripheral surfaces, is increased. First, in a state where no torque is input to the input shaft 2a, as shown in FIG. 14A, the balls 16, 16 constituting the loading cam devices 7a, 7a are connected to the cam surfaces. 17 and 18 are located at the bottom or near the bottom. In this state, the thickness dimension of both the loading cam devices 7a, 7a is small, and the distance between the two sun roller elements 8c, 8c is widened. In this state, even if the intermediate rollers 19 are not pushed outward with respect to the radial direction of the sun roller 4a and the annular roller 5a, even if they are pushed by the elasticity of a preload spring, etc. The force that is applied is small.
  From this state, when torque is input to the input shaft 2a (the friction roller type speed reducer 1a is activated), the engagement between the balls 16 and 16 and the cam surfaces 17 and 18 As shown in FIG. 14B, the axial thicknesses of the loading cam devices 7a and 7a are increased. The sun roller elements 8c, 8c bite into the intermediate rollers 19 in the radial direction of the friction roller type speed reducer 1a, and push the intermediate rollers 19 outward in the radial direction. As a result, the surface pressure of each of the traction portions increases, and power can be transmitted from the sun roller 4a to the annular roller 5a without causing excessive slippage in the traction portions.
  At the time of operation of the friction roller type speed reducer 1a, each of the intermediate rollers 19 and 19 rotates around the respective rotation shafts 20 and 20, and at the same time, the radial direction of the friction roller type speed reducer 1a is accompanied by a change in transmission torque. It is displaced to. In order to smoothly perform the rotation and radial displacement of the intermediate rollers 19 and 19 as described above, in the case of this example, the intermediate rollers 19 and 19 are connected to the annular roller 5a by the following structure. Are installed in an annular space 9a between the inner circumferential surface and the sun roller 4a. In order to support the intermediate rollers 19, 19, a support frame 32 as shown in FIGS. 15 to 16 is supported and fixed on the inner surface of an end plate 31 that closes one axial direction side of the large-diameter cylindrical portion 30 of the housing 21. doing. The support frame 32 has a structure like a carrier constituting a planetary gear mechanism, and a plurality of circumferentially equidistant portions of a pair of rim portions 33a and 33b that are arranged concentrically with each other in an annular shape. 34 and 34 are coupled and fixed. Such a support frame 32 is supported and fixed inside the large-diameter cylindrical portion 30 concentrically with the sun roller 4a by screwing the rim portion 33a to the inner surface of the end plate 31.
  On the other hand, the intermediate rollers 19 and 19 are rotatably supported at the tip portions of the swing frames 35 and 35, respectively. Each of the swing frames 35, 35 has a pair of support arms 36, 36 parallel to each other connected to each other by a base 37 so that the shape viewed in the radial direction is a U-shape. The ends of the rotation shafts 20 and 20 of the intermediate rollers 19 and 19 are rotatably supported by ball bearings 38 and 38 at the tip ends of the support arms 36 and 36 of the swing frames 35 and 35, respectively. ing. Further, support shafts 40 formed with swing shafts 39, 39 concentrically projecting on both side surfaces of the base end portions of the swing frames 35, 35 at portions aligned with each other of the rim portions 33a, 33b, 40 is inserted without rattling.
  The swing shafts 39 and 39 and the rotation shafts 20 and 20 are parallel to each other, and the phase of the support frame 32 in the circumferential direction is greatly shifted. Specifically, the swinging shafts 39, 39 and the respective rotation shafts 20 are set to be as large as possible in the circumferential direction between the respective swinging shafts 39, 39 and the respective rotation shafts 20, 20. , 20 is made close to the direction of the tangent with respect to the virtual arc with the center of the support frame 32 as the center. With this configuration, the swing frames 35 and 35 can be swung with respect to the support frame 32 around the swing shafts 39 and 39, respectively, and the intermediate rollers 19 and 19 are supported by the support frames 32. The frame 32 is supported so that it can be smoothly displaced substantially in the radial direction of the support frame 32.
  The outer peripheral surface of each of the intermediate rollers 19 and 19 is a portion in which the axially intermediate portion is a simple cylindrical surface, and both axial portions are inclined at the same angle in the same direction as the outer peripheral surfaces of the two sun roller elements 8c and 8c. It is a conical convex inclined surface. Accordingly, the peripheral surfaces of the rollers 4a, 5a, 19 are in line contact with each other, and the contact area of the traction portions can be ensured.
