JP5466987B2 - Processing system and processing method - Google Patents

Processing system and processing method Download PDF

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JP5466987B2
JP5466987B2 JP2010095963A JP2010095963A JP5466987B2 JP 5466987 B2 JP5466987 B2 JP 5466987B2 JP 2010095963 A JP2010095963 A JP 2010095963A JP 2010095963 A JP2010095963 A JP 2010095963A JP 5466987 B2 JP5466987 B2 JP 5466987B2
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processing
robot
bolt
control
main
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JP2011224708A (en
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博文 木村
賢一 山上
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本田技研工業株式会社
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Description

  The present invention relates to a machining system and a machining method for attaching an assembly part to a main body part with bolts. More specifically, the present invention relates to a machining system and a machining method that can prevent the assembled parts from being damaged.
  2. Description of the Related Art Conventionally, a processing line that processes an automobile door as a work (main body part) is provided with a processing system including a robot that attaches assembly parts to the door with bolts (see, for example, Patent Document 1).
  As such an assembly part, Patent Document 2 discloses a sash member for guiding the raising and lowering of a door glass in an automobile door.
JP 2007-111174 A JP 2006-188174 A
However, when a bolt is inserted into a bolt hole provided in each of the assembly part and the door and tightened, the bolt rotates about an axis in the insertion direction. Due to this rotation, the vicinity of the bolt hole of the door (main body part) of the automobile may vibrate and move. In addition, automobile doors are often automatically conveyed and may move due to shaking caused by the automatic conveyance.
In the conventional techniques including Patent Documents 1 and 2, the movement operation of the robot is controlled without considering such movement of the door of the automobile. For this reason, an external force resulting from the movement of the door of the automobile is applied to the assembly part in the middle of which the bolt is being inserted, which may cause damage.
  An object of the present invention is to provide a machining system and a machining method for attaching an assembly part to a main body part with a bolt, and capable of preventing the assembly part from being damaged.
The processing system of the present invention comprises:
Bolt holes (for example, the attachment portion 54 of the outer panel 51 of the door 31 and the lower sash 32 of the embodiment in the embodiment) and the assembly parts (for example, the lower sash 32 in the embodiment) of the body part (for example, the door 31 of the automobile in the embodiment). A processing system (for example, processing in the embodiment) for performing processing for attaching the assembly component to the main body component by inserting and tightening a bolt (for example, the bolt 301 in the embodiment) into each of the mounting portions 41 (bolt holes). In system 1)
First processing means (for example, the robot 23 to which the gripping machine 24 in the embodiment is attached) that performs an operation of gripping the assembly part and moving the assembly part to the main body part;
Second processing means for moving the bolt to the main body part and inserting and tightening the bolt into the bolt hole provided in each of the main body part and the assembly part (for example, the tightening portion 25 in the embodiment). Is attached to the robot 22),
Detection means (for example, force sensor 64 in the embodiment) for detecting a pressing amount of the assembly part held by the first processing means against the main body part;
Control means (for example, the robot control device 12 in the embodiment) for controlling the operation of each of the first processing means and the second processing means based on the detection result of the detection means;
With
The control means includes
Based on the detection result of the detection means, it is determined whether or not the assembled component is in contact with the main body component,
The first processing means and the second processing means so that the distance in the insertion direction of the bolt between the assembly part and the main body part is shortened until it is determined that the contact state has been reached. Control the operation of at least one of the
After determining that the contact state has occurred, at least one of the first processing means and the second processing means is maintained so that a predetermined relationship between the assembly part and the main body part is maintained constant. Control the behavior,
It is characterized by that.
According to the present invention, the first processing means for holding the assembly part and moving the assembly part to the main body part, the bolt is moved to the main body part, and each of the main body part and the assembly part is provided. As the control of at least one of the second processing means for performing the operation of inserting and tightening the bolt into the bolt hole, the assembly component and the main body component are brought into contact with the main body component after being brought into contact with the main body component. Control (copying control as referred to in this specification) is performed in which the predetermined relationship is maintained constant.
In this way, the predetermined relationship between the assembly part and the body part is kept constant, so that the assembly part can also be moved following the movement of the door of the automobile caused by the rotation of the bolt or the like. Become. In other words, it is possible to insert the bolt into the assembly part in accordance with the rotation of the bolt. As a result, it is possible to prevent damage to the assembled part caused by an external force caused by movement of the automobile door, such as the assembled part being pulled into the bolt.
in this case,
The control means includes
After determining that the contact state has been reached, the first processing is performed so that the pressing amount detected by the detection means is kept constant as the predetermined relationship between the assembly component and the main body component. Controlling the operation of at least one of the means and the second processing means,
Can be.
Furthermore, in this case
The control means includes
After determining that the contact state has been reached, it is further determined whether or not the bolt head is in a sitting state in which the head of the bolt is seated on the main body part,
When it is determined that the seating state has been reached, at least control is performed so as to stop the operation of the first processing means.
It is preferable.
  According to the present invention, when the head portion of the bolt is in a seated state in which the bolt head is seated on the main body part, at least the operation of the first processing means stops, so that it is possible to more reliably prevent damage to the assembled part. It becomes possible.
  The processing method of the present invention is a method corresponding to the above-described processing system of the present invention. Therefore, various effects similar to those of the processing system of the present invention described above can be achieved.
