JP5527225B2 - Thin film transistor and display device - Google Patents

Thin film transistor and display device Download PDF

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JP5527225B2
JP5527225B2 JP2011005488A JP2011005488A JP5527225B2 JP 5527225 B2 JP5527225 B2 JP 5527225B2 JP 2011005488 A JP2011005488 A JP 2011005488A JP 2011005488 A JP2011005488 A JP 2011005488A JP 5527225 B2 JP5527225 B2 JP 5527225B2
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oxide semiconductor
semiconductor film
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JP2011086955A (en
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和彦 徳永
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ソニー株式会社
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  The present invention relates to a thin film transistor using an oxide semiconductor film and a display device using the thin film transistor.

  2. Description of the Related Art In recent years, thin film transistors (TFTs) that use a semiconductor whose main component is an oxide (hereinafter referred to as an oxide semiconductor) as an active layer have attracted attention. It has been found that an oxide semiconductor has high electron mobility and excellent electrical characteristics as compared with amorphous silicon (α-Si) generally used for liquid crystal displays and the like. As such an oxide semiconductor, one containing zinc oxide (ZnO) as a main component (see Patent Document 1) or In-M-Zn-O (M is gallium (Ga), aluminum, iron (Fe)). The thing (refer patent document 2) etc. which have at least 1 sort (s) of them as a main component is proposed. In the thin film transistor disclosed in Patent Document 2, a high on / off ratio is realized by forming a source electrode and a drain electrode formed over an oxide semiconductor with a metal having a specific work function.

JP 2002-76356 A JP 2007-13496 A

  However, in the oxide semiconductor as described above, oxygen is desorbed over time at the time of manufacturing or operation, and this deteriorates the current-voltage characteristics of the thin film transistor, leading to deterioration of reliability. .

  The present invention has been made in view of such problems, and an object thereof is to provide a thin film transistor capable of suppressing deterioration of electrical characteristics and improving reliability and a display device using the thin film transistor.

The thin film transistor of the present invention includes an oxide semiconductor film that forms a channel, a gate electrode disposed on one side of the oxide semiconductor film with a gate insulating film interposed therebetween, and an oxide semiconductor film as a source electrode and a drain electrode. A pair of electrodes each formed by stacking a first metal layer, a second metal layer, and a third metal layer in that order from the oxide semiconductor film side, and provided on the channel of the oxide semiconductor film And a protective film. Here, the first metal layer is made of gold (Au), mercury (Hg), or silver (Ag) , the second metal layer is made of aluminum (Al), and the third metal layer is made of titanium (Ti). The first metal layer is formed so as to cover the surface and the side surface of the oxide semiconductor film exposed from the protective film.

  In the thin film transistor of the present invention, the pair of electrodes in contact with the oxide semiconductor film is formed by stacking the first metal layer and the second metal layer, and the first metal layer in contact with the oxide semiconductor film has a larger ionization energy than molybdenum. It is comprised with the metal which has, ie, the metal which is hard to oxidize. Here, if the metal layer that is in contact with the oxide semiconductor film is made of a metal that has a lower ionization energy than molybdenum, that is, is easily oxidized, oxygen in the oxide semiconductor film is generated along with the oxidation of the metal layer. It becomes easy to be taken into the metal layer side. Therefore, when a metal that is easily oxidized is in contact with the oxide semiconductor film, oxygen in the oxide semiconductor film is desorbed and lost, whereby carriers are easily generated. Therefore, the first metal layer in contact with the oxide semiconductor film is formed using a metal that is difficult to be oxidized as described above, whereby generation of carriers due to oxygen deficiency in the oxide semiconductor film is suppressed.

  The display device of the present invention includes a display element and the thin film transistor of the present invention.

  According to the thin film transistor and the display device of the present invention, the pair of electrodes in contact with the oxide semiconductor film has a stacked structure, and the first metal layer on the oxide semiconductor film side is made of a metal having an ionization energy larger than that of molybdenum. Generation of carriers due to oxygen desorption can be suppressed. As a result, it is possible to improve reliability by suppressing deterioration of electrical characteristics.

