JP5735749B2 - Plant growing machine - Google Patents

Plant growing machine Download PDF

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JP5735749B2
JP5735749B2 JP2010078090A JP2010078090A JP5735749B2 JP 5735749 B2 JP5735749 B2 JP 5735749B2 JP 2010078090 A JP2010078090 A JP 2010078090A JP 2010078090 A JP2010078090 A JP 2010078090A JP 5735749 B2 JP5735749 B2 JP 5735749B2
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plant
cultivation
support base
cultivation tank
air supply
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JP2011205991A (en
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周二 木村
周二 木村
竜平 小山
竜平 小山
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Nihon Yamamura Glass Co Ltd
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Description

この発明は、例えば植物工場の栽培室内で水耕栽培などの栽培方法を実施して植物を栽培するのに用いられる植物栽培機に関する。   The present invention relates to a plant cultivation machine used for cultivating a plant by carrying out a cultivation method such as hydroponics in a cultivation room of a plant factory, for example.

従来、植物工場で用いられている植物栽培機は、野菜などの植物が植設される栽培槽が多段に設けられるとともに、各段の栽培槽の上方位置に植物に向けて光を照射することが可能な照明装置が設置されたものである。各段の照明装置は、植物の成長を見越して、栽培槽からの高さが十分に大きな値に設定されている。   Conventionally, plant cultivation machines used in plant factories are provided with multi-stage cultivation tanks in which plants such as vegetables are planted, and irradiate light toward the plants above the cultivation tanks of each stage Is installed. In each stage of the lighting device, the height from the cultivation tank is set to a sufficiently large value in anticipation of plant growth.

植物が照明装置より取得する光のエネルギー(光量)は、照明装置との距離の二乗に反比例して弱くなるため、照明装置の設置高さを大きくすると、光量の無駄が多く、植物が取得する光エネルギー(光量)も減少し、光合成の速度低下を招き、植物の栽培効率が低下する。   The light energy (light quantity) that the plant acquires from the lighting device becomes weaker in inverse proportion to the square of the distance to the lighting device. Therefore, if the installation height of the lighting device is increased, the amount of light is wasted and the plant acquires it. Light energy (light quantity) is also reduced, leading to a decrease in the rate of photosynthesis, and the plant cultivation efficiency is reduced.

照明装置の設置高さを極力低くすれば、光量の無駄が少なくなり、植物が取得する光エネルギー(光量)が増すが、植物の成長によって茎や葉が光源に当たって損傷し易く、商品価値を低下させるという問題がある。   If the installation height of the lighting device is made as low as possible, the amount of waste of light is reduced and the light energy (light amount) acquired by the plant increases. There is a problem of making it.

上記した問題は、植物の成長とともに照明装置の設置高さを変更することにより解消できるものであり、植物に対して照明装置を昇降可能とした植物栽培装置が提案されている(例えば特許文献1参照)。   The above-mentioned problems can be solved by changing the installation height of the lighting device as the plant grows, and a plant cultivation device that can raise and lower the lighting device with respect to the plant has been proposed (for example, Patent Document 1). reference).

特開平9−248083号公報Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 9-248083

野菜などの緑色植物の生育には、光合成の促進が必要であるところ、上記した植物栽培装置では、例えば、光合成の促進に不可欠な二酸化炭素の供給については考慮されていない。そこで、植物栽培装置が設置されている室内空間へ二酸化炭素を導入することも考えられるが、植物の育成にとって重要なことは、植物が利用し得る周辺領域の環境を整えることであり、室内空間へ二酸化炭素を導入しても、植物の周辺領域の二酸化炭素の濃度は十分に高められるとはいえず、植物は室内空間の二酸化炭素を有効利用できていない。同様に、温度、湿度なども室内空間の全体ではなく、植物の周辺領域を最適な状態に制御することが望ましい。したがって、植物に照明装置を常に近づけた状態にして光の強さを高く維持したとしても、光合成の速度が高められず、かなりの光量が無駄になってしまう。光合成の速度は、光の強さ、二酸化炭素の濃度、温度などの外的要因の影響を強く受けるなかで、これらの諸要因のうち、最も不足する外的要因によって光合成の速度が決定されるからである。   For the growth of green plants such as vegetables, it is necessary to promote photosynthesis. However, in the above plant cultivation apparatus, for example, supply of carbon dioxide essential for promoting photosynthesis is not considered. Therefore, it is conceivable to introduce carbon dioxide into the indoor space where the plant cultivation device is installed. However, what is important for plant growth is to prepare the environment of the surrounding area that can be used by the plant. Even if carbon dioxide is introduced into the plant, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the surrounding area of the plant cannot be sufficiently increased, and the plant cannot effectively use carbon dioxide in the indoor space. Similarly, it is desirable that the temperature, humidity, and the like are not the entire indoor space, but the peripheral region of the plant is controlled to an optimum state. Therefore, even if the lighting device is kept close to the plant and the intensity of light is kept high, the speed of photosynthesis cannot be increased, and a considerable amount of light is wasted. The rate of photosynthesis is strongly influenced by external factors such as light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration, and temperature. Among these factors, the rate of photosynthesis is determined by the most insufficient external factors. Because.

