In a broad concept, the inventor believes that the building unit itself (which defines the internal space of the unit) can be considered separately from the structural frame of the unit, and if this is implemented in a preferred form, design flexibility and manufacturing. It has been found that both ease of improvement can be possible.
Regarding ease of manufacture, building units can be manufactured with relatively loose tolerances, for example ± 20 mm, which is relatively easy to achieve. Structural frame segments can be manufactured with much tighter tolerances, eg, within ± 1 mm, to provide an accurate framework for the building. Subsequently, the assembly of the building unit and the associated structural frame segment are attached to each other to accommodate any errors in the building unit, and the precisely positioned structural frame segment is attached. A building unit assembly is formed and can be assembled into a building.
The preferred embodiment provides an independent column system that sets a grid of exact dimensions that is the dimensional reference for all other building elements.
In alternative systems where the structural frame for the building forms part of its frame for the building, the entire unit must be manufactured to meet the relatively tight tolerances required by the frame, Expensive and complex.
With respect to design and flexibility, decoupling the design and manufacture of the structural frame segment from the unit gives the designer the flexibility to position the structural frame segment in a wide range of positions relative to the building unit. This allows for design flexibility that is virtually impossible when the structural frame of the building unit is incorporated into the wall of the unit.
The unitary building system of the present invention can be used to construct buildings that are used for any purpose, including but not limited to residential, hotel, and office use. The preferred embodiment is also suitable for high-rise use, i.e. buildings with four or more floors above the ground.
The building unit assembly is made according to the building layout to be created. The system of the present invention allows a building designer to freely lay out a building in a conventional manner according to the owner's needs and market requirements. Next, a common column grid is defined for a plurality of vertically continuous floors, and a plurality of units are defined for each floor. The units are between the columns of the column grid, and conversely, the column grid is in the space between adjacent units. The building design needs to be adjusted so that it can be divided into building units that can vary in width and length but are sized to be transported and lifted in place by a crane in the field. This can be a prefabricated system that provides building construction, with architectural finishes and facilities completed and ready to be assembled on site.
As described in more detail below, embodiments may have the following features. The length, width, and height of the building unit can vary from plan to plan. A building unit may incorporate all the components of the building including stairs, hallways, and various equipment. A building unit assembly is made up of production facilities. The completed building unit assembly is transported to the assembly site. The building unit assembly is lifted in place by the construction crane. Since the facade and interior can be connected to or fitted into the building unit assembly prior to loading, field work to complete the building is minimized. Building unit assemblies can be connected to each other using special bolt connections. Since each building unit is structurally self-supporting and can be connected to a structural frame segment, the building unit assembly including the structural frame segment supports the building in the vertical and lateral directions when connected to each other. Form the body.
Each building unit can be regarded as a linear wall structure that is structurally independent and free-standing with respect to its own weight and the live load it receives.
Units can be constructed from a variety of materials, including: wooden framed structures using plywood bracing for walls, floors, and roof boards; steel and profiled steel sheets for walls and roofs; Steel truss structure using and using rolled channel steel and deformed steel sheet or purlins on the floor; and forming underground wall and roof sections, wall and roof sections need additional cross braces Profile steel sheet structure in which the sheet steel wall constitutes the bulk of the unit's strength in the form of a monocoque or system used in the automotive and aerospace industries because it has sufficient rigidity. In general, building units are relatively strong in the longitudinal direction, i.e. along the plane of their walls, when compared to the transverse direction. The building unit can be stiffened in that direction by providing braces across the lateral direction. This brace may take the form of a frame brace, wall, tension cable, or other means. Advantageously, its strength along the length of the building unit can be used to provide lateral load support in the manner described elsewhere herein. Lateral loads can be transmitted laterally by floors, roofs, and laterally extending walls across the interior space of the building unit.
Fire protection can be obtained by the use of refractory gypsum board lining on the inner wall and roof of the building unit.
The interior may be complete including painting, tiling, carpet, and joinery, or may remain in a “rough-in” stage for completion on site. Facade elements, corridors, and stairs may also be integrated into the building unit prior to entry, or may be finished on site. As described above, these elements can also be accurately positioned by taking position measurements from a reference point associated with the structural frame segment rather than the building unit.
A building unit may have four or more structural frame segments including structural steel or concrete column elements secured to its exterior to receive full loads and may be combined with the building unit to form a building structure . The column element is designed to withstand such loads depending on its position in the structure. If necessary, additional structural supports can be included to distribute the load or increase rigidity. This can be regarded as forming the external structure of the building unit, which is connected together with the external structure of the adjacent unit to form the building's load bearing structure.
Since the external structure occupies an area outside the occupying interior space of the building unit, there is no conflict between buildability and assembly. The structural area between building units is usually in the range of 100 mm to 150 mm. This area is where all structural frame segments are located and where all the connections that lock the entire building together are made.
This advantage in terms of buildability is that the building unit, the external structure including the structural frame segment of the building unit assembly, and the facade element are occupied by the multi-story structure in the production facility after production due to the accuracy of the structural frame segment placement. It can be provisionally aligned at the correct position and even locked together. This process facilitates inspection of tolerances to ensure ease of assembly and quality control in the field. This also allows for finishing on the ground, which is much more cost effective and less risky than finishing in an elevated position on the site as is an option in high-rise buildings. This makes it much easier to inspect, manage and achieve building and facade tolerances during the manufacturing stage rather than the assembly stage.
The structural frame segment or its pillar elements can increase in size according to the building height increase and / or the strength requirements. These elements are sized to fit their position in the structure so that larger pillar elements can be connected towards the building unit assembly at the bottom compared to the building unit assembly at the top of the building. However, the building unit may remain unchanged because it is designed to be self-supporting.
The building unit transmits lateral loads to the stabilizing element or brace element through the walls, roof and floorboard. These stabilizing elements may be in the form of other units arranged in the opposite direction to the majority of the units. These can be framework cores in selected units or conventional concrete or steel core systems depending on the height of the building. The vertical loads in the building unit are transmitted through their side walls to the structural frame segments connected to them.
The most basic form of building unit can be considered as a wall-type structure supported at four points with open ends. This structure is lightweight and is highly resistant to wind and seismic loads. This structure is also weatherproof enough to allow the internal elements to be transported and built without the possibility of water damage.
The interior of the building unit is not affected by structural elements because all the pillars are in the column area of 100 mm to 150 mm outside the surface of the unit. This area remains the same up to 50 floors regardless of building height. This is achieved by maintaining column width while increasing column formation and strength.
In some structures, usually low- to medium-rise structures, lateral loads can be removed by rotating some of the building units perpendicular to the general direction of the other building units. This is determined by the layout of the building. Alternatively, the end of the unit may be stiffened through the use of heavier frames and / or additional wall brace reinforcement, or the introduction of additional elements tailored to the specific building or site specific load conditions. Elevators and stairs can also be framed to withstand lateral loads. The elevator and stairs may be incorporated into the building unit assembly or may be constructed separately.
For relatively high structures above the 12th to 15th floors, a more traditional brace system utilizing cast-in-place concrete cores may be advantageous. When a cast-in-place concrete core is utilized as the main brace element, the core is partially or fully applied prior to installation of the fabricated building unit assembly.
In very tall buildings, concrete or steel transmission structures should be introduced where practical and economic requirements are required, or adapted to changes in load or brace requirements determined by building design and site conditions There can be.
In this case, a tall building is effectively divided into two or more units carried by concrete on a steel core structure. When a concrete core is utilized, this can also be used as a support element by using a transmission structure that transmits vertical loads back to the core, thereby reducing the size of the structural frame segment connected to the building unit, You can effectively transform a building into a series of smaller structures. For example, a 20-storey building can change the effective height of the structural frame segment to that required for a 5-storey building by incorporating three transmission structures.
The transmission structure can be connected to the structure of the building unit assembly itself such that the transmission structure is assembled with the building unit assembly.
Alternatively, the transmission structure can be provided as a separate steel or concrete structure depending on the situation.
As mentioned above, the building unit assembly may have a size that varies depending on requirements and transportation restrictions. However, each building unit assembly typically has a width of, for example, 2 m to 5 m, a length of 10 m to 28 m, and a height of 2.7 m to 3.3 m.
It will be further appreciated that building units assemblies of different sizes and shapes can be arranged in a building to create the floor space required for the building's useful space. Openings for doors, windows, etc. may be formed in the side walls of the building unit. Corridors and balconies can also be added.
FIG. 1 shows a schematic view of a building unit assembly 2 constructed in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. The building unit assembly 2 comprises a building unit comprising two side walls 4 and 6, a floor 8 and a roof 10 with structural frame segments in the form of pillar elements 14, 16, 18 and 22.