1 illustrates a cross-sectional structure of a thin film transistor according to an embodiment of the present invention. It is a figure which shows the manufacturing method of the thin-film transistor shown in FIG. 1 in order of a process. It is a figure which shows the circuit structure of the display apparatus using the thin-film transistor shown in FIG. FIG. 4 is an equivalent circuit diagram illustrating an example of the pixel drive circuit illustrated in FIG. 3. It is a figure which shows the Vg-Id characteristic immediately after annealing of an Example. It is a figure which shows the Vg-Id characteristic after four days progress from the annealing of an Example. It is a figure which shows the Vg-Id characteristic after seven days progress from the annealing of an Example. It is a figure showing the laminated structure of the source electrode and drain electrode of the comparative examples 1 and 2. FIG. 6 is a diagram showing Vg-Id characteristics immediately after annealing in Comparative Example 1. FIG. FIG. 4 is a diagram showing Vg-Id characteristics after 4 days from annealing in Comparative Example 1. 6 is a graph showing Vg-Id characteristics after 7 days have elapsed since annealing in Comparative Example 1. FIG. It is a figure which shows the Vg-Id characteristic immediately after annealing of the comparative example 2. FIG. 4 is a diagram showing Vg-Id characteristics after 4 days from annealing in Comparative Example 2. 6 is a diagram showing Vg-Id characteristics after 7 days have passed since annealing in Comparative Example 2. FIG.

  Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.

[Configuration of thin film transistor]
FIG. 1A illustrates a cross-sectional structure of a thin film transistor 1 according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 1B is a diagram for describing a layer structure of the source electrode 16A and the drain electrode 16B illustrated in FIG. The thin film transistor 1 functions as a driving element that performs display driving, such as a liquid crystal display or an organic EL (Electro Luminescence) display, and has, for example, a bottom gate structure (reverse stagger structure).

  The thin film transistor 1 has a gate electrode 12 in a selective region on a substrate 11 made of glass, plastic or the like, and a gate insulating film 13 is formed so as to cover the gate electrode 12 and the substrate 11. . An oxide semiconductor film 14 is provided over the gate insulating film 13, and a channel 14 </ b> A is formed in a region corresponding to the gate electrode 12 of the oxide semiconductor film 14. A channel protective film 15 is provided immediately above the channel 14 </ b> A formed in the oxide semiconductor film 14. A source electrode 16A and a drain electrode 16B are arranged in a predetermined pattern so as to cover the oxide semiconductor film 15 exposed from the channel protective film 15.

  The gate electrode 12 is an electrode for applying a gate voltage to the thin film transistor 1. The gate electrode 12 is made of, for example, molybdenum (Mo).

  The gate insulating film 13 is composed of a silicon oxide film, a silicon nitride film, a silicon nitride oxide film, an aluminum oxide film, or the like.

  The oxide semiconductor film 14 is composed mainly of an oxide semiconductor, and forms a channel 14A that generates a current between the source electrode 16A and the drain electrode 16B. Examples of the oxide semiconductor include zinc oxide and In-M-Zn-O (M is at least one of gallium, aluminum, and iron).

  The channel protective film 15 plays a role of preventing damage to the channel 14 </ b> A of the oxide semiconductor film 14 and preventing hydrogen and the like from entering the oxide semiconductor film 14. Further, it also serves to protect the channel 14A from a resist stripping solution when forming the source electrode 16A and the drain electrode 16B. Such a channel protective film 15 is made of, for example, a silicon nitride film or a silicon oxide film.

  Both the source electrode 16A and the drain electrode 16B are formed of a multilayer film in which a plurality of metal layers are stacked. For example, as shown in FIG. 1B, the first metal layer 161, the second metal layer 162, and the third metal layer 163 are stacked. Among these, the first metal layer 161 is formed along the interface with the oxide semiconductor film 14, and the second metal layer 162 and the third metal layer 163 are formed in this order on the first metal layer 161. .

  The first metal layer 161 is made of, for example, a simple substance or alloy of metal having an ionization energy equivalent to or higher than that of molybdenum, and has a thickness of 30 nm to 50 nm, for example. However, the ionization energy indicates a so-called first ionization energy, and the ionization energy of molybdenum is about 684 KJ / mol. Examples of the metal constituting the first metal layer 161 include molybdenum, mercury (Hg), silver (Ag), platinum (Pt), gold (Au), and the like. Note that the first metal layer 161 may be formed over the entire surface of the substrate 11, but it is only necessary to cover at least the surface and side surfaces of the oxide semiconductor film 14 exposed from the channel protective film 15.