According to the present invention, the first processing means for holding the assembly part and moving the assembly part to the main body part, the bolt is moved to the main body part, and each of the main body part and the assembly part is provided. As the control of at least one of the second processing means for performing the operation of inserting and tightening the bolt into the bolt hole, the assembly component and the main body component are brought into contact with the main body component after being brought into contact with the main body component. Control (copying control as referred to in this specification) is performed in which the predetermined relationship is maintained constant.
In this way, the predetermined relationship between the assembly part and the body part is kept constant, so that the assembly part can also be moved following the movement of the door of the automobile caused by the rotation of the bolt or the like. Become. In other words, it is possible to insert the bolt into the assembly part in accordance with the rotation of the bolt. As a result, it is possible to prevent damage to the assembled part caused by external force applied due to movement of the door of the automobile, such as the assembled part being pulled into the bolt.
It is a perspective view showing the outline appearance composition of the processing system concerning one embodiment of the present invention. It is a side view which shows the outline external appearance structure of the workpiece | work processed by the processing system of FIG. It is a perspective view which shows the schematic external appearance structure of the holding machine of the processing system of FIG. It is a perspective view which shows the state which the holding unit of the holding machine of FIG. 3 is holding the lower sash. It is a perspective view which shows the schematic external appearance structure of the clamping machine of the processing system of FIG. It is a functional block diagram which shows the functional structural example of the robot control apparatus of the processing system of FIG. It is a block diagram which shows the structural example of the hardware of the robot control apparatus of FIG. It is a timing chart which shows an example of the flow of the automatic clamping process by the robot control apparatus of FIG. FIG. 9 is a perspective view showing a schematic external configuration in the vicinity of a mounting portion of the door outer panel in the automatic tightening process of FIG. 8 as viewed from the passenger compartment side when the inner panel is virtually excluded. FIG. 7 is a perspective view showing a schematic external configuration of a robot main body during execution of tool exchange processing by the robot control device of FIG. 6. FIG. 7 is a perspective view showing a schematic external configuration of a robot main body during execution of tool exchange processing by the robot control device of FIG. 6. FIG. 7 is a perspective view showing a schematic external configuration of a robot main body during execution of tool exchange processing by the robot control device of FIG. 6.
  Hereinafter, an embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing a schematic external configuration of a processing system 1 according to an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a side view illustrating a schematic external configuration of the door 31 and the lower sash 32 as workpieces to be processed by the processing system 1.
The processing system 1 shown in FIG. 1 is installed, for example, in an automobile production line, and is attached to a vehicle compartment side (the side shown in FIG. 2) of the door 31 with the door 31 of the automobile shown in FIG. The lower sash 32 which is a part can be attached with a bolt.
Specifically, the door 31 includes an outer panel 51, an inner panel 52 attached to the vehicle compartment side of the outer panel 51, and an upper sash 53 attached to the upper portion of the outer panel 51 and the inner panel 52.
The outer panel 51 is provided with a mounting portion 54 with a bolt hole formed below the rear side 53a of the upper sash 53 in order to mount the lower sash 32 with bolts.
On the other hand, the lower sash 32 is a member that guides the rear edge of the door glass when the door glass (not shown) of the door 31 moves up and down. An attachment portion 41 in which a bolt hole is formed is provided at the end of the lower sash 32 in order to be attached to the attachment portion 54 of the outer panel 51 with a bolt. Hereinafter, of the end portions of the lower sash 32, the end portion on the side where the attachment portion 41 is provided is referred to as a “lower end portion”, and the end portion on the opposite side of the lower end portion is referred to as an “upper end portion”.
The processing system 1 arrange | positions the lower sash 32 between the outer panel 51 and the inner panel 52 so that it may extend below the rear side 53a of the upper sash 53, and may continue. That is, the processing system 1 arranges the lower sash 32 so that the upper end of the lower sash 32 is connected to the lower part of the rear side 53 a of the upper sash 53. Then, the processing system 1 inserts and tightens bolts into the bolt holes of the attachment portion 54 of the outer panel 51 and the bolt holes of the attachment portion 41 at the lower end portion of the lower sash 32. As a result, the lower sash 32 is attached to the door 31.
In order to attach the lower sash 32 to the door 31 as described above, the processing system 1 includes a robot body 11 and a robot control device 12 that controls the robot body 11 as shown in FIG.
The robot body 11 includes a robot base 21, robots 22 and 23, a gripping machine 24, a clamping machine 25, and a robot driving device (not shown).
The robots 22 and 23 are configured as articulated manipulators, and are attached to the robot base 21 so as to be able to turn.
The robots 22 and 23 include a plurality of joints, connecting members that connect the joints, servo motors that rotate the joints, and detectors that detect various states (position, speed, current, etc.) of the servo motors. Prepare.
The entire operation of the robots 22 and 23 is realized by a combination of the rotation operation of each joint by each servo motor and the movement operation of each connecting member linked to the rotation operation.
That is, the robot drive device (not shown) has a command to move the end effector (the gripping machine 24 or the clamping machine 25 in this embodiment) connected to each of the robots 22 and 23 to the target position (hereinafter referred to as “movement command”). Is supplied from the robot controller 12 described later. Therefore, the robot drive device uses the detection values of the detectors built in the robots 22 and 23 as feedback values in accordance with the movement commands, and controls torque (current) for the servo motors built in the robots 22 and 23. I do. Thereby, the whole operation of the robots 22 and 23 is controlled.
The gripping machine 24 is attached to the tip of the robot 23 as an end effect having a function of gripping the lower sash 32.
