JP5555488B2 - Method and apparatus for characterizing a communication system by combining data from multiple sources - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for characterizing a communication system by combining data from multiple sources Download PDF

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JP5555488B2
JP5555488B2 JP2009509979A JP2009509979A JP5555488B2 JP 5555488 B2 JP5555488 B2 JP 5555488B2 JP 2009509979 A JP2009509979 A JP 2009509979A JP 2009509979 A JP2009509979 A JP 2009509979A JP 5555488 B2 JP5555488 B2 JP 5555488B2
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data
dsl
example
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parameters
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JP2009535999A (en
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ジョージ ジニス
マーク エイチ ブレイディー
ステュアート リンチ ブラックバーン
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アダプティブ スペクトラム アンド シグナル アラインメント インコーポレイテッド
エイティー アンド ティー インテレクチュアル プロパティー ワン リミテッド パートナーシップ
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Priority to PCT/US2007/067717 priority patent/WO2007130877A2/en
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L65/00Network arrangements or protocols for real-time communications
    • H04L65/80QoS aspects
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B3/00Line transmission systems
    • H04B3/02Details
    • H04B3/46Monitoring; Testing
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/64Hybrid switching systems
    • H04L12/6418Hybrid transport
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L43/00Arrangements for monitoring or testing packet switching networks
    • H04L43/08Monitoring based on specific metrics
    • H04L43/0876Network utilization
    • H04L43/0882Utilization of link capacity
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L69/00Application independent communication protocol aspects or techniques in packet data networks
    • H04L69/30Definitions, standards or architectural aspects of layered protocol stacks
    • H04L69/32High level architectural aspects of 7-layer open systems interconnection [OSI] type protocol stacks
    • H04L69/322Aspects of intra-layer communication protocols among peer entities or protocol data unit [PDU] definitions
    • H04L69/323Aspects of intra-layer communication protocols among peer entities or protocol data unit [PDU] definitions in the physical layer, i.e. layer one
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04MTELEPHONIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04M11/00Telephonic communication systems adapted for combination with other electrical systems
    • H04M11/06Simultaneous speech and telegraphic or other data transmission over the same conductors
    • H04M11/062Simultaneous speech and telegraphic or other data transmission over the same conductors using different frequency bands for speech and other data
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04MTELEPHONIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04M3/00Automatic or semi-automatic exchanges
    • H04M3/22Supervisory, monitoring, management, i.e. operation, administration, maintenance or testing arrangements
    • H04M3/26Supervisory, monitoring, management, i.e. operation, administration, maintenance or testing arrangements with means for applying test signals or for measuring
    • H04M3/28Automatic routine testing ; Fault testing; Installation testing; Test methods, test equipment or test arrangements therefor
    • H04M3/30Automatic routine testing ; Fault testing; Installation testing; Test methods, test equipment or test arrangements therefor for subscriber's lines, for the local loop
    • H04M3/302Automatic routine testing ; Fault testing; Installation testing; Test methods, test equipment or test arrangements therefor for subscriber's lines, for the local loop using modulation techniques for copper pairs
    • H04M3/304Automatic routine testing ; Fault testing; Installation testing; Test methods, test equipment or test arrangements therefor for subscriber's lines, for the local loop using modulation techniques for copper pairs and using xDSL modems
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/64Hybrid switching systems
    • H04L12/6418Hybrid transport
    • H04L2012/6478Digital subscriber line, e.g. DSL, ADSL, HDSL, XDSL, VDSL

Description

  This application claims priority from US Provisional Application No. 60 / 796,371, filed May 1, 2006, entitled “DSL System”. US Provisional Application No. 60 / 796,371 is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

  The present disclosure relates generally to communication networks and communication systems, or any combination thereof, and more particularly to methods and apparatus for combining and diagnosing a communication system or network by combining data from multiple sources.

  Digital subscriber line (DSL) technology is commonly used to provide Internet-related services to subscribers (also referred to herein as users, subscribers, or customers), for example, homes and businesses. Customers can use DSL technology to take advantage of telephone lines (eg, regular twisted pair copper telephone lines used to provide POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service)), for example, high data rate. Connect to broadband Internet networks, broadband services, and broadband content.

  DSL service service providers provide information on the status, characteristics, or performance of telephone lines or DSL equipment for a wide range of purposes, such as maintenance, service quality assurance, monitoring, trouble detection, trouble isolation, or trouble prevention. Can be used. Alternatively, it may be useful to have similar information about the telephone line or DSL equipment prior to or while making proposals, sales or provisioning to potential or new DSL subscribers of DSL services. Let's go. Examples of status, characteristics, or performance information or data include loop length, one or more cable dimensions, presence or absence of one or more bridge taps, position of one or more bridge taps Examples include length of one or more bridge taps, line noise, short circuit, open circuit, data rate, channel transfer function, channel attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio, loop impedance, error rate, and the like. Information such as that described above is measured for a telephone line between a service provider location and a subscriber location, or a DSL device used to provide DSL services to a subscriber.

  DSL networks and systems are systems, one or more subsystems, one or more methods, one or more servers, one or more protocols, one or two Various sources, such as one or more algorithms, or one or more techniques, are used to measure, calculate, or estimate such state, characteristic, or performance information. The status, characteristics, or performance information or data may be collected from multiple sources, which on the one hand can increase the available data, but on the other hand can complicate the analysis step. is there. Traditional solutions to this problem simply ignore the availability of data from multiple sources, or ignore uncertainty factors that often combine such data but often lead to unreliable analysis results. One of the two models is used. Conventional solutions also do not provide information about the reliability of certain results. As a result, these networks and systems do not measure, calculate, or estimate state, property, or performance information utilizing two or more sources. In addition, because these networks and systems use simplified models that combine data that does not estimate performance, these models result in unreliable results.

US Provisional Application No. 60 / 796,371 US patent application number (Attorney Docket No. 20103/0728) US Patent Application No. 11 / 071,762 US Patent Application Publication No. 2006-0198430

  Data collection / combiner, network management system, DSL optimizer (DSLO), or any combination thereof, from two or more data sources, data, one or more parameters, one or two Collect one or more characteristics, information, or any combination thereof. The data collector / combiner probabilistically combines at least the first and second data to estimate at least one DSL characteristic parameter.

  Data collected or received, one or more parameters, one or more characteristics, information, or any combination thereof may be checked for integrity and checked for consistency, It can be processed, stored in one or more data stores, or any combination thereof. According to one embodiment, the DSLO combines data from the data store based on any of various rules, heuristics, or any combination thereof. Data from the data store, heuristically combined data, or any combination thereof may additionally or alternatively be combined probabilistically or statistically. For example, the data collector / combiner applies Bayes' theorem to the various one or more parameters, one or more characteristics, configuration related data, operation, environment, DSL system, Customer satisfaction, failure, error, etc. can be estimated, or any combination thereof can be estimated.

  According to one embodiment, the data collector / combiner combines DSL parameters and characteristic information from multiple sources to optimize the DSL network in a reliable and consistent manner. According to one embodiment, the combination of DSL parameters and characteristic information may take into account uncertainty factors. For example, the uncertainty factor can be caused by variations between system implementations, deviations from the ideal model, measurement errors, system configuration errors, effects of unknown environmental parameters, and implementations that do not comply with known standards. is there. As a result, data collection and combiners and network management systems utilize “stochastic” reasoning that is superior to conventional systems using only “logical” reasoning.

  The following disclosure refers to the digital subscriber line (DSL) system shown in FIG. 1, but using the method and apparatus described herein, telephone line characteristics or parameters, any type, any Can be estimated, determined, or estimated, and any combination of DSL devices, networks, or any combination of DSL systems of any topology. For example, a DSL system may include any number of customer premises, two or more DSL access multiplexers (DSLAMs) located in two or more locations, or any number of telephone lines, DSL modems, servers , Systems, data sources, data collectors, data stores, data combiners, data collectors / combiners, or any combination thereof. Further, the present disclosure below refers to the exemplary DSL system shown in FIG. 1 for purposes of illustration, but any additional or alternative types or numbers of communication systems, devices in accordance with the teachings disclosed herein One or more networks, or any combination thereof, may be used to implement a DSL communication system, provide DSL communication services, and estimate telephone line or DSL equipment characteristics or parameters. For example, a DSL modem, DSLAM, loop tester, automatic configuration server (ACS), line tester, element management system (EMS), service assurance system (SAS), service distribution system, data collection / combiner described below, or Different functions assigned collectively in a network management system (NMS) can be reassigned in any desired manner.

  As used herein, the terms “user”, “subscriber”, or “customer” are used by any of a variety of service providers that a communication service or communication device provides. Refers to a person, company, or organization that is or may be potentially offered. Further, the term “customer premises” refers to a location where communication services are provided by a service provider. For the example of a public switched telephone network (PSTN) used to provide DSL service, the customer premises are located on the network termination (NT) side of the telephone line. An example of a customer premises is a residence or office building. Similarly, the term “service provider location” refers to a location where a DSL service is provided or where a system or device associated with providing a DSL service is located. The system or device associated with providing DSL services may be owned or controlled by a single business company, or owned or controlled by multiple companies. Examples of service provider locations include telephone offices, remote terminals, communication rooms, telephone stands, customer service offices, maintenance offices, sales offices, or any combination thereof. The term “service provider location” may refer to multiple physical locations where a device is installed and communicatively connected. Further, the term “service provider” refers to any of a variety of entities that provide, sell, provision, troubleshoot, or maintain any combination of communication services or devices. Examples of service providers include telephone companies, cable companies, wireless companies, or Internet service providers.