この発明は、上記の問題に着目してなされたもので、植物に照明装置を常に近づけた状態にして光の強さを高く維持し、かつ植物の周辺領域の二酸化炭素の濃度など、光合成の速度を左右するその他の外的要因を最適な状態に制御し得るよう構成することにより、その相乗作用によって光合成の速度を増し、植物の栽培効率を大幅に向上できる植物栽培機を提供することを目的とする。   The present invention has been made by paying attention to the above-mentioned problems. The lighting device is always kept close to the plant to maintain high light intensity, and photosynthesis such as the concentration of carbon dioxide in the peripheral region of the plant is achieved. By constructing the system so that other external factors that influence the speed can be controlled to an optimum state, it is possible to increase the speed of photosynthesis by synergism and to provide a plant cultivation machine that can greatly improve the cultivation efficiency of plants. Objective.

この発明による植物栽培機は、栽培対象の植物が植設される栽培槽を水平に支持する第1の支持台と、栽培槽の上方に第1の支持台と平行に設けられる第2の支持台と、第2の支持台を水平を保った状態で昇降動作させる昇降機構とを備え、前記第2の支持台は、複数個所に縦設された位置決め板のそれぞれに上下方向の位置調整が可能なように配置されるストッパーにより水平を保った状態に位置決めされる。第2の支持台には、栽培槽に植設された植物に向けて光を照射することが可能な照明装置が配設されるとともに、送気機構と噴霧機構との少なくとも一方が配設されている。前記送気機構は、第2の支持台の長さ方向と幅方向との少なくも一方に設置される少なくとも1本の送気管を有し、送気管の栽培槽と対向する面の複数箇所に、栽培槽の全体にわたり栽培槽に植設された植物に向けて送気することが可能なように送気口が形成されて成るものであり、前記噴霧機構は、第2の支持台の長さ方向と幅方向との少なくも一方に設置される少なくとも1本の送液管を有し、送液管の栽培槽と対向する面の複数箇所に、栽培槽の全体にわたり栽培槽に植設された植物に向けて液体を噴霧することが可能なように噴霧口が形成されて成るものである。 The plant cultivation machine according to the present invention includes a first support base that horizontally supports a cultivation tank in which a plant to be cultivated is planted, and a second support that is provided above the cultivation tank in parallel with the first support base. And a lifting mechanism that lifts and lowers the second support base in a horizontal state, and the second support base is capable of adjusting the vertical position of each of the positioning plates vertically provided at a plurality of locations. Positioning is maintained in a horizontal state by a stopper arranged as possible. The second support base is provided with an illumination device capable of irradiating light toward the plant planted in the cultivation tank, and at least one of an air supply mechanism and a spray mechanism is provided. ing. The air supply mechanism has at least one air supply pipe installed in at least one of the length direction and the width direction of the second support base, and is provided at a plurality of locations on the surface of the air supply pipe facing the cultivation tank. The air supply port is formed so that air can be supplied toward the plant planted in the cultivation tank throughout the cultivation tank, and the spray mechanism is the length of the second support base. It has at least one liquid supply pipe installed in at least one of the vertical direction and the width direction, and is planted in the cultivation tank over the entire cultivation tank at multiple locations on the surface of the liquid supply pipe facing the cultivation tank. The spray port is formed so that the liquid can be sprayed toward the plant.

上記した構成の植物栽培機において、植物の成長に合わせて第2の支持台を昇降動作させ、植物に対する照明装置の高さが最適となるよう位置決めするとともに、送気機構と噴霧機構の少なくとも一方の高さも同時に最適となるよう位置決めされる。これにより、植物に対する光の強さが高く維持され、かつ植物の周辺領域の二酸化炭素の濃度など、光合成の速度を左右するその他の外的要因を最適な状態に制御し得るので、光合成の速度を増すことができ、植物の栽培効率が向上する。また、第2の支持台は、ストッパーにより水平を保った状態に設定されて第1の支持台に対して平行となるので、栽培槽の全体にわたって植物に対する照明装置、送気機構、及び噴霧機構の高さが最適な位置に位置決めされる。
また、上記した構成のものにおいて、送気機構を植物の生育に有用な成分の少なくとも1種を含む気体または温度と湿度の少なくとも一方が調整された気体を供給する供給源に接続することにより、送気口から栽培槽の全体に向けて植物の生育に有用な成分を含む気体や温度、湿度が調整された気体が送り出されるので、栽培槽に植設された植物の周辺領域の前記成分濃度などが最適な状態に制御される。
ここで、「植物の生育に有用な成分」とは、例えば、光合成のための二酸化炭素、呼吸のための酸素、肥料成分としての窒素、植物の生育を阻害する要因を除去するための塩素などの殺菌成分、さらには香気成分などを含むものである。
また、上記した構成のものにおいて、噴霧機構を植物の生育に有用な成分の少なくとも1種を含む液体を供給する供給源に接続することにより、噴霧口から栽培槽の全体に向けて植物の生育に有用な成分を含む液体が噴霧されるので、栽培槽に植設された植物に前記液体の各種成分が直接作用する。
ここで、「植物の生育に有用な成分」とは、例えば、肥料成分としての窒素、燐酸、カリウム、有用微量元素としてのカルシウム、マグネシウム、鉄などを含む他、植物の成長を助けるアミノ酸なども含むものである。
In the plant cultivation machine having the above-described configuration, the second support is moved up and down in accordance with the growth of the plant, and positioned so that the height of the lighting device with respect to the plant is optimal, and at least one of the air supply mechanism and the spray mechanism Are positioned so that their heights are also optimized. This keeps the light intensity on the plant high and allows other external factors that control the rate of photosynthesis, such as the concentration of carbon dioxide in the surrounding area of the plant, to be controlled optimally. The plant cultivation efficiency is improved. Moreover, since the 2nd support stand is set to the state kept horizontal with the stopper, and becomes parallel with respect to the 1st support stand, the illuminating device with respect to a plant over the whole cultivation tank, an air supply mechanism, and a spray mechanism Is positioned at the optimum position.
Further, in the above-described configuration, by connecting the air supply mechanism to a supply source for supplying a gas containing at least one of components useful for plant growth or a gas in which at least one of temperature and humidity is adjusted, Since the gas containing the components useful for plant growth and the gas whose temperature and humidity are adjusted are sent from the air inlet to the whole cultivation tank, the concentration of the components in the peripheral area of the plant planted in the cultivation tank Etc. are controlled to the optimum state.
Here, “a component useful for plant growth” means, for example, carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, oxygen for respiration, nitrogen as a fertilizer component, chlorine for removing factors that inhibit plant growth, etc. It contains a sterilizing component, an aroma component, and the like.
Further, in the above-described structure, the spray mechanism is connected to a supply source that supplies a liquid containing at least one component useful for plant growth, so that the growth of the plant is directed from the spray port toward the entire cultivation tank. Since the liquid containing a useful component is sprayed, the various components of the liquid directly act on the plant planted in the cultivation tank.
Here, “a component useful for plant growth” includes, for example, nitrogen, phosphate, potassium as fertilizer components, calcium, magnesium, iron, etc. as useful trace elements, as well as amino acids that help plant growth. Is included.

