JP5759798B2 - construction machine control system - Google Patents

construction machine control system Download PDF

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JP5759798B2
JP5759798B2 JP2011128546A JP2011128546A JP5759798B2 JP 5759798 B2 JP5759798 B2 JP 5759798B2 JP 2011128546 A JP2011128546 A JP 2011128546A JP 2011128546 A JP2011128546 A JP 2011128546A JP 5759798 B2 JP5759798 B2 JP 5759798B2
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imaging unit
work
unit
reference line
construction machine
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JP2012255286A (en
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大谷 仁志
仁志 大谷
貴司 小川
貴司 小川
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株式会社トプコン
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Description

  The present invention relates to a construction machine control system that makes it easy to grasp the current state of work when performing civil engineering work with a construction machine, improves workability, and improves the accuracy of civil engineering work.

  When performing civil engineering work using construction machines, for example, when performing civil engineering work such as excavating or forming slopes with an excavator, the worker grasps the construction data, completes the rough work, and then measured However, excavations and slopes are formed to match the construction data. However, it is difficult for the worker himself to grasp the current state of civil engineering work, for example, excavation work, and the extent of excavation amount during excavation work, etc. The accuracy of construction depends on the skill level of the operator and is inefficient.

  In Patent Document 1, a rotary laser device, which is a surveying instrument, is provided in the operator's cab of a construction machine, the laser beam is scanned in a predetermined range by the rotary laser device, and the range of the predetermined range is measured to form the work surface A construction target indicating device for measuring and displaying the above is disclosed.

  However, the rotary laser device is a precision machine having a movable part, and when it is installed on a construction machine that is expensive and has a large vibration impact, there is a risk of deterioration in accuracy or damage. Furthermore, it is necessary to perform calibration in a state where the rotary laser device is installed on the construction machine, and there is a problem that initial setting is difficult.

WO2005 / 24144 publication

  In view of such circumstances, the present invention provides a construction machine control system capable of accurately grasping the position and state of a work tool with respect to a work site with a simple device configuration.

  According to the present invention, the construction machine includes a work tool and a work arm that supports the work tool and causes the work tool to perform a required operation, and the work tool and the work arm operate in the same rotation plane. The working arm is provided with a line laser irradiation unit, a plane formed by the line laser irradiated from the line laser irradiation unit is in the rotation plane, the line laser is irradiated to the work site, and the work is performed. The present invention relates to a construction machine control system configured to form a reference line at a part.

  In the present invention, a stereo sensor is provided on the work arm, and the stereo sensor includes the line laser irradiation unit and a first imaging unit and a second imaging unit arranged on both sides of the line laser irradiation unit, The present invention relates to a construction machine control system configured to perform photogrammetry of the reference line based on images acquired by the first imaging unit and the second imaging unit.

  According to the present invention, the construction machine includes a machine body that supports the work arm and a control device, the work arm is connected to bendable, and includes a plurality of nodes having a known length. A biaxial tilt sensor for detecting the level, a work arm tilt sensor for detecting the tilt of each node of the work arm, a work tool tilt sensor for detecting the tilt of the work tool, and the control. The apparatus relates to a construction machine control system that calculates the three-dimensional coordinates of the reference line based on detection results of the photogrammetry, the biaxial inclination sensor, the work arm inclination sensor, and the work implement inclination sensor.

  The present invention also provides a construction machine control system in which at least two GPS devices are provided in the machine body, the absolute coordinates and orientation of the machine body are measured, and the absolute three-dimensional coordinates of the reference line are calculated based on the absolute coordinates and orientation. It is related to.

  According to the present invention, the control device has a storage unit for storing construction data and a display device, and superimposes the construction data and the current state of the work site obtained by calculating the three-dimensional coordinates of the reference line. Thus, the present invention relates to a construction machine control system for displaying on the display device.

  According to the present invention, the control device further includes a synchronization control unit and a reference line detection unit, and the synchronization control unit synchronously controls the first imaging unit, the second imaging unit, and the line laser irradiation unit. The first imaging unit and the second imaging unit capture images of the state where the line laser is irradiated and the state where the line laser is turned off, and the reference line detection unit is configured to be irradiated with the line laser. The present invention relates to a construction machine control system that extracts an image of the reference line from a difference between images that are turned off.