  As used herein, the term “subscriber equipment” refers to any equipment located at a customer premises that is used to provide at least one subscriber service. The subscriber unit may or may not be potentially available for additional purposes. Although the subscriber equipment is located at the customer premises, the equipment may be located on either or both sides of NT or any other network ownership boundary. A subscriber device may be owned by a subscriber, borrowed for a fee, borrowed free of charge, leased, or accessible to obtain services. For example, a subscriber device is owned by a service provider, and the subscriber simply plugs into the connector and has no other access or interaction with the device. Subscriber equipment is generally available or accessible by the subscriber, but is obtained or obtained by the subscriber through any of a variety of sources including but not limited to retailers, service providers, or employers. You can also Examples of subscriber devices include personal computers (PCs), set-top boxes (STBs), residential gateways, DSL modems, or those located in the subscriber's residence where the subscriber uses DSL and Internet services. Any combination is mentioned.

  As used herein, the term “service provider equipment” refers to a service provider that is used, for example, to provide, provision, maintain, sell, troubleshoot, or any combination of DSL services. Refers to any device located at the location.

  Further, as used herein, the term “DSL” refers to various DSLs such as Asymmetric DSL (ADSL), Fast DSL (HDSL), Symmetric DSL (SDSL), or Very Fast DSL (VDSL). Refers to either a technology or a variation of the DSL technology. The DSL technology is, for example, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) standard G.264 for ADSL modems. 992.1 (aka G.dmt), the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) standard G.2 for ADSL2 modems. 992.3 (aka G.dmt.bis), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standard G.2 for ADSL2 + modems. 992.5 (also known as G. adsl2plus), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standard G. 993.1 (aka G.vdsl), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standard G.2 for VDSL2 modems. 993.2, International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standard G.100 for modems that perform handshaking. 994.1 (G.hs), ITU G. Generally implemented according to applicable standards such as the 997.1 (aka G. bloom) standard or any suitable combination.

  As used herein, the term “operating” describes a device that is operable, actually operating, or any combination thereof. For example, a device that operates to perform some function is powered off, but can perform an operation, for example by programming, or a device that is powered on and performing an operation, for example Hardware, or any combination thereof. The term “signal” usually refers to an analog signal, the term “data” usually refers to digital data, and the term “information” refers to either an analog signal, a digital signal, or It may refer to any combination thereof, but other meanings can be inferred from the context of use of these terms.

  For the sake of brevity and clarity of description, throughout the present disclosure below, implementation of a DSL communication system, provision of DSL communication services, estimation of characteristics or parameters of telephone lines and DSL equipment, determination, estimation, or any of its Reference will be made to combinations. However, the following disclosure is made with reference to the use of a conventional twisted pair copper telephone line for digital subscriber line (DSL) equipment, DSL service, DSL system, and DSL service delivery, but the multiple disclosed in this document. The disclosed method and apparatus for inferring communication system and network characteristics using data collected from a data source can be in many other forms or types of communication devices, services, technologies, systems, or any combination thereof. It should be understood that it is applicable. For example, the disclosed method and apparatus can be a wireless distribution system, wired or cable distribution system, coaxial cable distribution system, UHF (Ultra High Frequency) / VHF (Very High Frequency) radio frequency system, satellite or others. Applicable to any extraterrestrial system, mobile phone distribution system, power line broadcast system, fiber optic network, any suitable network or system, or any combination thereof. In addition, combinations of these devices, systems, or networks can be used. Continuous combination of any other physical channel such as, for example, a combination of twisted pair and coaxial cable connected by a balun, or an analog fiber / copper connection with linear optical / electrical connection in an optical network unit (ONU) Can also be used.

  Connecting a DSL modem to a customer places a second DSL modem operated by the telecommunications company located at the customer premises (eg, home or office owned, leased or otherwise used by the customer). It will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that it includes connecting to a telephone line (ie, a subscriber line) that is communicatively connected to a DSL modem. As the customer operates to access services (eg, Internet access) via the first and second DSL modems, telephone lines, and telecommunications companies, the second DSL modem is connected to other communication devices, computing. It can further be communicatively connected to a device (eg, a personal computer) or any combination thereof.

  According to one embodiment, the DSL system of FIG. 1 is collected or obtained from data, one or more parameters, one or more characteristics, or two or more data sources. Use information. Collected and acquired data, one or more parameters, one or more characteristics, or information may be checked for completeness or consistency, or preprocessed and then one Alternatively, it may be stored in two or more data storage devices. In the illustrated example, the data from the data store is then compared or combined based on any of various rules and heuristics. Data from the data store or heuristically combined data may be applied to various one or more parameters, one or more parameters related to the exemplary DSL system, for example, applying Bayes' theorem Additional or alternative, stochastic or statistical combinations can be made by inferring any of two or more characteristics or data, behavior, environment, customer satisfaction, shortcomings, errors, etc. For example, a feature of a DSL system is that it can be inferred by applying Bayes' theorem given first and second data that indicate a characteristic and at least one conditional probability.

  FIG. 1 illustrates an example of a DSL system that can provide or can be used to provide DSL service from a service provider location 105 to an example customer premises 110. In the illustrated example, the DSL service may or may be provided to the example customer premises 110 via a regular twisted pair copper telephone line 115. A telephone line 115 shown in FIG. 1 is a part of a public switched telephone network (PSTN) 120.

  In order to provide DSL services to customers via the exemplary telephone line 115, the system shown in FIG. The DSLAM 125 shown in FIG. 1 specifically implements various or multiple DSL modems 130, one of which is used to provide DSL service to the example customer premises 110 via the telephone line 115. Or may be used. To connect the exemplary telephone line 115 to the exemplary DSLAM 125, the system shown in FIG. 1 includes a distribution board 135 that provides a metal cross-connect. Although not shown, any of various different plain telephone system (POTS) splitters can be used, for example, between the exemplary telephone line 115 and the exemplary DSLAM 125 and between the telephone line 115 and the exemplary DSL modem 130. Deployed to facilitate simultaneous use of telephone line 115 for DSL and POTS services.

  Measure, calculate, or so any number of signals, data, information, or one or more parameters, or any of a variety, characterizing, describing, or indicating the state of telephone line 115 In order to determine the absence, the system shown in FIG. 1 may use any of various loop test devices 140 located at customer premises 110, any of various loop test devices 145 located at service provider location 105, or various One of the line testers 150. In the example shown in FIG. 1, the exemplary loop test device 145 is connected to the telephone line 115 via the wiring board 135, and the exemplary loop test device 140 is located at the customer premises 110 (ie, the home wiring network). Connected to the telephone wiring. Additionally or alternatively, the example loop test device 145 may be implemented by or within the DSLAM 125.

  Using any of a variety of one or more methods, one or more protocols, one or more communication paths, or one or more communication technologies, FIG. The line tester 150 shown in FIG. 1 is that the exemplary loop test apparatus 140, 145 transmits any of the various line probe signals to the telephone line 115, or on the telephone line 115 with or without injecting the line probe signal. Can be configured, commanded, or required to receive or measure signals present in Such probe signals, or signal reception or measurement, are utilized by the exemplary line tester 150 or loop test apparatus 140, 145 to provide various single-ended or double-ended one or more line test methods, Or, two or more algorithms, or one or more techniques can be implemented. Exemplary probe signals are pulse or step time domain reflectometry (TDR) signals, spread spectrum signals, nominal modem transmission signals (eg, ADSL modem multi-carrier training signals), chirp signals, impulse trains, single Including impulses, or any suitable signal. An exemplary method and apparatus for transmitting a line probe signal or receiving and measuring one or more signals present on a telephone line 115 is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. U.S. Patent Application No. 60 / 796,371, filed on Jan. 1, and U.S. Patent Application No. (Attorney Docket No. 20103/0728).

  In order to measure noise conditions (eg, quiet line noise), a line probe signal need not be sent (eg, quietly at zero voltage, effectively so that no signal is sent to the telephone line 115). Empty, all zero signal, or any combination). The signal received or measured in this way from the telephone line 115 represents noise present on the telephone line 115. Exemplary environmental variables 610 include noise power spectral density (PSD), noise source, noise length, noise amplitude, noise type, background noise, impulse noise, impulse noise statistics, amplitude modulation (AM) noise, etc., or Including noise characteristics such as any suitable combination of noise characteristics. However, since transmission of one or more probe signals is not a requirement for measuring line noise signals, noise measurement or characterization can be performed with or without transmitting probe signals.