  Further, flange portions 41 and 41 having outward flange shapes are provided on the outer peripheral surfaces of the base end portions of the sun roller elements 8c and 8c, respectively. That is, of the outer peripheral surfaces of these sun roller elements 8c, 8c, the portion that is in rolling contact with the outer peripheral surface of each of the intermediate rollers 19, 19 is an inclined surface that is inclined in a direction in which the outer diameter decreases toward the tip surface. Thus, the outer diameters of the two flange portions 41, 41 protrude outward in the radial direction over the entire circumference from the base end portion of the inclined surface. Then, a plurality of concave portions 42 and 42 and the driven cam surfaces 17 and 17 are provided in the circumferential direction on the base end surfaces of the solar roller elements 8c and 8c including both flange portions 41 and 41, respectively. Are arranged alternately. Each of the recesses 42 and 42 is formed by continuously connecting wide portions 43 and 43 having a large width dimension in the radial direction and narrow portions 44 and 44 having a small width dimension in the same direction in the circumferential direction. With respect to the circumferential direction, the arrangement directions of the narrow portions 44 and 44 and the wide portions 43 and 43 are the same. The two sun roller elements 8c, 8c are combined in the same direction with the direction in the axial direction reversed. Therefore, the arrangement directions of the wide portions 43 and 43 and the narrow portions 44 and 44 are opposite to each other between the one sun roller element 8c and the other sun roller element 8c.
  On the other hand, a part of the inner side surfaces of the cam plates 15a, 15a (side surfaces opposite to each other in the axial direction) are combined with the sun roller elements 8c, 8c to form the concave portions 42, 42. Receiving plate portions 45 and 45 project from the portions matching the wide portions 43 and 43, respectively. Each of the receiving plate portions 45, 45 has a height dimension in the axial direction and a width dimension in the radial direction that can enter the wide portions 43, 43 of the concave portions 42, 42. The sun roller elements 8c, 8c and the cam plates 15a, 15a are the same number as the concave portions 42, 42 and the receiving plate portions 45, 45, respectively. By combining through 46, a preload mechanism is incorporated in both loading cam devices 7a, 7a.
  That is, as shown in FIGS. 19 to 21, in the state where the compression coil springs 46, 46 are inserted into the narrow portions 44, 44 of the recesses 42, 42, the receiving plate portions 45, 45 are moved. While inserting into the wide parts 43 and 43 of the said recessed parts 42 and 42, the balls 16 and 16 are clamped between the said cam surfaces 17 and 18. And, between the circumferential direction one side surface of each of the receiving plate portions 45, 45 and the inner end surface on the narrow portion 44, 44 side of the circumferential direction both inner end surfaces of the respective concave portions 42, 42, Each compression coil spring 46, 46 is clamped in a compressed state. In FIG. 19, these compression coil springs 46 are drawn in an elastically compressed state. In a free state, one end of each of the compression coil springs 46 and 46 protrudes greatly into the wide portions 43 and 43 of the respective recesses 42 and 42.
  In the state where the loading cam devices 7a and 7a are assembled as described above, the solar roller elements 8c and 8c and the solar roller elements 8c and 8c are interposed between the solar roller elements 8c and 8c and the cam plates 15a and 15a. Elasticity in a direction that relatively displaces both the cam plates 15a and 15a in the circumferential direction is applied. The direction in which the sun rollers 8c and 8c are relatively displaced in the rotational direction around the input shaft 2a is opposite to each other between the sun rollers 8c and 8c. Even when no torque is input to the input shaft 2a, the balls 16 and 16 are displaced toward shallow portions of the driven cam surfaces 17 and 17 and the driving cam surfaces 18 and 18, respectively. This displacement causes the loading cam devices 7a, 7a to generate a cam portion pressing force in a direction that increases the thickness dimension in the axial direction, thereby applying a preload for ensuring the surface pressure of each traction portion. .
The friction roller type speed reducer 1a according to the prior invention configured as described above acts as follows to transmit power from the input shaft 2a to the output shaft 3a while increasing the torque at the same time as decelerating.
That is, when the input shaft 2a is rotationally driven by an electric motor, the cam plates 15a and 15a fitted on the input shaft 2a rotate, and the sun roller elements 8c and 8c are connected to the balls 16 and 16 respectively. Based on the engagement with each of the cam surfaces 17 and 18, they are rotated in the same direction as the input shaft 2 a while being pressed toward each other. Then, the rotation of the sun roller 4a constituted by the both sun roller elements 8c and 8c is transmitted to the annular roller 5a through the intermediate rollers 19 and 19, and is taken out from the output shaft 3a. In order to circulate traction oil in the housing 21 during operation of the friction roller type speed reducer 1a, traction oil is provided at the rolling contact portion (traction portion) between the peripheral surfaces of the rollers 4a, 19, 5a. The thin film exists. Further, the surface pressure of each of these traction portions is ensured to some extent from the moment when the friction roller type speed reducer 1a is started by the cam portion pressing force generated based on the elasticity of each of the compression coil springs 46, 46. . Accordingly, power transmission is started from the moment of activation without causing excessive slip in each of the traction units.