前記照明装置として種々の態様のものが考えられるが、好ましい態様のひとつは、昇降可能とした第2の支持台に複数個の光源を光の照射方向を栽培槽に向けて設置して構成されている。この場合の光源として蛍光灯を用いることができるほか、自然光に近いメタルハライドランプや高輝度の発光ダイオードなどを用いることもできる。   Although the thing of various aspects can be considered as said illuminating device, one of the preferable aspects is comprised by installing several light sources in the 2nd support stand which can be moved up and down toward the cultivation tank. ing. In this case, a fluorescent lamp can be used as the light source, and a metal halide lamp close to natural light, a high-intensity light emitting diode, or the like can also be used.

この発明の好ましい実施態様では、前記昇降機構は、第2の支持台の重心位置または重心位置を挟む対称位置に設けられるナット部材と、ナット部材の上方位置に上端部が回動自由に支持された操作ハンドル付きの送りネジ棒とを含み、第2の支持台は、ナット部材にネジ込まれた前記送りネジ棒により昇降可能に支持されている。
この実施態様によれば、操作ハンドルを手操作して送りネジ棒を回すと、ナット部材がネジ送りされて第2の支持台が昇降動作し、照明装置、送気機構、および噴霧機構を最適な高さ位置に位置決めできる。
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the elevating mechanism includes a nut member provided at a centroid position of the second support base or a symmetrical position sandwiching the centroid position, and an upper end portion supported rotatably at a position above the nut member. The second support base is supported by the feed screw rod screwed into the nut member so as to be movable up and down.
According to this embodiment, when the operation handle is manually operated and the feed screw rod is turned, the nut member is screw-fed and the second support is moved up and down, and the lighting device, the air supply mechanism, and the spray mechanism are optimized. Can be positioned at any height.

なお、第2の支持台に対して第1の支持台の側を昇降させる場合は、第1の支持台の重心位置または重心位置を挟む対称位置にナット部材を設け、ナット部材の上方位置に操作ハンドル付きの送りネジ棒の上端部を回動自由に支持するとともに、第1の支持台をナット部材にネジ込まれた前記送りネジ棒により昇降可能に支持するように昇降機構を構成する。   In addition, when raising and lowering the 1st support stand side with respect to a 2nd support stand, a nut member is provided in the symmetrical position which pinches | interposes the gravity center position of a 1st support stand, or a gravity center position, and is located in the upper position of a nut member. The elevating mechanism is configured to support the upper end of the feed screw rod with the operation handle so as to freely rotate, and to support the first support base by the feed screw rod screwed into the nut member.

好ましい実施態様では、前記第1の支持台は、決められた間隔で複数段にわたって設けられるとともに、各第1の支持台の上方に第1の支持台と平行に第2の支持台が個別に昇降可能に設けられるものであるが、第1の支持台の設置段数は必ずしも複数段である必要はなく、1段であってもよい。   In a preferred embodiment, the first support base is provided in a plurality of stages at a predetermined interval, and the second support base is individually provided above each first support base in parallel with the first support base. Although it is provided so that it can be moved up and down, the number of installation stages of the first support base is not necessarily a plurality of stages, and may be one stage.

なお、水耕栽培では、栽培槽に満たされた養液上に複数の合成樹脂製の栽培パネルを浮かせた状態で設置するが、第1の支持台をその上方の第2の支持台に対して少なくとも一側へ張り出すように構成すれば、栽培槽に対してその張り出し部分より栽培パネルを容易に出し入れできる。   In hydroponics, a plurality of synthetic resin cultivation panels are placed on the nutrient solution filled in the cultivation tank, but the first support base is set against the second support base above it. If it is configured to project to at least one side, the cultivation panel can be easily taken in and out from the projecting portion of the cultivation tank.

この発明によれば、植物に照明装置を常に近づけた状態にして光の強さを高く維持し、かつ植物の周辺領域の二酸化炭素の濃度など、光合成の速度に影響するその他の外的要因を常に最適な状態に制御し得るので、その相乗作用により光合成の速度が増し、植物の栽培効率を大幅に向上できる。   According to this invention, the lighting device is always kept close to the plant to maintain high light intensity, and other external factors that influence the rate of photosynthesis, such as the concentration of carbon dioxide in the surrounding area of the plant, Since it can always be controlled to the optimum state, the synergistic action increases the speed of photosynthesis, and the cultivation efficiency of plants can be greatly improved.