  Received or measured by the exemplary loop test devices 140 and 145 using any of a variety of one or more methods, one or more techniques, or one or more algorithms. Can be processed to estimate or determine various estimated one or more characteristic parameters 204 (FIG. 2), data or information characterizing the telephone line 115. For example, (a) a time domain reflectometry (TDR) analysis may be performed on a transmitted impulse or a reflected version of the pulse, or (b) the data analyzer may transmit which probe signal is transmitted. For example, an echo path response or a channel transfer response can be calculated if a known or received reflected signal is given. Time domain reflectometry is a measurement technique that determines the characteristics of a transmission line by observing the reflected waveform in response to a transmitted (ie, probe) signal. Exemplary estimated characteristic parameters 204, data, or information include channel insertion loss, channel transfer function, channel attenuation, one or more cable dimensions, cable failure, loop length, one or more of Cable dimensions, presence or absence of bridge taps, one or more bridge tap positions, one or more bridge tap lengths, one or more bridge tap dimensions, open fault, short circuit fault, cross fault, Including bad splice / connection presence / location / severity, noise, excessive noise, data rate, one or more signal-to-noise ratio, loop impedance, loop attenuation, or any suitable combination of information However, it is not limited to these.

  In the example shown in FIG. 1, the processing of signals received or measured by the exemplary loop test devices 140, 145 can be performed by various one or more computing devices, one or more platforms, This can be done either by one or more servers, or any suitable combination thereof. For example, loop test apparatus 140, 145 may include logic or a processor for estimating or determining characteristic parameters based on received or measured signals. Alternatively or additionally, a computing device communicatively connected to or connectable to the loop test device 140 may perform the estimation or determination. For example, the example line tester 150 may obtain signals received or measured from the loop test apparatus 140, 145 to estimate or determine parameters. Alternatively or additionally, the subscriber device (eg, the subscriber's personal computer (PC) or set top box (STB)) may be used to estimate or determine the parameters.

  In the example shown in FIG. 1, one or more signals received or measured, or characteristic parameters determined, calculated, or estimated from the one or more signals are represented by an exemplary loop tester 140. 145 provided to the example line tester 150 via any of a variety of one or more methods, one or more networks, or one or more protocols. . Alternatively or additionally, any other device used to receive, measure signals, calculate or estimate parameters may provide the same as the example line tester 150. If there is a DSL connection available or operational between the DSL modem 130 and the DSLAM 125, the example loop test device 140 may be an ITU G. The exchange protocol defined in the 994.1 (aka G.hs) standard can be used to provide one or more signals or one or more parameters via a DSL service. Additionally or alternatively, one or more signals or one or more parameters may be substituted or added using, for example, a dial-up or voice band modem located at customer premises 110. It can be sent or provided to the example line tester 150 via an internet connection or via the PSTN 120. The exemplary loop test apparatus 140 may alternatively or additionally be in any of a variety of intermediate servers or services, such as ACS 160 (automatic configuration server) as defined in DSL Forum Document TR-069, for example. And / or provide a signal or parameter. If the example loop test device 140 is not currently communicatively connected to the example service provider location 105 or cannot be connected, one or more signals or one or more parameters may be, for example, DSL Storing one or more characteristic parameters on a CD or other non-volatile storage medium (eg, DVD) that can be sent to or delivered to a service provider and then loaded into the line tester 150; It can be sent or provided via any of a variety of additional or alternative methods. Additionally or alternatively, the exemplary loop test apparatus 140 may include 1 in the form of compressed ASCII code, eg, using any of a variety of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) displayed or presented to a human. One or more parameters can be displayed. The example person then sends one or two (eg, via a voice call) to a technician or customer service representative who in turn loads the provided one or more parameters into the line tester 150. More than one parameter can be provided by voice. The person may be a subscriber or a technician, for example. The exemplary loop test device 145 includes various one or more interfaces, one or more communication buses, one or more backplanes, fiber optics, one or more The example line tester 150 can be communicatively connected via either a copper cable, one or more protocols, or a combination of one or more communication technologies.

  In order to monitor, measure, or record the current or historical DSL performance characteristics of DSL communications occurring between the exemplary DSLAM 125 and the DSL modem 130, the DSL system shown in FIG. DSL performance data, statistics, or information for an ongoing DSL service may be measured or reported to EMS 155 by example DSL modem 130 or DSLAM 125 using any of a variety of known techniques. it can. For example, they are ITU G. ITU G.992.1 (aka G.dmt) standard or for management of DSL modems. It can be measured according to the standard 997.1 (aka G.ploom). Exemplary performance data, statistics, or information includes: EMS data, EMS state, HLOG, HLIN, QLN (quiet line noise), SNR, LATN (line attenuation), SATN (signal attenuation), noise, channel attenuation , Data rate, ATTNDR (attainable data rate), margin, CV (code violation), FEC (forward error correction) count, ES (errored seconds), SES (severely errored seconds), UAS (unusable seconds) Number), BITS (bit distribution), GAINS (precision gain), TSSI (transmission spectrum formation), MREFPSD (reference PSD), transmitted power, transmitted PSD, fault, initialization count, real delay, real impulse Noise protection, forward error correction (FEC) and interleaving data, impulse noise Nsadeta, multiple FEC error, margin information, data rate information, the channel transfer function, loop attenuation information, bit allocation information, or include any suitable performance information, but is not limited thereto. Performance information related to DSL physical layer characteristics, or data characterizing DSL-PHY, includes SNR, bit distribution, data rate, margin, achievable data rate, or any suitable information. In the example of FIG. 1, DSL performance data, statistics, information, or any combination can be obtained from, for example, ITU G. Sent by the exemplary DSL modem 130 via a DSL service using an exchange protocol defined in the 994.1 (aka G.hs) standard. Additionally or alternatively, the DSL performance data, statistics, or information is transmitted to ACS 160 as defined in DSL Forum Document TR-069 via a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) / Internet Protocol (IP) connection. , May be sent by the DSL modem 130.

  In order to provide the example customer premises 110 with any of a variety of services such as, for example, IP television (IPTV), video on demand (VoD), or voice over IP (VoIP), the system illustrated in FIG. Includes any of a variety of service delivery systems 165. In order to monitor the quality, performance, or characteristics of services provided by the exemplary service delivery system 165, the system shown in FIG. The SAS 170 illustrated in FIG. 1 can monitor, for example, a motion picture experts group (MPEG) statistic (for example, frame loss), a packet loss rate, and the like.

  As described above, the example ACS 160, the example line tester 150, the example EMS 155, or the example SAS 170 are provided by the service delivery system 165, the DSLAM 125, the DSL modem 130, or any combination thereof over the telephone line 115. Represents a source of data indicative of past, current, or future possible DSL services that are available or can be provided. As described above, the example data source 150, 155, 160, or 170 may include data measured, collected, estimated, or determined at either or both ends of the example telephone line 115. The data sources 150, 155, 160, and 170 shown in FIG. 1 may collect or report data or information periodically or aperiodically. Additionally or alternatively, data can be collected or reported in response to a request for data or information. Data or information collected by data sources 150, 155, 160, 170 may be current one or more snapshots of the DSL system shown in FIG. 1, or one or more past snapshots. Any combination of can be represented.

  Those skilled in the art will recognize that the data or information collected, acquired, measured, calculated, estimated, or received by the example data source 150, 155, 160, 170 is relevant, complete, reliable, accurate, or timely ( It will be readily understood that it may be affected by any of a variety of factors, such as, for example, recent versus old. Some of the exemplary data sources 150, 155, 160, 170 are inherently more accurate or reliable, thereby helping to determine special parameters associated with the DSL system shown in FIG. Can be. For example, the TDR data included in the example line tester 150 can be more accurate or more useful for bridge tap detection or parameterization than the channel attenuation data or channel transfer function available in the EMS 155.

  In the illustrated example, two of the data sources 150, 155, 160, 170 may include related data, similar data, or data that may be incomplete. For example, (a) the exemplary ACS 160 includes ACS data 645 representing channel attenuation of a first portion of frequency (eg, a downstream channel), while EMS 155 includes a second portion of frequency (eg, an upstream direction). EMS data 640 representing the channel attenuation of the channel), or (b) the bridge tap may include relevant information from the channel transfer function included in ACS 160 or the TDR response included in line tester 150. Can be detected. Furthermore, although ACS 160 and EMS 155 may both contain channel attenuation data, they may acquire or store data with different accuracy or representation. Examples of ACS data 645 include ACS state, HLOG, HLIN, QLN (quiet line noise), SNR, LATN (line attenuation), SATN (signal attenuation), noise, channel attenuation, data rate, ATTNDR (Achievable) Data rate), margin, CV (code violation), FEC (forward error correction) count, ES (errored seconds), SES (severely errored seconds), UAS (unusable seconds), BITS (bit delivery) , GAINS (Precise Gain), TSSI (Transmission Spectrum Shaping), MREFPSD (Reference PSD), Transmitted Power, Transmitted PSD, Fault, Initialization Count, Real Delay, Real Impulse Noise Protection, FEC and Interleaving Data, impulse noise sensor data, any other suitable data, or Also including any combination of. Other examples will be rich to those skilled in the art.

  Exemplary data sources 150, 155, 160, and 170 are shown in FIG. 1, but those skilled in the art will recognize that the DSL system may include additional or alternative data sources than those shown in FIG. It will be readily appreciated that may include more than any one or all of the indicated data sources. In addition, this disclosure describes specific data or information that is included in or available through certain of the data sources 150, 155, 160, 170 shown in FIG. Will readily recognize that DSL service providers may utilize any combination of data or information and data sources.