  When the torque applied to the input shaft 2a increases, the amount of the balls 16, 16 constituting the loading cam devices 7a, 7a on the cam surfaces 17, 18 increases. The axial thickness of 7a and 7a further increases. As a result, the surface pressure of each of the traction portions is further increased, and a large torque is transmitted in each of the traction portions without causing excessive slip. The surface pressure of each of these traction sections is obtained by multiplying an appropriate value according to the torque to be transmitted between the input shaft 2a and the output shaft 3a, specifically, a necessary minimum value by an appropriate safety factor. Automatically adjusted to the value. As a result, regardless of fluctuations in the torque transmitted between the two shafts 2a and 3a, excessive slip occurs in each traction section, and conversely, the rolling resistance of each traction section increases. Therefore, the transmission efficiency of the friction roller type reduction gear 1a can be improved.
  Moreover, the intermediate rollers 19, 19 are smoothly displaced radially outward of the sun roller 4a and the annular roller 5a based on the swing displacement of the swing frames 35, 35. Accordingly, it is possible to prevent the surface pressures of the traction portions from becoming uneven, make the surface pressures of the traction portions appropriate, and further improve the transmission efficiency of the friction roller type speed reducer 1a.
  Further, in the case of the friction roller type reduction gear 1a shown in the drawing, the starting characteristics of the friction roller type reduction gear 1a can be made the same regardless of the rotational directions of the two shafts 2a and 3a. This reason will be described with reference to FIG. As described above, the direction in which the compression coil springs 46 and 46 press the two sun roller elements 8c and 8c between the loading cam devices 7a and 7a is opposite to the circumferential direction. Therefore, the positional relationship between the balls 16 and 16 and the cam surfaces 17 and 18 constituting the loading cam devices 7a and 7a is symmetric with respect to both rotation directions. For this reason, even when the two shafts 2a and 3a rotate in any direction, the characteristics at the start of the friction roller type reduction gear 1a can be made the same. At the time of this activation, the sun roller 4a constituted by the two sun roller elements 8c, 8c is slightly displaced in the axial direction, and accordingly, each of the intermediate rollers that are in rolling contact with the outer peripheral surface of the sun roller 4a. The rollers 19 and 19 are also slightly displaced in the axial direction. In the case of the friction roller type speed reducer 1a, the inner peripheral surface of the annular roller 5a, which is in rolling contact with the outer peripheral surfaces of the intermediate rollers 19 and 19, is a simple cylindrical surface. Further, between the inner side surfaces of the support arms 36, 36 of the swing frames 35, 35 and the axial end surfaces of the intermediate rollers 19, 19, and the outer surfaces of the support arms 36, 36 and the There is a slight gap between the inner surfaces of the rim portions 33a and 33b. Therefore, the intermediate rollers 19 and 19 are smoothly displaced in the axial direction, and the rotation of the intermediate rollers 19 and 19 is not impaired.
  Further, in the case of the friction roller type reduction gear 1a, the cam plates 15a and 15a and the sun roller elements 8c and 8c constituting the loading cam devices 7a and 7a are relatively displaced in the rotation direction, whereby Pressure is applied to the traction section. For this reason, both the loading cam devices 7a, 7a are efficient, it is easy to secure a stroke, and it is easy to ensure sufficient durability. That is, in the case of the friction roller type speed reducer 1a, the respective receiving plate portions 45, 45 are pressed by the respective compression coil springs 46, 46 so that both the loading cam devices 7a, 7a are connected to the input shaft 2a. The cam portion pressing force is generated by substantially the same behavior as when torque is input to the preload, and the preload is applied. Even after torque is input to the input shaft 2a, the compression coil springs 46, 46 continue to press the receiving plate portions 45, 45.