In the configuration shown, the ends 12 and 14 are open, but they can be closed according to requirements. As will be described in more detail below, the side walls 4 and 6, the floor 8 and the roof 10 are robustly configured so that the building unit assembly 2 can stand on its own during transportation and lifting. It is also possible to withstand loads and live loads applied during use of interiors and the like. As will be described in more detail below, the building unit assembly 2 may be manufactured at a factory remote from where the building using the unit 2 will be built (eg, at a factory in another production facility). Manufacturing building unit assemblies in the form of industrial products helps to save cost and time and achieve better manufacturing tolerances for the finished unit.
In the illustrated configuration, the building unit assembly 2 has four pillar elements 16, 18, 20, and 22 connected to the side walls, the elements 16 and 18 being connected to the side wall 4, and the elements 20 and 22 is connected to the side wall 6. As will be described later, the function of the structural frame segment is to provide an attachment point for the building unit assembly 2 and also to support vertical loads when the building unit assemblies are stacked one above the other. Elements 16, 18, 20, and 22 include their own lower mounting means 24 and their respective upper mounting means 26. The upper attachment means 26 may form the attachment point for the lifting cable during the transportation phase and the construction phase. Also, as will be described in more detail below, members 24 and 26 can be used to join adjacent building unit assemblies 2 together in a completed building.
The building unit 2 itself can be constructed of various materials. FIG. 2A schematically shows a configuration in which the side walls 4 and 6 and the roof 10 are made of wood with plywood cladding. The floor 8 can be made of a deformed sheet steel. FIG. 2B shows an alternative construction in which the building unit 2 is steel, has braces reinforced side walls and a roof, and the floor 8 is made of deformed sheet steel. FIG. 2C shows an alternative configuration where the side walls and roof are in the form of a framed truss, and the profiled steel sheet braces are used for the side walls and roof and floor.
FIG. 2D shows an alternative configuration in which the building unit has side walls, a floor, and a roof, all made of deformed sheet steel. FIG. 2E shows an alternative configuration where the building unit is formed from a panel of glass fiber reinforced concrete (GRC) or other composite material and the floor 8 is made of profiled sheet steel, GRC, or composite building material.
FIG. 3A is a schematic plan view showing two building unit assemblies 2A and 2B positioned adjacent to each other. As can be seen in FIG. 3A, the structural frame segments 16 and 18 on the side wall 4 are offset with respect to the position of the structural frame segments 20 and 22 on the side wall 6. This configuration allows the structural frame segments to be positioned adjacent to each other at the final mounting location of the building unit assemblies 2A and 2B, as shown in FIG. 3B.
It will be appreciated that there is a gap 28 between adjacent side walls 4 and 6 of the assembled building unit, as shown in FIG. 3B. The gap or column region 28 is defined by the column width and provides a space for accommodating the vertical structural support. The column region 28 also helps with sound insulation and heat insulation between adjacent units.
The upper attachment means 26 and the lower attachment means 24 are schematically shown in FIGS. As will be described in more detail, the upper attachment means can be of various types, as can the lower attachment means. Some embodiments are described in more detail below.
It will be appreciated that similar units can be stacked in various arrangements according to requirements. The units can also be arranged so that their ends are adjacent to each other, in which case the units are connected end-to-end (rather than in parallel) as shown in FIGS. 3A and 3B. As will be obtained, the structural frame segment (not shown) of FIGS. 3A and 3B will be provided on the end wall 12 or 14. Since the attachment means 24 and 26 protrude below the floor 8 and above the roof 10, respectively, a gap is also created between the building units stacked in the vertical direction, and fire resistance and sound insulation between the building units on different floors of the building. And has a similar function with respect to the improvement of heat insulation.
Adjacent building unit assemblies are preferably interconnected using attachment means 24 and 26, and the combination of self-supporting building units and interconnected structural frame segments may constitute the sole axis of the building. Depending on the building unit layout, building height, and related site conditions, additional stabilizing or bracing elements may be added.
The building unit 2 shown in FIGS. 1 to 3 has a rectangular shape in plan view. 4B, 4C, and 4D show three of the many alternative planar shapes of the unit. In more detail, FIG. 4B shows a unit having a plan view of an unequal square. FIG. 4C shows a unit having a wedge-shaped (or trapezoidal) planar shape. FIG. 4D shows a unit having three sides that are perpendicular to each other and one side that is curved. Other shapes are possible. As will be appreciated, the units can be interconnected in a manner similar to that shown in FIGS.
Building unit assemblies 2 can be stacked in various ways to build buildings having various shapes. FIG. 5A schematically shows four units 201, 202, 203, 204 stacked up and down to form a four-story building 30. FIG. 5B shows a four-story building 32 with a pair of units forming each floor, where a pair of units 203 on the third floor are effectively perpendicular to the first, second, and fourth floors. To provide units 2.3 and 2.4 with a cantilevered configuration for these underlying units.
FIG. 5C shows two wedge-shaped unit banks 40 and 42 that are of different length than the central unit bank 44 and are attached in an offset relationship to the central bank 44 of rectangular units so as to create a more complex shaped building. A four-story building 38 is shown. FIG. 5D shows a building 46 having a central bank 48 of rectangular building unit assemblies with side unit banks 50 and 52 arranged on both sides, and some of the upper units, eg 50.4 and 50.5. Have rounded edges to create a building with a curved appearance. FIG. 5E shows a five-story building 54 constructed from a unit bank having a planar shape of an unequal square. FIG. 5F shows six banks 57.1-57.6 of building unit assemblies stacked in parallel and two banks 59.1 and 59.2 stacked end to end. The building 55 is shown. The combination of banks oriented orthogonally to each other provides brace reinforcement for the building.
FIG. 5G shows a building unit assembly that is arranged such that each bank also forms a right angle with respect to its neighbors, thereby also providing essential brace reinforcement due to the orientation of the building unit assembly. A further building 61 is shown having three banks 61.1, 61.2, 61.3.
FIG. 6 schematically shows a 20-story building 56 having a central concrete core 58. The core 58 typically includes an elevator shaft in the usual manner. Each floor of the building is composed of a building unit assembly that is manufactured off-site and lifted in place. In relatively large buildings of this size, the core 58 contributes to the bracing reinforcement of the building. In the illustrated configuration, the building 56 includes three transmission structures 60, 62, and 64 that are supported by a core 58. The transmission structure can be formed from a reinforced concrete structure or a steel structure connected to the core. The main function of the transmission structures 60, 62, and 64 is to transmit vertical loads from the five-layer building unit assemblies stacked on the core to the core so that the various building unit assemblies underneath are transmitted. It is to prevent the total vertical load of the building from being transmitted through the structural frame segment. Thus, the size of the structural frame segment need not be so large that the total vertical load of the building is supported by the lowest structural frame segment in the structure. However, initial calculations surprisingly show that buildings up to 50 stories high do not need to use the transmission structure as described above. These calculations show that the gaps or column areas 28 between building units may remain constant throughout the building and the depth, wall thickness, material strength, or quality of the column elements of the structural frame segment are within the entire building. It also proves that it can be changed to provide sufficient strength depending on their location.
Table 1 below summarizes typical values for axial compression applied to structural frame segments as a function of height in the building. This table contains data for column widths of various widths as described.
In Table 1, the “floor” column indicates the floor occupied by the unit when counted from the top of the building. Therefore, the first floor is the top floor, and the 50th floor in the 50-story building is the lowest floor. The column “Axial compression” describes the load on each column of the building unit assembly on that floor. The “column size” column indicates the cross-sectional dimensions and wall thicknesses of columns required for column widths of 100 mm, 125 mm, and 150 mm, respectively, to support a specific load. Regarding the rectangular column, the width dimension × the dimension is indicated in millimeters, and the wall thickness is indicated in mm. For square columns, only a single wide wall length and thickness are shown. If four measurements are noted, this represents the dimension of the column element formed from the I-beam. Thus, 125 × 250 × 40 × 25 indicates the use of an I-beam with a total width along the end flange of 125 mm and a total width along the central axis of 250 mm. The end flange is 40 mm thick and the central web is 25 mm thick.
The last group of columns labeled “Column capacity” is made of 450 MPa steel and RHS at the size specified in the corresponding “Column size” column when a 350 MPa steel mounting member is fitted. And load capacity (load capacity) with respect to SHS.
As can be seen from Table 1, the building element assemblies on the lower floors of the building need to absorb or transmit greater vertical loads, so the load capacity of the column elements can be greater for such building unit assemblies. Conversely, this means that higher-strength column members can be used to avoid unnecessary weight and costs at the top of the building. For convenience, instead of having different columns on each floor, columns having the same strength may be provided for each group of floors in the building. The relative increase in strength is done, for example, by increasing the column size or wall thickness at lower floors as described in Table 1.
The column element may be in the form of a reinforced concrete column that is rigidly attached to the side wall of the building unit. Alternatively, the column elements may include steel column elements that are bolted or welded to the side walls. Other materials can also be used.
