JP5432632B2 - Aluminum alloy plate with excellent formability - Google Patents

Aluminum alloy plate with excellent formability Download PDF

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JP5432632B2
JP5432632B2 JP2009184866A JP2009184866A JP5432632B2 JP 5432632 B2 JP5432632 B2 JP 5432632B2 JP 2009184866 A JP2009184866 A JP 2009184866A JP 2009184866 A JP2009184866 A JP 2009184866A JP 5432632 B2 JP5432632 B2 JP 5432632B2
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克史 松本
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株式会社神戸製鋼所
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  The present invention relates to an Al—Mg-based aluminum alloy plate that is less prone to stretcher strain marks and has excellent formability. The aluminum alloy plate referred to in the present invention is a hot-rolled plate or a cold-rolled plate, and refers to a tempered aluminum alloy plate such as annealing. Hereinafter, aluminum is also referred to as Al.
  In recent years, from the viewpoint of consideration for the global environment, social demands for weight reduction of vehicles such as automobiles are increasing. In order to meet such demands, the application of aluminum materials in place of steel materials such as steel plates is being studied as materials for automobile panels, particularly large body panels (outer panels, inner panels) such as hoods, doors, and roofs.
  Since 5000 series aluminum alloy plates (hereinafter also referred to as Al—Mg series alloy plates) such as Al—Mg based JIS 5052 alloy and JIS 5182 alloy are excellent in ductility and strength, these large body panels that have been conventionally press molded. It is used as a material for.
  However, as disclosed in Patent Document 1 and the like, if a tensile test is performed on an Al—Mg alloy, yield elongation may occur in the vicinity of the yield point on the stress-strain curve, and the yield is relatively high beyond the yield point. In some cases, a serrated or stepwise serration (vibration) occurs in the stress-strain curve depending on the amount of strain (for example, tensile elongation of 2% or more). These phenomena on the stress-strain curve cause a so-called stretcher strain (hereinafter also referred to as an SS mark) during actual press molding, which is a big problem for the large body panel which is a molded product, particularly the outer panel whose appearance is important. It becomes.
  As is well known, the SS mark is a so-called random mark having an irregular belt-like pattern such as a flame that occurs at a relatively low strain area, and about 50 ° with respect to the tensile direction at a relatively high strain area. It is divided into parallel bands of parallel strips that are generated to form It is known that the former random mark is caused by yield point elongation and the latter parallel band is caused by serration on the stress-strain curve.
  Conventionally, various methods for eliminating the SS mark in an Al—Mg alloy have been proposed. For example, usually, the finer the crystal grain size of the Al—Mg alloy plate, the more markedly the SS mark is observed. Therefore, as one method for eliminating the SS mark, a method of adjusting crystal grains to a certain degree of coarseness has been conventionally known. This method is particularly effective for reducing random marks caused by the yield elongation among SS marks.
  However, in such a method for adjusting crystal grains, if the crystal grains become too coarse, another problem arises such that the surface becomes rough due to press molding. In practice, it is very difficult to prevent the rough surface of the surface at the same time as the generation of the SS mark. Further, this crystal grain adjustment method is not very effective in preventing the occurrence of the parallel band due to the serration on the stress-strain curve among the SS marks.
  In addition, as a conventional method for eliminating the SS mark, an O-material (soft material) of an Al—Mg-based alloy plate or a tempered material such as a T4 treatment material is formed in advance before press forming the large body panel. It is known to give distortion (pre-strain) due to slight processing (pre-processing) such as skin pass processing or leveling processing. This method is particularly effective for reducing random marks caused by the yield elongation among SS marks. If a large number of deformation bands are formed in advance by the pre-working, these many deformation bands function as a starting point of yielding when the Al-Mg alloy plate is press-formed. For this reason, rapid and non-uniform deformation does not occur during yielding. That is, yield elongation due to these sudden and non-uniform deformations does not occur, and random marks are also suppressed.
  In general, in an Al-Mg alloy, Mg forms a Cottrell atmosphere and fixes dislocations. Therefore, extra stress is required to cause yield during press forming. On the other hand, once the yield starts at a certain point during press forming, the deformation propagates avalanche from that point without increasing the stress, and as a result, an Al-Mg alloy Non-uniform deformation will occur abruptly within the plate. Since the deformation progresses rapidly without increasing the stress in this way, yield elongation appears on the stress-strain curve, and the rapid deformation is non-uniform. Will occur.