  In the present invention, the first imaging unit and the second imaging unit are provided with a filter according to the wavelength characteristic of the laser beam emitted by the line laser irradiation unit, so that a line laser image can be clearly obtained. This relates to a construction machine control system.

  According to the present invention, the construction machine includes a work tool, and a work arm that supports the work tool and causes the work tool to perform a required operation, and the work tool and the work arm are within the same rotation plane. The working arm is provided with a line laser irradiation unit, the plane formed by the line laser irradiated from the line laser irradiation unit is in the rotation plane, and the line laser is irradiated to the work site. Since the reference line is formed at the work site, the worker can accurately grasp the exact position, operation direction, and state of the work tool with respect to the work site.

  According to the invention, the work arm is provided with a stereo sensor, and the stereo sensor has the line laser irradiation unit and a first imaging unit and a second imaging unit arranged on both sides of the line laser irradiation unit. In addition, since the photogrammetry of the reference line is performed based on the images acquired by the first image pickup unit and the second image pickup unit, the reference line Surveying can be performed.

  According to the invention, the construction machine has a machine body that supports the work arm, and a control device, the work arm is connected to bendable, and includes a plurality of nodes having a known length, A biaxial tilt sensor for detecting the level of the machine body, a work arm tilt sensor for detecting the tilt of each node of the work arm, and a work tool tilt sensor for detecting the tilt of the work tool; The control device calculates the three-dimensional coordinates of the reference line based on the photogrammetry and the detection results of the two-axis tilt sensor, the work arm tilt sensor, and the work tool tilt sensor. It is possible to accurately measure the state, the position of the work tool relative to the work site, and the state.

  According to the present invention, the aircraft is provided with at least two GPS devices, the absolute coordinates and orientation of the aircraft are measured, and the absolute three-dimensional coordinates of the reference line are calculated based on the absolute coordinates and orientation. The absolute coordinates of the current status of the work site can be measured.

  According to the present invention, the control device includes a storage unit for storing construction data and a display device, and presents the current state of the work site obtained by calculating the three-dimensional coordinates of the reference line and the construction data. Is displayed on the display device, so that the operator can visually check the current status and the construction data comparison, and can intuitively grasp the work status and the progress status.

  According to the invention, the control device further includes a synchronization control unit and a reference line detection unit, and the synchronization control unit synchronizes the first imaging unit, the second imaging unit, and the line laser irradiation unit. The first imaging unit and the second imaging unit control and take images of the state where the line laser is irradiated and the state where the line laser is turned off, and the reference line detection unit is irradiated with the line laser. Since the image of the reference line is extracted from the difference between the state image and the unlit image, it exhibits excellent effects such as reducing the burden on the control device without performing complicated image processing such as edge processing. .

It is a perspective view which shows the Example by which this invention was applied to the excavator. It is explanatory drawing which shows the photogrammetry by the stereo sensor provided in this excavator. It is a block diagram of the control apparatus of a present Example. It is a flowchart which shows the effect | action of a present Example. (A) (B) (C) is explanatory drawing which shows the image processing procedure at the time of extracting a reference line from an image. (A) (B) shows the example which superposed | stacked and displayed construction data and the present condition, (A) represents two-dimensional display, (B) represents three-dimensional display. It is explanatory drawing which shows the state which looked at the reference line from the cab of the excavator.

  Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.

  FIG. 1 shows a case where the present invention is applied to an excavator that is a construction machine.

  A traveling body 1 is provided with a body 2, and the body 2 is capable of turning with respect to the traveling drive body 1 about a vertical axis. The airframe 2 has a cab 3, which is offset from the turning center of the airframe 2, and a boom 4 is provided at the turning center of the airframe 2 so as to be raised and lowered. The undulation center (rotation center) of the boom 4 is on the vertical axis and is rotatable about a horizontal axis perpendicular to the vertical axis. An arm 5 is provided at the tip of the boom 4 so as to be rotatable around a shaft 6, and a bucket 7 as a work tool is provided at the tip of the arm 5 so as to be rotatable around a shaft (not shown). Yes.