Gripper 24, along with the movement of the robot 23, the lower sash 32 being gripped, as shown by the arrow in FIG. 2, is inserted from an opening portion of the inner panel 52 to the outer panel 51, the sides after the upper sash 53 It arrange | positions between the outer panel 51 and the inner panel 52 so that it may extend below 53a and may continue.
FIG. 3 is a perspective view showing a schematic external configuration of the gripping machine 24.
The gripping machine 24 includes an attachment portion 61 attached to the tip of the robot 23, an arm 62 having one end connected to the attachment portion 61, a grip unit 63 connected to the other end of the arm 62, and a force attached to the arm 62. And a sense sensor 64.
The gripping unit 63 includes a first gripping portion 71, a first gripping cylinder 72, a second gripping portion 73, and a second gripping cylinder 74 in order to grip the lower sash 32.
FIG. 4 is a perspective view showing a state where the gripping unit 63 of the gripping machine 24 is gripping the lower sash 32.
The first gripping portion 71 is advanced and retracted substantially parallel to the arm 62 by the first gripping cylinder 72. That is, when gripping the lower sash 32, the first gripping portion 71 proceeds to the lower end portion of the lower sash 32 and stops when fitted to the lower end portion as shown in FIG. Then, the 1st holding part 71 holds the lower end part of the lower sash 32 by maintaining a fitting state.
The second gripping portion 73 is advanced and retracted substantially parallel to the arm 62 by the second gripping cylinder 74. That is, when gripping the lower sash 32, the second gripping portion 73 is a portion between the lower end portion and the upper end portion of the lower sash 32 and closer to the upper end portion than the attachment portion 41. As shown in FIG. 4, it stops when it is fitted to the part. Then, the 2nd holding part 73 holds the part concerned of lower sash 32 by maintaining a fitting state.
The force sensor 64 detects the axial force of each of the three axes orthogonal to each other and the torque around those axes. The detection result of the force sensor 64 is used for control to attach the lower sash 32 to the door 31 by bolting (hereinafter referred to as “tightening control”). Since the tightening control is executed by the robot control device 12, details thereof will be described later as an explanation of the robot control device 12.
The tightening machine 25 is attached to the tip of the robot 22 as an end effect having a function of inserting a bolt into a bolt hole and tightening.
With the moving operation of the robot 22, the fastening machine 25 is attached with bolts from the vehicle exterior side of the door 31 (the side opposite to the side shown in FIG. 2) to the position of the bolt hole of the mounting portion 54 of the outer panel 51. Move the tip. Then, the tightening machine 25 inserts and tightens bolts into the bolt holes of the attachment portion 54 and the bolt holes of the attachment portion 41 of the lower sash 32 based on the tightening control of the robot controller 12. A lower sash 32 is attached to the door 31.
FIG. 5 is a perspective view showing a schematic external configuration of the tightening machine 25.
The tightening machine 25 includes an attachment part 81 attached to the tip of the robot 22, a tool unit 82, and a visual sensor 83 attached to the tool unit 82.
The tool unit 82 is provided with three attachment portions 91 to 93 in a direction substantially perpendicular to the axial direction of the tip of the robot 22 attached to the attachment portion 81. Tools 101 to 103 for rotating and tightening bolts are attached to the tips of the attachment portions 91 to 93, respectively.
Here, for example, when the vehicle type of the automobile is different, the type of the door 31 may be different. In such a case, the types of bolts attached to the door 31, for example, the types of bolt diameter, bolt head shape, and the like may be different.
Therefore, in the present embodiment, not only the tools 101 to 103 but also a plurality of types of tools corresponding to each bolt type are prepared. And the tool attached to each front-end | tip of the attachment parts 91 thru | or 93 is replaced | exchanged suitably. The tool replacement will be described later with reference to FIGS. 10 to 12.
The visual sensor 83 is configured by a camera or the like, and the tool unit 82 is configured so that the tips of various tools (tools 101 to 103 in the example of FIG. 5) attached to the tool unit 82 can be photographed with the center of the angle of view. It is fixedly attached to.
The visual sensor 83 captures a subject within the range of the angle of view. Hereinafter, an image of a subject photographed by the visual sensor 83 is referred to as a “captured image”. The robot control device 12 to be described later executes control such as a moving operation of the robot 22 using the data of the captured image.
  It should be noted that a visual sensor is further provided at an appropriate position of the robot 23 or the gripping machine 24, and the robot control device 12 to be described later uses the captured image data obtained from the visual sensor to control the movement operation and the like of the robot 23. May be executed.
The configuration of the robot body 11 has been described above in the machining system to which the present invention is applied.
Next, with reference to FIG. 6 and FIG. 7, the robot control apparatus 12 which controls the robot main body 11 among the said processing systems is demonstrated in detail.
  FIG. 6 is a functional block diagram illustrating a functional configuration example of the robot control device 12.
  The robot control device 12 includes a movement command unit 151, a tightening control unit 152, a robot control switching unit 153, a pressing amount detection unit 154, a captured image acquisition unit 155, a grip control unit 156, and a tightening control unit 157. A tool change control unit 158.
The movement command unit 151 generates a movement command for each of the robots 22 and 23 based on the control of the tightening control unit 152 or the tool replacement control unit 158, and supplies the movement command to each of the robots 22 and 23.
More precisely, the movement command is supplied to a robot drive device (not shown). As described above, the robot drive device moves each of the robots 22 and 23 independently of each other in accordance with this movement command, so that each of the end effector clamping machine 25 or gripping machine 24 is moved to the target position. Move.
The tightening control unit 152 includes a teaching control unit 161 and a copying control unit 162 to execute tightening control.