  Therefore, while the friction roller type speed reducer 1a is in operation, the elasticity of the compression coil springs 46, 46 contributes to increasing the total pressing force generated by the loading cam devices 7a, 7a as a whole. To do. In this respect, the structure of this example is a disc spring 14 that is a preload application member in a state in which the cam pressing force generated in the loading cam device 7 is increased as in the conventional structure shown in FIG. This is different from the structure in which the elasticity of ceases to contribute to the increase in the total pressing force. That is, assuming that the sizes of the balls 16 and 16 and the shapes (tilt angles) of the cam surfaces 17 and 18 are the same, in the case of the conventional structure, the torque applied to the input shaft 2 is reduced. The total pressing force changes according to the magnitude as shown by the broken line α in FIG. 22, whereas in the case of the structure of this example, it changes as shown by the solid line β in FIG. For this reason, for example, when it is assumed that the required total pressing force is the same, by increasing the inclination angle of each of the cam surfaces 17 and 18, the two sun rollers can be obtained until a predetermined total pressing force is obtained. The angle at which the elements 8c, 8c and the cam plates 15a, 15a are relatively displaced in the circumferential direction can be kept small. The fact that this angle can be kept small contributes to an improvement in the responsiveness of the friction rotor reducer 1a (rotational synchronization between the input shaft 2a and the output shaft 3a).
  Further, the durability can be ensured by preventing an excessive force from being applied to the compression coil springs 46, 46 regardless of the operating state of the friction roller type reduction gear 1a. That is, the total length of each of the compression coil springs 46 and 46 becomes the shortest when the torque applied to the input shaft 2a is zero, and gradually expands as the torque increases. Even when the torque is zero, no excessive force is applied to the compression coil springs 46, 46, so that the elasticity of the compression coil springs 46, 46 is lowered regardless of the use over a long period of time. It is possible to ensure the durability.
  Incidentally, as a structure according to the prior invention, there is a structure in which the loading cam device 7a is provided only on one side in the axial direction of the sun roller 4b as shown in FIG. In this structure, only one of the pair of solar roller elements 8c and 8d (on the right side in FIG. 23) constituting the solar roller 4b (right side in FIG. 23) is supported so as to be able to rotate relative to the input shaft 2b. The other (left side of FIG. 23) sun roller element 8d is supported and fixed to the input shaft 2b.
  In any structure, in order to enable a large torque to be stably transmitted with the structure of the previous invention, each of the swing frames 35, 35 is constituted by 1 for each of the swing frames 35, 35. It is preferable to improve the rigidity of the support arms 36 and 36 provided in pairs. The reason will be described below. In the case of the structure according to the above-described prior invention, for example, as is apparent from FIGS. 17 to 18, the two support arms 36 and 36 constituting the swing frames 35 and 35 have their base ends at the base ends. The base part 37 is connected and fixed, and the middle part or the tip part is not fixed to any part. In short, the support arms 36 and 36 are free ends that are not supported by any part.
On the other hand, there is a possibility that an axial force, which is a force causing axial displacement, is applied to each intermediate roller 19 during operation of the friction roller type reduction gear 1a. There are various causes for the generation of such a force when the properties (shape accuracy, surface roughness, etc.) of the peripheral surfaces of the rollers 4a, 5a, and 10 are irregular. For example, each of the intermediate rollers 19 rotates with the rotation center axis (spinning axis 20) of each of the intermediate rollers 19 and the center axis of the sun roller 4a or the annular roller 5a inclined (skew has occurred). ) Also occurs in the axial direction. In any case, when this axial force is generated, each of the intermediate rollers 19 pushes the inner surface of one of the support arms 36, 36, and the support arm 36 is moved outward. There is a possibility of deforming towards. As a result of this deformation, the outer surface of the support arm 36 and the inner surfaces of the rim portions 33a and 33b constituting the support frame 32 are rubbed strongly, and the swing frames 35 with respect to the support frame 32 are rubbed. , 35 may not be smoothly moved.
JP 59-187154 A JP-A-61-136053 JP 2004-116670 A
  In view of the circumstances as described above, the present invention has been invented to realize a structure capable of improving the rigidity of a pair of support arms constituting a swing frame that rotatably supports an intermediate roller. .
The friction roller type speed reducer according to the present invention includes an input shaft, an output shaft, a sun roller, an annular roller, a plurality of intermediate rollers, and a loading cam, similarly to the conventionally known friction roller type speed reducers. Device.
In particular, in the friction roller type speed reducer according to the present invention, both axial end portions of the rotation shaft of each intermediate roller are supported by the tip end portion of a swing frame provided independently for each intermediate roller. Yes. Further, each of the swinging frames is swinging with respect to the support frame around the swinging shaft which is parallel to the respective rotating shafts and whose phase with respect to the rotation direction of the sun roller deviates from these rotating shafts. Supports displacement. And each said rotating shaft is supported so that the displacement of the radial direction of the said sun roller and the said annular roller is possible.