  However, it is possible to prevent the occurrence of the parallel bands due to the serration on the stress-strain curve even by a method of suppressing the occurrence of yield elongation by giving such pre-processing and preventing the occurrence of SS marks, particularly random marks. There is a limit. In other words, if the degree of pre-working becomes too high, if a tensile test is performed on the pre-worked Al-Mg alloy plate, a step-like serration with a long strain pitch is generated on the stress-strain curve. It becomes easy. Such serration tends to lead to the generation of a wide and clear parallel band even during actual press forming, and the degree of pre-processing is naturally limited.
  On the other hand, even if the degree of pre-processing is reduced, the yield elongation can be suppressed to some extent, but conversely, the occurrence of the random mark can be prevented stably and reliably. Can not be. In particular, in the case of an Al-Mg alloy plate having fine crystal grains that originally tends to generate random marks, the random marks are remarkably generated even if pre-working with a low workability is performed. Moreover, in pre-machining with a low degree of processing, slight fluctuations in the thickness of the base plate depending on the location in the plate have a large effect on the variation in the degree of processing, and it is impossible to prevent the occurrence of random marks stably and reliably. It becomes a cause. Therefore, in the method of giving pre-processing, since the optimal processing degree of the prevention of the parallel band due to the serration on the stress-strain curve and the prevention of the generation of the random mark conflict, it is possible to prevent both of them simultaneously. Can not.
  In addition, regarding the parallel band of the SS mark, when the strain rate at the time of press molding is high, such as at the time of mold forming by a mechanical press, for example, the generation of the parallel band is less if attention is paid to the molding speed. Known from. However, when forming with a hydraulic press machine or the like with a lower forming speed, the generation of clear parallel bands with a wide width is caused particularly in the case of Al-Mg alloy sheet materials that cause stepped serration with a large strain pitch as described above. Could not escape.
  On the other hand, in Patent Document 1 described above, the generation of random marks due to the yield elongation and the generation of a wide parallel band related to the stepwise wide serration on the stress-strain curve are suppressed. Al-Mg alloy plates with less SS mark generation have been proposed. Specifically, a rolled sheet of Al-Mg alloy is subjected to solution treatment / quenching under specific conditions with rapid cooling, and then cold working as pre-processing under specific conditions is performed. Apply final annealing under conditions. Then, a final plate having an average crystal grain size of 55 μm or less and substantially free of coarse crystal grains of 150 μm or more is obtained.
  Moreover, in the Al-Mg alloy plate, the endothermic peak height between 50 and 100 ° C of the heating curve from the solid phase obtained by measuring the thermal change in the melting process of the plate by differential thermal analysis (DSC). Is also known as an index for improving press formability. For example, in Patent Document 2, in a high Mg Al—Mg-based alloy plate manufactured by twin-roll continuous casting and having a Mg content exceeding 8 mass%, the endothermic peak height is set to 50.0 μW or more, and press formability Has improved. This is because the endothermic peak height of the DSC between 50 to 100 ° C. is the presence form of Al—Mg intermetallic compound called solid phase (solid solution, precipitated state) in the Al—Mg alloy plate structure. It is based on the fact that it shows stability.
JP-A-7-224364 JP 2006-249480 A
  However, in Patent Document 1, the stepped serration can only be made light (from the description of the stepped serration evaluation in the embodiment of Patent Document 1), and therefore, the parallel band that is one of the SS marks cannot be completely suppressed. . On the other hand, in recent large body panels, particularly outer panels whose appearance is important, the required level of surface properties has become more severe. In these Patent Documents 1 and 2, it is not sufficient as a measure for suppressing the occurrence of SS marks. It has become to.
  In view of such problems, the object of the present invention is to simultaneously suppress the generation of random bands due to the yield elongation and the generation of parallel bands, suppress the SS mark, and press molding to an automobile panel. It is providing the Al-Mg type aluminum alloy plate excellent in property.
  In order to achieve this object, the gist of the aluminum alloy sheet excellent in formability according to the present invention is, by mass%, including Mg: 0.5 to 7.0% and Zn: 1.0 to 4.0%. An Al—Mg-based aluminum alloy plate consisting of Al and inevitable impurities as the balance, and the K loss of Mg measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy as an index representing the relationship between the structure of the plate and press formability The position of the first adjacent peak in the radial distribution function of the atomic frequency obtained by further Fourier transforming the vibration function obtained by analyzing the end EELS spectrum is 1.8 Å (angstrom) or more and 2.0 Å. It shall be within the following range.