The teaching control unit 161 executes teaching playback control for moving each of the robots 22 and 23 along a predetermined path set in advance.
Teaching playback control refers to open loop control in which an operation for moving a robot along a predetermined route is taught in advance and this operation is reproduced.
The copying control unit 162 executes control for moving each of the robots 22 and 23 so that the lower sash 32 moves following the door 31 when the lower sash 32 is attached to the door 31 with a bolt. Such control is hereinafter referred to as “copying control”. Details of the copying control will be described later with reference to FIGS.
The robot control switching unit 153 switches the operation subject of movement control of the robots 22 and 23 from one of the tightening control unit 152 and the tool replacement control unit 158 to the other.
Further, when the robot control switching unit 153 switches the operation subject of movement control of the robots 22 and 23 to the tightening control unit 152, the robot control switching unit 153 determines the operation subject of the tightening control unit 152 as the teaching control unit 161 and the copying control unit 162. Switch from one to the other.
For details of the operation of the robot control device 12 when the operation control subject of the movement control of the robots 22 and 23 is switched to the tightening control unit 152 by the robot control switching unit 153, refer to FIG. 8 and FIG. It will be described later.
On the other hand, details of the operation of the robot control device 12 when the robot control switching unit 153 switches the operation subject of the movement control of the robots 22 and 23 to the tool replacement control unit 158 will be described with reference to FIGS. Will be described later.
  The pressing amount detection unit 154 detects the pressing amount of the lower sash 32 against the door 31 based on the detection result of the force sensor 64 and supplies the detected amount to the copying control unit 162 via the robot control switching unit 153. Although details will be described later with reference to FIGS. 8 and 9, the copying control unit 162 executes control for moving the robot 23 (lower sash 32) so that the pressing amount is constant as the copying control.
The captured image acquisition unit 155 acquires captured image data output from the visual sensor 83 and supplies the acquired data to the robot control switching unit 153.
The data of the captured image can be used as feedback information when, for example, the tightening control unit 152 or the tool replacement control unit 158 employs visual servo control as movement control of the robots 22 and 23. Here, the visual servo control is executed for the purpose of error elimination after execution of the teaching playback control, for example.
The grip control unit 156 controls the operation of the gripper 24. That is, the gripper 24 performs an operation of gripping the lower sash 32 based on the control of the grip control unit 156.
The tightening control unit 157 controls the operation of the tightening machine 25. That is, the tightening machine 25 performs an operation of inserting and tightening the bolt into the bolt hole based on the control of the tightening control unit 157.
  The tool replacement control unit 158 executes control for moving the robots 22 and 23 for the purpose of replacing the tool of the fastening machine 25. Hereinafter, such control is referred to as “tool exchange control”. Details of the tool change control will be described later with reference to FIGS.
  The functional configuration example of the robot control device 12 has been described above. Next, a hardware configuration example of the robot control apparatus 12 having such a functional configuration will be described.
  FIG. 7 is a block diagram illustrating a hardware configuration example of the robot control device 12.
  The robot controller 12 includes a CPU (Central Processing Unit) 201, a ROM (Read Only Memory) 202, a RAM (Random Access Memory) 203, a bus 204, an input / output interface 205, an input unit 206, and an output unit. 207, a storage unit 208, a communication unit 209, and a drive 210.
  The CPU 201 executes various processes according to programs recorded in the ROM 202. Alternatively, the CPU 201 executes various processes according to programs loaded from the storage unit 208 to the RAM 203. The RAM 203 also appropriately stores data necessary for the CPU 201 to execute various processes.
  For example, in the present embodiment, programs that cause the functions of the movement command unit 151 to the tool exchange control unit 158 in FIG. 6 described above are stored in the ROM 202 and the storage unit 208. Therefore, each function of the movement command unit 151 to the tool exchange control unit 158 can be exhibited by the CPU 201 executing the process according to this program. Note that an example of processing according to such a program will be described later with reference to FIGS.
  The CPU 201, the ROM 202, and the RAM 203 are connected to each other via the bus 204. An input / output interface 205 is also connected to the bus 204.
Connected to the input / output interface 205 are an input unit 206 configured with a keyboard and the like, an output unit 207 configured with a display device and a speaker, a storage unit 208 configured with a hard disk, and a communication unit 209. Has been.
The communication unit 209 controls communication performed with the robot body 11 and communication performed with another device (not shown) via a network including the Internet. These communications are wired communications in the example of FIG. 1, but may be wireless communications.
  A drive 210 is connected to the input / output interface 205 as necessary, and a removable medium 211 made of a magnetic disk, an optical disk, a magneto-optical disk, a semiconductor memory, or the like is appropriately attached. In this case, when a program is stored in the removable medium 211 connected to the drive 210, the program read from the removable medium 211 is installed in the storage unit 208 as necessary.
The configuration of the machining system to which the present invention is applied has been described for each component, that is, for each of the robot body 11 and the robot control device 12.
Next, among the processes executed by the machining system, a series of processes (hereinafter referred to as “automatic tightening process”) until the lower sash 32 is attached to the door 31 by tightening control will be described.
FIG. 8 is a timing chart showing an example of the flow of the automatic tightening process.
Specifically, FIG. 8 shows, in order from the top, a timing chart showing the operation of the robot 23 to which the gripping machine 24 is connected, a timing chart showing the operation of the robot 22 to which the fastening machine 25 is connected, and the operation of the fastening machine 25. And a timing chart showing the pressing amount are respectively shown.