  The second metal layer 162 is made of a metal material with low electrical resistance and excellent conductivity, specifically, aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), etc., and has a thickness of, for example, 300 nm to 1000 nm.

  The third metal layer 163 is disposed for protecting the surface of the second metal layer 162, and is made of, for example, titanium and has a thickness of, for example, 30 nm to 50 nm. In the source electrode 16A and the drain electrode 16B, the third metal layer 163 may not be formed, that is, a two-layer structure including the first metal layer 161 and the second metal layer 162 may be used.

[Thin Film Transistor Manufacturing Method]
The thin film transistor 1 can be manufactured as follows, for example. That is, first, as shown in FIG. 2A, after a metal thin film is formed on the entire surface of the substrate 11 by sputtering or vapor deposition, the metal thin film is formed on the gate electrode 12 by using, for example, photolithography. Is formed by patterning.

  Subsequently, as shown in FIG. 2B, a gate insulating film 13 is formed so as to cover the substrate 11 and the gate electrode 12 by using, for example, a plasma CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) method. .

Next, as illustrated in FIG. 2C, the oxide semiconductor film 14 including the above-described material and thickness is formed using, for example, a sputtering method. At this time, when indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) is used as the oxide semiconductor, a plasma discharge using a mixed gas of argon (Ar) and oxygen (O 2 ) using a DC sputtering method targeting an IGZO ceramic. Thus, the oxide semiconductor film 14 is formed. However, before performing plasma discharge, it is preferable to introduce a mixed gas of argon and oxygen after evacuating until the degree of vacuum in the vacuum vessel is, for example, 1 × 10 −4 Pa or less. After that, the formed oxide semiconductor film 14 is patterned using, for example, a photolithography method.

  Subsequently, as shown in FIG. 2D, a channel protective film made of the above-described material is formed using, for example, a sputtering method, and then formed corresponding to the channel 14A using, for example, a photolithography method. Pattern.

  Next, the source electrode 16 </ b> A and the drain electrode 16 </ b> B are formed over the oxide semiconductor film 14. At this time, the first metal layer 161 is formed using, for example, a sputtering method so as to cover the region where the oxide semiconductor film 14 and the channel protective film 15 are formed. Thereafter, the second metal layer 162 and the third metal layer 163 are formed in this order on the first metal layer 161. Subsequently, the first metal layer 161, the second metal layer 162, and the third metal layer 163 are patterned by using, for example, a photolithography method, thereby forming the source electrode 16A and the drain electrode 16B.

  Finally, the substrate 11 on which the source electrode 16A and the drain electrode 16B are formed is annealed in an oxygen atmosphere. Accordingly, oxygen deficiency in the oxide semiconductor film 14 can be prevented and good electrical characteristics can be easily secured. Through the above steps, the thin film transistor 1 illustrated in FIG. 1A is completed.

[Operation and effect of thin film transistor]
In the thin film transistor 1 of this embodiment, when a voltage higher than a predetermined threshold voltage (gate voltage Vg) is applied to the gate electrode 12 through a wiring layer (not shown), a channel 14A is formed in the oxide semiconductor film 14, A current (drain current Id) flows between the source electrode 16A and the drain electrode 16B, and functions as a transistor.

  Here, in this embodiment, the source electrode 16A and the drain electrode 16B are formed over the oxide semiconductor film 14 that forms the channel 14A. The source electrode 16A and the drain electrode 16B are each formed by laminating a first metal layer 161, a second metal layer 162, and a third metal layer 163 from the oxide semiconductor film 14 side, and the first metal layer 161 has an ionization energy. Is made of a metal equivalent to or better than molybdenum. That is, the first metal layer 161 in contact with the oxide semiconductor film 14 is made of a metal that is not easily oxidized.