  For DSL systems or networks that include multiple telephone lines, DSLAM 125, or DSL modem 130, the data sources 150, 155, 160, 170 shown in FIG. 1 are associated with each telephone line 115, DSLAM 125, or DSL modem 130. Data included. However, the group of data contained in the data sources 150, 155, 160, 170 includes, for example, how long the DSL service was available, the type or manufacturer of the DSL modem, the type of service used or subscribed, the customer Any of a variety of reasons, such as premises, etc. may vary, for example, from telephone line to line, from DSLAM to DSL modem, or from subscriber to subscriber.

  The system illustrated in FIG. 1 is used to determine any of a variety of one or more parameters, data, or information based on data contained in exemplary data sources 150, 155, 160, 170. Includes a data collection and combiner 175. The data collection and combiner 175 shown in FIG. 1 collects, receives, or retrieves data from one or more of the example data sources 150, 155, 160, 170, checks the integrity of the data, And check data consistency. If the data is collected from more than one of the data sources 150, 155, 160, 170, the exemplary data collector / combiner 175 may detect the examined data heuristically, logically, statistically, or Probabilistic combination. An implementation of an exemplary data collection and combiner 175 is described below in connection with FIGS.

  The data collector / combiner 175 shown in FIG. 1 combines the data from the exemplary data sources 150, 155, 160, 170 to infer parameters or characteristics of the DSL system shown in FIG. An exemplary method for inferring parameters or characteristics is described below in connection with FIGS.

  In the illustrated example, the one or more parameters, data, or information estimated, estimated, calculated, or determined by the example data collector / combiner 175 may include various one or more data. It is stored in the example database 180 using either a structure, one or more data tables, one or more data arrays, and the like. The example database 180 is stored either in a machine accessible file or in various memories 185.

  1 controls, monitors, maintains, or provisions the DSL system shown in FIG. 1, or a person such as a customer service representative, sales representative, or technician controls, monitors, maintains, or maintains the DSL system shown in FIG. Or to allow provisioning, the exemplary system shown includes a network management system (NMS) 190. The NMS 190 shown in FIG. 1 uses, provides, or makes available to one or more parameters, data, or information stored in the example database 180. Alternatively or additionally, the NMS 190 shown in FIG. 1 directly provides one or more parameters, data, or information that has been estimated, estimated, calculated, or determined by the exemplary data collection and combiner 175. Or make it available. For example, the NMS 190 can allow a technician to retrieve a value representative of the bit error rate, set encoding parameters (etc.), or configure or provision parameters for an exemplary DSL system. A GUI that can be provided can be provided.

  FIG. 2 shows an exemplary block diagram and method for implementing the data collection and combiner 175 shown in FIG. As shown on the left side of FIG. 2, the data collector / combiner 175 receives at least the first characteristic data 200 and the second characteristic data 202, and in response thereto an estimated one as previously described. Alternatively, two or more characteristic parameters 204 are generated. As shown on the right side of FIG. 2, to collect, inspect, or pre-process at least first characteristic data 200 and second characteristic data 202 from exemplary data sources 150, 155, 160, 170, FIG. The data collector / combiner 175 shown in FIG. An exemplary data collector 205 is described below in connection with FIGS.

  In order to store data collected, examined, or pre-processed by the exemplary data collector 205, the data collector / combiner 175 shown in FIG. 2 includes one or more data stores 210. An exemplary data store 210 is described below in connection with FIG.

  In order to combine data from one or more sources logically, heuristically, statistically, or stochastically, the data collector / combiner 175 shown in FIG. . The data combiner 215 combines at least the first characteristic data 200 and the second characteristic data 202 from the two or more sources and generates an estimated characteristic parameter 204 in response. An exemplary data combiner 215 is described below in connection with FIGS.

  FIG. 3 is a block diagram of the data collector 205 shown in FIG. In order to collect at least the first characteristic data 200 and the second characteristic data 202 from the exemplary data sources 150, 155, 160, 170, the data collector 205 shown in FIG. Any of a variety of one or more methods, one or more protocols, one or more communication paths, one or more communication technologies, or any combination thereof In use, the exemplary data acquirer 305 receives, collects, or otherwise acquires data from the data sources 150, 155, 160, 170. The method used by the example data acquirer 305 to acquire data may vary from data source to data source.

  In order to check the integrity of at least the first characteristic data 200 and the second characteristic data 202 acquired by the exemplary data acquirer 305, the data collector 205 shown in FIG. Including. The data integrity checker 310 shown in FIG. 3 may: (a) whether the data is available, (b) whether the data is within one or more valid ranges, or (c ) Check one or more of whether the data is timely (eg, not too old). Which checks are performed by the exemplary data integrity checker 310 includes the type of data, the type of one or more parameters to be determined, one or more preferences of the user or technician, Or, depending on the configuration of the exemplary data collector 205. In the illustrated example, the inspected data 312 is passed to the data preprocessor 315 if the inspection results (eg, conditions) are met (eg, satisfied). If the test results do not match, the data integrity checker 310 discards the data or assigns the data to a metric that represents the level of data integrity. If the data is discarded, the data integrity checker 310 does not pass the data to the data preprocessor 315. If the data is not discarded by the example data integrity checker 310, but instead is assigned to an integrity metric (eg, INVALID_DATA), the data integrity checker 310 will send the metric along with the checked data 312 to the data It passes to the pre-processor 315. An exemplary integrity metric is a variable having a value selected from OK, OLD_DATA, and INVALID_DATA.

  The data preprocessor 315 shown in FIG. 3 processes the inspected data 312 provided by the exemplary data integrity checker 310 based on the type of data, and in response the preprocessed data 317 is processed. Generate. For example, the example data preprocessor 315 invalidates the examined data 312 to remove known invalid values, such as pilot tones in the bit allocation table, or, for example, filtering, smoothing, noise reduction, etc. Artifacts that may be irrelevant by application of may be removed. An exemplary weighting method used for data “filtering” is described in US Patent Application Publication No. 2006-0198430 corresponding to US patent application Ser. No. 11 / 071,762, incorporated herein by reference.

  In order to check the preprocessed data 317 for consistency, the data collector 205 shown in FIG. 3 includes a data consistency checker 320. The data consistency checker 320 shown in FIG. 3 uses any of a variety of one or more methods, one or more techniques, logic, or one or more algorithms. Thus, the consistency of the preprocessed data received from the exemplary preprocessor 315 is evaluated to generate data 322 that has been checked for consistency. For example, the exemplary data consistency checker 320 (a) preprocesses the preprocessed data 317 such that the dramatically changed preprocessed data 317 is flagged for the data combiner 215. (B) comparing the preprocessed data 317 with the different groups of preprocessed data 317, so that they are mathematically consistent. (E.g., signal to noise ratio data that does not match the bits per tone data), or (c) one portion of the preprocessed data 317 can be used for unusable or unexpected changes (e.g., Abrupt discontinuities, unexpected discontinuities, changes in the data, or any combination thereof) can be compared to other parts.

  Which consistency check is performed by the example data consistency checker 320 depends on the type of preprocessed data 317, the type of one or more parameters to be determined, or the example data collector 205. It depends on the configuration. If a consistency check (eg, condition) is met (eg, satisfied), preprocessed data 317 that satisfies the check is stored in one or more data stores 210 (FIG. 2). If not, the exemplary data consistency checker 320 discards the preprocessed data 317 that has failed the test, or the preprocessed data 317 is the consistency level of the preprocessed data 317. Assign to a metric that represents If the preprocessed data 317 is discarded, the example data consistency checker 320 does not store the preprocessed data 317 in one or more data stores 210. If the preprocessed data 317 is not discarded by the example data consistency checker 320, the preprocessed data may instead be assigned to a consistency metric (eg, INVALID_DATA). If the preprocessed data 317 is assigned to a consistency metric, the example data consistency checker 320 stores the consistency metric along with the preprocessed data 317 in one or more data stores 210. . An example consistency metric is a variable having a value selected from OK, INCINSISTENT, and INVALID_DATA.

  FIG. 4 illustrates an exemplary method for implementing one or more data stores 210 shown in FIG. In order to store the consistency-checked data 322 collected, checked, or pre-processed by the example data checker 205, one or more data stores 210 shown in FIG. Contains number datasets. Three exemplary data sets 405, 410, and 415 are shown in FIG. Consistency-checked data 322 may be any of a variety of one or more tables, one or more structures, one or more arrays, indexing, configuration, or combinations thereof Can be stored in the example data sets 405, 410, 415. For example, the data 322 that has been checked for consistency may be organized based on a DSL subscriber identifier (eg, identifier, address, etc.) or telephone line based on the type of data, data source, etc. As shown in FIG. 4, exemplary data sets 405, 410, 415 are stored either in respective machine accessible files or in various memories 406, 411, and 416. Additionally or alternatively, the number of machine accessible files or memories may differ from the number of data sets.

  FIG. 5 illustrates an exemplary method for implementing the data combiner 215 shown in FIG. The data combiner 215 shown in FIG. 5 includes a heuristic combiner 505 to logically or heuristically combine stored data 324 stored in one or more exemplary data stores 210. The heuristic combiner 505 applies a heuristic rule or any combination of logical rules to apply redundancy or structure known to exist between the various data sources 150, 155, 160, 170. (Figure 1). For example, the heuristic combiner 505 (a) compares the first characteristic data 200 from the first source with the second characteristic data 202 from the second source (eg, the bits per tone from the ACS 160). (B) compared to the bits per tone from EMS 155), (b) using the first characteristic data 200 from the first data source to fill the missing second characteristic data 202 of the second source (eg, Compare downstream bits per tone from ACS 160 with upstream bits per tone from EMS 155), or (c) the first data source indicates a parameter with a high level of confidence (eg, TDR) If the data is very likely to indicate the presence or absence of a bridge tap, the second characteristic data 202 from the second source (e.g. , The channel transfer function from the EMS 155) can be ignored or discarded.