In Table 1, it is assumed that one pillar element is used in each structural frame segment, but two or more may be used. In this case, separate members can be used to balance the load between the plurality of column elements. This load sharing function can be performed by attachment means attached to the column elements or by a separate dedicated structure, eg braces, between the plurality of column elements. In some cases, the structural frame segments can include wide columns, such as blade columns, as well as walls that support vertical loads, if desired. In either case, the mechanism of operation is similar to that of the narrow column element described in connection with the preferred embodiment.
With this flexibility in mind, the concept of vertical alignment should be widely considered. That is, the vertical alignment need only be sufficiently accurate within the range necessary to transmit the vertical load to the aligned structural support segments. For example, in the case of a narrow structural frame segment with small attachment means, the vertical alignment includes relatively tight tolerances so that the vertical load from the upper structural frame segment can be well supported by the lower structural frame segment. Is required. However, if one wall-shaped structural frame segment abuts one columnar structural frame segment (or several columnar structural frame segments), as long as a vertical load is transmitted (in the direction along the column gap) ) The degree of vertical alignment need not be so strict.
FIG. 7A is a schematic isometric view of a group of five floors 70, 72, 74, 76, and 78 that may form part of the building 56 as shown in FIG. The orientation of the building units 2 constituting the floors 70, 72, ... 78 can vary according to requirements.
FIG. 7B shows a building 63 having a central core 58 but a different arrangement of building unit banks. The building unit is arranged so as to surround the core 58. FIG. 7C shows another building 65 that is also composed of building unit banks, but in this case brace reinforced by side cores 67.
FIG. 8 shows a building 80 having a distribution facility mechanism instead of the central core 58 of the configuration shown in FIGS. In this configuration, building 80 has five floors 82, 84, 86, 88, and 90, and the components that make up the distribution facility mechanism can be incorporated into building units that make up the various floors. In the configuration shown, there is an elevator core 98, two stairwells 100 and 102, and a conduit core 104. These components are separated from each other, and by using the heavier structural components, these facility features within them increase the overall stability of the building. This is because the various vertical conduits are distributed over a larger area when viewed in plan compared to the use of a single central mechanism.
In FIG. 9, the first to fifth floors are made from the building unit assembly indicated by reference numeral 112, the sixth to tenth floors are made from the building unit assembly indicated by reference numeral 114, and the eleventh to fifteenth floors are prepared. FIG. 11 is a schematic side view of a multi-story building made from a building unit assembly indicated by reference numeral 116 and 16th to 20th floors being made from a building unit assembly indicated by reference numeral 118. The structural frame segments associated with the building units in the various floor groups have a higher load bearing capacity toward the bottom according to the height of the building. It is desirable that the maximum column width be fixed so that the column area between adjacent units remains constant throughout the height of the building. Therefore, in order to accommodate a large load near the lower part of the building, the columns 120, 122, and 124 are deeper in the lower part (in the longitudinal direction) than in the upper part. In this configuration, the first floor group 112 has a first large sized column, and the second floor group, eg 114, has a smaller second sized column. The building is thus constructed. It can be seen from Table 1 that the column size increases toward the bottom of the building (preferably for each group / stepwise). This allows all units to maintain a constant width regardless of the height of the building.
FIG. 10 is a perspective view of a building 130 having a 20th floor, shown as five groups 132, 134, 136, 138 and 140 of four floors for simplicity and a central core 142. As can be seen in FIG. 11A, the floor 132 is composed of a first bank of three building units 132A, 132B, and 132C and a second bank of three building units 132D, 132E, and 132F. Floor 132 includes two additional building units 132G and 132H that are oriented 90 degrees relative to other building units, as shown in FIG. 11A. 11B, 11C, 11D, and 11E show a similar arrangement of building units within a building. The order of installation of the various building unit assemblies in the building varies depending on the site and building design parameters and is not fixed.
FIG. 12 is a more detailed schematic diagram of the floor 132 of the building 130. It can be seen that the structural frame segments of building unit assemblies 132A, 132B, 132C and the structural frame segments of building unit assemblies 132D, 132E, and 132F are interconnected in the same manner as shown in FIG. Will. The inner ends of building unit assemblies 132A, 132C, 132D, and 132F include end structural frame segments 150 and 152 that cooperate with complementary structural frame segments of building unit assemblies 132G and 132H adjacent to them. . In the case of building unit assemblies 132B and 132E, end structure frame segments 150 and 152 are attached to mounting plates 154, 156, 158, and 160 that are driven into core 142 or otherwise connected, as shown. Bolted directly.
FIG. 12 also schematically illustrates the use of a facade element that provides the building 130 with a facade. In particular, an end facade element 162 is connected to each of the building unit assemblies 132A-132F. Side facade elements 164 are connected to the outer sides of the building unit assemblies 132A, 132C, 132D, and 132F. As shown, the side facade elements 164 are connected to the structural frame segments 16, 18, 20, and 22 of these building unit assemblies. End facade elements (not shown) are connected to the ends of the building unit assemblies 132G and 132H. As shown, side facade elements 166 are connected to the sides of the building unit assemblies 132G and 132H via structural frame segments 168. The end facade element 162 can be load bearing and can be incorporated into a building unit assembly. Steel and / or reinforced concrete can be utilized as both a feature and support structure depending on the structural requirements of the building. The facade elements can be solid or hollow to allow in-situ bonding or mass concrete filling of the concrete elements. Thereby, the big rigid earthquake-resistant wall comprised from a facade element can be provided. If needed, balconies, handrails, and screens may be added to the facade. The facade element can include various metal panels, wood, terracotta, glass, and other unstructured exterior materials.
FIG. 13A is a schematic diagram of a floor plan of an apartment building 69 having 10 apartment houses on each floor. This building has a distribution core mechanism somewhat similar to that shown in FIG. 8 and includes two stairwells 71 and 73 and two hoistways 75 and 77. As shown in FIGS. 13B and 13C, each individual apartment house has two adjacent building units 71.2 and 72.2 that have been furnished to provide the necessary rooms for the apartment house. 72.1 and 72.2. In this configuration, stairwells 71 and 73 are incorporated in the building unit.
13D and 13E show alternative apartment housing layouts using three building units and two building units, respectively.
14A and 14B show two floors of a hotel building 79 having 14 rooms on the lower floor 81 (FIG. 14A) and 12 rooms on the higher floor 83 (FIG. 14B). In this overall configuration, the hoistway 91 constitutes a side core similar to the side core 67 of FIG. 7C, while the stairwells 87 and 89 are on the inside as in the arrangement of FIG. Basically in this configuration, as shown in FIG. 14C, a single building unit 93 is used for each room of the hotel building. In this structure, the hoistway and the stairwell are not part of the building unit but are constructed separately. This contributes to building brace reinforcement and stability.
15A and 15B show a multi-use building 85 having both office space on the lower floors of the building and residential facilities on the higher floors. FIG. 15A shows a floor plan typical of a residential facility using various building units. Similar or different shaped building units may be utilized on lower floors to serve as commercial office spaces.
As described above, the building unit 2 can be partially or substantially fully interior furnished according to the requirements of the completed building. Various building unit placement techniques to obtain a specific floor plan need to be described in detail because similar techniques are used in low-rise structures, as described in some of the prior art documents mentioned above. There is no.
Other parts of the building structure and / or interior installation work may be performed using known techniques or techniques similar to known techniques. For example, any building footing assembled in this way has a footing that is conventionally constructed to meet the site conditions and height of the building. However, the weight loss of buildings constructed in accordance with the present invention reduces the size and capacity of the footing and is therefore less expensive than conventional concrete buildings.
If a parking lot is required, the parking lot can be so constructed, as the type that is conventionally constructed of concrete is most suitable. A transmission floor may be formed on the top floor of the parking lot as needed to transfer the load from the unit to the parking lot structure. In this way, the most economical and efficient layout of the structural members can be obtained.
The roof of the unit can be made as a separate frame section, lifted in place above the top unit and connected in a manner similar to the connection between units. The roof is formed with short stub columns, steel side beams, and steel purlins that coincide with the underlying structural frame segments. Parapets are formed on the outer periphery of each unit so that the entire roof is made up of unit-sized sections that are independently drained individually. After installation, all parapets are fitted with metal lids to waterproof the joints between the units. The roof covering may be a roof sheet steel with conventional eaves and draining, or it may be covered with plywood and a bituminous waterproofing membrane. Additional finishes such as concrete pavers or wood decking may be added to the finished roof terrace. Plant mounting tables and sidewalks may be added as necessary.
Drainage can be done from the eaves of the steel plate roof by a downspout or from a downspout connected to the roof drain. The downpipe is generally positioned on the exterior of the building.
The drainage of the balcony can be done in the same way as the membrane roof by a downpipe connected to the balcony drain. Since the balcony drain typically coincides with the roof drain, one vertical gutter that connects the roof drain to the balcony drain can be used in each pipeline.