この発明の一実施例である植物栽培機の全体構成を示す正面図である。It is a front view which shows the whole structure of the plant cultivation machine which is one Example of this invention. 植物栽培機の長さ方向の中央部分を拡大して示す正面図である。It is a front view which expands and shows the center part of the length direction of a plant cultivation machine. 植物栽培機の一側端部を拡大して示す正面図である。It is a front view which expands and shows the one side edge part of a plant cultivation machine. 栽培槽の構成を示す縦断面図である。It is a longitudinal cross-sectional view which shows the structure of a cultivation tank. 植物栽培機の高さ中央部を拡大して示す側面図である。It is a side view which expands and shows the height center part of a plant cultivation machine. 昇降台を上方より見た平面図である。It is the top view which looked at the lifting platform from upper direction. 昇降機構の構成を示す正面図である。It is a front view which shows the structure of a raising / lowering mechanism. ストッパーの構成を示す斜視図である。It is a perspective view which shows the structure of a stopper.

図1は、この発明の一実施例である植物栽培機の全体の外観と構成とを示すもので、さらに、図2にはこの植物栽培機の長さ方向の中央部分が、図3にはこの植物栽培機の一側端部が、それぞれ拡大して示してある。
図示例の植物栽培機は、栽培対象の植物が植設される栽培槽2を水平に支持する第1の支持台としての固定台1が決められた間隔で複数段にわたって設けられたものであり、各段の栽培槽2の上方には固定台1と平行に第2の支持台としての昇降台3が複数台(図示例では3台)横並びにそれぞれ配設されている。なお、この植物栽培機は、空調設備により室内全体の温度および湿度が管理されている栽培室に設置されている。
FIG. 1 shows the overall appearance and configuration of a plant cultivating machine according to an embodiment of the present invention. Further, FIG. 2 shows a central portion in the length direction of this plant cultivating machine, and FIG. One end of the plant cultivator is shown in an enlarged manner.
The plant cultivating machine in the illustrated example is provided with a fixed base 1 as a first support base that horizontally supports a cultivation tank 2 in which a plant to be cultivated is planted at a plurality of stages at predetermined intervals. A plurality of elevators 3 (three in the illustrated example) are arranged side by side in parallel with the fixed table 1 above the cultivation tank 2 of each stage. In addition, this plant cultivation machine is installed in the cultivation room where the temperature and humidity of the whole room are managed by the air conditioning equipment.

各段の固定台1は、前面側と後面側とのそれぞれに複数本ずつ縦設された例えばパイプ状の支柱10に、前面および後端面が一体に固着されて支持されており、前後、左右の枠材により囲まれた平面形状が矩形状の外周枠11と、外周枠11の前後の枠材間に一定間隔毎に架設された複数本の中間枠12(図4参照)とで構成されている。   The fixed base 1 of each stage is supported by a front and rear end surfaces that are integrally fixed to, for example, a pipe-like column 10 that is vertically provided on each of the front side and the rear side. The outer peripheral frame 11 having a rectangular planar shape surrounded by the frame material, and a plurality of intermediate frames 12 (see FIG. 4) installed at regular intervals between the frame materials before and after the outer frame 11. ing.

各段の固定台1上には、栽培槽2がそれぞれ水平に支持されている。各栽培槽2は、図4に示すように、前後の枠材20,20間に皿状の容器体21が支持されて成る。栽培槽2の上面にはその内面形態に添わせて合成樹脂シート9が被せてあり、容器体21の凹部22に添う合成樹脂シート9の凹部90に養液が満たされている。この養液は、植物の生育に不可欠な養分を含有しており、図示しない養液供給部より供給される。なお、栽培槽2の素材によっては必ずしも合成樹脂シート9を用いる必要はない。   A cultivation tank 2 is horizontally supported on the fixed base 1 of each stage. As shown in FIG. 4, each cultivation tank 2 includes a dish-like container body 21 supported between the front and rear frame members 20 and 20. The upper surface of the cultivation tank 2 is covered with the synthetic resin sheet 9 in accordance with the inner surface form, and the concave solution 90 of the synthetic resin sheet 9 attached to the concave portion 22 of the container body 21 is filled with the nutrient solution. This nutrient solution contains nutrients essential for plant growth and is supplied from a nutrient solution supply unit (not shown). Note that the synthetic resin sheet 9 is not necessarily used depending on the material of the cultivation tank 2.

栽培槽2より溢れる養液は、図5に示すように、栽培槽2の一側端に形成された溢水壁23を乗り越えて排液槽4へ排出される。排液槽4は栽培槽2に取付金具41により取り外し可能に取り付けられ、底面の一端部に養液の排出口83が形成されている。排液槽4内の養液は排出口83より排液管82により導出されて図示しない養液タンクに回収され、養分の補給が行われた後、その養液は養液供給部へ送られて循環させる。   As shown in FIG. 5, the nutrient solution overflowing from the cultivation tank 2 gets over the overflow wall 23 formed at one end of the cultivation tank 2 and is discharged to the drainage tank 4. The drainage tank 4 is detachably attached to the cultivation tank 2 by a mounting bracket 41, and a nutrient solution discharge port 83 is formed at one end of the bottom surface. The nutrient solution in the drainage tank 4 is led out from the discharge port 83 through the drainage pipe 82 and collected in a nutrient solution tank (not shown). After the nutrients are replenished, the nutrient solution is sent to the nutrient solution supply unit. Circulate.