  On the other hand, when the metal layer in contact with the oxide semiconductor film 14 is made of a metal having a lower ionization energy than molybdenum, that is, easily oxidized, oxygen in the oxide semiconductor film 14 is oxidized in the metal layer. As a result, it is taken into the metal layer side. Therefore, oxygen is released to the outside of the oxide semiconductor film 14, and carriers are generated inside the oxide semiconductor film 14 due to oxygen deficiency.

  Therefore, when the first metal layer 161 that is in contact with the oxide semiconductor film 14 is made of a metal that is not easily oxidized as described above, the metal layer 161 is easily oxidized. In comparison, oxygen is less likely to be taken into the first metal layer 161. Accordingly, desorption of oxygen from the oxide semiconductor film 14 is suppressed, and generation of carriers due to oxygen vacancies in the oxide semiconductor film 14 is suppressed.

  As described above, in the thin film transistor 1, the source electrode 16A and the drain electrode 16B that are in contact with the oxide semiconductor film 14 have a stacked structure, and the first metal layer 161 that is in contact with the oxide semiconductor film 14 has a metal ionization energy equal to or higher than that of molybdenum. It is constituted by. Accordingly, generation of carriers due to oxygen vacancies in the oxide semiconductor film 14 can be suppressed. As a result, it is possible to improve reliability by suppressing deterioration of electrical characteristics.

  In the present embodiment, in the source electrode 16A and the drain electrode 16B, a second metal layer 162 is further provided on the first metal layer 161, and the second metal layer 162 is made of a metal having good conductivity. ing. Thereby, compared with the case where the source electrode 16A and the drain electrode 16B are formed of a single layer of the first metal layer 161, the electrical resistance can be reduced and the functions as the source / drain and wiring can be improved.

  In particular, when the first metal layer 161 is made of molybdenum, only the surface of the first metal layer 161 (the surface on the oxide semiconductor film 14 side) is oxidized to form an oxide film. In this case, the formed oxide film functions as an oxygen barrier layer, and oxygen discharge from the oxide semiconductor film 14 is suppressed. Therefore, in the case where the first metal layer 161 is formed of molybdenum, in addition to the molybdenum itself being a metal that is not easily oxidized, oxygen vacancies in the oxide semiconductor film 14 are obtained by the oxygen barrier function of the oxide film as described above. Is effectively suppressed. Note that since the amount of oxygen taken into the first metal layer 161 due to the surface oxidation is extremely small, the electrical characteristics of the thin film transistor are sufficiently maintained.

[Configuration of display device]
FIG. 3 shows a circuit configuration of a display device (display device 40) using the thin film transistor 1 as a drive element. The display device 40 is, for example, a liquid crystal display or an organic EL display, and drives a plurality of pixels 10R, 10G, 10B arranged in a matrix on the drive panel 50, and these pixels 10R, 10G, 10B, for example. And a drive circuit for this purpose. The pixels 10R, 10G, and 10B are liquid crystal display elements and organic EL elements that emit red (R: Red), green (G: Green), and blue (B: Blue) color lights, respectively. Three adjacent pixels 10R, 10G, and 10B among these constitute one pixel, and a display region 110 is formed by a plurality of pixels. As the driving circuit, for example, a signal line driving circuit 120 and a scanning line driving circuit 130 which are drivers for displaying images, and a pixel driving circuit 140 are arranged on the driving panel 50. Note that a sealing panel (not shown) is bonded to the driving panel 50, and the pixels 10R, 10G, and 10B and the driving circuit are sealed by the sealing panel.

  FIG. 4 is an equivalent circuit diagram of the pixel driving circuit 140. The pixel driving circuit 140 is an active driving circuit in which transistors Tr1 and Tr2 are provided as the thin film transistor 1. A capacitor Cs is provided between the transistors Tr1 and Tr2, and the pixel 10R (or pixels 10G and 10B) is connected in series with the transistor Tr1 between the first power supply line (Vcc) and the second power supply line (GND). It is connected. In such a pixel driving circuit 140, a plurality of signal lines 120A are arranged in the column direction, and a plurality of scanning lines 130A are arranged in the row direction. Each signal line 120A is connected to the signal line drive circuit 120, and an image signal is supplied from the signal line drive circuit 120 to the source electrode of the transistor Tr2 via the signal line 120A. Each scanning line 130A is connected to the scanning line driving circuit 130, and a scanning signal is sequentially supplied from the scanning line driving circuit 130 to the gate electrode of the transistor Tr2 via the scanning line 130A.