FIG. 9 is a perspective view showing a schematic external configuration in the vicinity of the attachment portion 54 of the outer panel 51 of the door 31 in the automatic tightening process of FIG. 8 as viewed from the passenger compartment side when the inner panel 52 is virtually excluded. .
  In the description of FIGS. 8 and 9, the operation subject of the process that the robot control device 12 is in charge of is any one of the movement command unit 151 to the tightening control unit 157 of FIG. 6 executed by the CPU 201 of FIG. 7. To do.
In this embodiment, when the automatic tightening process starts, the robot 22 moves, and the position of the tip of the tool 101 of the tightening machine 25 attached to the robot 22 moves from the vehicle exterior side of the door 31 toward the vehicle compartment side. 51 and moves to the center position of the bolt hole of the mounting portion 54 of the outer panel 51 (hereinafter referred to as “clamping hole position”). In this way, it is assumed that the time when the tip of the tool 101 moves to the tightening hole position is time t1 as shown in FIG.
FIG. 9A shows a schematic external configuration near the attachment portion 54 at the timing of time t1. As shown in FIG. 9A, a bolt 301 is attached to the tip of the tool 101. When the tip of the tool 101 moves to the tightening hole position, the bolt 301 is inserted into the bolt hole of the attachment portion 54 by about 10 mm. Is set.
On the other hand, when the automatic tightening process is started, the robot 23 is also moved, and the lower sash 32 is moved from the opening of the inner panel 52 into the outer panel 51 by the gripper 24 attached to the robot 23 as shown by the arrow in FIG. It moves until the center of the bolt hole of the attachment part 41 of the lower end part and the center of the bolt hole of the attachment part 54 of the outer panel 51 substantially correspond. The position of the lower sash 32 thus moved is hereinafter referred to as “sash attachment position”. The time when the lower sash 32 is moved to the sash attachment position in this way is assumed to be time t2 as shown in FIG.
FIG. 9B shows a schematic external configuration in the vicinity of the attachment portion 54 at the timing of time t2. As shown in FIG. 9B, when the lower sash 32 moves to the sash attachment position, the tip of the bolt 301 is slightly inserted into the bolt hole of the attachment portion 41 of the lower sash 32.
Here, the direction in which the bolt 301 is inserted into the bolt hole of the mounting portion 54 of the outer panel 51 from the vehicle outer side of the door 31 toward the passenger compartment side is hereinafter referred to as “B direction”. In this case, from the macroscopic viewpoint of the door 31 and the lower sash 32, the state shown in FIG. 9B is in contact with the door 31 and the lower sash 32 by the bolt 301, but there is a displacement in the B direction. It can be grasped that it is occurring and slack. Therefore, the state shown in FIG. 9B, that is, the state in which the door 31 and the lower sash 32 are in contact with each other by the bolt 301 is hereinafter referred to as “contact state”.
Until the contact state is reached, that is, until time t2, the main body of the tightening control unit 152 is the teaching control unit 161 in the present embodiment.
That is, until the contact state is reached, the robot 22 and the robot 23 move based on teaching playback control (which may include visual servo control as appropriate) by the teaching control unit 161.
As described above, the tip of the bolt 301 needs to be slightly inserted into the bolt hole of the attachment portion 41 of the lower sash 32 in order to be in the contact state. For this reason, the tightening control unit 157 starts the operation of the tightening machine 25 at time t1, as shown in FIG. That is, the tool 101 to which the bolt 301 is attached starts rotating.
When the contact state is established in this way, that is, at time t2, the robot control switching unit 153 switches the operating subject of the tightening control unit 152 from the teaching control unit 161 to the copying control unit 162.
Then, the copying control unit 162 moves at least one of the robots 22 and 23 so that the distance in the B direction between the lower sash 32 and the outer panel 51 is shortened (displacement in the B direction is eliminated).
Here, “at least one” is described because one of the robots 22 and 23 may be moved if the distance in the B direction between the lower sash 32 and the outer panel 51 is shortened.
However, in the present embodiment, as shown in FIG. 8, the robot 22 to which the fastening machine 25 is attached moves so that the tip of the tool 101 attached to the fastening machine 25 moves (shifts) in the B direction. . At the same time, the robot 23 to which the gripper 24 that grips the lower sash 32 is attached in the direction in which the lower sash 32 presses the outer panel 51 of the door 31 (the direction opposite to the B direction, hereinafter referred to as “sash attachment direction”). Move.
In order to move the robots 22 and 23 as described above, the copying control unit 162 executes the following copying control. In other words, the copying control unit 162 sets the robots 22 and 23 so that the predetermined relationship between the lower sash 32 and the door 31 is constant, for example, the pressing amount of the lower sash 32 against the door 31 is constant. (See the timing chart of the pressing amount in FIG. 8).
In this embodiment, as described above, the pressing amount is detected by the pressing amount detection unit 154 based on the detection result of the force sensor 64, and is transferred to the copying control unit 162 via the robot control switching unit 153. Supplied.
FIG. 9C shows a schematic external configuration in the vicinity of the attachment portion 54 at time t3 during execution of scanning control by the scanning control unit 162.
When such scanning control by the scanning control unit 162 is continuously performed, the distance in the B direction between the lower sash 32 and the outer panel 51 gradually decreases. At time t4, the distance becomes substantially zero (the positional deviation in the B direction is almost eliminated), and the head of the bolt 301 is seated on the vehicle exterior side of the attachment portion 54 of the outer panel 51 of the door 31. Hereinafter, such a state is referred to as a “sitting state”.
