JP5500118B2 - Continuously variable transmission - Google Patents

Continuously variable transmission Download PDF

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JP5500118B2
JP5500118B2 JP2011092113A JP2011092113A JP5500118B2 JP 5500118 B2 JP5500118 B2 JP 5500118B2 JP 2011092113 A JP2011092113 A JP 2011092113A JP 2011092113 A JP2011092113 A JP 2011092113A JP 5500118 B2 JP5500118 B2 JP 5500118B2
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portion
transmission
force
gap
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JP2012225390A (en
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有希 荒津
新 村上
裕之 小川
貴弘 椎名
大輔 友松
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トヨタ自動車株式会社
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  The present invention includes a plurality of rotating elements having a common rotating shaft, and a plurality of rolling members arranged radially with respect to the rotating shaft, and each rolling element sandwiched between two of the rotating elements. The present invention relates to a continuously variable transmission that continuously changes a gear ratio between input and output by tilting a member.

  Conventionally, as this type of continuously variable transmission, a transmission shaft serving as a rotation center, a plurality of rotational elements capable of relative rotation with the central axis of the transmission shaft as a first rotation central axis, and the first rotation central shaft A rolling member that has another second rotation center axis parallel to the first rotation center and that is radially arranged around the first rotation center axis, and a support shaft (rotation shaft) that rotates and supports the rolling member. And a fixing element for holding the rolling member via each protruding portion from the rolling member on the support shaft, and a tilting device or tilting mechanism for tilting each rolling member. It has been known. With this continuously variable transmission, each rolling member is sandwiched between the first rotating element and the second rotating element that are arranged to face each other, and each rolling member is arranged on the outer peripheral surface of the third rotating element, This is a so-called traction planetary gear mechanism in which the gear ratio is continuously changed by tilting the respective rolling members.

  For example, Patent Documents 1-3 below disclose this type of continuously variable transmission. The continuously variable transmission of Patent Document 1 includes an iris plate (disk member) as a tilting device or tilting mechanism. The iris plate is provided with an iris groove into which the end of the support shaft is inserted. In the iris groove, the end of the support shaft is rotated at its own speed so that the end of the support shaft has the maximum speed reduction ratio and the maximum speed increase. It guides between the maximum speed increasing parts which become the gear ratio. The iris plate of Patent Document 1 is arranged inside a carrier (fixed element), like each planetary ball (rolling member). Further, the iris groove of Patent Document 1 has an arcuate portion concentric with the transmission shaft further extended from the most decelerating portion (that is, an arcuate portion along the circumferential direction), and the iris plate is in the state of the most decelerating state. It can be further rotated. The arc-shaped portion is provided on the inside of the iris plate in the radial direction. The continuously variable transmission of Patent Document 2 uses a tangential force between one ring (first or second rotating element) and a planetary ball and a skew state generated due to a rotational axis shift of the planetary ball. I am letting. The continuously variable transmission of Patent Document 3 includes an iris plate similar to that of Patent Document 1 as a tilting device or tilting mechanism. In the continuously variable transmission of this Patent Document 3, when the first rotating element and the second rotating element are the input side and the output side, respectively, between the first rotating element and the disk part on the input side of the fixed element. In other words, the iris plate is disposed outside the fixed element.

US Patent Application Publication No. 2009/0082169 Special table 2010-532454 gazette Japanese Utility Model Publication No. 52-35481

  By the way, in the above-mentioned continuously variable transmission, the portion inserted into the iris groove in the support shaft becomes a power point, and the support shaft and the planetary ball are tilted. In the tilting operation, any one of the portions of the support shaft supported by the fixed element becomes the rotation center (that is, the fulcrum). Here, in this continuously variable transmission, a gap for smoothly performing the tilting operation is provided between the support shaft and the fixed element, and the center of rotation changes depending on the size of each gap, The length of the moment arm during the tilting movement changes. When the setting of each gap shortens the distance from the power point to the center of rotation (the length of the moment arm), the force applied from the iris plate at the power point (the moment arm length) than when the distance is set to be long ( It is necessary to increase the transmission speed).

  Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to provide a continuously variable transmission that can improve the disadvantages of the conventional example and reduce the transmission force.

  In order to achieve the above-described object, the present invention provides a first and second rotational elements that are rotatable relative to each other and have a transmission shaft serving as a rotation center and a common first rotation center shaft disposed opposite to each other on the transmission shaft. And a second rotation center axis parallel to the first rotation center axis, and a plurality of radial rotations centered on the first rotation center axis and sandwiched between the first and second rotation elements. A moving member, a support shaft of the rolling member that has the second rotation center axis and projecting at both ends from the rolling member, the rolling members are disposed on an outer peripheral surface, and the transmission shaft, A third rotational element capable of relative rotation with respect to the first and second rotational elements, and a circumferential shifting force about the first rotational central axis applied to one projecting portion of each of the support shafts; The respective support shafts and the respective rolling members are tilted so that the first rotation element and the second rotation A transmission for changing a rotation ratio between the element and two fixed parts fixed to the transmission shaft and supporting the respective protruding portions of the respective support shafts in a state in which the respective rolling members can be tilted. A continuously variable transmission including a support element; and a clearance in the circumferential direction between the support shaft and each support part of the fixed element that supports the support shaft. One of the gaps on the side close to the portion to which the transmission force of the transmission is applied is set larger than the other gap on the side far from the portion to which the transmission force is applied.