(Example)
As an example of the above embodiment, molybdenum (film thickness: 50 nm) was used for the first metal layer 161, aluminum (film thickness: 500 nm) was used for the second metal layer 162, and titanium (film thickness: 50 nm) was used for the third metal layer 163. A thin film transistor 1 was produced. At this time, molybdenum is used for the gate electrode 12, silicon oxide (SiO) with a thickness of 200 nm for the gate insulating film 13, In-Ga-Zn-O for the oxide semiconductor film 14, and silicon oxide with a thickness of 200 nm for the channel protective film 15. (SiO) was used. The annealing conditions after the formation of the source electrode 16A and the drain electrode 16B are as follows. In an atmosphere containing oxygen (O 2 ) and nitrogen (N 2 ), the oxygen concentration is about 40%, the heat treatment temperature is 300 ° C., and the treatment time. Was 2 hours.

  For such a thin film transistor 1, in order to investigate the change in electrical characteristics over time, the change in drain current Id (A) with respect to the gate voltage Vg (V) immediately after the annealing process, after 4 days from the annealing process, and after 7 days has passed (hereinafter referred to as the drain current Id (A)) , Vg-Id characteristics). These results are shown in FIGS. 5 to 7 collectively show the results of nine thin film transistors 1 (chip 1 to chip 9) manufactured under the same conditions.

  Further, as Comparative Examples 1 and 2 of the above example, a thin film transistor using a metal whose ionization energy is smaller than that of molybdenum for a metal layer in contact with the oxide semiconductor film 14 as a source electrode and a drain electrode was manufactured. However, in Comparative Example 1, as illustrated in FIG. 8A, a titanium layer 1061 (film thickness of 50 nm), an aluminum layer 1062 (film thickness of 500 nm), and a titanium layer 1063 (in order from the oxide semiconductor film 14 side). A three-layer structure in which a film thickness of 50 nm) was laminated. On the other hand, Comparative Example 2 has a two-layer structure in which an aluminum layer 1062 (film thickness 500 nm) and a titanium layer 1063 (film thickness 50 nm) are stacked in this order from the oxide semiconductor film 14 side. That is, the metal layer in contact with the oxide semiconductor film 14 is composed of titanium in Comparative Example 1 and aluminum in Comparative Example 2 (ionization energy of titanium> ionization energy of aluminum). The configuration other than the source electrode and the drain electrode having such a laminated structure was the same as that in the above example.

  With respect to the thin film transistors of Comparative Examples 1 and 2, the change in the drain current Id (A) with respect to the gate voltage Vg (V) at each time point after the annealing treatment was measured in the same manner as in the above example. The results of Comparative Example 1 are shown in FIGS. 9 to 11, and the results of Comparative Example 2 are shown in FIGS.

  As shown in FIGS. 9 to 11, in Comparative Example 1 in which the titanium layer 1061 is formed in contact with the oxide semiconductor film 14, the Vg-Id characteristic deteriorates with time from 7 days after the annealing treatment. In addition, variation occurred between chips 1-9. Further, as shown in FIGS. 12 to 14, in Comparative Example 2 in which the aluminum layer 1062 is formed in contact with the oxide semiconductor film 14, the Vg-Id characteristics are not deteriorated over time as in Comparative Example 1. However, variations occurred between chips 1-9. Therefore, in the thin film transistors of Comparative Examples 1 and 2, the electrical characteristics are likely to deteriorate before being mounted on a panel such as a display.

  On the other hand, as shown in FIGS. 5 to 7, in the example in which the first metal layer 161 in contact with the oxide semiconductor film 14 is made of molybdenum, the Vg-Id characteristic is observed immediately after the annealing process and after 7 days. It can be seen that the change is maintained almost constant and the fluctuation over time is extremely small. Also, there was almost no difference in Vg-Id characteristics between chips 1-9.

  From the above results, it is shown that the deterioration of electrical characteristics can be suppressed by forming the metal layer in contact with the oxide semiconductor film 14 with a metal having ionization energy equal to or higher than that of molybdenum, that is, a metal that is not easily oxidized. It was.