As shown in the timing chart of the pressing amount in FIG. 8, even if the copying control unit 162 performs copying control so that the pressing amount is constant, the pressing amount rapidly increases immediately before the seating state is entered. For this reason, the copying control unit 162 stops the moving operation of the robot 23 and sets the gripping machine 24 connected to the robot 23 to the standby state in order to reduce the pressing amount when the sitting state is reached. The pressing to the door 31 by the gripped lower sash 32 is stopped.
However, the copying control unit 162 moves the robot 22 during this time, and continues the movement of the fastening machine 25 attached to the robot 22 in the B direction. Thereby, the bolt 301 attached to the tip of the tightening machine 25 is further tightened in the B direction. That is, so-called retightening by the bolt 301 is performed.
FIG. 9D shows a schematic external configuration in the vicinity of the attachment portion 54 at time t5 during such tightening of the bolt 301.
For example, when the additional tightening of the bolt 301 is completed at time t6, that is, when the tightening is completed, the robot control switching unit 153 transfers the operating subject of the tightening control unit 152 from the copying control unit 162 to the teaching control unit 161. Switch.
Then, the teaching control unit 161 executes teaching playback control, so that the robot 23 is moved so as to exit from the door 31 after being unclamped, and the robot 22 is moved in a direction opposite to the B direction ( After moving in the sash attachment direction (after shifting back), move to the original position.
  By adopting a machining system capable of executing such automatic tightening processing, the following effects (1) and (2) are obtained.
(1) The processing system according to the present embodiment is provided with a robot 23 to which a gripping machine 24 is attached as a first processing apparatus that grips the lower sash 32 and moves the lower sash 32 to the door 31. ing.
In the machining system, the bolt is moved to the door 31 and the bolt is inserted into the bolt hole provided in each of the attachment portion 54 of the outer panel 51 of the door 31 and the attachment portion 41 of the lower sash 32 and tightened. As the second processing apparatus, a robot 22 to which a clamping machine 25 is attached is provided.
And as control of operation of at least one of the 1st processing device and the 2nd processing device, after the lower sash 32 will be in the contact state which contacted the door 31, predetermined lower sash 32 and door 31 predetermined | prescribed The copying control in which the relationship is kept constant, specifically, the copying control in which the pressing amount is kept constant in the above example is executed.
In this way, the predetermined relationship between the lower sash 32 and the door 31 (in the above example, the pressing amount) is kept constant, so that the movement of the automobile door 31 caused by the rotation of the bolt or the like is followed. The lower sash 32 can also move. In other words, the bolt can be inserted into the lower sash 32 in accordance with the rotation of the bolt. As a result, it is possible to prevent the assembly parts from being damaged due to an external force caused by the movement of the automobile door 31 such as the lower sash 32 being pulled into the bolt.
(2) Further, in the copying control in the above example, when the bolt head is further in a seating state in which the head of the bolt is seated on the door 31, at least the operation of the first processing device is stopped. To do.
As a result, it is possible to more reliably prevent the assembled parts from being damaged.
  Next, a series of processes (hereinafter referred to as “tool”), which is a process different from the automatic tightening process among the processes of such a processing system, until the tool of the tightening machine 25 is replaced based on the tool replacement control. Will be described.
  10 to 12 are perspective views showing a schematic external configuration of the robot main body 11 that is executing the tool exchange process.
  In the description of FIGS. 10 and 12, the operation subject of the process that the robot control device 12 is in charge of is any one of the movement command unit 151 to the tool change control unit 158 of FIG. 6 executed by the CPU 201 of FIG. 7. And
FIG. 10 shows a schematic external configuration of the robot main body 11 at the time when the tool exchange process is started.
As shown in FIG. 10, in the present embodiment, tools 101 to 103 are attached to the tightening machine 25. In addition, a storage member 401 storing replacement tools 411 and 412 is provided on the arm portion of the robot 23 other than the robot 22 to which the tightening machine 25 is attached (a predetermined connecting member of the articulated manipulator). .
That is, in this example, the tool attached to each of the attachment portions 91 and 92 of the fastening machine 25 is exchanged from each of the tools 101 and 102 to the tools 411 and 412 by the tool exchange process.
In other words, the robot control device 12 controls the operations of the robots 22 and 23 as tool replacement processing, whereby the tools 101 and 102 are connected to the mounting portions 91 and 92, and the tools 411 and 412 are stored in the storage member 401. The tools 101 and 102 are stored in the storage member 401 and the tools 411 and 412 are connected to the attachment portions 91 and 92 to the second state.
That is, when the tool replacement process starts, the robot control switching unit 153 in FIG. 6 switches the operation subject of the movement control of the robots 22 and 23 to the tool replacement control unit 158.
Then, the tool replacement control unit 158 performs teaching playback control (which may include visual servo control as appropriate), and moves the robot 22 so as to change from the state shown in FIG. 10 to the state shown in FIG. .
That is, as shown in FIG. 11, the robot 22 stores the tools 101 and 102 that have been attached to the attachment portions 91 and 92 of the fastening machine 25 in the storage member 401.
Next, the tool replacement control unit 158 moves the robot 22 so as to change from the state shown in FIG. 11 to the state shown in FIG. 12 by executing teaching playback control (may include visual servo control as appropriate). Let
That is, as shown in FIG. 12, the robot 22 attaches the tools 411 and 412 stored in the storage member 401 to each of the attachment portions 91 and 92 of the fastening machine 25.
Next, the tool replacement control unit 158 executes teaching playback control (which may include visual servo control as appropriate), and changes from the state shown in FIG. 12 to the state shown in FIG. The robot 22 is moved so that the tools 411 and 412 are attached to each of 91 and 92.