Various equipment and fixtures can be included in each unit, and can be fitted away from the built-in equipment and fixtures at a central point suitable for connection after installation.
The laying of uprights (water, gas, sewers, etc.) and cables (electricity, telephone, data, etc.) can be done on-site as usual.
The equipment is set up almost the same as a conventional building. The type of equipment depends on the size of the building, the type of equipment available or required and the availability.
FIG. 16 shows in more detail the structure of one embodiment of the novel connection assembly for interconnecting the building unit assembly 2 and the various units. Broadly, the construction of such a building unit assembly follows the process of attaching one or more support posts to the exterior after the self-supporting unit is constructed.
In the configuration shown, the side wall 6 is formed from a deformed sheet steel 179 similar to that used in a shipping container. Typically, the thickness of this thin plate is 1.6 mm, for example, one thin plate is used for the entire wall, which can be 2700 mm high and 10 m to 20 m long, for example. The side wall 6 includes an upper rail 180 that is welded to the upper edge of the profiled wall sheet 179. Usually, the rail 180 is 60 mm × 60 mm, and the thickness is, for example, 3 mm. The side wall 6 also includes a lower rail 182 that is generally C-shaped in cross section with a lower flange 183 and an upper flange 185 that is wider and welded to the lower edge of the sheet 179. The depth of the central web of the lower rail 182 is typically 160 mm, and the material thickness is, for example, 4.5 mm.
The floor 8 may be composed of a plurality of steel purlins 184 that extend laterally between the side walls 6 across the building and are positioned at a center of 400 mm. The end of the purlin is welded or bolted to the central web of the lower rail 182 of the sidewall 6 as shown. The floor further includes a plywood flooring 186 attached to the purlin 184 by screws or the like.
The roof 10 is comprised of a deformed sheet steel 186 that can be the same as that used on the side walls 6. The roof further includes a roof rail 188 which is an L-shaped groove having a thickness of 6 mm, for example, 55 mm × 55 mm in the illustrated configuration. The roof rail 188 can be welded or bolted to the upper rail 180 of the side wall 6.
Since the other side wall 4 of the building unit 2 has the same configuration, no description is necessary.
The side walls 4 and 6, the floor 8, and the roof 10 components define a box-like structure of the building unit that can support its own weight and the live loads it receives during use. In the illustrated configuration, the sidewall inner surface is lined with double refractory gypsum board layers 190 and 192 connected to the inside of the sheet 179 by upper and lower ledges 194 and 196. Similarly, the roof is lined by two gypsum boards 198 and 200 that are connected to the inner surface of the panel 186 by a ledge receiver 202. This double gypsum board layer, together with the gap between the gypsum board and the deformed sheet 179 and the panel 186, enhances the fire resistance and sound insulation of the building units and the fire resistance and sound insulation between the building units.
FIG. 16 also shows the column element 22 and the lower mounting block 24 and the upper mounting block 26. In the illustrated configuration, the column element 22 is formed from a square cross-section steel beam having a thickness of, for example, 100 mm × 100 mm and a thickness of 9 mm, for example. The upper end 20 is directly welded to the upper rail 180 of the side wall 6. The upper part of the column element 22 is welded to the upper mounting block 26, and the lower part of the column element 22 is welded to the lower mounting block 24. In the illustrated configuration, the lower mounting block 24 is somewhat wider than the upper block 26, and its inner portion extends into the groove forming the lower rail 182 of the sidewall 6 and is welded thereto. Thereby, the connection of the pillar element 22 and the mounting blocks 24 and 26 to the side wall 6 is completed. The other strut elements 16, 18, and 20 of the building unit assembly are similarly connected and need not be described.
It is advantageous to perform a stress relief step prior to attachment of the structural frame segment 22. For example, if the unit is applied with a jig or by clamping, the stress relief step usually involves releasing the clamping force applied by the jig or clamp. In the case of a unit having a welded metal structure, this may involve releasing the thermal stress in the metal, for example by cooling. In this way, the box-like unit or monocoque relaxes to a natural shape that may include deformation or deviation from its design shape. Subsequently, the pillar element 22 can be attached as described herein. In this way, since the arrangement of the column elements does not change according to the accuracy of the shape of the unit monocoque, an accurate arrangement of the column elements (relative to the original design) can be obtained. Usually, the attachment means for attaching the column element 22 to the unit has sufficient tolerances to accommodate the deviation of the unit.
As described above, since the structure of the building unit of the building unit assembly and the structural frame segment are separated in this way, only the portion of the building unit assembly that requires accurate positioning can be adjusted to tight tolerances. The ease of manufacture is improved. The rest, eg the building unit shell, can be adjusted to other tolerance levels.
Due to the accuracy of the placement of the structural frame segment, the structural frame segment (or one point in them) may serve as a reference for interior installation work and installation of any facade elements within the unit. That is, since the walls of the building unit may not be straight or vertical, the structural frame segment 22 is used as a reference rather than using the wall of the building unit to guide interior installation or facade attachment. To do this, measurements are taken from a reference point (eg, a point on the inner wall of the column) and transferred into the freestanding unit. Subsequently, a measurement is performed on the interior equipment construction from the transferred reference point. As will be appreciated, multiple such reference points may be necessary.
A first attachment means in the form of a lower attachment block 24 is shown in more detail in FIGS. The mounting block generally takes the form of a hollow cuboid with an open end as best seen in FIG. More specifically, the block has an upper wall 210, a lower wall 212, and side walls 214 and 216. The block has an inner opening 218 and an outer opening 220. As best seen in FIG. 18, the top wall 210 and the bottom wall 212 include aligned holes 222 and 224 that are offset toward the open outer side 220. The block 24 usually has a width of, for example, 165 mm, a height of, for example, 160 mm, and a length of, for example, 160 mm. This is preferably made from structural steel, the wall thickness of the side walls being for example 16 mm, while the wall thickness of the upper wall 210 and the lower wall 212 is 20 mm.
21 to 24 schematically show the structure of the upper mounting block 26. The block 26 is also generally a hollow rectangular parallelepiped. It has an upper wall 230, a lower wall 232, and side walls 234 and 236. It also has open side walls 238 and 240. Side walls 234 and 236 include aligned holes 242 and 244 positioned generally in the middle of the side walls. The lower wall 232 includes an opening 246 at approximately the center thereof. Upper wall 230 includes a large tapered opening 248. The opening 248 is generally rectangular, but the corner is curved. The taper is about 10 degrees with the wider portion of the opening 248 positioned on the upper surface of the upper wall 230 as shown. In the illustrated configuration, the upper mounting block 26 has a height of about 195 mm, a width of, for example, 120 mm, and a height of 160 mm. This block is made of structural steel, and the side walls 234 and 236 have a thickness of, for example, 16 mm, the lower wall 232 has a thickness of 20 mm, and the upper wall 230 has a thickness of 40 mm.
25, 26, and 27 are partial views showing a method of connecting a pair of adjacent lower building unit assemblies 2A and 2B to a pair of adjacent upper building unit assemblies 2C and 2D. From FIG. 25, it can be seen that the lower mounting block 24A of the upper unit 2C is directly attached to the upper mounting block 26A of the lower building unit assembly 2A. More specifically, the lower wall 212 of the upper building unit assembly 2C directly contacts the upper wall 230A of the lower unit. It will also be appreciated that the column elements 22A and 22C are aligned with each other. Similar configurations exist in other respects where the mounting blocks of the two building unit assemblies 2A and 2C engage one another. Thus, the total vertical load of the upper building unit assembly 2C is transmitted to the lower building unit assembly 2A via the mounting block, and then transmitted to the column element.
FIG. 26 is a view similar to FIG. 25 except that it shows some locations of the building unit assemblies 2B and 2C components that are positioned in parallel with the building unit assemblies 2A and 2C, respectively. is there. More specifically, FIG. 26 shows the location of mounting blocks 26B and 24D along with the location of structural frame segments 16B and 16D.
In the illustrated configuration, there are three types of connections, which are referred to as type 1 connection 250, type 2 connection 252, and type 3 connection 254 for convenience. In general, the upper mounting block of the bottom building unit assembly and the lower mounting block of the uppermost unit are connected to each other using a type 1 connection 250 as shown in FIG. In the configuration shown, the upper mounting block 26A is connected to the lower mounting block 24C using a type 1 connection 250 as shown. Similarly, using the Type 1 connection 250, the upper mounting block 26C is connected to the next vertically adjacent mounting block.
Adjacent upper mounting blocks 26 are connected together using a type 2 connection 252 as shown in FIG. In the configuration shown, the upper mounting blocks 26A and 26B are connected to each other using a type 2 connection 252. Similarly, the upper mounting blocks 26C and 26D are connected to each other using a type 2 connection 252.