栽培槽2の内部には、複数の合成樹脂製の栽培パネル25が養液上に浮いた状態で縦横整列させて配備されている。各栽培パネル25は平面形状であり、上面には複数の植込部26が縦横整列した状態で設けられている。植物fはウレタンなどの支持体27に支持された状態で各植込部26に植設され、根の部分が養液中に浸った状態で生育する。
なお、固定台1の少なくとも一方の端部は、図3に示すように、その上方の昇降台3に対して少なくとも一側へ張り出しており、栽培槽2に対して昇降台3が接近した状態であっても、この張り出し部分15より栽培パネル25を容易に出し入れできるようになっている。
Inside the cultivation tank 2, a plurality of synthetic resin cultivation panels 25 are arranged vertically and horizontally in a state of floating on the nutrient solution. Each cultivation panel 25 has a planar shape, and a plurality of planting portions 26 are provided on the upper surface in a state of being vertically and horizontally aligned. The plant f is planted in each planting part 26 in a state where it is supported by a support 27 such as urethane, and grows in a state where the root part is immersed in the nutrient solution.
In addition, as shown in FIG. 3, at least one end portion of the fixed base 1 protrudes to at least one side with respect to the upper lift base 3, and the lift base 3 approaches the cultivation tank 2. Even so, the cultivation panel 25 can be easily put in and out from the overhanging portion 15.

前記昇降台3は、図6に示すように、前後の各枠材31,32と左右の各枠材33,34とで平面形状が矩形状の外周枠30が形成され、左右の枠材33,34間に2本の中間枠35,36が架設されている。外周枠30を構成する各枠材31〜34および中間枠35,36には多数の長孔37が設置されたL型アングル材が用いられている。   As shown in FIG. 6, the lifting platform 3 includes a front and rear frame members 31, 32 and left and right frame members 33, 34 that form an outer peripheral frame 30 having a rectangular planar shape, and the left and right frame members 33. , 34 are provided with two intermediate frames 35, 36. The frame members 31 to 34 and the intermediate frames 35 and 36 constituting the outer peripheral frame 30 are L-shaped angle members in which a large number of long holes 37 are installed.

図1および図2に示されるように、各段毎に3台の昇降台3が横並びに配置されており、各段の各昇降台3は固定台1の上方位置に固定台1と平行に個別の昇降機構5により昇降可能に支持されている。各昇降機構5は、図2および図7に示すように、昇降台3の重心位置(長さ方向の中心線と幅方向の中心線とが交わる位置)を挟む対称位置、この実施例では、前後の各枠材31,32の長さ中央部にそれぞれ設けられるナット部材51と、固定台1の外周枠11の外面(前後の各枠材の外面)であってナット部材51の上方位置に取り付けられた軸受金具52により上端部が回動自由に支持された送りネジ棒53とで構成されている。この送りネジ棒53がナット部材51にネジ込まれることで昇降台3が送りネジ棒53により支持されている。送りネジ棒53を正逆いずれかの方向へ回動させると、ナット部材51がネジ送りされ、昇降台3が昇降動作する。   As shown in FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, three elevators 3 are arranged side by side for each stage, and each elevator 3 at each stage is located above the fixed table 1 and parallel to the fixed table 1. It is supported by an individual lifting mechanism 5 so as to be lifted and lowered. As shown in FIGS. 2 and 7, each elevating mechanism 5 has a symmetrical position sandwiching the position of the center of gravity of the elevating table 3 (the position where the center line in the length direction intersects the center line in the width direction). A nut member 51 provided at the center of the length of each of the front and rear frame members 31 and 32 and an outer surface of the outer peripheral frame 11 of the fixing base 1 (an outer surface of each front and rear frame member) at a position above the nut member 51 A feed screw rod 53 whose upper end is rotatably supported by an attached bearing fitting 52 is constituted. The lifting platform 3 is supported by the feed screw rod 53 by screwing the feed screw rod 53 into the nut member 51. When the feed screw rod 53 is rotated in either the forward or reverse direction, the nut member 51 is screw-fed and the lifting platform 3 moves up and down.

軸受金具52の上方へ突出する送りネジ棒53の上端部には、操作ハンドル55を取り付けることが可能な角軸状のハンドル装着部54が形成されている。平時はこのハンドル装着部54より操作ハンドル55を取り外しておき、昇降台3を昇降させるとき、操作ハンドル55を送りネジ棒53のハンドル装着部54に装着する。
この実施例では、1台の昇降台3について前後各位置に合計2個の昇降機構5を設けているが、昇降台3が小さく軽量であれば、昇降台3の重心位置に1個の昇降機構5を設けるようにしてもよい。
また、この実施例では、構成の簡易化をはかるために、2個の昇降機構5について各操作ハンドル55を手操作して送りネジ棒53を個々に回動させ昇降台3を昇降させる構成のものであるが、昇降台3が大きく重量が嵩むものであれば、各送りネジ棒53をモータにより連動させて回転させるよう構成することもできる。
At the upper end portion of the feed screw rod 53 protruding upward from the bearing fitting 52, an angular shaft-like handle mounting portion 54 to which an operation handle 55 can be attached is formed. During normal times, the operation handle 55 is removed from the handle mounting portion 54, and the operation handle 55 is mounted on the handle mounting portion 54 of the feed screw rod 53 when the lifting platform 3 is moved up and down.
In this embodiment, a total of two lifting mechanisms 5 are provided at each of the front and rear positions of one lifting platform 3, but if the lifting platform 3 is small and light, one lifting mechanism is provided at the center of gravity of the lifting platform 3. A mechanism 5 may be provided.
Further, in this embodiment, in order to simplify the configuration, each operation handle 55 is manually operated with respect to the two lifting mechanisms 5 so that the feed screw rods 53 are individually rotated to move the lifting platform 3 up and down. However, if the lifting platform 3 is large and heavy, each feed screw rod 53 can be configured to rotate in conjunction with a motor.