  To combine data from two or more of the data sources 150, 155, 160, 170 shown in FIG. 1 either statistically or probabilistically, the data combiner 215 shown in FIG. 5 is a Bayesian combiner. 510. The Bayesian combiner 510 shown in FIG. 5 applies the Bayes' theorem, for example, given a group of data and one or more conditional probabilities, to apply the DSL shown in FIG. Infer one or more parameters of the system. The example Bayesian combiner 510 can also utilize any integrity or consistency metric determined or provided by the example data collector 205 (FIG. 2). One or more groups of data heuristically combined by Bayesian combiner 510 is one of one or more exemplary data sources 150, 155, 160, 170 that are different or identical. May be associated with each other. Examples of data inference that may be performed by the Bayesian combiner 510 shown in FIG. 5 are described below in connection with FIGS. An implementation of the exemplary Bayesian coupler 510 is described below in connection with FIGS.

  Although the exemplary data collection and combiner 175 is shown in FIG. 2, FIG. 3, FIG. 4, or FIG. 5, the elements, modules, logic, memory, or devices shown in FIG. Can be combined, rearranged, repartitioned, eliminated, or realized. For example, any portion of the data collector 205 shown in FIG. 2 can be implemented or executed by any of the data sources 150, 155, 160, 170 shown in FIG. Further, the exemplary data collector 205, exemplary data store 210, exemplary data combiner 215, exemplary data acquirer 305, exemplary data integrity checker 310, exemplary data preprocessor 315, exemplary data Consistency checker 320, exemplary one or more data groups 405, 410, 415, exemplary heuristic combiner 505, exemplary Bayesian combiner 510, or more generally in FIGS. The illustrated data collector / combiner 175 can be implemented by hardware, software, firmware, or any combination of hardware, software, or firmware. For example, exemplary data collector 205, exemplary data store 210, exemplary data combiner 215, exemplary data acquirer 305, exemplary data integrity checker 310, exemplary data preprocessor 315, exemplary data Any of consistency checker 320, one or more exemplary data groups 405, 410, 415, exemplary heuristic combiner 505, exemplary Bayesian combiner 510, or exemplary data collection and combiner 175 Or all realized through machine accessible instructions executed by any of a variety of processors such as, for example, a digital signal processor (DSP), a general purpose processor, or a microcontroller, specialized processor, RISC processor, etc. Can do. Further, the data collector / combiner 175 may include or include additional elements, modules, logic, memory, or devices than those shown in FIGS. Any two or more of these may be included.

  A Bayesian network is a graphical display or tool useful for characterizing relationships between a group of discrete random variables. A Bayesian network is composed of a directed acyclic graph and a group of conditional probability relationships. An edge of a Bayesian network graph has a direction that represents a dependency (eg, a causal relationship), and the parent of a given node is all nodes that have an edge directed to that given node. In a Bayesian network, given a node's parent, ie, P (node | parent) where P () represents probability, each node in the graph is associated with the conditional probability mass function of the node. In particular, a Bayesian network with Bayes' theorem is associated with a node if given one or more parent nodes or child nodes and the conditional probability of that node (ie, making Bayesian inference). It is useful for deriving or developing one or more statistical or stochastic formulas that determine, estimate, calculate, or infer the parameters.

  In general, the calculation of Bayesian inference (ie, calculating the exact maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) of a Bayesian network) is computationally intensive. However, Bayesian networks can be built with a small number of nodes and small concentrations for each of the random variables. The so-called “multiple tree” class, ie the class of Bayesian networks where the basic undirected graph has no loops, is an inference algorithm based on passing “endogenous / exogenous” messages (Pearl's “reliability propagation” "Algorithm)".

  FIG. 6 is an exemplary Bayesian network associated with the operational aspect 605 of the subscriber's DSL service for the DSL system shown in FIG. The exemplary DSL operating variable 605 may include current margin, current bit rate, current bit delivery, current transmitted PSD, DSL error history, channel transfer function, echo transfer function, noise characteristics, or any suitable Contains data. The DSL operating variable 605 shown in FIG. 6 is associated with the example EMS 155 or the example ACS 160 (FIG. 1). The operating variable 605 may correspond to one or more DSL characteristics, such as the first characteristic data 200 and the second characteristic data 202. An exemplary process that may be implemented or performed to build a Bayesian network for a communication system (eg, the DSL system shown in FIG. 1) is described below in connection with FIG.

  To represent the variables associated with the physical environment in which the DSL service 605 operates, the Bayesian network shown in FIG. The environment variable 610 shown in FIG. 6 is associated with the example line tester 150 or the example ACS 160, or the example EMS 155 (see FIG. 1). Exemplary environment variables 610 include phone line or loop configuration (eg, length, bridge tap location / length, bad connection, microfilter, etc.) and noise (eg, near end crosstalk, far end crosstalk, Background noise, impulse noise, amplitude modulation (AM) noise, etc.).

  To represent the application or type of application used by the DSL subscriber, the Bayesian network shown in FIG. The application variables 615 shown in FIG. 6 are associated with the example SAS 170 (see FIG. 1). Exemplary user application types 615 include web browsing, email, IPTV, VoIP, messages, audio, video, chat, and the like. As shown in FIG. 6, the application type 615 affects the DSL operation 605 and then the customer satisfaction 620.

  In order to represent device type information, the Bayesian network shown in FIG. 6 includes a device type node 625. The device type information 625 shown in FIG. 6 is associated with the example EMS 155 or the example ACS 160 (see FIG. 1). Exemplary device type information 625 includes chipset type, modem or system type, hardware version, firmware version, modem bug information, vendor identification, and the like.

  In order to represent device configuration information, the Bayesian network shown in FIG. 6 includes a device configuration node 630. The device configuration information 630 shown in FIG. 6 is associated with the example EMS 155 or the example ACS 160 (see FIG. 1). Exemplary device configuration information 630 includes a minimum supported data rate, a maximum supported data rate, a minimum margin, a target margin, a maximum margin, a delay, a minimum impulse noise protection, a power spectral density (PSD) mask, Includes carrier mask. The variables of the example device configuration 630 may be inaccessible, unchangeable, hard-coded, or controllable via, for example, EMS 155 (see FIG. 1).

  To represent line test or diagnostic data, the Bayesian network shown in FIG. 6 includes a line test data node 635. The line test data 635 shown in FIG. 6 is associated with the example line tester 150 or the example ACS 160 (see FIG. 1). Exemplary line test data 635 includes line test data, time domain reflectometry (TDR) data, frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) data, single-ended loop test (SELT) data, double-ended loop test (DELT) data, impedance. Channel attenuation, loop resistance, loop capacitance, loop inductance, loop noise, or any other suitable data.

  In order to represent customer satisfaction data, the Bayesian network shown in FIG. 6 includes a customer satisfaction node 620. The customer satisfaction data 620 shown in FIG. 6 is associated with the example SAS 170 (see FIG. 1). Exemplary customer satisfaction data 620 includes the number of recent service calls, the number of requested track rolls, customer survey responses, customer ratings, and the like.

  To represent current or past DSL operation parameters, the Bayesian network shown in FIG. 6 includes an EMS parameter node 640 and an ACS parameter node 645. The EMS parameter 640 and ACS parameter 645 shown in FIG. 6 are associated with the example EMS 155 and ACS 160, respectively (see FIG. 1). Exemplary EMS parameters 640 and ACS parameters 645 include bit allocation, SNR, channel transfer function, channel attenuation, code violations, errored seconds, delay, impulse noise protection, double-ended loop test (DELT) data, or any Including other appropriate parameters.

  To represent service assurance data, the Bayesian network shown in FIG. The service assurance data 650 shown in FIG. 6 is associated with the example SAS 170 (see FIG. 1). Exemplary service assurance data 650 includes MPEG statistics (eg, number of lost frames), packet loss rate, lost packets, out-of-order packets, delayed packets, corrupted packets, buffer overflow / underflow events, TCP statistics, Includes UDP statistics, packet jitter data, or any suitable data. Performance information that may be used to characterize quality of service may include packet loss rates, network statistics, network congestion, customer satisfaction data, or any suitable data.

  Although an example of a Bayes network is shown in FIG. 6, nodes or edges may be combined, rearranged, eliminated, or implemented in any of a variety of ways. In addition, the Bayesian network shown in FIG. 6 can be extended to include more than one telephone line or DSL service. Furthermore, the Bayesian network may include additional nodes or edges beyond those shown in FIG. 6, or may include any two or more or all of the nodes or edges shown. Furthermore, although examples of data and node special associations have been described above and illustrated in FIG. 6, alternative associations may be utilized.