  Here, the support portion is a radial groove orthogonal to the circumferential direction. And by making the groove width in the circumferential direction of the support portion on the side close to the portion to which the transmission force is applied larger than the groove width in the circumferential direction on the support portion on the side far from the portion to which the transmission force is applied, It is desirable to set one of the gaps close to the portion to which the shifting force is applied to be larger than the other gap on the side far from the portion to which the shifting force is applied.

  Further, the support portion is a radial groove orthogonal to the circumferential direction. And, the circumferential groove width in the support portion on the side close to the portion to which the transmission force is applied and the circumferential groove width in the support portion on the side far from the portion to which the transmission force is applied are made the same size. In addition, the outer shape of the contact member interposed between the support portion on the side far from the portion to which the transmission force is applied and the support shaft is formed between the support portion on the side near the portion to which the transmission force is applied and the support shaft. By making it larger than the outer shape of the contact member interposed therebetween, the one gap on the side close to the portion to which the shifting force is applied is set larger than the other gap on the side far from the portion to which the shifting force is applied. It is desirable.

  Further, it is desirable that the fixing element is an integrally molded product having the two support portions.

  In the continuously variable transmission according to the present invention, when one of the gaps close to the portion to which the transmission force is applied is set larger than the other gap far from the portion to which the transmission force is applied, the transmission force is applied. The length of the moment arm becomes longer. For this reason, according to this continuously variable transmission, the transmission force can be reduced when the gear ratio is changed during driving so as to change from one skew state to the opposite skew state.

FIG. 1 is a partial sectional view showing the overall configuration of an embodiment of a continuously variable transmission according to the present invention. FIG. 2 is a diagram for explaining the guide groove of the carrier. FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating the iris plate. FIG. 4 is a view of the planetary ball and the support shaft as viewed in the direction of arrow B in FIG. 1 and shows the case where the groove widths of the respective guide grooves are the same. FIG. 5 is a diagram showing a skew state when a spin moment acts on the planetary ball in the configuration of FIG. FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating a state when the shifting force of stage 1 is applied in the skew state of FIG. FIG. 7 is a diagram illustrating a skew state when the shifting force of stage 2 is applied in the state of FIG. FIG. 8 is a view of the planetary ball and the support shaft in the direction of arrow B in FIG. 1, and the groove width of the guide groove near the power point of the transmission force is made larger than the groove width of the guide groove far from the power point. It is a figure shown about. FIG. 9 is a diagram showing a skew state when a spin moment acts on the planetary ball in the configuration of FIG. FIG. 10 is a diagram illustrating a reverse skew state when a shifting force is applied in the skew state of FIG. FIG. 11 is a diagram showing a case where the outer shape of the roller bearing far from the power point of the transmission force is made larger than that near the power point. FIG. 12 is a diagram showing a case where the iris plate is arranged inside the carrier.

  Embodiments of a continuously variable transmission according to the present invention will be described below in detail with reference to the drawings. The present invention is not limited to the embodiments.

[Example]
An embodiment of a continuously variable transmission according to the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS.

  First, an example of a continuously variable transmission according to the present embodiment will be described with reference to FIG. Reference numeral 1 in FIG. 1 indicates a continuously variable transmission according to this embodiment.

  The continuously variable transmission mechanism that forms the main part of the continuously variable transmission 1 includes first to third rotating elements 10, 20, 30 that are capable of relative rotation with each other and have a common first rotation center axis R 1. A plurality of rolling members 40 each having a second rotation center axis R2 parallel to the first rotation center axis R1 and a reference position to be described later, and rotations of the first to third rotation elements 10, 20, 30 This is a so-called traction planetary gear mechanism having a shaft 50 as a transmission shaft arranged at the center and a fixing element 60 fixed to the shaft 50 and holding each rolling member 40 in a tiltable manner. is there. The continuously variable transmission 1 changes the speed ratio γ between input and output by inclining the second rotation center axis R2 with respect to the first rotation center axis R1 and tilting the rolling member 40. . In the following, unless otherwise specified, the direction along the first rotation center axis R1 and the second rotation center axis R2 is referred to as the axial direction, and the direction around the first rotation center axis R1 is referred to as the circumferential direction. Further, the direction orthogonal to the first rotation center axis R1 is referred to as a radial direction, and among these, the inward side is referred to as a radial inner side, and the outward side is referred to as a radial outer side.

  In the continuously variable transmission 1, torque is transmitted through the rolling members 40 among the first rotating element 10, the second rotating element 20, and the third rotating element 30. For example, in the continuously variable transmission 1, one of the first to third rotating elements 10, 20, 30 is an input part of torque (power), and at least one of the remaining rotating elements is torque. Output section. For this reason, in this continuously variable transmission 1, the ratio of the rotational speed (the number of rotations) between any rotation element serving as an input unit and any rotation element serving as an output unit is the gear ratio γ. For example, the continuously variable transmission 1 is disposed on the power transmission path of the vehicle. In that case, the input part is connected with the power source side, such as an engine and a motor, and the output part is connected with the drive wheel side. In this continuously variable transmission 1, the rotation operation of each rotation element when torque is input to the rotation element as the input unit is referred to as normal drive, and the rotation element as the output unit is in the direction opposite to that during normal drive. The rotating operation of each rotating element when torque is input is called reverse driving. For example, in the continuously variable transmission 1, according to the example of the previous vehicle, when the torque is input from the power source side to the rotating element as the input unit and the rotating element is rotated as in acceleration or the like, Driving is performed, and reverse driving is performed when torque in the opposite direction to that during forward driving is input to the rotating rotating element serving as the output unit from the driving wheel side, such as deceleration.