As will be described later, in the place where the type 1 connection 250 cannot be used because the inside of the lower mounting block 24 is not accessible, adjacent units are vertically connected using the type 3 connection 254 as shown in FIG. Connected in the direction. Type 3 connection 254 includes an elongated connecting rod that extends from the upper mounting block 26 of one building unit assembly to the upper mounting block 26 of the next vertically adjacent unit.
FIG. 28 shows the type 1 connection 250 in more detail. Type 1 connection 250 includes a bolt 260 having a rectangular head 262 that is tapered on the sides as shown. This connection includes a tapered spacer 264, which is generally rectangular in shape, but has tapered sides so as to be complementary to the shape of the opening 240 in the upper wall 230 of the upper mounting block 26. Tapered spacer 264 includes a central bore 265 to allow the shaft of bolt 260 to pass through. This connection includes a washer 266 and a nut 268. It can be seen in FIG. 25 that the lower mounting block 24 and the upper mounting block 26 have open side walls 218A and 238C that are exposed so that construction workers can access the interior of the mounting block. Before placing the upper building unit assembly 2C on the lower building unit assembly 2A, the taper spacer 264 is first positioned in the opening 248. Subsequently, the building unit assembly 2C can be lowered to a predetermined position, and the shaft of the bolt 260 can be inserted into the bore 265 of the spacer 264 and then inserted into the opening 246 in the lower wall 232 of the lower mounting block 24. . Subsequently, the construction worker can place a washer 266 and a nut 268 on the shaft of the bolt 260 to tighten the nut and gain access through the open sidewall 218 of the lower mounting block 24. The complementary taper of spacer 264 and opening 248 ensures that the bolt axis is accurately centered to accurately align the upper and lower building unit assemblies. FIG. 31 schematically illustrates the position of the bolt head 262 of the Type 1 connection 250 prior to lowering the upper building unit assembly into place. It will be appreciated that the tapered side of the head 262 is generally aligned with the side of the tapered spacer 264. After the uppermost unit is lowered to a predetermined position, the head 262 is rotated 90 degrees so that the upper unit 230 can come into contact with the lower side of the upper wall 230 as shown in FIG. Can be.
FIG. 29 schematically illustrates a type 2 connection 252 between adjacent upper mounting blocks 26A and 26B. This connection includes a bolt 270, a nut 272, and a washer 274.
As can be seen, the side walls 236A and 234B are adjacent to each other, and the respective openings 244A and 242B are also coincident. Because the bolt 270 can pass through the coincident opening, the operator can subsequently attach the washer 274 and tighten the nut 272. Access to the interior of the mounting blocks 26A and 26B is through their open sidewalls 238A and 238B.
FIG. 30 schematically shows a type 3 connection 254 used to connect the building unit assemblies 2B and 2D to each other in the vertical direction. Type 3 connection 254 includes an elongated bar 271 and a head 273. The head 273 is a substantially rectangular parallelepiped having a tapered side, and has the same shape as the head 262. This connection includes a tapered spacer 275 shaped generally complementary to the tapered opening 248B of the upper mounting block 26B. The tapered spacer 275 includes a central bore 276 that allows the rod 271 to pass through. The upper end of the bar 271 is threaded to receive the washer 278 and nut 280. In the illustrated configuration, the head 271 engages with the lower side of the upper wall 230B of the mounting block 26B. The axis of the bar 271 passes through the openings 222D and 224D of the lower mounting block 24D and the structural frame segment 16D so that its free end is positioned in the upper mounting block 26D as shown. FIG. 32 shows the position of the head 271 of the type 3 connection 254 when lowered to a predetermined position. After the top building unit assembly 20 is lowered into position, the head 273 can be rotated 90 degrees to again engage the lower side of the top wall of the mounting block 26B. The matching taper surfaces of the bolt head and taper spacer assist in unit alignment during installation and fastening. Subsequently, the construction worker can tighten the nut 280 to ensure that the building unit assemblies 2B and 2D are interconnected.
Typically, the building unit assembly can be lifted using a crane having hooks or other fastening means that can be connected to the four upper mounting blocks 26 of the building unit assembly. The type of connection can be similar to that used for lifting and transporting shipping containers.
Reference is now made to FIG. 27 showing a side view of the connection between a pair of adjacent lower building unit assemblies 1A, 2B and a pair of adjacent upper building unit assemblies 2C, 2D. This configuration includes all three connections (type 1, type 2, and type 3) for connecting the units 2A, 2B, 2C, and 2D, and is assembled into an assembly as follows. The building unit assembly 2C is mounted on the building unit assembly 2A and a vertical connection is made by a type 1 connection 250. Following this, the building unit assembly 2B adjacent to the building unit assembly 2A is lowered to a predetermined position and a horizontal connection is made using a type 2 connection 252. Once the building unit assembly 2B is lowered into place, access to the interior of the mounting blocks 26A and 26B is not possible, and the producer cannot place type 1 connection components therein. Therefore, a type 3 connection is necessary.
FIG. 33 is a schematic side view showing a four-story building 280 including a plurality of building unit assemblies of the type described above. The units are interconnected using a type 1 connection 250, a type 2 connection 252, and a type 3 connection 254 as shown. The drawing shows the preferred assembly sequence of the various building units in building 280 with large bold numbers. The exact sequence of unit installation depends on field conditions and lifting conditions, but generally proceeds diagonally. In this figure, the building includes a foundation 282 that includes a mounting plate to which a type 1 connection 250 is coupled to securely lock the building to the foundation.
34-51 show an alternative set of attachment means. This can be used in embodiments of the present invention. In this regard, instead of a mounting block, a connecting plate used to secure adjacent building unit assemblies to each other as described is fitted to each post.
Next, details of further embodiments of the lower connection plate 24 and the upper connection plate 26 will be described with reference to FIGS. 34 to 51. In the previous description, the lower connecting plate was generally identified by reference numeral 24. However, in the preferred form of the invention, there are two types of lower connecting plates. The first lower connecting plate 206 is schematically shown in FIGS. 34, 35, and 36. FIG. This basically comprises a rectangular steel plate 210 having a nominal thickness of eg 25 mm, although the thickness can vary according to requirements. In the configuration shown, the plate length is 290 mm and the width is 145 mm, but these dimensions can vary according to requirements. On the lower side of the plate 210 is a tapered convex portion 211. The convex portion 211 can be fixed to the plate 210 by welding or the like. In the configuration shown in the drawing, the convex portion 211 has a substantially rectangular parallelepiped shape, and has a depth of about 20 mm, a length of about 91 mm, and a width of about 53 mm. The taper is about 2.5 mm or about 5 to 10 degrees on each side. The corners of the protrusions are preferably rounded and have a radius of curvature in the range of 5 mm to 15 mm. The plate 210 has a first bore 212, a second bore 213, and a third bore 214. The bore 212 is larger in diameter than the other bores and is positioned on the longitudinal central axis. This is preferably 32 mm in diameter. The bores 213 and 214 are aligned approximately symmetrically between the convex portion 211 and one end of the plate. The bores 213 and 214 are preferably 26 mm in diameter.
A second type lower connection plate 215 is shown in FIGS. The second type connecting plate 215 includes a square plate 216 having the same thickness as the plate 210, and its edge is half the longitudinal length of the plate 210.
Accordingly, in the illustrated configuration, the side length is 145 mm. The lower side of the plate 216 includes convex portions 217 having the same shape as the convex portions 211 and symmetrically arranged. The end view shown in FIG. 36 of the first type lower connection plate 206 is the same as that of the second type lower connection plate 215. The plate 216 does not include any bore.
In the above description, the upper connecting plate is generally indicated by reference numeral 26. In practice, there are two forms of the upper connecting plate. As will be described later, different types of upper connecting plates are made using similar components, but they are oriented differently in the building unit assembly.
38 to 41 schematically show a preferred shape of the upper connecting plate 218. The connecting plate 218 may be formed from an initial rectangular plate 219 made of steel that is approximately the same size as the plate 210 shown in FIG. 16 except that it is preferably 40 mm thick. One corner of the upper connecting plate 218 is removed so as to define a rectangular tab portion 220. The corner to be removed is preferably 75 mm × 75 mm. The plate 219 includes a centrally located tapered recess 221 that is complementary in size and taper angle to the projections 211 and 217 of the lower connection plates 206 and 215. The plate 219 includes a first bore 222 positioned between one end of the plate and the recess 221 generally along the longitudinal axis of the plate 219 and a second bore 223 positioned generally in the center of the tab portion 220. Including.
The bores 222 and 223 are preferably 34 mm and 28 mm in diameter, respectively. As will be described in more detail later, the upper connection plate 218 is configured so that the building unit assembly 2 can be interconnected in the lateral direction and the vertical direction using the upper connection plate and the lower connection plate. It can be attached to the solid 2 in different orientations. All of the connecting plates are made from 350 or higher grade steel.