(Modification)
Next, a thin film transistor according to a modification of the present invention will be described. The thin film transistor of the present modification has the same structure as that of the above embodiment except for the constituent material of the metal layer (hereinafter simply referred to as the first metal layer) in contact with the oxide semiconductor film 14 in the stacked structure constituting the source electrode and the drain electrode. It is equivalent to the thin film transistor 1. For this reason, illustration is abbreviate | omitted in the thin-film transistor of this modification, About each component, the code | symbol same as the component of the thin-film transistor 1 of the said embodiment is used, and description is abbreviate | omitted suitably.

  The first metal layer of this modification is made of a metal material having oxygen barrier properties, specifically, a metal nitride or silicon nitride as described below. For example, as the metal used for the first metal layer, tantalum (Ta), vanadium (V), titanium, zirconium (Zr), tungsten (W), copper (Cu), aluminum, ruthenium (Ru), iridium ( Ir), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), platinum and the like.

  As described above, the first metal layer in contact with the oxide semiconductor film 14 is not limited to the metal having the predetermined ionization energy as described in the above embodiment, and is a metal nitride or silicon nitride having an oxygen barrier property. It may be a thing. In this case, release of oxygen from the oxide semiconductor film 14 is suppressed by the oxygen barrier function of the first metal layer. Therefore, generation of carriers due to oxygen vacancies in the oxide semiconductor film 14 can be suppressed, and an effect similar to that in the above embodiment can be obtained.

  Although the present invention has been described with reference to the embodiment and the modifications, the present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiment and the like, and various modifications can be made. For example, in the above-described embodiment and the like, the source electrode and the drain electrode have been described as a laminated structure including three layers of a first metal layer, a second metal layer, and a third metal layer. There may be four or more layers. Even in the case of two or more layers, if the metal layer in contact with the oxide semiconductor film is composed of a metal having a predetermined ionization energy or a metal having an oxygen barrier property as described above, The same effect can be obtained.

  In the above-described embodiments and the like, the bottom gate structure is described as an example of the thin film transistor. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and a top gate structure may be used.

  DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Thin film transistor, 11 ... Substrate, 12 ... Gate electrode, 13 ... Gate insulating film, 14 ... Oxide semiconductor film, 15 ... Channel protective film, 16A ... Source electrode, 16B ... Drain electrode, 161 ... First metal layer, 162 ... 2nd metal layer, 163 ... 3rd metal layer, 40 ... Display device, 50 ... Drive panel, 10R, 10G, 10B ... Pixel, 110 ... Display area, 120 ... Signal line drive circuit, 130 ... Scanning line drive circuit, 140: pixel drive circuit, Tr1, Tr2: transistors.

Claims (2)

  1. An oxide semiconductor film forming a channel;
    A gate electrode disposed on one side of the oxide semiconductor film via a gate insulating film;
    A pair of electrodes formed as a source electrode and a drain electrode in contact with the oxide semiconductor film, each of which is formed by laminating a first metal layer, a second metal layer, and a third metal layer in this order from the oxide semiconductor film side When,
    A protective film provided on the channel of the oxide semiconductor film,
    The first metal layer is composed of gold (Au), mercury (Hg), or silver (Ag) ,
    The second metal layer is made of aluminum (Al), the third metal layer is made of titanium (Ti), and the first metal layer has a surface and side surfaces of the oxide semiconductor film exposed from the protective film. Formed over
    Thin-film transistor.
  2. A display element, and a thin film transistor for driving the display element,
    The thin film transistor
    An oxide semiconductor film forming a channel;
    A gate electrode disposed on one side of the oxide semiconductor film via a gate insulating film;
    A pair of electrodes formed as a source electrode and a drain electrode in contact with the oxide semiconductor film, each of which is formed by laminating a first metal layer, a second metal layer, and a third metal layer in this order from the oxide semiconductor film side When,
    A protective film provided on the channel of the oxide semiconductor film,
    The first metal layer is composed of gold (Au), mercury (Hg), or silver (Ag) ,
    The second metal layer is made of aluminum (Al), the third metal layer is made of titanium (Ti), and the first metal layer has a surface and side surfaces of the oxide semiconductor film exposed from the protective film. A display device formed to cover.
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