  In the continuously variable transmission 1, a plurality of rolling members 40 are arranged radially about the central axis (first rotation central axis R <b> 1) of the shaft 50. The respective rolling members 40 are sandwiched between the first rotating element 10 and the second rotating element 20 that are arranged to face each other, and are disposed on the outer peripheral surface of the third rotating element 30. Further, each rolling member 40 rotates around its own rotation center axis (second rotation center axis R2). The continuously variable transmission 1 is configured to roll with the first to third rotating elements 10, 20, 30 by pressing at least one of the first and second rotating elements 10, 20 against the rolling member 40. An appropriate tangential force (traction force) is generated between the member 40 and torque can be transmitted therebetween. Further, the continuously variable transmission 1 tilts each rolling member 40 on a tilt plane including its second rotation center axis R2 and first rotation center axis R1, and the first rotation element 10 By changing the ratio of the rotation speed (rotation speed) between the second rotation element 20 and the second rotation element 20, the ratio of the rotation speed (rotation speed) between the input and output is changed.

  Here, in the continuously variable transmission 1, the first and second rotating elements 10 and 20 function as a ring gear as a planetary gear mechanism. Further, the third rotating element 30 functions as a sun roller of the traction planetary gear mechanism. The rolling member 40 functions as a ball-type pinion in the traction planetary gear mechanism, and the fixing element 60 functions as a carrier. Hereinafter, the first and second rotating elements 10 and 20 are referred to as “first and second rotating members 10 and 20”, respectively. The third rotating element 30 is referred to as “sun roller 30”, and the rolling member 40 is referred to as “planetary ball 40”. The fixing element 60 is referred to as a “carrier 60”.

  Further, the shaft 50 is fixed to a fixed portion of the continuously variable transmission 1 in a housing or a vehicle body (not shown), and is a columnar fixed shaft configured not to rotate relative to the fixed portion.

  The first and second rotating members 10 and 20 are disk members (disks) or ring members (rings) whose center axes coincide with the first rotation center axis R1, and each planetary ball is opposed in the axial direction. 40 is interposed. In this example, both are circular members.

  Each of the first and second rotating members 10 and 20 has a contact surface that comes into contact with an outer peripheral curved surface on the radially outer side of each planetary ball 40 described in detail later. Each contact surface has, for example, a concave arc surface having a curvature equivalent to the curvature of the outer peripheral curved surface of the planetary ball 40, a concave arc surface having a curvature different from the curvature of the outer peripheral curved surface, a convex arc surface, or a flat surface. doing. Here, the first and second contact surfaces are formed so that the distance from the first rotation center axis R1 to the contact portion with each planetary ball 40 becomes the same length in the state of a reference position described later. The contact angles θ of the rotating members 10 and 20 with respect to the planetary balls 40 are the same. The contact angle θ is an angle from the reference to the contact portion with each planetary ball 40. Here, the radial direction is used as a reference. The respective contact surfaces are in point contact or surface contact with the outer peripheral curved surface of the planetary ball 40. Further, each contact surface is radially inward with respect to the planetary ball 40 when an axial force (pressing force) is applied from the first and second rotating members 10 and 20 toward the planetary ball 40. And an oblique force (normal force) is applied.

  The pressing force to the planetary ball 40 is generated by an axial force applied to at least one of the first and second rotating members 10 and 20 by a pressing portion such as a torque cam (not shown), for example. The torque cam is disposed, for example, between the first rotating member 10 and the following input shaft, and between the second rotating member 20 and the following output shaft. In the continuously variable transmission 1, a torque torque is transmitted between the first rotating member 10 and the input shaft, and an axial force is generated therebetween. The axial force becomes a pressing force from the first rotating member 10 to the planetary ball 40. Further, the torque cam between the second rotating member 20 and the output shaft transmits rotational torque therebetween and generates axial force. The axial force becomes a pressing force from the second rotating member 20 to the planetary ball 40.

  In this example, the first rotating member 10 acts as a torque input portion when the continuously variable transmission 1 is positively driven, and the second rotating member 20 acts as a torque output portion when the continuously variable transmission 1 is positively driven. . Accordingly, an input shaft (not shown) is connected to the first rotating member 10, and an output shaft (not shown) is connected to the second rotating member 20. The input shaft and the output shaft can perform relative rotation in the circumferential direction with respect to the shaft 50 via, for example, a radial bearing (not shown). Accordingly, the first rotating member 10 and the second rotating member 20 can also be rotated relative to the shaft 50 in the circumferential direction.

  The sun roller 30 has a cylindrical shape whose center axis coincides with the first rotation center axis R1, and can be rotated relative to the shaft 50 in the circumferential direction by the radial bearings RB1 and RB2. A plurality of planetary balls 40 are radially arranged at substantially equal intervals on the outer peripheral surface of the sun roller 30. Accordingly, the outer peripheral surface of the sun roller 30 becomes a rolling surface when the planetary ball 40 rotates. The sun roller 30 can roll (rotate) each planetary ball 40 by its own rotation, or can rotate along with the rolling operation (rotation) of each planetary ball 40. Here, first and second disk portions 61 and 62 of a carrier 60 described later are brought into contact with the side surfaces of the radial bearings RB1 and RB2. For this reason, the sun roller 30 cannot move in the axial direction with respect to the shaft 50.