Each of the swinging frames has a base and a pair of axially extending ends of the base in the same direction and substantially in parallel with each other (except for a slight inclination based on manufacturing errors). A bifurcated structure including a support arm.
Further, the rotation shaft includes a cylindrical portion at an axially intermediate portion, a male screw portion having a smaller diameter than the cylindrical portion at a distal end portion, and a head portion having a larger diameter than the cylindrical portion at a proximal end portion. It is. Then, the cylindrical portion is inserted into a through hole of a circular through hole and a screw hole arranged concentrically with each other at the tip end portions of the pair of support arm portions constituting each swing frame. In addition, the male screw part is screwed into the screw hole and further tightened to support and fix between the pair of support arm parts, and the gap between the pair of support arm parts is prevented from expanding. doing.
When carrying out the present invention as described above, for example, as in the invention described in claim 2, each of the swing frames has an integral structure in which the base and the both support arms are integrated.
Alternatively, as in the invention described in claim 3, each swing frame includes a first element in which the base portion and one of the support arms are integrated, and the other support arm. The second element to be configured is connected and fixed by a second bolt inserted through the base.
When the invention described in claim 3 is carried out, as in the invention described in claim 4, for example, the second bolt is placed closer to the tip of each swing frame than the swing shaft. Provide. Alternatively, as in the fifth aspect of the invention, the second bolt is a hollow circular tube, and the second bolt is provided around the swing shaft.
  According to the present invention configured as described above, it is possible to improve the rigidity of the pair of support arms constituting each swing frame that rotatably supports the intermediate roller. For this reason, it is possible to prevent the gap between the two support arms from expanding and prevent the two support arms and other members such as the support frame from rubbing, and the swing displacement of each swing frame is impaired. Can be prevented. The transmission efficiency of the friction roller reduction gear is maintained while maintaining good contact between the outer peripheral surface of each intermediate roller supported by each of the swing frames, the outer peripheral surface of the sun roller, and the inner peripheral surface of the annular roller. Can be secured.
The figure similar to FIG. 17 which shows the 1st example of embodiment of this invention. FIG. 2 is an orthographic view seen from the right side of FIG. 1. FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line aa in FIG. 2. The figure similar to FIG. 17 which shows the 2nd example of embodiment of this invention. The orthographic projection seen from the right side of FIG. Bb sectional view of FIG. The figure similar to FIG. 17 which shows the 3rd example of embodiment of this invention. FIG. 8 is an orthographic projection viewed from the right side of FIG. 7. Cc sectional drawing of FIG. Sectional drawing which shows an example of a conventional structure. Dd sectional drawing of FIG. 10 which abbreviate | omits and shows a part. The schematic diagram equivalent to the ee cross section of FIG. 11 which each shows the state (B) which has generate | occur | produced similarly to the state (A) in which the loading cam apparatus is not generating thrust. Sectional drawing which shows the 1st example of embodiment of prior invention. The schematic diagram for demonstrating the mechanism for preload provision. The perspective view which shows the structure of the part which supports the rotation axis | shaft of an intermediate | middle roller so that a sun roller and an annular roller can be displaced to the radial direction. Similarly disassembled perspective view. The perspective view which takes out and shows only one unit which combined the rocking | fluctuation frame and the intermediate | middle roller. Furthermore, the exploded perspective view which shows this unit in the state divided into the rocking | fluctuation frame and the intermediate | middle roller. The perspective view which takes out the sun roller element and cam board of the center part right side of FIG. 13, and shows with a ball | bowl and a compression coil spring. The schematic diagram for demonstrating the direction of the preload provision by a compression coil spring. The schematic diagram for demonstrating the engagement state of each cam surface and ball | bowl of a drive side and a to-be-driven side. The diagram which shows the relationship between the magnitude | size and direction of the torque which are applied to an input shaft, and the axial pressing force which a loading cam apparatus generate | occur | produces. The schematic diagram which shows the 2nd example of embodiment of prior invention.
[First example of embodiment]
1 to 3 illustrate a first example of an embodiment of the present invention corresponding to claims 1 and 2. The feature of the present invention, including this example, is to improve the rigidity of the two support arms so that the distance between the tips of the pair of support arms constituting the bifurcated swing frame does not increase. In the structure. Since the structure and operation of the other parts are the same as those of the structure according to the previous invention shown in FIGS. 12 to 21 or 23 described above, the illustration and explanation of the equivalent parts are omitted or simplified. The description will focus on the characteristic part.