  The boom 4, the arm 5, and the bucket 7 rotate in the same plane (hereinafter referred to as a rotation plane), the boom 4 is raised and lowered by a boom cylinder 9, and the arm 5 is moved by an arm cylinder 11. The bucket 7 is rotated by a bucket cylinder 12. Accordingly, the bucket 7 can be moved back and forth, moved up and down, raised, etc. by cooperation of rotation of the boom 4 with respect to the machine body 2, rotation of the arm 5 with respect to the boom 4, and rotation of the bucket 7 with respect to the arm 5. However, the operation of the bucket 7 is performed in the rotation plane.

  Here, the boom 4 and the arm 5 are connected so as to be bendable to constitute a work arm, and the work arm supports the bucket 7 and causes the bucket 7 to perform a required operation. In the excavator, the working arm has a configuration in which the two nodes of the boom 4 and the arm 5 are connected so as to be bendable.

  The airframe 2 is provided with a first GPS device 13 and a second GPS device 14 along predetermined lines, preferably along a straight line passing through the turning center of the airframe 2. Note that three or more GPS devices may be provided. By providing the first GPS device 13 and the second GPS device 14, the absolute coordinates of the airframe 2 and the orientation (azimuth) of the airframe 2 are measured.

  Further, the airframe 2 is provided with a biaxial tilt sensor 15 (see FIG. 3) for detecting tilt in two horizontal directions, a boom tilt sensor 16 (see FIG. 3) on the boom 4, and an arm tilt sensor on the arm 5. 17 (see FIG. 3), and the bucket 7 is provided with a bucket inclination sensor 18 (see FIG. 3). Although not shown, a turning angle detector for detecting the turning angle of the airframe 2 is provided. The boom tilt sensor 16, the arm tilt sensor 17, and the bucket tilt sensor 18 may each be a rotation angle detector that detects a rotation angle.

  The first GPS device 13 and the second GPS device 14 are provided at known positions with respect to the machine center of the machine body 2. As the machine center, for example, the rotation center of the boom 4 is employed. Further, the length of the boom 4, the length of the arm 5, the length from the rotation center of the bucket 7 to the tip, and the distance from the rotation center of the bucket 7 to the center position of the bucket 7 are known. ing.

  A stereo sensor 19 is provided at a predetermined position on the surface of the boom 4 facing the bucket 7, that is, the lower surface in FIG. 1. The position of the stereo sensor 19 is at a known distance from the rotation center of the boom 4, and the reference optical axis of the stereo sensor 19 is parallel to the rotation plane, and the rotation center of the boom 4 and the axis 6 The angle formed by a straight line (hereinafter referred to as a boom rotation radius line) and the optical axis is known. Therefore, the position and angle of the stereo sensor 19 are known with respect to the boom rotation radius line.

  The stereo sensor 19 includes a first imaging unit 21, a second imaging unit 22, and a line laser irradiation unit 23 provided between the first imaging unit 21 and the second imaging unit 22 arranged on the left and right. ing. The first imaging unit 21 and the second imaging unit 22 acquire digital images and have imaging elements such as CCDs and CMOS sensors, each of which is an aggregate of a large number of pixels, and each of the imaging elements has a coordinate system. Is set so that the position of each pixel can be specified, and the origin of the coordinate system is set to match the optical axes of the first imaging unit 21 and the second imaging unit 22, respectively. . The first imaging unit 21 and the second imaging unit 22 are each equipped with a filter corresponding to the wavelength characteristic of the light source of the line laser irradiation unit 23, so that a line laser image can be clearly obtained. ing.

  The line laser irradiation unit 23 irradiates a laser beam 24 having a linear light beam cross section, and a plane formed by the laser beam 24 is set so as to exist on the rotation plane. The optical axis is parallel to the reference optical axis.

  The distance between the first imaging unit 21 and the second imaging unit 22 (the distance between both optical axes) is known, and the optical axis of either the first imaging unit 21 or the second imaging unit 22 is a reference. For example, the optical axis of the first imaging unit 21 is set as a reference optical axis. The reference optical axis is parallel to the rotation plane and the distance from the rotation plane is known.

  By the cooperation of expansion and contraction of the boom cylinder 9, expansion and contraction of the arm cylinder 11, and expansion and contraction of the bucket cylinder 12, the bucket 7 can be moved up and down, moved back and forth, and further rotated to perform desired excavation work.