支柱10の各縦設位置には、図2,3に示すように、多数の長孔62が列設されたL型アングル材により構成された位置決め板6が縦設されている。各位置決め板6は、図8に示すように、上下方向のスケール61を有し、支柱10の側面に固定されている。各位置決め板6には、スケール61に合わせて、同じ高さ位置にストッパー60を取付け固定することが可能になっている。この実施例のストッパー60は、ボルト63と、ボルト63の軸部にネジ込まれる短筒状のナット64とで構成されている。ボルト63の軸部をいずれかの長孔62に挿入し、位置決め板6を挟んでナット64をネジ込んで締め付けたとき、ナット64は昇降台3の昇降経路上に突出した状態で固定される。前後、左右の4箇所の位置決め板6にストッパー60を位置決め固定した後、昇降台3を上昇または下降させる。全てのストッパー60に昇降台3の上面または下面が当たったときに上昇または下降を止めると、昇降台3は水平を保った状態で定位する。   As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, a positioning plate 6 made of an L-shaped angle member in which a number of long holes 62 are arranged is vertically provided at each vertical position of the column 10. As shown in FIG. 8, each positioning plate 6 has a vertical scale 61 and is fixed to the side surface of the support column 10. A stopper 60 can be attached and fixed to each positioning plate 6 at the same height position according to the scale 61. The stopper 60 of this embodiment includes a bolt 63 and a short cylindrical nut 64 that is screwed into the shaft portion of the bolt 63. When the shaft portion of the bolt 63 is inserted into one of the long holes 62 and the nut 64 is screwed and tightened with the positioning plate 6 interposed therebetween, the nut 64 is fixed in a state of protruding on the lifting path of the lifting platform 3. . After the stoppers 60 are positioned and fixed to the front and rear, left and right positioning plates 6, the lifting platform 3 is raised or lowered. When the upper or lower surface of the lifting / lowering platform 3 hits all the stoppers 60 and stops rising or lowering, the lifting / lowering platform 3 is positioned in a horizontal state.

各昇降台3には、図2,5,6に示すように、栽培槽2内の各栽培パネル25に植設された植物fに向けて光を照射するための照明装置7と、各栽培パネル25に植設された植物fに向けて二酸化炭素を送出するための送気機構8とが配設されている。この実施例の照明装置7は、光が栽培槽2内の全ての栽培パネル25に照射されるように、各昇降台3の下面の同一平面上に複数の蛍光灯70を等間隔に全長にわたって取り付けて構成されている。   As shown in FIGS. 2, 5, and 6, the lighting device 7 for irradiating light toward the plant f planted in each cultivation panel 25 in the cultivation tank 2 and each cultivation An air supply mechanism 8 for sending carbon dioxide toward the plant f planted on the panel 25 is disposed. The illuminating device 7 of this embodiment has a plurality of fluorescent lamps 70 at equal intervals over the entire length on the same plane of the lower surface of each lifting platform 3 so that all the cultivation panels 25 in the cultivation tank 2 are irradiated with light. Installed and configured.

この実施例の送気機構8は、各昇降台3の上面の幅中央に長さ方向へ延びる1本の送気管80を設置して構成されている。送気管80の栽培槽2と対向する面、すなわち、下面から両側面にわたる範囲に、二酸化炭素が栽培槽2内の全ての栽培パネル25に向けて送出されるように、図示しない多数の送気口が全長にわたって形成されている。各昇降台3の送気管80には二酸化炭素の供給源(図示せず)に連通する可撓性を有するホース81が接続されている。   The air supply mechanism 8 of this embodiment is configured by installing one air supply pipe 80 extending in the length direction at the center of the width of the upper surface of each lifting platform 3. A large number of air feeds (not shown) are provided so that carbon dioxide is delivered toward all the cultivation panels 25 in the cultivation tank 2 on the surface of the air feeding pipe 80 facing the cultivation tank 2, that is, in a range extending from the lower surface to both side surfaces. The mouth is formed over the entire length. A flexible hose 81 communicating with a carbon dioxide supply source (not shown) is connected to the air supply pipe 80 of each elevator 3.

なお、この実施例の送気機構8は、各昇降台3の長さ方向に1本の送気管80を設けた構成のものであるが、送気管80の数を2本、3本と増やしたり、幅方向にも複数本の送気管を設けたりして、格子状に構成してもよい。
また、図示していないが、植物栽培機の適所、例えば、支柱10の適所に二酸化炭素の濃度を検出するためのセンサを設置し、一方、二酸化炭素の供給路の途中に電磁弁を設けて、センサの検出値に基づき電磁弁の動作を制御して、植物fの周辺領域の二酸化炭素の濃度を一定値に維持する。
In addition, although the air supply mechanism 8 of this Example is a thing of the structure which provided the one air supply pipe | tube 80 in the length direction of each raising / lowering stand 3, the number of the air supply pipe | tubes 80 is increased with two and three. Alternatively, a plurality of air supply pipes may be provided in the width direction to configure a lattice shape.
Although not shown, a sensor for detecting the concentration of carbon dioxide is installed at an appropriate place of the plant cultivation machine, for example, at an appropriate position of the support column 10, while an electromagnetic valve is provided in the middle of the carbon dioxide supply path. The operation of the solenoid valve is controlled based on the detection value of the sensor, and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the peripheral region of the plant f is maintained at a constant value.