42 and 43 schematically show how the attachment means in the form of connecting plates 206, 215 and 218 are connected to the column elements 18 and 20 to form the structural frame segments 4218 and 4220. FIG. 42 shows a column element 18 which is a hollow steel column having a square cross section with a length and width of 125 mm × 125 mm, a wall thickness of about 4 mm to 10 mm and a total length of 3050 mm including the connecting plate in this configuration. ing. One of the upper connecting plates 206 is welded to the upper end of the column element 18 so that the center of the recess 221 coincides with the longitudinal axis of the column element 18. One of the lower connecting plates 215 is welded to the lower end of the column element 18 such that the center of the projection 217 is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the column 18. This ensures that the concave portion 221 is accurately aligned with the convex portion 217.
FIG. 43 schematically shows the structural frame segment 4220. This structural frame segment is formed by welding one of the upper connecting plates 218 to the upper end of the column element 20 and welding one of the lower connecting plates 206 to the lower end of the column element 20. Also in this case, the centers of the concave portion 221 and the convex portion 211 are aligned with the longitudinal axis of the column element 20. The post element 20 is formed from the same profile used to form the post element 18 and has the same dimensions.
In an alternative embodiment, the structural frame segment can be integrally formed with its attachment means and column elements. In this case, the attachment means is a portion that engages with the column elements adjacent to each other during use, and a portion that is used to fasten them together.
FIG. 44 shows the location of the structural frame segments of a pair of laterally adjacent building unit assemblies 2A and 2B. With respect to the structural frame segment 18A of the building unit assembly 2A, the orientation of the upper connecting plate 218 is selected such that the tab 220 is adjacent to the side wall 4 and away from the structural frame segment 16A. On the same side, the structural frame segment 16A has its tabs 220 oriented in a similar orientation. Since the structural frame segment 16A is the same as the structural frame segment 18A, the lower connection plate 215 is positioned at the lower end of these structural frame segments.
On the other side wall 6A, the structural frame segment 20A is positioned so that its tab portion 220 is oriented in the direction opposite to that adjacent to the side wall 4A. The structural frame segment 22A has the same configuration as the structural frame segment 20A. Accordingly, it will be appreciated that both structural frame segments 20A and 22A have a first lower connecting plate 206 at their lower ends.
Since the building unit assembly 2B has the same configuration as the building unit assembly 2A, its column elements, upper connection plates, and lower connection plates are the same as those of the building unit assembly 2A.
FIG. 45 shows the building unit assemblies 2A and 2B stacked laterally to each other so that the tabs 220 of the lower connecting plate 206 are engaged with each other as shown.
Pillar elements 16, 18, 20, and 22 may be selected at selected locations such that they can be connected laterally to each other as shown in FIG. 45 and can be connected vertically as will be described in more detail below. It can be welded to the side walls and / or shafts of the building units 2A and 2B.
FIG. 46 schematically shows an isometric view of a plurality of building unit assemblies assembled together. The unit 2B visible in the foremost portion has a structural frame segment 18B connected to the side wall 4B of the building unit assembly 2B. The length of the structural frame segment 18B is selected so that the upper part of the upper connecting plate 218B is positioned about 100 mm above the plane of the roof 10B.
An elongated connecting rod 207B having a threaded end is threaded through the bore 222B, the lower end of which is positioned adjacent to the lower portion of the structural frame segment 18B, as will be described in more detail below (see FIG. 41). (Not shown). The nut 209B is fastened to the screw end portion of the connecting rod 207B. As shown in FIG. 47, the laterally adjacent building unit assembly 2A may then be positioned such that its side structural frame segment 20A is adjacent to the structural frame segment 18B as shown. At this position, the tab portions 220A and 220B are arranged. Structural frame segments 22A and 16B are similarly arranged at the other ends of the building unit assemblies 2A and 2B.
After the alignment of the building unit assemblies 2A and 2B, as shown in FIG. 48, the structural frame segment 20C is aligned with the structural frame segment 20A in the vertical direction, and the third building unit assembly 2C is built. It can be lowered to the upper part of the unit assembly 2B. As illustrated, the coupling member 233B can be connected to the protruding end of the connecting rod 207B.
The coupling member 233B is essentially an elongated nut that can receive the lower screw end of the upper adjacent elongated connecting rod 207D (shown in FIG. 50). The building unit assembly 2C is lowered so that the convex portion 211C of the pillar 20C enters the concave portion 221A of the pillar 20A, and they have a complementary taper shape, so that the building unit assemblies 2C and 2A are automatically There is a tendency to align correctly. When the building unit assembly 2C is lowered, all of the convex portions 211 and 217 enter the corresponding concave portion 221 of the building unit assembly 2B. Subsequently, bolts 224, 225, and 226 can be introduced into the matched bores of plates 206C and 218A, 218B. More specifically, bolt 224 passes through bores 212C and 222A, bolt 225 passes through bores 214C and 223A, and bolt 226 passes through bores 213C and 223B. As shown in FIG. 49, the nuts 227, 228, and 229 can be fastened to the respective bolts to securely join the plates together.
After all the nuts are tightened, the fourth building unit assembly 2D can then be lowered to a predetermined position above the building unit assembly 2A. For clarity of illustration in FIG. 49, only the structural frame segment 20D of the building unit assembly 2D is shown. This is lowered to a predetermined position so that the convex portion 217D enters the concave portion 221B of the building unit assembly 2B. The four taper protrusions of the building unit assembly 2D aid in accurate alignment of the building unit assembly 2D above the building unit assembly 2A.
FIG. 50 shows the final positions of the various plates. It will be appreciated that the plate 215D abuts the plate 218B and is held in place by the elongated connecting rod 207D as shown. The elongated connecting rod 207 is preferably made from a 30 mm diameter steel rod and is threaded at its end or along its entire length.
It will be appreciated that the nuts 227, 228, and 229 can be tightened before the fourth building unit assembly 2D is lowered into place. Once this is done, access to the connecting plate is not gained and the use of the elongated connecting rod 207D allows the final connection to be made by an assembly worker working from the roof of the upper building unit assemblies 2C and 2D. To do. As a normal procedure for fitting the elongated connecting rod 207D, the fourth building unit assembly 2D is positioned after its lower end is screwed into the coupling member 233B. Subsequently, the building unit assembly 2D is positioned above the building unit assembly 2A, and the upper end of the bar 207D is aligned with the bore 222 of the upper plate (not shown) of the structural frame segment 18D. Subsequently, the building unit assembly 2D can be lowered so that the upper end of the rod 207D passes through the bore. A similar sequence is performed in all of the structural frame segments of the building unit assembly 2D.
It will be further appreciated that the illustrated arrangement provides a very robust connection in both the vertical and lateral directions of the connecting plate and hence the structural frame segment. This gives the building rigidity and stability.
It will be appreciated that the position of the connecting plate may be intervened, i.e. the protrusion may be on the upper plate. In addition, instead of the illustrated configuration in which the upper plate is complementary, a plate complementary to the lower plate may be used.
52-67 show yet another embodiment of attachment means and their use in connecting building unit assemblies to each other. This example represents a hybrid of the previous embodiment using both a connection plate and a mounting block.
An exemplary lower connection plate 310 is shown in greater detail in FIGS. 52, 53, and 54. It will be appreciated that the plate 310 includes a rectangular base 312 having sidewalls that are, for example, 125 mm long and 25 mm thick, with the upper edge of the base being chamfered. The plate 310 includes locating protrusions 314 that are cast or machined from steel and welded to the underside of the base 312. As shown in the figure, the convex portion 314 has a substantially rectangular parallelepiped shape, but has downwardly tapered side walls and end walls. The lower connecting plate 310 includes a central bore 316 that passes through the base 312 and the convex portion 314. Typically, the bore 316 has a diameter of about 332 mm.
In the building unit assembly 300, an upper connecting plate 318 or an upper mounting block 320 is provided at the upper end of the structural frame segments 16, 18, 20, and 22 depending on where the unit is deployed. Basically, as will be described in more detail below, the building mounting block 320 is used where there are access problems and an elongated connector is required, similar to the type 3 connection 254 of the previous embodiment.
55 to 57 show the upper connecting plate 318 in more detail. It will be appreciated that this is in the form of a rectangular plate of the same size as the base 312 of the lower connection plate. This includes a rectangular opening 324 having a tapered sidewall that is complementary to the tapered sidewall of the protrusion 314 so that the protrusion 314 can be fitted snugly.
58-60 show the upper mounting block 320 in more detail. The upper mounting block 320 is welded to the top end of the column element as shown below and is used where an elongated bar is required due to lack of access as if a Type 3 connection 254 was required. It is done. The upper mounting block 320 is generally similar in construction to the upper mounting block 26 shown in FIGS. 21-24, and the same reference numerals are used to indicate parts that are the same as or correspond to parts of the embodiment. ing. In this case, since the opening 248 has a shape complementary to the convex portion 314, when the building unit assembly 300 is stacked on top of each other, the components can be fitted together.