  Since the laser beam 24 is emitted from the line laser irradiation unit 23 and the plane formed by the laser beam 24 coincides with the rotation plane, the bucket 7 is moved up and down, moved back and forth, and rotated. The center of 7 moves in the laser beam 24. Therefore, the laser beam 24 is irradiated on the ground surface or the like to form a reference line 24a, which functions as a ruled line when the bucket 7 excavates, and regardless of the shape of the ground surface, The center and the moving direction of the bucket 7 when the bucket 7 excavates are shown.

  In addition, when the laser beam 24 is irradiated, the reference line 24a is formed on the ground surface. The shape of the reference line 24a is different from the cross-sectional shape when the work site is cut along the plane including the reference line 24a. Don't be. Therefore, the cross-sectional shape along the reference line 24a can be measured by measuring the three-dimensional coordinates of the reference line 24a. The three-dimensional coordinates of the reference line 24a can be measured by photogrammetry based on the images of the first imaging unit 21 and the second imaging unit 22.

  With reference to FIG. 2, the photogrammetry will be outlined.

  In FIG. 2, 25a represents the first image element of the first imaging unit 21, 25b represents the second image element of the second imaging unit 22, and 24a1 represents the reference of the reference line 24a on the first image element 25a. A line image 24a2 indicates a reference line image of the reference line 24a on the second image element 25b. P (X, Y, Z) is a point (measurement point) on the reference line 24a, p1 (x1, y1) indicates a coordinate position on the first image element 25a, and the reference line image 24a1. P2 (x2, y2) indicates the coordinate position on the reference line image 24a2, and indicates the point corresponding to the P of the reference line image 24a2.

  In FIG. 2, B is the base length, and indicates the distance between the optical axes of the first imaging unit 21 and the second imaging unit 22 (the distance between the lens principal points of the image elements 25a and 25b). The focal lengths of the first imaging unit 21 and the second imaging unit 22 are shown.

With reference to the image center O1 of the first image element 25a and the focal point of the first imaging unit 21, the coordinates of the P (X, Y, Z) are based on the similarity of the triangle.
X = x1 * B / (x1-x2)
Y = y1 * B / (x1-x2)
Z = −f × B / (x1−x2)
It becomes.

  Therefore, the three-dimensional coordinates of the measurement point can be measured by measuring the pixels corresponding to the measurement point on the first image element 25a and the second image element 25b.

  Next, the control device 26 in the construction machine control system will be described with reference to FIG.

  The control device 26 mainly includes the stereo sensor 19, a body posture sensor unit 28, a calculation unit 29, a synchronization control unit 31, a storage unit 32, a reference line detection unit 33, and a display device 34.

  Further, the stereo sensor 19 includes the first imaging unit 21, a stereo camera 27 having the second imaging unit 22, and the line laser irradiation unit 23, and the body posture sensor unit 28 includes the first GPS device 13, A second GPS device 14, the two-axis tilt sensor 15, the boom tilt sensor 16, the arm tilt sensor 17, and the bucket tilt sensor 18 are configured.

  The synchronization control unit 31 performs control to capture the image by synchronizing the first imaging unit 21 and the second imaging unit 22 with the blinking of the line laser irradiation unit 23 and the blinking of the line laser irradiation unit 23.

  The storage unit 32 includes a program storage unit 36 and a data storage unit 37. The program storage unit 36 operates the stereo sensor 19, acquires a signal from the body posture sensor unit 28, and sends it to the display device 34. A sequence program for controlling the display of the image, an image processing program, a surveying program for performing the photogrammetry based on images acquired by the first imaging unit 21 and the second imaging unit 22, and a display device 34 based on image data. A program such as an image display program to be displayed is stored, and the data storage unit 37 includes construction data necessary for civil engineering work, current data obtained by photogrammetry, the first imaging unit 21, and the second imaging unit 22. The data such as the image data acquired in is stored.

  The reference line detection unit 33 extracts the reference line 24a formed on the ground surface from the images acquired by the first imaging unit 21 and the second imaging unit 22 by image processing.

  The operation of this embodiment will be described with reference to FIG.