さらに、この実施例では、送気管80を二酸化炭素の供給源に接続しているが、これに代えて、前記酸素などのその他の各種気体の供給源や温度および湿度が調整された各種気体の供給源に接続してもよく、二酸化炭素の供給源と酸素などのその他の各種気体の供給源と温度および湿度が調整された各種気体の供給源の少なくもふたつに接続してもよい。   Furthermore, in this embodiment, the air supply pipe 80 is connected to a carbon dioxide supply source, but instead of this, various other gas supply sources such as oxygen and various gases with adjusted temperature and humidity are used. It may be connected to a supply source, or may be connected to at least two of a supply source of carbon dioxide, a supply source of various other gases such as oxygen, and a supply source of various gases adjusted in temperature and humidity.

さらに、この実施例では、温度および湿度は空調設備により栽培室の全体で管理しているが、各昇降台3に上記の送気管80とは別の送気管を設け、その送気管へ空調設備より温度および湿度が調整された気体を送り、送気管に設けた複数個の送気口より植物に向けて温度および湿度が調整された気体を送出するようにしてもよい。   Further, in this embodiment, the temperature and humidity are managed in the entire cultivation room by the air conditioning equipment, but an air supply pipe different from the above air supply pipe 80 is provided on each lifting platform 3, and the air supply equipment is provided to the air supply pipe. A gas whose temperature and humidity are adjusted may be sent, and a gas whose temperature and humidity are adjusted may be sent toward a plant from a plurality of air supply ports provided in the air supply pipe.

さらにまた、この実施例では、昇降台3に気体を送出する送気機構8が配設されているが、送気機構8に代えて、或いは送気機構8に加えて、液体肥料の各種成分を含む溶液を供給する供給源に接続された噴霧機構(図示せず)を配設することもできる。噴霧機構も送気機構8と同様の構成のものを採用することができ、昇降台3の長さ方向と幅方向との少なくも一方に少なくとも1本の送液管を設置して構成する。送液管の栽培槽2と対向する面の複数箇所には、栽培槽2の全体に液体を噴霧することが可能なように噴霧口を形成する。   Furthermore, in this embodiment, an air supply mechanism 8 for sending gas to the lifting platform 3 is provided. However, instead of the air supply mechanism 8 or in addition to the air supply mechanism 8, various components of the liquid fertilizer A spraying mechanism (not shown) connected to a supply source for supplying a solution containing can also be provided. A spraying mechanism having the same configuration as that of the air supply mechanism 8 can be adopted, and at least one liquid supply pipe is installed in at least one of the length direction and the width direction of the lifting platform 3. Spray ports are formed at a plurality of locations on the surface of the liquid feeding pipe facing the cultivation tank 2 so that the liquid can be sprayed on the entire cultivation tank 2.

なお、上記の昇降台3には、照明装置7、送気機構8、噴霧機構の他に、植物の生育状態を管理するために撮像装置を設置してもよく、さらに、音波発生装置や電磁波発生装置のような植物の生長に効果がある装置を設けてもよい。   In addition to the lighting device 7, the air supply mechanism 8, and the spray mechanism, an image pickup device may be installed on the lifting platform 3 to manage the growth state of the plant. You may provide the apparatus which is effective in the growth of a plant like a generator.

上記した構成の植物栽培機において、植物の成長に応じて個々の昇降機構5により各段の各昇降台3を昇降動作させ、植物に対する照明装置7および送気機構8の高さが最適となるよう位置決めする。この実施例の昇降機構5では、操作ハンドル55を手操作して送りネジ棒53を回すと、ナット部材51がネジ送りされて昇降台3が昇降動作するもので、昇降台3が4箇所のストッパー60に当たった位置で昇降動作を停止することで、昇降台3は水平を保った状態で照明装置7および送気機構8が最適な高さに位置決めされる。照明装置7および送気機構8を常に植物fに極力近づいた状態に設定することで、植物fに対する光の強さが高く維持され、それに加えて植物fの周辺領域の二酸化炭素の濃度、すなわち、光合成の速度に影響する光の強さ以外の外的要因が常に最適な状態に制御され、その相乗作用によって光合成の速度が増し、植物の栽培効率が大幅に向上する。   In the plant cultivating machine having the above-described configuration, each lifting platform 3 is moved up and down by each lifting mechanism 5 according to the growth of the plant, and the height of the lighting device 7 and the air feeding mechanism 8 with respect to the plant is optimized. Position so that. In the lifting mechanism 5 of this embodiment, when the operation handle 55 is manually operated and the feed screw rod 53 is rotated, the nut member 51 is screwed and the lifting platform 3 moves up and down. By stopping the lifting operation at the position where it hits the stopper 60, the lighting device 7 and the air supply mechanism 8 are positioned at an optimum height while the lifting / lowering table 3 is kept horizontal. By setting the lighting device 7 and the air supply mechanism 8 as close as possible to the plant f, the intensity of light with respect to the plant f is maintained high, and in addition, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the peripheral region of the plant f, that is, External factors other than the light intensity that affect the rate of photosynthesis are always controlled to the optimum state, and the synergistic action increases the rate of photosynthesis and greatly improves plant cultivation efficiency.