  The planetary ball 40 is a rolling member that rolls on the outer peripheral surface of the sun roller 30. The planetary ball 40 is preferably a perfect sphere, but it may have a spherical shape at least in the rolling direction, for example, a rugby ball having an elliptical cross section. The planetary ball 40 is supported by a support shaft 41 that passes through the center of the planetary ball 40. The planetary ball 40 can be rotated relative to the support shaft 41 with the second rotation center axis R2 as a rotation axis (that is, rotation) by a bearing (for example, a needle bearing) disposed between the planetary ball 40 and the outer peripheral surface of the support shaft 41. I am doing so. Accordingly, the planetary ball 40 can roll on the outer peripheral surface of the sun roller 30 around the support shaft 41. Both ends of the support shaft 41 are projected from the planetary ball 40.

  The reference position of the support shaft 41 is a position where the second rotation center axis R2 is parallel to the first rotation center axis R1, as shown in FIG. The support shaft 41 is inclined from the reference position and from within the tilt plane including the rotation center axis (second rotation center axis R2) and the first rotation center axis R1 formed at the reference position. It can swing (tilt) with the planetary ball 40 between the positions. The tilt is performed with the center of the planetary ball 40 as a fulcrum in the tilt plane.

  The carrier 60 supports each projecting portion of the support shaft 41 so as not to prevent the tilting operation of each planetary ball 40. The carrier 60 is, for example, arranged so that the first and second disk parts 61 and 62 having the center axis coinciding with the first rotation center axis R1 are opposed to each other, and the first and second disk parts 61 and 62 are opposed to each other. Are connected by a plurality of connecting shafts (not shown) to form a bowl shape as a whole. As a result, the carrier 60 has an open portion on the outer peripheral surface. Each planetary ball 40 is disposed between the first and second disk portions 61 and 62 and is in contact with the first rotating member 10 and the second rotating member 20 through the open portion. Here, in the carrier 60, the inner peripheral surfaces of the first and second disk portions 61 and 62 are fixed to the outer peripheral surface of the shaft 50.

  The continuously variable transmission 1 is provided with a guide portion (support portion) for guiding the support shaft 41 in the tilt direction when each planetary ball 40 tilts. In this example, the guide portion is provided on the carrier 60. The guide portions are radial guide grooves 63 and 64 for guiding the support shaft 41 protruding from the planetary ball 40 in the tilt direction, and the first and second disk portions 61 and 62 are opposed to each other. A portion is formed for each planetary ball 40 (FIG. 2). That is, all the guide grooves 63 and all the guide grooves 64 are radially formed when viewed from the axial direction (the direction of arrow A in FIG. 1). The illustrated guide groove 63 has a groove width in the circumferential direction of the first disk portion 61 and a groove bottom in the radial direction. Similarly, the guide groove 64 has a groove width in the circumferential direction of the second disk portion 62 and a groove bottom in the radial direction. A gap is provided between the support shaft 41 and the guide grooves 63 and 64 in the groove width direction (circumferential direction) in order to realize a tilting operation and to make it smooth. Specifically, between the support shaft 41 and the guide grooves 63 and 64, for example, as a contact member that suppresses the wear and smoothly tilts the support shaft 41 in the guide grooves 63 and 64. Roller bearings 42 and 43 are provided. Therefore, the gap in the groove width direction is a gap between the roller bearings 42 and 43 and the guide grooves 63 and 64. For example, the gap is set to a size that can cause a side slip between the sun roller 30 and the planetary ball 40 for the tilting operation.

  In this continuously variable transmission 1, when the tilt angle of each planetary ball 40 is the reference position, that is, 0 degrees, the first rotating member 10 and the second rotating member 20 have the same rotational speed (the same rotational speed). Rotate with. That is, at this time, the rotation ratio (ratio of rotation speed or rotation speed) between the first rotation member 10 and the second rotation member 20 is 1, and the speed ratio γ is 1. On the other hand, when each planetary ball 40 is tilted from the reference position, the distance from the central axis of the support shaft 41 to the contact portion with the first rotating member 10 changes and from the central axis of the support shaft 41. The distance to the contact portion with the second rotating member 20 changes. Therefore, one of the first rotating member 10 and the second rotating member 20 rotates at a higher speed than when it is at the reference position, and the other rotates at a lower speed. For example, the second rotating member 20 has a lower rotation (deceleration) than the first rotating member 10 when the planetary ball 40 is tilted in one direction, and the first rotating member 10 is tilted in the other direction. (High speed). Therefore, in the continuously variable transmission 1, the rotation ratio (speed ratio γ) between the first rotating member 10 and the second rotating member 20 can be changed steplessly by changing the tilt angle. it can. At the time of acceleration (γ <1) here, the upper planetary ball 40 in FIG. 1 is tilted counterclockwise on the paper surface and the lower planetary ball 40 is tilted clockwise on the paper surface. . Further, at the time of deceleration (γ> 1), the upper planetary ball 40 in FIG. 1 is tilted clockwise in the plane of the drawing, and the lower planetary ball 40 is tilted counterclockwise in the plane of the drawing.

  The continuously variable transmission 1 is provided with a transmission that changes its speed ratio γ. Since the gear ratio γ changes with changes in the tilt angle of the planetary ball 40, a tilting device or tilting mechanism that tilts each planetary ball 40 is used as the speed change device. Here, a disc-shaped iris plate (tilting element) 70 is provided as the transmission.