  STEP: 01 When the processing is started, first, an image is acquired by the stereo camera 27 in a state where the laser beam 24 is not irradiated from the line laser irradiation unit 23, and the acquired image is recorded in the data storage unit 37. (See FIG. 5A. Note that FIG. 5 shows only an image acquired by one of the imaging units, for example, the first imaging unit 21 for the sake of convenience).

  (Step 02) Next, an image is acquired by the stereo camera 27 in a state where the laser beam 24 is irradiated, and the acquired image is recorded in the data storage unit 37 (see FIG. 5B).

  STEP: 03 The reference line detection unit 33 calculates the difference between the image acquired at STEP: 01 and the image acquired at STEP: 02. Since the difference between the two images is only the presence or absence of the laser beam 24, a reference line 24a is obtained as the difference image (see FIG. 5C).

  (Step 04) The coordinates of the reference line images 24a1 and 24a2 on the first image element 25a and the second image element 25b are obtained.

  (Step 05) The three-dimensional coordinates (coordinates of the cross-sectional shape of the work site) of the reference line 24a with the image center (or the focal position O1) of the first image element 25a as a reference are calculated.

  STEP: 06 The coordinates are acquired by the first GPS device 13 and the second GPS device 14. By acquiring the coordinates from the two GPS devices, the absolute coordinates of the airframe 2 are obtained and the orientation (azimuth) of the airframe 2 is known. The biaxial tilt sensor 15 detects the tilt and the tilt direction of the airframe 2. Further, the inclination of the boom 4 is detected by the boom inclination sensor 16. Since the position of the rotation center of the boom 4 with respect to the first GPS device 13 and the second GPS device 14 is known, and the position of the stereo camera 27 is also known from the rotation center, the three-dimensional obtained in STEP: 05 The coordinates can be converted into absolute three-dimensional coordinates.

  Accordingly, the cross-sectional shape (current state) of the work site being worked on can be obtained immediately, that is, in real time or in substantially real time.

  (Step 07) The data storage unit 37 stores construction data, for example, a final cross-sectional shape (or a designed cross-sectional shape) to be obtained in the work. The construction data and the state of the current work site are stored. If they are displayed at the same time, the progress of work on the construction data can be visually determined.

  Further, since the posture and position of the bucket 7 can also be detected by the arm inclination sensor 17 and the bucket inclination sensor 18, an image showing the bucket 7 is also displayed so that the position and posture of the bucket 7 with respect to the current state or Can visually determine the position and orientation of the bucket 7 with respect to the construction data.

  Thus, the operator grasps the embankment and cut by visually checking the current state of the construction data, further the construction data, and the position and posture of the bucket 7 with respect to the current state, and accurately determines the direction and amount of movement of the bucket 7. I can judge.

  FIG. 6A is a two-dimensional display of the construction data 41 and the position and posture of the bucket 7 with respect to the current state 42 on the display device 34. In the case of two-dimensional display, the position and posture of the bucket 7 with respect to the construction data 41 and the current state 42 need only be known relatively, and the measurement of the first GPS device 13 and the second GPS device 14 can be omitted.

  FIG. 6B is a three-dimensional display of the position and orientation of the bucket 7 with respect to the construction data 41 and the current state 42 on the display device 34, and displays the position and posture of the bucket 7 with respect to the construction data 41 and the current state 42. In addition to the window 43 to be displayed, a window 44 for indicating the direction, windows 45 and 46 for indicating the moving direction of the bucket 7, and a window 47 for displaying the construction data 41 in three dimensions are also displayed. Applicable judgment is possible.

  Each window 43, 44, 45, 46, 47 can be enlarged and displayed.

  In addition, in the case of acquiring the current state three-dimensional data of the work area in a predetermined range as well as the cross-sectional shape for the current state 42, the machine body 2 is swung in the predetermined range, that is, while scanning the laser beam 24 in the swiveling direction, By acquiring an image with the stereo camera 27 and performing photogrammetry, the current three-dimensional data of the work site can be acquired.

  (Step 08) When the current state 42 matches the construction data 41, the control and construction of the bucket 7 are completed.

  The state where the display device 34 displays the construction data 41 and the position and orientation of the bucket 7 with respect to the current situation 42 is when the construction is close to the finished state. Instead of making the surveying proceed simultaneously, the laser beam 24 may be simply irradiated onto the work site by the line laser irradiation unit 23 and the reference line 24 a may be formed by the laser beam 24.