  The swing frame 35a incorporated in the structure of the present example is integrally formed by subjecting a metal material to cutting or forging, and includes a base portion 37a and a pair of support arms 36a and 36b. These support arms 36a and 36b are each flat and provided in parallel to each other. A circular through hole 47 is formed at the tip of one (right side in FIGS. 1 and 3) of the support arm 36a, and a screw hole 48 is concentric with the other support arm 36b (left side of FIGS. 1 and 3). Forming. The diameter of the root circle of the screw hole 48 is smaller than the inner diameter of the through hole 47. Then, by using these through holes 47 and screw holes 48, bolts 49 functioning as rotation axes are spanned between the tips of the both support arms 36a, 36b.
  The bolt 49 has a cylindrical portion 50 at an axially intermediate portion, a male screw portion 51 having a smaller diameter than the cylindrical portion 50 at a distal end portion (left end portion in FIG. 3), and a proximal end portion (right end portion in FIG. 3). A head 52 having a diameter larger than that of the cylindrical portion 50 is provided. The outer peripheral surface of the cylindrical portion 50 is a smooth cylindrical surface so as to function as an inner ring raceway of a radial needle bearing 55 described later. Further, the outer diameter of the cylindrical portion 50 is slightly smaller than the inner diameter of the through hole 47, and the diameter of the tip circle of the male screw portion 51 is smaller than the outer diameter of the cylindrical portion 50. Further, a boundary portion between the cylindrical portion 50 and the male screw portion 51 is a front end side step surface 53, and a boundary portion between the cylindrical portion 50 and the head portion 52 is a base end side step surface 54. Both the step surfaces 53 and 54 are formed in a direction orthogonal to the central axis of the bolt 49, and the axial distance between them is set so that the outer surface of the one support arm 36a and the other support It is made to correspond with the appropriate distance with the inner surface of the arm 36b.
  The bolt 49 as described above is inserted into the through hole 47 of the cylindrical part 50, and the male screw part 51 is screwed into the screw hole 48 and further tightened, whereby the tip parts of the both support arms 36a, 36b. While extending between them, the front-end | tip parts of both these support arms 36a and 36b are couple | bonded and fixed. In this way, when the bolt 49 is passed between the tips of the support arms 36a and 36b, the intermediate roller 19a and the radial needle bearing 55 are disposed between the support arms 36a and 36b. Keep it. The radial needle bearing 55 is attached to the inner peripheral surface of the intermediate roller 19a with traction grease or the like. The bolt 49 is stretched between the tip ends of the support arms 36a and 36b in a state where the inner diameter side of the radial needle bearing 55 is inserted. Accordingly, in a state where the male thread portion 51 of the bolt 49 is screwed into the screw hole 48 and further tightened, the intermediate roller 19a is rotatably supported between the support arms 36a and 36b.
  Further, a through hole 56 is formed in the base portion 37a in parallel with the bolt 49 in a state where both end surfaces of the base portion 37a are communicated with each other. The swing shaft 39a is inserted through the through hole 56. In this state, both end portions of the swing shaft 39a protrude from the left and right outer surfaces of the swing frame 35a. In a state where the friction roller type speed reducer is assembled, both ends of the swing shaft 39a are fitted in support holes 40 and 40 (see FIGS. 13, 15, and 16) formed in the support frame 32. One fitting of the fitting portion between the through hole 56 and the intermediate portion of the swing shaft 39a, and the fitting portion between the both end portions of the swing shaft 39a and the support holes 40, 40. The part is a gap fit, and the other fitting part is an interference fit. With this configuration, the swinging shaft 39a is prevented from coming off, and at the same time, the swinging frame 35a is supported with respect to the support frame 32 so as to be capable of swinging displacement about the swinging shaft 39a. When the head 52 of the bolt 49 and the rim portion 33a (see FIGS. 15 to 16) of the support frame 32 may interfere with the swing of the swing frame 35a, for example, As shown in FIG. 15, recesses 57 and 57 for preventing interference are formed in the rim portion 33a. Alternatively, a low head bolt having a small head axial thickness is used as the bolt, and a circular recess (counterbore) is provided in a portion surrounding the opening of the bolt insertion hole on the outer surface of the rim portion 33a. The head may not protrude from the outer surface of the rim portion 33a.