  The iris plate 70 is attached to the shaft 50 via radial bearings RB3 and RB4 on the radially inner side, and is further attached to the shaft 50 and the second disk portion 62 via thrust bearings TB1 and TB2. . Therefore, the iris plate 70 can rotate relative to the shaft 50 and the carrier 60 around the first rotation center axis R1. An actuator (drive unit) such as a motor (not shown) is used for the relative rotation. The driving force of this driving unit is transmitted to the outer peripheral portion of the iris plate 70 via the worm gear 71.

  The iris plate 70 exemplified here is arranged on the input side (contact portion side with the first rotating member 10) of each planetary ball 40 and outside the carrier 60. The iris plate 70 is formed with a throttle hole (iris hole) 72 into which one protrusion of the support shaft 41 is inserted via the roller bearing 44. When the radial direction of the starting point is assumed to be the reference line L, the narrowed hole 72 has an arc shape that moves away from the reference line L in the circumferential direction from the radially inner side toward the radially outer side. (Fig. 3). 3 is a view seen from the direction of arrow A in FIG. One protrusion of the support shaft 41 moves to the center side of the iris plate 70 along the aperture hole 72 when the iris plate 70 rotates in the clockwise direction in FIG. At that time, since the respective protrusions of the support shaft 41 are inserted into the guide grooves 63 and 64 of the carrier 60, one protrusion inserted into the throttle hole 72 moves radially inward. Further, one of the protrusions moves to the outer peripheral side of the iris plate 70 along the aperture hole 72 when the iris plate 70 rotates counterclockwise in FIG. At this time, the one protrusion moves outward in the radial direction by the action of the guide grooves 63 and 64. Thus, the support shaft 41 can move in the radial direction by the guide grooves 63 and 64 and the throttle hole 72. Therefore, the planetary ball 40 can be tilted as described above.

  By the way, in the contact portion of the planetary ball 40 with the first and second rotating members 10 and 20, tangential forces (traction forces) F1 and F2 that are opposite to each other act during driving, as shown in FIG. . FIG. 4 shows the planetary ball 40 as viewed in the direction of arrow B in FIG. Each contact portion is located on the outer peripheral surface of the planetary ball 40 at a position shifted from the center of gravity of the planetary ball 40. For this reason, each tangential force F1, F2 becomes an eccentric load in the planetary ball 40. Therefore, when the tangential forces F1, F2 are applied, a rotational moment centered on the center of gravity (hereinafter referred to as "spin moment"). Is generated in the planetary ball 40. In the illustration of FIG. 4, a counterclockwise spin moment is applied. In the continuously variable transmission 1, in order to make the planetary ball 40 tilt smoothly, a gap is provided between members that are operated during the tilting operation. For example, in this example, as described above, a gap is provided between the roller bearings 42 and 43 and the guide grooves 63 and 64. For this reason, when the above-described spin moment is generated, the planetary ball 40 is inclined with a rotational axis shift in the direction of the spin moment by an amount corresponding to the gap, as shown in FIG. When the speed ratio γ is fixed to a certain size during driving, the planetary ball 40 rotates in a skewed state due to the rotational axis deviation. There is also a small play (gap) between the planetary ball 40 and the support shaft 41 due to the bearing therebetween. Because of this, the backlash may be taken into account.

  Here, when changing the gear ratio γ during driving so as to change from the skew state to the reverse skew state, the force (hereinafter referred to as “shift force”) Fs that overcomes the tangential forces F1 and F2 is applied to the iris plate 70. It is necessary to add from the wall surface of the throttle hole 72 to the support shaft 41 via the roller bearing 44.

  In the continuously variable transmission 1, a gap in the groove width direction between the guide groove 63 and the roller bearing 42 (hereinafter referred to as "first gap") close to the iris plate 70 (that is, close to the force point to which the shifting force is applied). )) And a gap in the groove width direction between the guide groove 64 and the roller bearing 43 (hereinafter referred to as “second gap”) that is far from the iris plate 70 (that is, far from the force point to which the shifting force is applied). Depending on the size, the mode of the shifting operation is different.

  For example, when the first gap and the second gap are set to the same size, it is necessary to go through two steps of shifting operations as shown in FIGS. Different transmission forces Fs1 and Fs2 must be generated. 4-7, the groove widths W1, W2 of the respective guide grooves 63, 64 are made the same size, and the roller bearings 42, 43 have the same outer shape, so that the first gap and the second gap are the same. The gap is set to the same size. The guide grooves 63 and 64 are arranged in a state where the center positions in the groove width direction are opposed to each other in the axial direction. If the roller bearings 42 and 43 are not provided, the first and second gaps refer to gaps in the groove width direction between the guide grooves 63 and 64 and the support shaft 41.

  First, when shifting from the skew state of FIG. 5, the support inserted into the guide groove 64 on the second disk part 62 side far from the iris plate 70 among the first and second disk parts 61 and 62. The end of the shaft 41 and the roller bearing 43 are the center of rotation (FIG. 6). In this stage 1 speed change operation, by generating at least the speed change force Fs1 from the iris plate 70, a moment centered on the rotation center acts on the support shaft 41. Thereby, the support shaft 41 rotates with the planetary ball 40 until the roller bearing 42 contacts the wall surface of the guide groove 63 (FIG. 6).