As a result, the tool replacement process ends, and the robot control switching unit 153 switches the operation subject of the movement control of the robots 22 and 23 from the tool replacement control unit 158 to the tightening control unit 152.
  By adopting a machining system capable of executing such tool exchange processing, the following effects (3) to (5) are obtained.
(3) The robot 22 to which the tightening machine 25 capable of attaching and detaching the tool is connected and the robot 23 provided with the storage member 401 for storing the replacement tool are controlled by the same robot control device 12. That is, the robots 22 and 23 are controlled by the same control system constructed by the robot controller 12.
As a result, the robot control device 12 can arrange the replacement tool stored in the storage member 401 provided in the robot 23 as compared with the case where the replacement tool is disposed in a place other than the robot 23. Can be recognized easily and in a short time. As a result, the communication time is shortened. The communication time here refers to the interval between the sensor and the robot controller 12 until the robot (the visual sensor 83 in this embodiment) detects the replacement tool and the robot controller 12 moves the robot 22. This is the time required for communication performed in
Furthermore, since the robot 23 is disposed at a short distance from the robot 22, the movement distance of the robot 22 can be shortened, and the movement time is shortened accordingly.
In particular, by providing the storage member 401 in the arm portion of the robot 23 (a predetermined connecting portion of the articulated manipulator), the moving distance can be further shortened, and the moving time is shortened accordingly. Here, in FIGS. 10 to 12, only the robot 22 has moved for convenience of explanation, but not only the robot 22 but also the robot 23 may be moved together. In this case, the travel time can be further shortened.
(4) Although not shown, in general, the door 31 of the automobile, which is a workpiece, is conveyed by an automatic conveyance line, and the automatic tightening process described above is often performed during the automatic conveyance of the door 31. . In such a case, in order to move the robot base 21 of the robot body 11 in conjunction with the conveyance of the door 31, a moving mechanism for moving the robot base 21 substantially parallel to the conveyance direction of the door 31 is provided.
Thus, since the moving mechanism moves the robot base 21, from the viewpoint of the robots 22 and 23, the robots 22 and 23 are provided in the same moving mechanism. That is, the robots 22 and 23 move synchronously by the moving mechanism.
Therefore, when the robot base 21 is transported by the moving mechanism, for example, after the time t6 when the bolt tightening operation is completed in the automatic tightening process of FIG. In addition, the tool exchange process can be executed.
As described above, by executing the tool change process during the conveyance, it is not necessary to separately provide an execution time for the tool change process. Therefore, the line tact and the setup change time can be shortened, and the processing line for the automobile door 31 can be reduced. The overall processing time can be shortened.
(5) The tool replacement process is executed in a state where the robot 23 provided with the storage member 401 for storing the replacement tool exists in the original position (so-called home position) as shown in FIGS. 10 to 12, for example. be able to.
In this case, since the vibration of the robot 23 is most unlikely to be present at the original position, the positioning control of the robot 22 can be executed with high accuracy, so that the movement time of the robot 22 can be shortened.
  It should be noted that the present invention is not limited to the present embodiment, and modifications, improvements, etc. within a scope that can achieve the object of the present invention are included in the present invention.
For example, the number of robots mounted on the same robot base is two robots 22 and 23 in this embodiment, but is not particularly limited to this, and may be three or more.
In this case, the storage member 401 stored in the replacement tool can be provided in any robot other than the robot to which the tightening machine 25 using the tool is attached.
Also in this case, the automatic tightening process can be performed in the same manner, and as a result, the effects (1) and (2) described above can be similarly achieved. In addition, the tool exchange process can be executed in the same manner, and as a result, the effects (3) to (5) described above can be produced in the same manner.
Further, for example, the end effector of the robot is the gripping machine 24 and the clamping machine 25 in the present embodiment, but is not particularly limited thereto, and any end effector using any tool can be employed.
Also in this case, if the end effector has a function of exchanging tools, the tool exchanging process can be executed in the same manner. As a result, the effects (3) to (5) described above are also produced. It is possible.
In addition, for example, the force sensor 64 is employed in the present embodiment for the robot 23 to which the gripper 24 that grips the lower sash 32 is connected. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and a robot drive (not shown) such as the robot 23 is not limited thereto. Any sensor can be employed as long as it can detect the pressing amount of the door 31 of the lower sash 32 such as a torque sensor of the apparatus.
Also in this case, the automatic tightening process can be performed in the same manner, and as a result, the effects (1) and (2) described above can be similarly achieved. In addition, the tool exchange process can be executed in the same manner, and as a result, the effects (3) to (5) described above can be produced in the same manner.
In addition, for example, the door 31 and the lower sash 32 are employed as workpieces in the present embodiment. However, the present invention is not particularly limited to this, and any main body part and any assembly part attached to the main body part may be employed. Is possible.
Also in this case, the automatic tightening process can be performed in the same manner, and as a result, the effects (1) and (2) described above can be similarly achieved. In addition, the tool exchange process can be executed in the same manner, and as a result, the effects (3) to (5) described above can be produced in the same manner.
Further, for example, in the present embodiment, the movement command unit 151 to the tool exchange control unit 158 in FIG. 6 have been described as being configured by a combination of software and hardware (related portions including the CPU 201). The present invention is not limited to this. For example, at least a part of the movement command unit 151 to the tool exchange control unit 158 may be configured by dedicated hardware or software.