  One skilled in the art will readily appreciate that there are many uncertainties that may affect the data, parameters, information, or variables represented by the Bayesian network shown in FIG. The uncertainties shown in the DSL action 605 are: (a) a model of the relationship between nodes does not necessarily capture real-world effects, (b) various devices have different behaviors or characteristics, ( c) Some devices use dedicated modifications or extensions, (d) unknown or unmodeled environmental parameters or effects, or (e) device configuration errors. Exemplary uncertainties that affect observations are: (a) measurement error, (b) missing data, (c) measurement does not meet standards, (d) old data, or (e) realized variation. Including.

  Various inferences can be made using the Bayesian network shown in FIG. For example, (a) diagnostic inference (eg, inferring loop parameters 610 using EMS data 640 or ACS data 645), (b) cause inference (eg, impact of changing configuration settings 630 with customer satisfaction 620) ), (C) cross-cause reasoning (e.g., estimating noise 610 using EMS data 640 or ACS data 645, and knowledge of loop 610) or (d) one or two of the above examples Mixed reasoning that combines two or more.

  According to one embodiment, in a DSL system or network, almost all reported, calculated, measured, or estimated one or more parameters or one or more signals are (eg, by quantization). ) May be discrete, and the data collection and combiner 175 shown in FIGS. 1-5 may consider or represent one or more variables as continuous variables. For example, QLN may be expressed as a continuous variable in the range of 0 decibel milliwatts / hertz (dBmW) / Hz to 150 dBm / Hz.

  Further, although the Bayesian network shown in FIG. 6 represents each telephone line or DSL service separately, the example Bayesian network may be extended or enhanced to cover the interrelationships between telephone lines, or one of one binder. A relationship learned or developed for one telephone line can be applied to a second telephone line of the same or different binder. Such an extension can be used, for example, to better characterize or address crosstalk or impulse noise interference.

  Many of the dependencies shown in the Bayesian network shown in FIG. 6 can be modeled or calculated theoretically. Additionally or alternatively, the simulated or computational model may improve, simplify, or serve as a reference point for one or more inferences made using the example shown in FIG. Can be used for

  7-12 illustrate an example Bayesian network that represents an example spectrum management scenario of interest within the example Bayesian network of FIG. The Bayesian network shown in FIGS. 7-12 belongs to the Bayesian network shown in FIG. 6, and therefore, for ease of understanding, the reference numbers shown in FIGS. 7-12 are one or two as shown in FIG. Indicates which of one or more nodes a particular data, variable, or information belongs to. For example, the exemplary loop length 610 shown in FIG. 7 is a part of the environment variable node 610 shown in FIG. An example scenario or example Bayesian network of interest is shown in FIGS. 7-12, but other examples used in maintaining, monitoring, troubleshooting, diagnosing, proposing, selling, or provisioning DSL services are It will be readily apparent to the trader.

  FIG. 7 illustrates an example Bayesian network that detects the presence or absence of a bridge tap based on data from two or more example data sources 150, 155, 160, 170 (FIG. 1). As shown in FIG. 7, the bridge tap affects one or more channel responses (HLOG) 640/645, upstream attenuation 640, TDR response 635, or downstream attenuation 640/645. Effect. For some DSL modems, the channel response 640/645 is affected by a noise environment 610 that can be inferred from the QLN 640/645 as represented in the Bayesian network shown in FIG. Since the Bayesian network shown in FIG. 7 is a multiple tree, the presence or absence of the bridge tap 610 may be estimated (ie, detected) by executing or realizing a version of the Pearl algorithm, for example.

  FIG. 8 shows an exemplary Bayesian network that models the impact of one DSL modem's bit allocation on other DSL modems. The Bayesian network shown in FIG. 8 may be used to represent the impact of a DSL modem manufacturer without using an accurate (eg, Levin Campello) irrigation algorithm. In particular, the Bayesian network shown in FIG. 8 models a DSL system with three DSL modems corresponding to user # 1, user # 2, and user # 3, respectively. In the example of FIG. 8, the downlink (DS) bit distribution of user # 3 dominates the interference to the telephone line that provides services to user # 1 and user # 2. For example, if user # 3 is served by a DSLAM located at a remote terminal (RT), the DSLAM will experience significant crosstalk to user # 1 and user # 2 served by the DSLAM located at the CO. May cause. In contrast to the example of FIG. 7, the Bayesian network shown in FIG. 8 is not a multi-tree, so the version of the Pearl algorithm is not applicable to perform the inference of the example shown. Instead, the inference may be performed using any of various iterative approximations to the Pearl algorithm.

FIG. 9 illustrates an example Bayesian network for estimating (ie, estimating) channel attenuation based on HLOG values from EMS 155 and example ACS 160 shown in FIG. Assuming that the HLOG value from EMS 155 (HLOG EMS value 640) and the HLOG value from ACS 160 (HLOG ACS value 645) are corrupted by additive Gaussian noise with zero mean and the noise is irrelevant, and HLOG EMS 640 and HLOG ACS 645 can be expressed using the following formula:
Here, n 1 and n 2 represent additive noise, and HLOG represents the estimated actual HLOG value 605. As shown in the following formula, the probability distribution of HLOG 605 can be expressed mathematically:
Here, c is a constant. Assuming a uniform distribution of HLOG 605, the maximum likelihood (ML) estimate of HLOG 605 given the reported HLOG EMS value 640 and HLOG ACS value 645 is the conditional probability shown in equation (2): That is, it can be found by maximizing the logarithm of the conditional probability:
Here, σ 1 is the variance of noise n 1 , and σ 2 is the variance of noise n 2 . It can be easily derived from the equation in equation (3) that the ML estimate for HLOG 605 is the weighted sum of the reported HLOG EMS value 640 and HLOG ACS value 645, where the weight is the noise variance σ 1 and It depends on the sigma 2 relative values.

FIG. 10 shows an example Bayesian network for estimating SNR 605 based on SNR values 640 and 645 from EMS 155 and example ACS 160 shown in FIG. The Bayesian network shown in FIG. 10 is similar to the network shown in FIG. However, the network shown in FIG. 10 is enhanced to reflect state information 640 for the SNR EMS 640 value and state information 645 for the SNR ACS 645 value. The example status information 640, 645 may be, for example, a consistency or integrity metric determined by the data collector 205 shown in FIG. In the Bayesian network shown in FIG. 10, each of the state information 640 and 645 is a discrete variable having a value selected from the group {OK, OLD_DATA, INVALID_DATA} having a corresponding probability {80%, 10%, 10%}. It is.

As in the example described above in connection with FIG. 9, the SNR EMS 640 value and the SNR ACS 645 value can be modeled as SNR 605 plus Gaussian zero mean noise. However, in contrast to the example of FIG. 9, the additional noise variance depends on the state information 640 and 645, respectively. For example, (a) if the EMS state 640 is OK, the noise n 1 is considered to have been added to the SNR EMS 640, and (b) if the EMS state 640 is OLD_DATA, the noise n 3 is added to the SNR EMS 640. (C) If ACS state 645 is OK, noise n 2 is considered to be added to SNR ACS 645, and (d) If ACS state 645 is OLD_DATA, noise n 4 is SNR ACS 645. Is considered to have been added. If the SNR EMS 640 value (or SNR ACS 645 value) has a state of INVALID_DATA, the SNR EMS 640 has a uniform distribution, ie noise R 1 (R 2 ) with SNR EMS = R 1 (SNR ACS = R 2 ). ). The probability distribution of SNR 605 can be expressed mathematically as shown in the following equation:
Where c is a constant,
and
As a conditional probability.
The ML estimate of SNR 605 can be found by maximizing the following formula for SNR 605:

FIG. 11 illustrates an example Bayesian network that estimates the bridge tap length 610 given different types of data HLOG EMS 640 and TDR response 635. The bridge tap length 610 can be inferred similar to that described above in connection with FIG. In particular, assuming the loop length and loop dimensions are available or obtained, calculating the theoretical HLOG THE and theoretical TDR THE responses given a specific bridge tap length 610 Can do. Next, the calculated HLOG THE and TDR THE are used in the same manner as shown in Equation (1) above. Thereafter, the solution described above in connection with the example of FIG. 10 can be used to calculate the solution (ie, infer the bridge tap length 610).

  FIG. 12 shows an exemplary Bayesian network that shows a more complex reasoning system for estimating the packet loss rate 605. The packet loss rate 605 of FIG. 12 is indirectly observed through a code violation (CV) count 640 and a lost MPEG frame count 650. CV count 640 depends on state 640 of exemplary EMS 155. As described, packet loss rate 605 is primarily affected by impulse noise severity 610, physical layer issues associated with home signal distribution 610, and network congestion 610 factors.

  Given knowledge of CV count 640, MPEG statistics 650, and time 610, the distribution of packet loss rate 605 can be estimated using the Bayesian network shown in FIG. The DSL network cannot collect the CV count 640 many times enough to estimate the packet loss rate accurately at 605, but uses the example Bayesian network described to derive the distribution of the packet loss rate 605. Thus, the “worst case” value can then be determined with a certain level of confidence.

The conditional probability of packet loss rate (PLR) 605 can be expressed in the following formula:
Here, c is a constant. Given the PLR 605, P (CV | PLR), the conditional probability of the CV 640 is calculated based on experimental results or by performing basic analysis to determine the error in the discrete multitone (DMT) superframe and the Ethernet ( The relationship between errors in the registered packet can be determined. Given the PLR 605, P (MPEG | PLR), the conditional probability of the lost MPEG frame 650 is calculated by experimental results or by performing basic analysis, and the error in the Ethernet packet and the corrupted or lost MPEG frame 650 The relationship between can be determined. The calculation that determines the conditional probability depends on the EMS state 640 and the SAS state 650.