  According to the structure of this example configured as described above, it is possible to improve the rigidity of the support arms 36a and 36b constituting the swing frame 35a that supports the intermediate roller 19a rotatably. That is, both the support arms 36a and 36b are engaged with the engagement portion between the outer surface of one of the support arms 36a and the base end side step surface 54, and the screw hole 48 and the male screw portion 51. The portions are prevented from being displaced in directions away from each other. Therefore, even when the inner rollers 19a and 36b are pushed by the axial side surfaces of the intermediate roller 19a due to the skew of the intermediate roller 19a, the distance between the two support arms 36a and 36b is maintained. There is no spread. For this reason, it is possible to prevent these support arms 36a and 36b and other members such as the support frame 32 from rubbing, and to prevent the swing displacement of the swing frame 35a from being damaged. As a result, the friction roller type speed reducer is maintained with good contact between the outer peripheral surface of the intermediate roller 19a supported by the swing frame 35a and the outer peripheral surface of the sun roller 4a and the inner peripheral surface of the annular roller 5a. Can be ensured.
[Second Example of Embodiment]
FIGS. 4-6 has shown the 2nd example of embodiment of this invention corresponding to Claim 1,3,4. In the case of this example, the swing frame 35 b is configured by connecting and fixing the first element 58 and the second element 59 with the second bolt 60. Of these, the first element 58 is formed by subjecting a metal material to a cutting process or a forging process, and integrally includes a base portion 37b and one support arm 36a. The second element 59 has a flat plate shape made of a metal material, and includes a coupling plate portion 61 and the other support plate portion 36b that are abutted against the axial end surface of the base portion 37b. The first and second elements 58 and 59, each having the above-described configuration, are inserted into the base portion 37b closer to the tip of the swing frame 35b than the swing shaft 39a. The rocking frame 35b is fixed by coupling. Since the configuration and operation of the other parts are the same as in the first example of the above-described embodiment, the same parts are denoted by the same reference numerals, and redundant description is omitted.
[Third example of embodiment]
7 to 9 show a third example of the embodiment of the invention corresponding to claims 1, 3, and 5. FIG. In the case of this example as well, as in the case of the second example of the above-described embodiment, the swing frame 35c is configured by coupling and fixing the first element 58 and the second element 59 with the second bolt 60a. ing. In particular, in the case of the structure of this example, a hollow circular tube is used as the second bolt 60a. The second bolt 60a is provided around the swing shaft 39a. In other words, the oscillating shaft 39a is inserted inside the second bolt 60a that couples and fixes the elements 58 and 59. Since the configuration and operation of the other parts are the same as in the second example of the above-described embodiment, the same parts are denoted by the same reference numerals, and redundant description is omitted.
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1, 1a Friction roller type reduction gear 2, 2a, 2b Input shaft 3, 3a Output shaft 4, 4a, 4b Sun roller 5, 5a Annular roller 6, Planetary roller 7, 7a Loading cam device 8a, 8b, 8c, 8d Sun roller Element 9, 9a Annular space 10 Planetary shaft 11 Carrier 12 Retaining ring 13 Support ring 14 Belleville spring 15, 15a Cam plate 16 Ball 17 Drive side cam surface 18 Drive side cam surface 19, 19a Intermediate roller 20 Rotating shaft 21 Housing 22 Input Side small diameter cylindrical portion 23 Multi-row ball bearing unit 24 Output side small diameter cylindrical portion 25 Double row ball bearing unit 26 Labyrinth seal 27 Circular recess 28 Rolling bearing 29 Connecting portion 30 Large diameter cylindrical portion 31 End plate 32 Support frame 33a, 33b Rim portion 34 Stay 35, 35a, 35b, 35c Oscillating frame 36, 36a, 36b Holding arm 37, 37a, 37b Base 38 Ball bearing 39, 39a Oscillating shaft 40 Support hole 41 Gutter 42 Recess 43 Wide part 44 Narrow part 45 Receiving plate part 46 Compression coil spring 47 Through hole 48 Screw hole 49 Bolt 50 Cylinder Part 51 Male thread part 52 Head part 53 Tip side step surface 54 Base end side step surface 55 Radial needle bearing 56 Through hole 57 Recess 58 First element 59 Second element 60, 60a Second bolt 61 Connecting plate part

Claims (5)

  1. An input shaft, an output shaft, a sun roller, an annular roller, a plurality of intermediate rollers, and a loading cam device;
    Of these, the sun rollers are concentric to each other with a pair of sun roller elements divided in the axial direction around the input shaft, with a gap between the tip surfaces of the elements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the two sun roller elements are inclined surfaces that are inclined in a direction in which the outer diameter decreases toward the respective front end surfaces, and these two inclined surfaces are arranged. Rolling contact surface,
    The annular roller is arranged concentrically with the sun roller around the sun roller, and has an inner peripheral surface as a rolling contact surface.