  When shifting from the state of FIG. 6, of the first and second disk parts 61 and 62, the support shaft 41 inserted into the guide groove 63 on the first disk part 61 side close to the iris plate 70. The end portion and the roller bearing 42 become the center of rotation (FIG. 7). In this stage 2 speed change operation, by generating at least the speed change force Fs2, a moment centered on the rotation center acts on the support shaft 41. As a result, the support shaft 41 rotates with the planetary ball 40 until the roller bearing 43 contacts the wall surface of the guide groove 64 (FIG. 7).

  In these two-stage shifting operations, the shifting force Fs1 is the minimum force that overcomes the tangential forces F1 and F2 in the skew state of FIG. The formula 1 is obtained from the following moment balance formula (formula 2).

  Further, the transmission force Fs2 is a minimum force that overcomes the tangential forces F1 and F2 in the state of FIG. Equation 3 is obtained from the following moment balance equation (Equation 4).

  “L1” in each expression is a distance from the center of the planetary ball 40 to the center of rotation of the roller bearing 42 as shown in FIG. “L2” is the distance from the center of the planetary ball 40 to the rotation center of the roller bearing 43. “Ls” is the distance from the center of the planetary ball 40 to the center of rotation of the roller bearing 44 (the power point of the transmission forces Fs1 and Fs2). “Lb” is the distance from the center of the planetary ball 40 viewed from the arrow B to the force points of the tangential forces F1 and F2.

  Thus, when the first gap and the second gap are the same size, a two-stage speed change operation is performed. Therefore, when changing the gear ratio γ during driving so as to change from one skew state to the opposite skew state, the larger one of the respective transmission forces Fs1, Fs2 is generated from the iris plate 70 as the transmission force Fs. Must be (Formula 5).

  Further, when the first gap close to the iris plate 70 is smaller than the second gap far from the iris plate 70, the first gap and the second gap are the same size if the first gap is larger than zero. As in the case of the above, a two-stage speed change operation is performed, and if the first gap is 0, the speed change operation is performed by the speed change force Fs2 with the roller bearing 42 as the rotation center.

  On the other hand, FIG. 8 shows a case where the first gap close to the iris plate 70 is larger than the second gap far from the iris plate 70. Here, in order to make the first gap larger than the second gap, the groove width W 1 of the guide groove 63 close to the iris plate 70 is made larger than the groove width W 2 of the guide groove 64 far from the iris plate 70. Further, here, the roller bearings 42 and 43 have the same outer shape, so that the first gap is set larger than the second gap. Also in this case, the planetary ball 40 is in a skew state due to the spin moment caused by the tangential forces F1 and F2 (FIG. 9). When changing the gear ratio γ during driving so as to change from the skew state to the reverse skew state, it is necessary to generate a transmission force Fs that overcomes at least the tangential forces F1 and F2, as described above. At this time, the end of the support shaft 41 inserted into the guide groove 64 of the second disk portion 62 and the roller bearing 43 serve as the rotation center, and at least the above-described transmission force Fs1 is generated, so that the rotation center is determined. A center moment acts on the support shaft 41 (FIG. 10). At this time, since the first gap is larger than the second gap, the support shaft 41 has a moment arm length (Ls + L2) regardless of the size of the gap between the guide groove 64 and the roller bearing 43. The roller bearing 43 rotates with the planetary ball 40 until the roller bearing 43 contacts the wall surface of the guide groove 64 and the roller bearing 42 contacts the wall surface of the guide groove 63 (FIG. 10). That is, in this case, the speed change operation can be completed with the speed change force Fs1 as it is.

  Here, the case where the first gap is larger than the second gap is compared with the case where the first gap and the second gap described above are the same size. When the first gap and the second gap are the same size and the transmission force Fs1 is greater than or equal to the transmission force Fs2 (Fs1 ≧ Fs2), it is necessary to generate at least the transmission force Fs1 as described above. Therefore, at this time, by generating the transmission force Fs1 having the same magnitude as that in the case where the first gap is larger than the second gap, the gear ratio γ during driving is set so as to change from one skew state to the opposite skew state. Can be changed.

  On the other hand, when the first gap and the second gap are the same size and the transmission force Fs1 is smaller than the transmission force Fs2 (Fs1 <Fs2), at least the transmission force Fs2 is generated as described above. There is a need. Therefore, at this time, a larger transmission force Fs (= Fs2) is required as compared with the case where the first gap is larger than the second gap.

  Thus, according to the result of the comparison, when the first gap is set to be larger than the second gap, the following shift is performed when the first gap and the second gap are the same size. The speed change operation can be performed with the force Fs1.

  When the first gap and the second gap are the same size, the distance “Ls−L1” from the power point of the transmission force Fs2 to the rotation center is “the distance“ Ls + L2 ”from the power point of the transmission force Fs1 to the rotation center. Shorter than. That is, in this case, since the moment arm from the power point of the transmission force Fs2 is shorter than the moment arm from the power point of the transmission force Fs1, the transmission force Fs2 required for the stage 2 speed change operation is made larger than the transmission force Fs1. It is considered necessary (Fs1 <Fs2). Accordingly, when the first gap is larger than the second gap, the skew state is reversed from one skew state to the reverse direction with a smaller transmission force Fs than when the first gap and the second gap are the same size. The gear ratio γ can be changed during driving.