1 固定台(第1の支持台)
2 栽培槽
3 昇降台(第2の支持台)
5 昇降機構
6 位置決め板
7 照明装置
8 送気機構
15 張り出し部
60 ストッパー
1 fixed base (first support base)
2 Cultivation tank 3 Lifting platform (second support platform)
5 Elevating mechanism 6 Positioning plate 7 Illuminating device 8 Air supply mechanism 15 Overhanging portion 60 Stopper

Claims (7)

栽培対象の植物が植設される栽培槽を水平に支持する第1の支持台と、栽培槽の上方に第1の支持台と平行に設けられる第2の支持台と、第2の支持台を水平を保った状態で昇降動作させる昇降機構とを備え、前記第2の支持台は、複数個所に縦設された位置決め板のそれぞれに上下方向の位置調整が可能なように配置されるストッパーにより水平を保った状態に位置決めされ、第2の支持台には、栽培槽に植設された植物に向けて光を照射することが可能な照明装置が配設されるとともに、送気機構と噴霧機構との少なくとも一方が配設されており、前記送気機構は、第2の支持台の長さ方向と幅方向との少なくも一方に設置される少なくとも1本の送気管を有し、送気管の栽培槽と対向する面の複数箇所に、栽培槽の全体にわたり栽培槽に植設された植物に向けて送気することが可能なように送気口が形成されて成り、前記噴霧機構は、第2の支持台の長さ方向と幅方向との少なくも一方に設置される少なくとも1本の送液管を有し、送液管の栽培槽と対向する面の複数箇所に、栽培槽の全体にわたり栽培槽に植設された植物に向けて液体を噴霧することが可能なように噴霧口が形成されて成る植物栽培機。 The 1st support stand which supports horizontally the cultivation tank in which the plant of cultivation object is planted, the 2nd support stand provided in parallel with the 1st support stand above the cultivation tank, and the 2nd support stand And a lifting mechanism that moves up and down while maintaining the horizontal position, and the second support base is a stopper that is arranged so that vertical position adjustment is possible on each of the positioning plates that are vertically provided at a plurality of locations. by being positioned in a state of keeping the horizontal, the second support bars, together with the possible lighting device is irradiated with light is disposed toward the implanted onto culture tank plants, and air mechanism At least one of the spray mechanism is disposed, the air supply mechanism has at least one air supply pipe installed in at least one of the length direction and the width direction of the second support base, Cultivation tank over the entire cultivation tank at multiple locations on the surface facing the cultivation tank of the air pipe An air supply port is formed so that air can be supplied toward the planted plant, and the spray mechanism is installed in at least one of the length direction and the width direction of the second support base. Having at least one liquid feeding pipe to be sprayed on a plurality of locations on the surface of the liquid feeding pipe facing the cultivation tank toward the plant planted in the cultivation tank throughout the cultivation tank A plant cultivator with spray holes formed as possible. 前記照明装置は、昇降可能とした第2の支持台の全面に複数個の光源を光の照射方向を栽培槽に向けて設置して構成されている請求項1に記載された植物栽培機。   The plant cultivator according to claim 1, wherein the lighting device is configured by installing a plurality of light sources on the entire surface of the second support base that can be moved up and down with the light irradiation direction directed toward the cultivation tank. 前記送気機構は、植物の生育に有用な成分の少なくとも1種を含む気体または温度と湿度の少なくとも一方が調整された気体を供給する供給源に接続されている請求項1に記載された植物栽培機。   2. The plant according to claim 1, wherein the air supply mechanism is connected to a supply source that supplies a gas containing at least one component useful for plant growth or a gas in which at least one of temperature and humidity is adjusted. Growing machine. 前記噴霧機構は、植物の生育に有用な成分の少なくとも1種を含む液体を供給する供給源に接続されている請求項1に記載された植物栽培機。   The plant cultivation machine according to claim 1, wherein the spray mechanism is connected to a supply source that supplies a liquid containing at least one component useful for plant growth. 前記昇降機構は、第2の支持台の重心位置または重心位置を挟む対称位置に設けられるナット部材と、ナット部材の上方位置に上端部が回動自由に支持された操作ハンドル付きの送りネジ棒とを含み、第2の支持台は、ナット部材にネジ込まれた前記送りネジ棒により昇降可能に支持されている請求項1に記載された植物栽培機。   The elevating mechanism includes a nut member provided at the center of gravity of the second support base or a symmetrical position across the center of gravity, and a feed screw rod with an operation handle whose upper end is rotatably supported above the nut member The plant cultivation machine according to claim 1, wherein the second support base is supported so as to be movable up and down by the feed screw rod screwed into the nut member. 前記第1の支持台は、決められた間隔で複数段にわたって設けられるとともに、各第1の支持台の上方に第1の支持台と平行に第2の支持台が個別に昇降可能に設けられている請求項1に記載された植物栽培機。 The first support base is provided in a plurality of stages at a predetermined interval, and a second support base is provided above each first support base in parallel with the first support base so as to be individually movable up and down. The plant cultivator according to claim 1 . 前記第1の支持台は、その上方の第2の支持台に対して少なくとも一側へ張り出している請求項1または6に記載された植物栽培機。 The plant cultivation machine according to claim 1 or 6, wherein the first support stand projects to at least one side with respect to the second support stand above the first support stand.
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