Also in this case, the automatic tightening process can be performed in the same manner, and as a result, the effects (1) and (2) described above can be similarly achieved. In addition, the tool exchange process can be executed in the same manner, and as a result, the effects (3) to (5) described above can be produced in the same manner.
  As described above, the series of processes according to the present invention can be executed by software or hardware.
  When a series of processing is executed by software, a program constituting the software can be installed in a computer or the like via a network or from a recording medium. The computer may be a computer incorporating dedicated hardware, or may be a general-purpose personal computer capable of executing various functions by installing various programs.
  A recording medium including various programs for executing a series of processes according to the present invention is distributed to provide a program to the user separately from the main body of the information processing apparatus (for example, the robot control apparatus 12 in this embodiment). Removable media may be used, or a recording medium or the like previously incorporated in the information processing apparatus main body may be used. The removable medium is composed of, for example, a magnetic disk (including a floppy disk), an optical disk, a magneto-optical disk, or the like. The optical disk is composed of, for example, a CD-ROM (Compact Disk-Read Only Memory), a DVD (Digital Versatile Disk), or the like. The magneto-optical disk is configured by an MD (Mini-Disk) or the like. Further, as a recording medium incorporated in advance in the apparatus main body, for example, the ROM 202 in FIG. 7 or the hard disk included in the storage unit 208 in FIG.
  In the present specification, the step of describing the program recorded on the recording medium is not limited to the processing performed in time series along the order, but is not necessarily performed in time series, either in parallel or individually. The process to be executed is also included.
  Further, in the present specification, the system represents the entire apparatus including a plurality of apparatuses and processing units.
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Processing system 11 Robot main body 12 Robot control apparatus 21 Robot base 22, 23 Robot 24 Grasping machine 25 Clamping machine 31 Door 32 Lower sash 64 Force sensor 82 Tool unit 91 thru | or 93 Mounting part 101 thru | or 103 Tool 151 Movement command part 152 Tightening control Unit 153 Robot control switching unit 154 Pressing amount detection unit 155 Captured image acquisition unit 156 Grasping control unit 157 Tightening control unit 158 Tool exchange control unit 161 Teaching control unit 162 Copying control unit

Claims (2)

  1. In a processing system for performing processing for attaching the assembly part to the main body part by inserting and tightening a bolt into a bolt hole provided in each of the main body part and the assembly part,
    A first processing means for holding the assembly component and performing an operation of moving the assembly component to the main body component;
    A second processing means for moving the bolt to the main body part and inserting and tightening the bolt into the bolt hole provided in each of the main body part and the assembly part;
    Detecting means for detecting a pressing amount of the assembled part held by the first processing means against the main body part;
    Control means for controlling the operation of each of the first processing means and the second processing means based on the detection result of the detection means;
    With
    The control means includes
    Based on the detection result of the detection means, it is determined whether the assembled component and the main body component are in contact with the bolt ,
    The first processing means and the second processing means so that the distance in the insertion direction of the bolt between the assembly part and the main body part is shortened until it is determined that the contact state has been reached. Control the operation of at least one of the
    After determining that the contact state has been reached,
    Controlling the operation of at least one of the first processing means and the second processing means so that the pressing amount detected by the detection means is kept constant ;
    Further, it is determined whether the head of the bolt is in a sitting state in which the head of the bolt is seated on the body part,
    When it is determined that the seating state has been reached, at least control is performed so as to stop the operation of the first processing means .
    Processing system.
  2. In a processing method of a processing system for performing processing for attaching the assembly part to the main body part by inserting and tightening a bolt into a bolt hole provided in each of the main body part and the assembly part,
    The processing system includes:
    A first processing means for holding the assembly component and performing an operation of moving the assembly component to the main body component;
    A second processing means for moving the bolt to the main body part and inserting and tightening the bolt into the bolt hole provided in each of the main body part and the assembly part;
    Detecting means for detecting a pressing amount of the assembled part held by the first processing means against the main body part;
    Control means for controlling the operation of each of the first processing means and the second processing means based on the detection result of the detection means;
    With
    The control means includes
    Based on the detection result of the detection means, it is determined whether the assembled component and the main body component are in contact with the bolt ,
    The first processing means and the second processing means so that the distance in the insertion direction of the bolt between the assembly part and the main body part is shortened until it is determined that the contact state has been reached. Control the operation of at least one of the
    After determining that the contact state has been reached,
    Controlling the operation of at least one of the first processing means and the second processing means so that the pressing amount detected by the detection means is kept constant ;
    Further, it is determined whether or not the bolt head is in a seated state in which the bolt head is seated on the main body part. If it is determined that the bolt is in the seated state, control is performed to stop at least the operation of the first processing means. To
    Processing method.
JP2010095963A 2010-04-19 2010-04-19 Processing system and processing method Expired - Fee Related JP5466987B2 (en)

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JP6241539B2 (en) * 2014-03-18 2017-12-06 株式会社安川電機 Screw tightening system and screw tightening method
WO2015140938A1 (en) * 2014-03-18 2015-09-24 株式会社安川電機 Screw-tightening device and screw-tightening system
CN108907008B (en) * 2018-07-11 2021-01-12 容德精机(江苏)机床有限公司 Automatic loading and unloading device for punch press pressed by pressure switch contact

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JP4478582B2 (en) * 2005-01-07 2010-06-09 本田技研工業株式会社 Sash member gripping and positioning device
JP4367950B2 (en) * 2005-10-18 2009-11-18 本田技研工業株式会社 Workpiece assembly method and workpiece assembly apparatus
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