    Each of the intermediate rollers is centered on a rotation shaft disposed in parallel with the input shaft at a plurality of locations in the circumferential direction of the annular space between the outer peripheral surface of the sun roller and the inner peripheral surface of the annular roller. In a state of being rotatably supported, each outer peripheral surface is in rolling contact with the outer peripheral surface of the sun roller and the inner peripheral surface of the annular roller,
    The loading cam device is provided between a movable sun roller element, which is at least one of the sun roller elements, and the input shaft, and the movable sun roller is rotated along with the rotation of the input shaft. The element is rotated while being pressed in the axial direction toward the other sun roller element, and the driven cam surface provided at a plurality of circumferential directions on the base end face of the movable sun roller element, and the input Of the cam plate that is fixed to a part of the shaft and rotates together with the input shaft, between the drive side cam surfaces provided at a plurality of circumferential positions on one side facing the base end surface of the movable sun roller element. Each of the driving cam surfaces and the driven cam surfaces has a shape in which the depth in the axial direction gradually changes in the circumferential direction and becomes shallower toward the end portion. Are those having,
    One member of the annular roller and the member supporting the rotation shaft is supported in a state where rotation around the sun roller is prevented, and the other member is coupled to the output shaft. In the friction roller type speed reducer in which the output shaft can be driven to rotate by the other member,
    Both end portions in the axial direction of the rotation shafts of the respective intermediate rollers are supported by tip portions of swing frames provided independently for the respective intermediate rollers, and each of the swing frames is supported on the support frame. The rotation axis of the sun roller is supported in such a manner that the phase about the rotation direction of the sun roller deviates from each of the rotation shafts so as to be able to swing and displace around the rotation shaft. And supporting the displacement of the annular roller in the radial direction,
    Each of the swing frames has a bifurcated structure including a base and a pair of support arms extending in the same direction and substantially parallel from both axial ends of the base,
    The rotation shaft is a bolt having a cylindrical portion at an axially intermediate portion, a male screw portion having a smaller diameter than the cylindrical portion at a distal end portion, and a head portion having a larger diameter than the cylindrical portion at a proximal end portion. The cylindrical portion is inserted into a through hole of a circular through hole and a screw hole that are arranged concentrically with each other at the distal ends of the pair of support arm portions constituting the swing frames. The male screw portion is screwed into the screw hole and further tightened to support and fix between the pair of support arm portions, and the gap between the pair of support arm portions is prevented from expanding. Friction roller type speed reducer characterized by
  2. The friction roller type speed reducer according to claim 1, wherein each of the swing frames has an integrated structure in which the base and the both support arms are integrated.
  3. Each of the swing frames is inserted through the base with a first element in which the base and one of the support arms are integrated, and a second element that also constitutes the other support arm. 2. The friction roller type speed reducer according to claim 1, wherein the friction roller type speed reducer is coupled and fixed by a second bolt.
  4. The friction roller type speed reducer according to claim 3, wherein the second bolt is provided closer to the tip of each swing frame than the swing shaft.
  5. The friction roller type reduction gear according to claim 3, wherein the second bolt is a hollow circular tube, and the second bolt is provided around the swing shaft.
JP2011254816A 2011-11-22 2011-11-22 Friction roller reducer Active JP5810863B2 (en)

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JP2011254816A JP5810863B2 (en) 2011-11-22 2011-11-22 Friction roller reducer

Applications Claiming Priority (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2011254816A JP5810863B2 (en) 2011-11-22 2011-11-22 Friction roller reducer
PCT/JP2012/056183 WO2012124640A1 (en) 2011-03-16 2012-03-09 Friction roller type deceleration device and drive device for electric automobile
EP12757168.5A EP2687752B1 (en) 2011-03-16 2012-03-09 Friction roller type deceleration device and drive device for electric automobile
CN201280013205.2A CN103459891B (en) 2011-03-16 2012-03-09 Friction roller type deceleration and Drive device for electric vehicle
US14/005,217 US9482323B2 (en) 2011-03-16 2012-03-09 Friction roller reducer and drive unit for electric automobile

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Family Cites Families (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1770408A (en) * 1926-02-23 1930-07-15 J F S Company Variable-speed transmission gearing
JP2004116670A (en) * 2002-09-26 2004-04-15 Ntn Corp Planetary roller type transmission
JP2006082748A (en) * 2004-09-17 2006-03-30 Toyota Motor Corp Power output device and automobile equipped with the same
JP5060454B2 (en) * 2007-11-13 2012-10-31 京セラドキュメントソリューションズ株式会社 Traction power transmission device and image forming apparatus equipped with the same
JP2010025237A (en) * 2008-07-18 2010-02-04 Toyota Central R&D Labs Inc Traction drive mechanism

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