61-65 show a bolt 330 that can be used with the lower connecting plate 310 and the upper connecting plate 320 to connect them together. The bolt 330 has a head 332 and a shaft 334. The head 332 is generally rectangular parallelepiped, but has side walls and end walls with a taper of about 10 degrees. The shaft 334 is made of two lengths, the short one is about 120 mm (similar to a type 1 connector), and the long one is long enough to extend to the full height of the building unit 300 ( Same as type 3 connector). Usually, the longer one has a length of, for example, 3025 mm. In either case, the upper end 336 of the shaft is threaded so that it can receive the nut 338. As best seen in FIGS. 63 and 65, a square protrusion 340 protrudes from the screw.
66 and 66A cooperate to weld the upper connecting plate 310C to the respective support posts 22A and 22C, respectively, to align the units 310C and 310A with each other for connection using features as described above. Shows how to do. FIG. 67 shows a similar example using the upper mounting block 320 and the lower connection plate 310C.
FIG. 67 illustrates a method of interconnecting four adjacent building unit assemblies 300A, 300B, 300C, and 300D using bolts 330. FIG. Since this configuration is the same as the configuration shown in FIG. 27 of the previous embodiment, detailed description is not necessary. However, it will be appreciated that the lower end of the structural frame segment 22 includes an access opening 360 that allows access to the nut 338 for connecting the upper and lower connection plates. Further, when the column element is provided with an upper connection plate 318, the access opening 362 is provided to allow the horizontally arranged bolts 364 to pass through and interconnect the structural frame segments as shown. Provided. In the illustrated configuration, the head of the bolt 364 is positioned outside the hollow interior of the post element 22A. Thereby, the bolt can be held so as to facilitate tightening of the nut 365 positioned in the upper mounting block 320D. In this configuration, the bolt includes a flange 367, the washer is positioned on the axis of the bolt 364 with the upper mounting block 320B, and the nut 365 is tightened to tighten the upper end of the structural frame segment 22A, the washer 369, and the upper mounting block 320B. It is configured to tighten effectively together. FIG. 68 shows a view similar to that of FIG. 16, but showing a different unit configuration. In the configuration shown, the side wall 6 is formed from a deformed sheet steel 179 similar to that used in a shipping container. Typically, the thickness of this thin plate is 1.6 mm, for example, one thin plate is used for the entire wall, which can be 2700 mm high and 10 m to 20 m long, for example. The side wall 6 includes an upper rail 180 that is welded to the upper edge of the profiled wall sheet 179. Usually, the rail 180 is 60 mm × 60 mm, and the thickness is, for example, 3 mm. The side wall 6 also includes a lower rail 182 having a lower flange 183 and an upper flange 185 that is wider and welded to the lower edge of the thin plate 179 and has a generally C-shaped cross section. The formation of the central web of the lower rail 182 is typically 160 mm and the material thickness is, for example, 4.5 mm.
The floor 8 may be composed of a purlin that extends laterally across the building unit. However, it is preferred that the material be the same as the material of the sidewalls, except that the floor is made of a plurality of deformed sheet steel panels 184 and the profile is 200 mm, for example. The panel extends laterally and its configuration provides sufficient rigidity and strength to the building unit. The ends of the floor panel 184 are welded to the lower rail 182 on both sides of the building unit. The roof 10 is preferably made of a roof panel 186, examples of which are shown in FIGS. 69, 70 and 71. Usually 4 to 8 panels are welded together to form the entire roof of the building unit. Each panel 186 is formed of longitudinal and lateral reinforcing ribs, as schematically shown in FIG. The panel is preferably made of steel having a thickness of, for example, 2 mm, a width of 1045 mm, and a length of 2356 mm. The floor further includes a plywood or other flooring 186 positioned on top of the profiled floor panel 184. Since the other side wall 4 of the building unit 2 has the same configuration, no description is necessary.
The side walls 4 and 6, the floor 8 and the roof 10 components define a box-like structure that can support its own weight and the live loads it receives during use. In the illustrated configuration, the sidewall inner surface is lined with a refractory gypsum board layer 190 adjacent to the thermal insulation panel 192. The roof is lined by two gypsum boards 198 and 200 that are connected to the inner surface of the panel 186 by a field ledge 202. This double gypsum board layer, together with the gap between the gypsum board and the deformed sheet 179 and the panel 186, enhances the fire resistance and sound insulation of the building units and the fire resistance and sound insulation between the building units.
In the configuration shown in FIG. 76, the column element 20 is welded directly to the upper rail 180. At the lower end, the lower end of the column element 20 is connected to the lower rail 182, preferably by welding, using two connecting plates 187 (one of which is shown in FIG. 68). The other structural frame segments of the building unit assembly are similarly connected.
72-77 schematically illustrate a modified building unit assembly 300, where the same reference numerals are used to indicate parts that are the same as or correspond to those of the building unit assembly 2. FIG. The main difference between the building unit assembly 300 and the building unit assembly 2 is the configuration of the floor 8 and the connection plates 24 and 26. 72-74, the floor purlin 184 is replaced with a floor panel 304 that is a generally corrugated steel structure as shown in FIG. The panel 304 is similar to that used on the side walls and floor except that it is deeper, typically 200 mm (when measured in the vertical direction). The wave pitch is typically about 650 mm. A plurality of panels 304 may be welded together to form an integral part of the unit 300 floor structure. Usually, the thickness of the panel 304 is 1.6 mm. The structural frame segments 16, 18, 20, and 22 are attached to the side walls 4 and 6 as described above. As described above in more detail, the connection plates 24 and 26 of the building unit assembly 2 are the same as described above.
In the illustrated configuration, the building unit assembly 300 includes two intersecting brace panels 306 and 308 that are provided to provide additional rigidity. Panels 306 and 308 are welded to sidewalls 4 and 6 and roof 10 adjacent to the inside of structural frame segments 16 and 22 and 18 and 20, respectively.
FIG. 74 shows the location of the structural frame segments 20 and 22 when the building unit assembly 300 is to be used in a cantilever configuration. As shown in this figure, the center span, i.e., the center span between the structural frame segments 20 and 22, can be, for example, a maximum of 16 mm 16 meters, and each end has a maximum of 6 mm 6 You can take out a meter (6mm6 meters).
FIG. 75 shows six building unit assemblies 300B, 300C, 300D, 300E, 300F, and 300G stacked as described above. The gaps or column areas between adjacent building units 300 are selected to suit structural frame segments of various widths. As in the previous embodiment, the gap may be the same throughout the height of the building.
As best seen in FIG. 77, at the lower ends of the column elements 16, 18, 20, and 22, a lower connecting plate that is welded to the lower ends of the column elements to replace the lower mounting block 24 of the previous embodiment. 310 is provided.
FIG. 77 is a schematic sectional view showing a part of the building unit assembly 300 in more detail. 44 is a view similar to FIG. 68 but showing different details of the construction of the building unit assembly 2. It can be seen in this configuration that the lower rail 182 is formed from rolled steel, with its upper and lower flanges protruding in opposite directions. The lower flange 183 is welded to the underside of the floor panel 304 as shown. The upper flange 185 is welded to the lower edge of the profiled wall sheet 179 as in the previous embodiment.
FIG. 78 shows a further modified building unit assembly 350 that combines the elements of building unit assemblies 2 and 300. More particularly, the floor 8 includes a purlin 184, but the connections at the top and bottom of the structural frame segment are the same as the building unit assembly 300. In this embodiment, if necessary, the reinforcing beam 352 may be welded between the rail 182 and the lower end of the structural frame segment.
FIG. 79 illustrates a further alternative building unit configuration that may be used with embodiments of the present invention. This embodiment is generally different from the previous embodiment in that flat materials are used primarily for its walls, floors, and roof structures rather than the corrugated profile used in the previous embodiment. In the embodiment of FIG. 79, the walls, floor, and roof are reinforced by placing purlins spaced along the length of the section. In FIG. 79, a partially exploded cross-sectional view of the building unit 400 can be seen. The building unit includes a wall panel 402, a roof panel 404, and a floor panel 406.
The roof panel 404 has a corner angle material 408 that can be, for example, an angle material of 110 mm × 110 mm and a thickness of 4 mm. This is welded to a wall sheet 410 which can be made of a 1.6 mm thick sheet steel.
A series of purlins 411 extend across the roof panel 404 to another angle member that is the same as the profile 408. The end face of the purlin 411 is welded to the angle member 408 and is welded to the thin plate 410 along its upper edge. Similar purlins 411 are spaced apart along the roof panel, eg, 600 mm apart. In a preferred embodiment, the purlin is a C10019 specification purlin.