  Further, when the first gap is smaller than the second gap, according to the idea of the moment arm, at least any speed change force Fs2 larger than the speed change force Fs1 is performed regardless of which speed change operation is performed. Need to be generated. For this reason, when the first gap is set to be larger than the second gap, the skew state is changed from one skew state to the opposite skew state with a small transmission force Fs as compared with the case where the first gap is smaller than the second gap. The gear ratio γ can be changed during driving.

  For the above reasons, in the continuously variable transmission 1, when designing the skew state angle (skew angle θs), the first of the first and second disk portions 61 and 62 that is close to the iris plate 70 is the first. The gap is set larger than the second gap far from the iris plate 70. At that time, the difference between the first gap and the second gap takes into consideration the length of the moment arm and the like, and the wall surface of the roller bearing 43 opposite to the guide groove 64 (the side opposite to the wall surface in contact with FIG. 9). It is set so that the roller bearing 42 does not abut the guide groove 63 before it abuts, i.e., the two-stage speed change operation is not performed.

For example, the tangential forces F1, F2 and the distances L1, L2, Ls from the center of the planetary ball 40 are assumed as follows, and these are substituted into the above equations 1 and 3. The transmission forces Fs1 and Fs2 thus obtained are shown in the following formulas 6 and 7. “Ft” is a tangential force.
F1 = F2 = Ft
L1 = L2 = 3Lb
Ls = 5Lb

  Thus, it can be seen that when the first gap and the second gap have the same size, at least the transmission force Fs2 corresponding to the magnitude of the tangential force Ft is required. On the other hand, when the first gap is set to be larger than the second gap, it can be seen that the transmission force Fs1 corresponding to at least 1/4 of the tangential force Ft is required for the transmission operation. Therefore, when the first gap is set larger than the second gap in this assumption, the transmission force Fs1 is ¼ of the transmission force Fs2 when the first gap and the second gap are the same size. (Fs1 = Fs2 / 4).

  As described above, the continuously variable transmission 1 according to the present embodiment causes the center positions in the groove width direction of the two guide grooves 63 and 64 that support the planetary ball 40 to face each other in the axial direction so as to face the iris plate 70. The near first gap is set larger than the second gap far from the iris plate 70. Thereby, in the continuously variable transmission 1, the distance between the power point of the transmission force Fs applied from the iris plate 70 and the center of rotation as the fulcrum, that is, the length of the moment arm when the transmission force Fs is applied is increased. The transmission force Fs when changing the transmission gear ratio γ during driving so as to change from one skew state to the opposite skew state is reduced compared to the case where the size of the first gap is equal to or less than the size of the second gap. Can do. In addition, since the continuously variable transmission 1 uses the same product for the three roller bearings 42, 43, and 44, it is possible to obtain a cost reduction effect by reducing the types of parts.

  Here, the skew angle θs can be expressed by Equation 8 below. Therefore, when designing the skew angle θs, the distances L1 and L2 from the center of the planetary ball 40, the groove widths W1 and W2 of the guide grooves 63 and 64, and the roller bearings 42 and 43 are set so as to be the design values. Diameters d1 and d2 (here, spherical) are set.

  Equation 8 is obtained by substituting Equations 9 and 10 into Equation 11 below. “C1” represents a gap in the groove width direction between the guide groove 63 and the roller bearing 42, and “C2” represents a gap in the groove width direction between the guide groove 64 and the roller bearing 43. “C0” represents a gap between the support shaft 41 and the roller bearings 42 and 43.

  By the way, in this illustration, in order to make the first gap near the iris plate 70 larger than the second gap far from the iris plate 70, the groove width W1 of the guide groove 63 is made larger than the groove width W2 of the guide groove 64, In addition, the outer shapes of the roller bearings 42 and 43 are the same. In the continuously variable transmission 1, instead of this form, as shown in FIG. 11, the groove widths W 1 and W 2 of the respective guide grooves 63 and 64 are the same, and the guide groove 64 is far from the iris plate 70. The first gap may be made larger than the second gap by making the outer shape of the roller bearing 43 larger than the outer shape of the roller bearing 42 in the guide groove 63 close to the iris plate 70. Also in this continuously variable transmission 1, the two guide grooves 63 and 64 are arranged with their center positions in the groove width direction facing each other in the axial direction. Even if the continuously variable transmission 1 is changed to such a configuration, the transmission force Fs when changing the gear ratio γ during driving so as to change from one skew state to the opposite skew state, as in the above example. Can be reduced. In addition, since the continuously variable transmission 1 has the same groove widths W1 and W2 of the guide grooves 63 and 64, the opposing guide grooves 63 and 64 can be formed by the same processing. Relative position and shape errors are smaller than when the groove widths W1 and W2 are made different sizes. Therefore, the continuously variable transmission 1 can improve the accuracy of the relative positions and shapes of the guide grooves 63 and 64, and can reduce the cost by making the first disk portion 61 and the second disk portion 62 the same shape.

  In these examples, the iris plate 70 is disposed outside the first disk portion 61 of the carrier 60, but the iris plate 70 may be disposed outside the second disk portion 62. Also by this, this continuously variable transmission 1 can acquire the effect similar to said illustration.

  Further, in the various examples described above, the carrier 60 is illustrated as an assembly of the first disk portion 61, the second disk portion 62, and the connecting shaft. However, the carrier 60 is an integrally molded product made of these. It may be possible to reduce costs by reducing the number of parts.