Most terms on the right side of Equation (8), P (PLR | Time), can be calculated using the following equation:
Here, imp is the severity 610 of impulse noise, Home is the physical layer problem associated with home signal distribution 610, and cong is network congestion 610. Each term of Equation (9) can be evaluated based on experimental results or analysis. In order to reduce the complexity or number of computations required to solve the solution mathematically represented by Equations (8) and (9), PLR 605 is a discrete with three possible values: high, medium, and low. Can be modeled as a variable.

  FIGS. 13 and 14 are flowcharts representing methods of implementing the example data collector 205, the example data combiner 215, or more generally the example data collector / combiner 175. According to one embodiment, FIGS. 13 and 14 are flowcharts representing exemplary machine accessible instructions. The machine accessible instructions shown in FIG. 13 or FIG. 14 may be executed by a DSP, processor, core, controller, or any other suitable processing device. For example, the machine accessible instructions shown in FIG. 13 or FIG. 14 may be flash memory or RAM associated with a processor (eg, processor 1510 shown in exemplary processor platform 1500 and described below in conjunction with FIG. 15). It can be embodied with coded instructions stored in a tangible medium. Alternatively, some or all of the flowcharts shown in FIG. 13 or FIG. 14 may include application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), programmable logic circuits (PLD), field programmable logic circuits (FPLD), discrete logic, hardware, firmware, etc Can be realized using. Also, some or all of the flowcharts shown in FIG. 13 or FIG. 14 may be performed manually or in combination with one or more of any of the aforementioned techniques, such as, for example, a combination of firmware, software, or hardware. Can be realized. Further, the machine accessible instructions shown in FIGS. 13 and 14 will be described with reference to the flowcharts of FIGS. Or, more generally, it will be readily appreciated that many other ways of implementing the example data collector / combiner 175 may be employed. For example, the execution instructions of the blocks may be changed, or some of the described blocks may be changed, excluded, subdivided, or combined. Further, those of ordinary skill in the art may execute the machine accessible instructions shown in FIG. 13 or FIG. 14 sequentially or, for example, in parallel by separate processing threads, processors, devices, circuits, etc. You will understand the good. Further, the machine accessible instructions of FIG. 13 or FIG. 14 may be executed, for example, sequentially or in parallel with any other various machine accessible instructions, processes, or operations.

  The machine accessible instructions shown in FIG. 13 begin with a data collector (eg, data collector 205 shown in FIG. 2 or 3) checking to see if it has reached the point in time to collect data. (Block 1305). If the point in time for data to be collected has been reached (block 1305), the data collector may have one or more of the example one or more data sources 150, 155, 160, 170 at least first. Correspondence data including one characteristic data 200 and second characteristic data 202 may be collected or provided (block 1310). Alternatively, the exemplary one or more data sources 150, 155, 160, 170 obtain or collect data on a regular or non-periodic basis, and at block 1310 one or two data collectors Data collected from one or more data sources 150, 155, 160, 170 transferred by polling the above sources 150, 155, 160, 170 may simply be obtained. Control then proceeds to block 1315.

  Returning to block 1305, if the time to collect data has not been reached (block 1305), the data collector has acquired new data by the data collector or is being provided to the data collector, or data collection. It is determined whether it has been received by the device (block 1315). Data is acquired by the data collector in response to a request sent in block 1310 or in response to a request received by the data collector and combiner 175 shown in FIG. 1 or FIG. Or received by a data collector to estimate data, parameters, or variables. If data has not been acquired, provided to the data collector, or received by the data collector (block 1315), control returns to block 1305.

  If the data is acquired by the data collector, provided to the data collector, and received by the data collector (block 1315), the data collector saves or saves the raw (eg, original) data (block 1320). As described above in connection with FIG. 3, the data collector checks the integrity of the data (block 1325), preprocesses the data (block 1330), and checks the consistency of the data (block 1335). ), And the processed data is stored in one or more data stores 210 of FIG. 2 (block 1340). Control then returns to block 1305.

The example machine accessible instructions of FIG. 14 include a data combiner (eg, data combiner 215 shown in FIG. 2 or 5), for example, one or more data stores shown in FIG. Beginning with collecting relevant data from 210 (block 1405). For the example of FIG. 9, the data combiner will collect HLOG EMS 640 and HLOG ACS 645 at block 1405. As described above in connection with FIG. 5, the data combiner performs a heuristic or any combination of logical combinations of collected data (block 1410).

The data combiner then uses Bayesian inference to calculate the requested parameters (block 1415). For the example of FIG. 9, the data combiner calculates a weighted sum of HLOG EMS 640 and HLOG ACS 645 at block 1415. At block 1415, the data combiner performs one or more Bayesian inferences based on any of the Bayesian networks described above in connection with FIGS. 6-12, or any other Bayesian network. May be. In fact, the exemplary data combiner shown can implement or infer parameters using any Bayesian network that illustrates the relationship between the parameters of the DSL system shown in FIG. Next, one or more parameters determined by the data combiner (block 1415) are stored in the example database 180 for use by or through the NMS 190 shown in FIG. .

  15 may be used or programmed to implement the example data collector 205, the data combiner 215 shown in FIGS. 1-3 or 5, or the Bayesian network shown in FIGS. FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of an example processor platform 1500. For example, the processor platform 1500 can be implemented by one or more general purpose processors, cores, microcontrollers, and the like.

  The example processor platform 1500 of FIG. 15 includes a programmable processor 1505. The processor 1505 executes encoded instructions 1510 that reside in the main memory of the processor 1505 (eg, in random access memory (RAM) 1515). The processor 1505 can be a DSP, RISC processor, general-purpose processor, core INTELL®, AMD®, SUN®, IBM® customized processor, processor, microcontroller, or It may be any type of processing unit, such as any combination thereof. The processor 1505 specifically executes the machine accessible instructions shown in FIG. 13 or FIG. 14 to perform the example data collector 205, the data combiner 215 shown in FIG. 1-3 or FIG. -You may implement | achieve the Bayes network shown in FIG.

  Processor 1505 is in communication with main memory (including read only memory (ROM) 1520 and RAM 1515) via bus 1525. The RAM 1515 may be implemented by dynamic random access memory (DRAM), synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), or any other type of RAM device, and the ROM is implemented by flash memory or other desired type of storage device. be able to. Access to the memories 1515 and 1520 is normally controlled by a memory controller (not shown). The RAM 1515 may be used, for example, to store the data sets 405, 410, 415 shown in FIG. 4, or more generally to implement one or more data stores 210 shown in FIG. .

  The processor platform 1500 also includes an interface circuit 1530. The interface circuit 1530 can be implemented by any type of interface standard such as an external memory interface, serial port, general-purpose input / output, and the like.

  One or more input devices 1535 and one or more output devices 1540 are connected to the interface circuit 1530. The output device 1540 may be used to display or provide a GUI, for example.

FIG. 16 is a flowchart illustrating an example process that may be performed or performed to generate a graph of a Bayesian network of a communication system (eg, the DSL system shown in FIG. 1). The process illustrated in FIG. 16 begins with the selection of one or more groups of communication data or parameters to be represented (block 1605). For the Bayesian network shown in FIG. 9, the channel attenuation per HLOG EMS 640, HLOG ACS 645, and tone 605 would be selected at block 1605. Next, the example process assigns one or more groups of selected data or parameters to nodes of the graph (block 1610).

Thereafter, the dependency relationship between one or more groups of selected data or parameters can be varied in one, two or more ways, one or more techniques, or one or two. Determined using any of one or more algorithms (block 1615). For example, those familiar with the DSL system shown in FIG. 1 know that channel attenuation per tone 605 affects both HLOG EMS 640 and HLOG ACS 645. Next, an edge is added to the graph to represent the dependency determined at block 1615 (block 1620).

As described above, the dependencies are then modeled using simulated or experimental results, or by performing a basic analysis to determine the relationship between one or more data groups or parameters. Derived (block 1625). For example, Equation (5) is an equation of dependency between SNR 605 and SNR EMS 640 in FIG. Also as described above, based on the graph and the modeled relationship, a solution can then be derived that estimates the desired data or parameters (block 1630). Once the desired data or parameters are derived, the exemplary process shown in FIG. 16 ends.

  FIG. 17 is a flowchart of a method for statistically inferring at least one characteristic parameter of a typical DSL network or system. The steps may be performed by the data collection and combiner 175, however, any suitable device may perform the steps in any suitable order. As shown in step 1705, the data acquirer 305 collects first data 200 indicative of the characteristics of the communication system from the first data source. As shown in step 1715, the data acquirer 305 collects second data 202 indicative of other characteristics from the second data source. As shown in step 1725, the data combiner 215 statistically combines at least the first data 200 and the second data 202 to infer at least one characteristic parameter 204.