The configuration of the wall panel 402 is the same as the configuration of the roof panel 404. At the top of the wall panel 402 is an angle member 412. The angle member 412 supports the roof panel and may be the same size as the angle member 408 on the roof panel. A second angle member 414 is positioned at the bottom of the roof panel 402. The angle member 414 supports the floor panel 406. In this example, the lower angle member 414 has a dimension of 210 mm × 110 mm and a thickness of 3 mm. The wall panel is covered with a thin steel plate, for example a 2.4 mm 450 MPa steel plate. The upper part is welded to the angle member 412 and the lower part is welded to the angle member 414. The thin steel plate wall panel 416 is reinforced using a C purlin 418 extending between the lower angle member 414 and the upper angle member 412. C purlins are spaced along the length of the wall and are welded to the wall at intervals. In the illustrated embodiment, the purlin 418 may be a C7519 specification purlin set to 600 mm centered along the wall.
The floor panel 406 has the same configuration as the roof 404 and the wall 402. The floor panel 406 has an angle member 420 at each end (only one end is shown in this figure), and a lower floor panel composed of a thin steel plate panel 422 is welded thereto. A C purlin extending between the angle members 420 on both sides of the floor is welded to the upper portion of the floor panel 422. In this case, the floor purlin may be a C20019 specification purlin set to 600 mm centered along the floor panel.
As in the previous embodiment, the roof panel, floor panel, and wall panel are engaged and welded together.
It should be appreciated that in the embodiments described herein, building unit structures are described as being welded together. However, one skilled in the art will readily appreciate that alternative fastening and attachment means may be used. For example, instead of welding, the components may be joined together using rivets, bolting, or other mechanical fastening systems. Depending on the constituent material used, adhesion may be suitable. In addition, depending on accessibility and materials used, different welding techniques such as MIG welding, TIG welding, spot welding, or other alternatives may be used.
FIG. 80 shows a further alternative wall configuration that is very similar to FIG. The only difference is that the angle material at the lower end of the wall panel is upside down in the embodiment of FIG. Accordingly, no further description of this embodiment is necessary, and features corresponding to those of FIG. 79 are labeled with the same reference numerals.
FIG. 81 shows a perspective view of an alternative connection plate that can be used in one embodiment of the present invention. In general, the structural frame segment 800 shown in FIG. 81 is substantially similar to the structural frame segment as previously described herein, so that only one end thereof is shown in this figure. Yes. In this regard, the structural frame segment 800 includes a support post 802 and a connection plate 804. In this example, the connection plate 804 has a first end 806 that is generally rectangular and a second end 808 that is tapered. Accordingly, in plan view, the connection plate 804 has a generally trapezoidal shape as best shown in FIG. Similar to the previous embodiment, the connecting plate is fastened to a central recess 810 that receives engagement means from a similar connecting plate of a vertically adjacent structural frame segment and to another connecting plate of the adjacent structural frame segment. A plurality of bolt holes 812 and 814. The structural frame segment 800 in use is attached to the building unit with the wide side of the trapezoidal connecting plate 804 closest to the building unit. Accordingly, the surface 816 of the connection plate 804 is tapered toward the wall of the building unit to be attached.
FIG. 82 shows a plan view for better illustrating the shape of the connection plate 804. In the preferred form of this structural frame segment 800, the column element 802 is more preferably substantially at the apex 822 of the trapezoidal connecting plate 804 such that one of its surfaces substantially coincides with the connecting plate surface 818. It is attached to have an edge 820 that coincides with the vertical direction. The reason for this suitable match will be described later.
FIG. 83 shows three building unit assemblies 828, 830, and 832 that are positioned in parallel to build one floor of the building. Each of the building unit assemblies 828, 830, and 832 includes a rectangular building unit to which four structural frame segments are attached. As can be seen in the building unit assembly 828, the structural frame segments 834 and 836 are mounted such that their tapered surfaces 834A and 836A are inward toward each other. On the other side of the building unit, structural frame segments 838 and 840 are mounted in the opposite orientation so that their tapered surfaces 838A and 840A taper away from each other. Thus, the tapered surface of the connecting plate acts like a taper key assembly with respect to the horizontally adjacent building unit assembly. This key effect between adjacent building unit assemblies allows accurate and easy positioning of the building unit assemblies relative to each other in the field.
84A to 84C show how adjacent building unit assemblies are matched using this key effect. In FIG. 84A, two building unit assemblies 844 and 846 are positioned apart in parallel. In this position, the connecting plates 844A and 844B facing in opposite directions are aligned. In FIG. 84B, when the building unit assemblies 844 and 846 are matched, the tapered surfaces of the connecting plates 844A and 846A of their respective structural frame segments are matched to engage. The tapered surface provides an inclined guide surface that is used to guide and relatively accurately align the building unit assemblies 844 and 846 as the units move together. In FIG. 84B, building unit assemblies 844 and 846 are offset by a distance X to indicate misalignment. In this case, the Z purlins 850 and 852 are aligned when correctly aligned. While alignment of structural frame segments is important for structural integrity, the purlin is referred to for convenience in indicating alignment distance.
Reference is now made to FIG. 84C, which shows where the building units 844 and 846 are finally accurately positioned. As can be seen, the building unit assembly is in a predetermined position such that the structural frame segments 844A and 846A are aligned along the column gap 854 between the building units and substantially contact along their tapered surfaces. It is in. At this time, the structural frame segments 844A and 846A can be joined together by bolting, welding, or other means, as described elsewhere herein.
As can be seen from FIGS. 84A to 84C, the tapered surface of the connecting plate serves as a guide surface for enabling easy horizontal alignment of the building unit. However, the outermost surface of the column of the structural frame segment, particularly the horizontally extending edge of the column element substantially coincident with the obtuse angle apex of the trapezoidal connecting plate, is also not aligned vertically between the building unit assemblies during positioning. Acts as a guide when it is sufficient. This vertical guidance is necessary in most cases because the building unit assembly is usually lowered into place using a crane. To further illustrate this, FIG. 85 shows a portion of the same structural frame segment as shown in FIG. 81, but the portion of the structural frame segment 800 that can be used as a guide surface during assembly of the building. Is shaded to indicate.
In order to facilitate smooth guidance of the building unit assembly to a predetermined position, the guide surface of the column element 802 is substantially aligned with the guide surface of the connecting plate 804. As will be appreciated, perfect alignment may not be required, especially if there are only small discontinuities in the guide surface, such as a weld seam between the column element 802 and the connecting plate 804. In this case, the weld itself tends to provide an inclined surface that serves as part of the guide surface for aligning over the discontinuous portion relatively smoothly. As will be appreciated from this, with this preferred alignment, even when the two building units are brought into contact such that their connecting plates are not aligned horizontally, the guide surface 860 of the column element 802 is It contacts the guide surface of the corresponding connecting plate of the adjacent building unit and allows smooth guidance to the precisely aligned predetermined position of the building unit element as described above.
The advantages of the system embodiments of the present invention are:
Lightweight construction - using steel instead of concrete as a structural component in the middle and high-rise building (typically about 200 kg / m 2 typically compared ordinary Concrete and about 500kg / m 2).
Fire protection-The building unit and the external structure are completely protected from fire sources in the building unit by a fire-resistant gypsum board.
Construction is undertaken within the production facility, and building unit assemblies can be stacked one, two, or three levels high.
The system allows access to a wide range of workers including semi-skilled workers, apprentices, and women.
Less energy use-Lightweight materials have significantly less encapsulated energy.
The building weight is smaller than the conventional concrete structure, which is usually 500 kg / m 2 , and is estimated to be 200 kg / m 2 .
Building unit assembly in off-site production facilities uses 50% less transport energy, 75% less waste production, and 50% less time than conventional on-site buildings Presumed to be short.
Since the outer periphery of one building unit is isolated from the outer periphery of another building unit, acoustic separation is better than ordinary construction. Acoustic isolation is the essence of the system because the physical contact between the building units is only at the junction of the external structure.
Building unit assemblies can be installed in production facilities in parallel to preparing and proceeding with on-site work such as excavation, footing, parking lot structures, concrete cores, etc. instead of the normal linear vertical construction sequence As a result, the construction period is greatly shortened.
Recyclability is higher than concrete structure. It can be disassembled in the reverse sequence of assembly. Concrete must be broken and used as aggregate or gravel, but gypsum can be recycled again as gypsum board. A building unit assembly is a comprehensive space containing structures that can be disassembled once and used to construct new structures with many potential uses.
The entire interior construction of the building can be performed on the ground so that a very high dimensional accuracy can be maintained and an accurate fitting during assembly is ensured.
Since the position of the wall is not related to the structural system, the layout accommodated in the building unit is variable.
Many modifications will be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
It will be understood that the invention disclosed and defined herein extends to all alternative combinations of two or more of the individual features already described or apparent from the text or drawings. All of these various combinations constitute various alternative aspects of the invention.