  As shown in FIG. 7, the operator's cab 3 is offset from the center of the machine body 2, and the operator views the bucket 7 obliquely from the rear. Therefore, there are cases where the center of the bucket 7 and the center of the part to be excavated, or the direction of movement of the bucket 7 and the direction of excavation are deviated.

  As described above, since the reference line 24a is formed on the ground surface, the position at which the bucket 7 excavates and the moving direction of the bucket 7 are clearly indicated by the reference line 24a, thereby preventing misidentification and erroneous operation of the operator. it can.

  Although the excavator has been described as a construction machine, a bulldozer having a boom as a work arm and a crane having a hook as a work tool as a construction machine and a drain plate arm as a work arm and a soil discharge board as a work tool It may be.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Traveling drive body 2 Airframe 3 Driver's cab 4 Boom 5 Arm 7 Bucket 13 1st GPS apparatus 14 2nd GPS apparatus 15 2 axis | shaft inclination sensor 16 Boom inclination sensor 17 Arm inclination sensor 18 Bucket inclination sensor 19 Stereo sensor 21 1st imaging part 22 1st 2 imaging unit 23 line laser irradiation unit 24 laser beam 24a reference line 26 control device 27 stereo camera 28 body posture sensor unit 29 calculation unit 31 synchronization control unit 32 storage unit 33 reference line detection unit 34 display device

Claims (6)

  1. A construction machine is provided with a work tool, a work arm that is rotatably provided about a vertical axis, supports the work tool, and causes the work tool to perform a required operation. Configured to operate in the same rotational plane including the vertical axis ,
    A stereo sensor is provided on the work arm , and the stereo sensor has a reference optical axis parallel to the rotation plane and is disposed on the left and right, the first imaging unit, the second imaging unit, and the first imaging unit and the second imaging unit. A line laser irradiation unit having an optical axis parallel to the reference optical axis and included in the rotation plane.
    The line laser irradiation unit irradiates the line laser downward, and forms a reference line that functions as a ruled line indicating the width center and the moving direction of the work tool on the ground surface including the work site,
    A construction machine control system configured to acquire an image of the reference line by the first imaging unit and the second imaging unit, and to perform photogrammetry of the reference line based on the acquired image .
  2. The construction machine includes a machine body that supports the work arm, and a control device, the work arm is connected to bendable, and includes a plurality of nodes having a known length, and detects the level of the machine body. A biaxial tilt sensor is provided, a work arm tilt sensor for detecting the tilt of each node of the work arm is provided, a work tool tilt sensor for detecting the tilt of the work tool is provided, and the control device is configured to perform the photogrammetry and the two-axis tilt sensor, the working arm tilt sensor, a construction machine control system according to claim 1 for computing the three-dimensional coordinates of the reference line on the basis of the detection result of the working tool tilt sensor.
  3. The construction machine control system according to claim 2 , wherein at least two GPS devices are provided in the aircraft, the absolute coordinates and orientation of the aircraft are measured, and the absolute three-dimensional coordinates of the reference line are calculated based on the absolute coordinates and orientation.
  4. The control device includes a storage unit for storing construction data and a display device, and obtains a cross-sectional shape of a work part by calculating a three-dimensional coordinate of the reference line, and a position and posture of the work tool. The construction machine control system according to claim 2 or 3 , wherein the cross-sectional shape, the construction data, and the position and orientation of the work tool are overlapped and displayed on the display device.
  5. The control device further includes a synchronization control unit and a reference line detection unit, and the synchronization control unit synchronously controls the first imaging unit, the second imaging unit, and the line laser irradiation unit, and the first imaging unit. And the second imaging unit capture images of the state where the line laser is irradiated and the state where the line laser is turned off, and the reference line detection unit is turned off when the line laser is irradiated The construction machine control system according to any one of claims 2 to 4 , wherein an image of the reference line is extracted from a difference between the images.
  6. Wherein the second image pickup unit and the first imaging unit, said line laser irradiation unit is provided a filter in accordance with the wavelength characteristics of the laser beam to be irradiated, according to claim 5 in which the image of the line laser is configured as to acquire sharply Construction machine control system.
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