  Still further, the iris plate 70 may be disposed inside the carrier 60, that is, between the carrier 60 and each planetary ball 40. FIG. 12 shows an example in which an iris plate 70 is disposed between the first disk portion 61 and each planetary ball 40. Even in this case, the continuously variable transmission 1 is configured such that the center positions of the guide grooves 63 and 64 in the groove width direction face each other in the axial direction, and the first gap close to the iris plate 70 is far from the iris plate 70. Set larger than 2 gaps. 12, the groove width W1 of the guide groove 63 is set larger than the groove width W2 of the guide groove 64, and the outer shapes of the roller bearings 42 and 43 are set to the same size. Even if this continuously variable transmission 1 is configured in this way, it is possible to obtain the same effects as those illustrated above. Furthermore, this continuously variable transmission 1 can also be integrated with the housing of the continuously variable transmission 1, for example, by arranging the iris plate 70 inside the carrier 60, for example, Thereby, the effect of cost reduction by reducing the number of parts can also be obtained. When the iris plate 70 is disposed inside the carrier 60, a skew state cannot be created by the transmission force Fs from the iris plate 70 if the first gap and the second gap are made the same size.

1 continuously variable transmission 10 first rotating member (first rotating element)
20 Second rotating member (second rotating element)
30 Sun Roller (third rotating element)
40 Planetary ball (rolling member)
41 Support shaft 42, 43, 44 Roller bearing 50 Shaft (transmission shaft)
60 Carrier (fixed element)
61 1st disk part 62 2nd disk part 63,64 Guide groove 70 Iris plate R1 1st rotation center axis R2 2nd rotation center axis

Claims (4)

  1. A transmission shaft as a center of rotation;
    First and second rotational elements capable of relative rotation having a common first rotational center axis disposed opposite to each other on the transmission shaft;
    A rolling member having a second rotation center axis parallel to the first rotation center axis, and a plurality of radial members arranged radially about the first rotation center axis and sandwiched between the first and second rotation elements When,
    A support shaft of the rolling member having the second rotation center axis and projecting both ends from the rolling member;
    A third rotating element that is arranged on an outer peripheral surface and capable of rotating relative to the transmission shaft and the first and second rotating elements;
    Each of the support shafts and the rolling members are tilted by applying a circumferential speed change force about the first rotation center axis to one projecting portion of each of the support shafts, and the first rotation element and A transmission for changing a rotation ratio with the second rotation element;
    A fixed element having two support portions fixed to the transmission shaft and supporting the respective protruding portions of the respective support shafts in a state in which the respective rolling members can be tilted;
    In a continuously variable transmission equipped with
    One of the circumferential gaps between the support shaft and the respective support portions of the fixed element that supports the support shaft on the side close to the portion to which the transmission force of the transmission is applied on the support shaft. A continuously variable transmission characterized in that the gap is set larger than the other gap on the side far from the portion to which the transmission force is applied.
  2. The support portion is a radial groove orthogonal to the circumferential direction,
    By making the circumferential groove width of the support portion on the side close to the portion to which the transmission force is applied larger than the circumferential groove width on the support portion on the side far from the portion to which the transmission force is applied, 2. The continuously variable transmission according to claim 1, wherein one of the gaps close to the portion to which the force is applied is set larger than the other gap on the side far from the portion to which the transmission force is applied.
  3. The support portion is a radial groove orthogonal to the circumferential direction,
    The circumferential groove width in the support portion on the side close to the portion to which the transmission force is applied and the circumferential groove width in the support portion on the side far from the portion to which the transmission force is applied, and The outer shape of the contact member interposed between the support portion on the side far from the portion to which the transmission force is applied and the support shaft is interposed between the support portion on the side near the portion to which the transmission force is applied and the support shaft. By making it larger than the outer shape of the intervening contact member, the one gap on the side close to the portion to which the shifting force is applied is set larger than the other gap on the side far from the portion to which the shifting force is applied. The continuously variable transmission according to claim 1, wherein:
  4.   The continuously variable transmission according to claim 1, 2 or 3, wherein the fixing element is an integrally molded product having two of the support portions.
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KR101327190B1 (en) 2005-10-28 2013-11-06 폴브룩 테크놀로지즈 인크 Electromotive drives
WO2008100792A1 (en) 2007-02-12 2008-08-21 Fallbrook Technologies Inc. Continuously variable transmissions and methods therefor
EP2122198B1 (en) 2007-02-16 2014-04-16 Fallbrook Intellectual Property Company LLC Method and assembly
CN102943855B (en) 2007-04-24 2016-01-27 福博科技术公司 Electric traction drives
JP5450405B2 (en) 2007-07-05 2014-03-26 フォールブルック インテレクチュアル プロパティー カンパニー エルエルシー Continuously variable transmission
CN101861482B (en) 2007-11-16 2014-05-07 福博科知识产权有限责任公司 Controller for variable transmission
US8398518B2 (en) 2008-06-23 2013-03-19 Fallbrook Intellectual Property Company Llc Continuously variable transmission
CA2732668C (en) 2008-08-05 2017-11-14 Fallbrook Technologies Inc. Methods for control of transmission and prime mover
US8469856B2 (en) 2008-08-26 2013-06-25 Fallbrook Intellectual Property Company Llc Continuously variable transmission
US8167759B2 (en) 2008-10-14 2012-05-01 Fallbrook Technologies Inc. Continuously variable transmission
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CN105324299B (en) 2013-04-19 2018-10-12 福博科知识产权有限责任公司 Contiuously variable transmission
JP5880624B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2016-03-09 トヨタ自動車株式会社 Continuously variable transmission
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