  Of course, those skilled in the art will recognize that the order, size, and ratio of the memories shown in the exemplary system may vary. Further, although this patent discloses an exemplary system that includes software or firmware running on hardware, among other components, the system is merely exemplary and should not be considered limiting Please note that. For example, any or all of these hardware and software components may be embodied in hardware only, software only, firmware only, or some combination of hardware, firmware, or software it is conceivable that. Thus, those skilled in the art will readily understand that the example described above is not the only way to implement the system.

  At least some of the exemplary methods or apparatus described above are implemented by one or more software programs or firmware programs executing on a computer processor. However, the exemplary method or apparatus described herein, either in whole or in part, may be similarly constructed to construct a dedicated hardware implementation, including but not limited to ASICs, programmable logic arrays, and other hardware devices. Some or all of can be realized. Further, alternative software implementations may be constructed to implement the exemplary methods or apparatus described herein, including but not limited to distributed processing or component / object distributed processing, parallel processing, or virtual machine processing. .

  The exemplary software or firmware implementation described herein can be a magnetic medium (eg, disk or tape), a magneto-optical or optical medium such as a disk, or a memory card, or one or more read-only (non-volatile) ) Optionally stored in a solid medium such as memory, random access memory, or other package containing other rewritable (volatile) memory, or a tangible storage medium such as a signal containing computer instructions Should also be noted. A digital file attachment to an email, or other built-in information archive, or group of archives, is considered a distribution medium equivalent to a tangible storage medium. Accordingly, the example software or firmware described herein can be stored on a tangible storage medium or distribution medium such as those described above, or equivalents, and successor media.

  To the extent that the above specifications describe exemplary components and functions with reference to particular devices, standards, or protocols, the teachings of the present invention are not limited to such devices, standards, or protocols. Please understand that. For example, DSL, ADSL, VDSL, HDSL, G.G. dmt, G.D. hs, G. bloom, TR-069, Ethernet, DSP, IEEE 802.11x, and IEEE 802.3x represent examples of the current state of the technology. Such systems are regularly replaced by faster or more efficient systems with the same versatility. Accordingly, alternative devices, standards or protocols having the same general function are equivalents intended to be included within the scope of the appended claims.

  Although certain exemplary methods, apparatus, and products have been described herein, the scope of coverage of this patent is not limited thereto. On the contrary, this patent is directed to all methods, devices, and products that fit reasonably within the scope of the appended claims, either literally or under the principle of equivalents.

FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of an example apparatus that combines data from multiple data sources to estimate characteristics of a DSL communication system. 2 illustrates the exemplary data collection and combiner of FIG. 3 illustrates an exemplary method of implementing the exemplary data collector of FIG. FIG. 3 illustrates an exemplary method for implementing one or more exemplary data stores of FIG. Figure 3 illustrates an exemplary method for implementing the exemplary data combiner of Figure 2; 2 illustrates an example Bayesian network corresponding to the example DSL communication system of FIG. 2 illustrates an example Bayesian network that represents example characteristics of the example DSL communication system of FIG. 2 illustrates an example Bayesian network that represents example characteristics of the example DSL communication system of FIG. 2 illustrates an example Bayesian network that represents example characteristics of the example DSL communication system of FIG. 2 illustrates an example Bayesian network that represents example characteristics of the example DSL communication system of FIG. 2 illustrates an example Bayesian network that represents example characteristics of the example DSL communication system of FIG. 2 illustrates an example Bayesian network that represents example characteristics of the example DSL communication system of FIG. FIG. 4 is a flowchart representing example machine accessible instructions that may be executed to implement the example data collector of FIG. 2 or FIG. 3. 6 is a flowchart representing example machine accessible instructions that may be executed to implement the example data combiner of FIG. 2 or FIG. Use to implement the example machine accessible instructions shown in FIG. 13 or 14 that implement an example data collector, example data combiner, example data collector / combiner, or any combination thereof. FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of an example processor platform that can or can be programmed. 2 is a flowchart representing an exemplary process that can be performed or can be performed to construct a Bayesian network corresponding to a communication system. 2 is a flowchart of a method for statistically estimating at least one characteristic parameter of a typical DSL network or system.

Claims (18)

  1. Receiving first data indicative of at least one digital subscriber line (DSL) characteristic from a first data source;
    Receiving second data exhibiting at least one DSL characteristic from a second data source; (a) comparing the first data with the second data; and (b) using the first data, If the missing second data is satisfied, or (c) the first data indicates a parameter with a high level of confidence, the second data is ignored or discarded, thereby allowing the first data and the Combining the second data logically or heuristically;
    Probably combining the combined first data and second data actually received from at least the first and second data sources to provide one or more conditional probabilities An apparatus having a data collector / coupler operable to estimate at least one DSL characteristic parameter.
  2. The data - collection combiner operates to collect data of the first data and the second data, and to operate to check the integrity of the first data and the second data. A data integrity checker, a data preprocessor operative to preprocess the output of the data integrity checker, and a consistency check of the first and second data, and the data preprocessing The apparatus of claim 1, comprising at least one data consistency checker operative to check the output consistency of the checker.
  3. The apparatus further comprises a database operable to store the estimated at least one DSL characteristic parameter;
    The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the data collector / combiner further comprises a data store operable to store the first data and the second data.
  4.   Receiving the at least one estimated DSL characteristic parameter and responsively diagnosing an associated digital subscriber line failure, monitoring performance, estimating performance, and determining configuration parameters The apparatus of claim 1, further comprising a network management system operable to perform at least one of the following.
  5.   The data collector / combiner operates to stochastically combine the first data and the second data, and is provided with the first and second data and at least one conditional probability 2. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the apparatus estimates the DSL characteristic parameter by applying a Bayesian theorem that estimates the DSL characteristic parameter.
  6.   At least one of the first data and the second data is an automatic configuration server, a line tester system, an element management system, or a service assurance system. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the apparatus is received from at least one of a DSL access multiplexer, a loop test apparatus, and a service delivery system.
  7.   At least one of the first data and the second data is a time domain reflection measurement (TDR) signal, loop attenuation, signal attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio, loop insertion loss, presence or absence of a bridge tap, bridge tap position At least one of: bridge tap parameter, quiet line noise, crosstalk noise, data rate, error rate, code violation count, errored second count, margin, delay, coding parameter, and loop transfer function. The apparatus according to 1.
  8.   The estimated DSL characteristic parameters are: loop length, loop impedance, segment length, cable size, noise parameter, short circuit fault position, open fault position, cross fault position, loop fault position, presence / absence of bridge tap, bridge tap position, bridge Tap parameters, loop attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio, loop insertion loss, data rate, error rate, margin, delay, coding parameters, loop transfer function, impulse noise parameters, network congestion, spectrum management parameters, and home delivery quality The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the apparatus is at least one.
  9. Collecting first data indicative of at least one DSL characteristic from a first data source;
    Collecting second data indicative of at least one DSL characteristic from a second data source;
    (A) comparing the first data with the second data, (b) using the first data to satisfy the missing second data, or (c) the first data being high Logically or heuristically combining the first data and the second data by ignoring or discarding second data when indicating a parameter with a level of confidence ;
    Probably combining the combined first data and the second data actually collected from at least the first and second data sources to provide one or more conditional probabilities Estimating at least one DSL characteristic parameter.
  10.   The method of claim 9, wherein the first data is collected at a customer premises and the second data is collected at a service provider location.
  11. The first data is at least one of an upstream attenuation, a first system bit allocation, and a first channel transfer function from an element management system;
    Said second data, downlink attenuation is at least one of the second channel transfer function from the bit allocation and automatic configuration server of the second system,
    Wherein the at least one estimated DSL characteristic parameters are, existence of bridge taps is at least one of the transfer function of the estimated channel beauty The method of claim 9.
  12. The first data is a first channel transfer function from an element management system;
    The second data is a second channel transfer function from the automatic configuration server;
    The method of claim 9, wherein the at least one estimated DSL characteristic parameter is an estimated channel transfer function.
  13. Collecting third data indicative of a state of the first data;
    Collecting fourth data indicative of a state of the second data;
    The first data is a first signal-to-noise ratio from an element management system, and the second data is a second signal-to-noise ratio from an automatic configuration server, and the at least one estimate. The method of claim 9, wherein the estimated DSL characteristic parameter is an estimated signal-to-noise ratio.
  14. Collecting third data indicative of a state of the first data;
    Collecting fourth data indicative of a state of the second data;
    The first data is a first channel transfer function from an element management system, the second data is a line test response, and the at least one estimated DSL characteristic parameter is a bridge tap length. 10. The method of claim 9, wherein
  15. Collecting third data indicative of a state of the first data;
    Collecting fourth data indicating a state of the second data;
    Collecting fifth data indicative of the time of the data;
    The first data is a function of the number of code violations from an element management system, the second data is a moving picture expert group (MPEG) statistic, and the at least one estimated DSL characteristic parameter The method of claim 9, wherein is a packet loss rate.
  16. Further comprising developing a Bayesian network representation;
    The method of claim 9, wherein stochastic coupling further comprises using a Bayesian network representation for the stochastic coupling.
  17. Developing a Bayesian network expression
    Selecting a set of communication system parameters including at least the first data and the second data and the at least one DSL characteristic parameter;
    Determining dependencies of the selected set of parameters;
    The method of claim 9, comprising determining a model of the dependency.
  18. Assign each parameter to a graph node,
    The method of claim 17, further comprising drawing an edge of the graph based on the dependency.
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