  Here, each of the Al-Mg based aluminum alloy plates is Fe: 1.0 mass% or less, Si: 0.5 mass% or less, Mn: 1.0 mass% or less, Cr: 0.3 mass% or less Zr: 0.3% by mass or less, V: 0.3% by mass or less, Ti: 0.1% by mass or less, Cu: 1.0% by mass or less Allow that.
  In the case of Al—Mg-based aluminum alloy plate, if Zn is contained, there is an effect of suppressing the generation of SS marks. There is a difference. From this, it is considered that not only Zn is contained, but the structure state of the plate has a great influence on the SS mark generation state.
  However, even by microstructure observation using SEM or TEM, a novel fine MgZn cluster that seems to have an effect on the SS mark property could not be found for an Al—Mg-based aluminum alloy plate containing Zn. For this reason, the structure of the Al—Mg-based aluminum alloy plate containing Zn having an effect on the SS mark property could not be specified by the definition of the novel fine MgZn cluster.
  Based on this, in the present invention, such a fine MgZn cluster itself is not measured, but it can be assumed that this fine MgZn cluster has a structure that has only an effect on the SS mark property. And, as a means (indicator) for actually determining whether or not the structure is excellent in SS mark property, the EELS spectrum of the Al-Mg-Zn alloy plate measured by a known electron energy loss spectroscopy Selected. In other words, the EELS spectrum of the Al—Mg—Zn alloy plate can serve as an index representing the relationship between the structure of the plate and the press formability represented by the SS mark property of the plate.
  Here, EELS is an abbreviation for Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy and means electron beam energy loss spectroscopy. As described later, the EELS spectrum of the Mg K loss edge measured by this method measures the distance from the Mg atom to the atoms existing around the Mg atom. Presence or absence of a MgZn cluster can be qualitatively confirmed (estimated).
  In addition, the analysis result by the EELS spectrum correlates well with the presence or absence of the SS mark effect. In particular, the position of the first proximity peak obtained by the analysis of the EELS spectrum varies greatly depending on the Al—Mg—Zn alloy plates having different SS mark generation states. That is, as the value (Å) of the position of the first proximity peak becomes smaller, the occurrence of the SS mark is suppressed.
  Therefore, in the present invention, the value (Å) of the position of the first adjacent peak is defined as an effective index for preventing the occurrence of the stretcher strain mark in the structure of the Al—Mg—Zn alloy plate.
  Accordingly, the present invention enhances the effect of increasing the limit strain amount, suppresses serrations on the stress-strain curve, suppresses the parallel band resulting from this, and suppresses the generation of stretcher strain marks.
It is explanatory drawing which shows the radial distribution function measured by the electron energy loss spectroscopy of the Al-Mg-Zn type alloy plate of this invention. It is explanatory drawing which expands and shows the position of the 1st proximity peak of FIG. Radial distribution function al-MgZn alloy plate (actual), the radial distribution function MgZn cluster typical η phase (MgZn 2) (calculation) is an explanatory diagram comparing with each other. And al-MgZn based radial distribution function of the alloy plate (measured) is an explanatory diagram comparing the radial distribution function (calculation) between the MgZn cluster typical θ phase (Mg 2 Zn 11). It is a schematic view showing the atomic structure of the MgZn cluster η phase (MgZn 2). It is a schematic view showing the atomic structure of the MgZn cluster θ phase (Mg 2 Zn 11). It is the structure | tissue photograph (drawing substitute photograph) by 1 million times FE-TEM of the Al-Mg-Zn type alloy plate of this invention. It is the structure | tissue photograph (drawing substitute photograph) by 300,000 times of the FE-TEM of the Al-Mg-Zn type alloy board which has an aging precipitate for a comparison.
Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be specifically described for each requirement.
(Organization)
The present inventors have found that an Al—Mg-based aluminum alloy plate has an effect of suppressing generation of SS marks when Zn is contained. However, at the same time, it has also been found that even if an Al—Mg-based aluminum alloy plate having the same Zn content is used, a phenomenon occurs in which there is a large difference in the effect of suppressing the generation of SS marks. From this, not only Zn but also the structural state of the Al—Mg-based aluminum alloy plate, that is, the presence state of MgZn clusters (precipitates) generated when Zn is included is the SS mark generation state. This is thought to have a major impact on
  For this reason, in order to confirm the existence state of such MgZn-based clusters, the present inventors have observed the structure of an Al—Mg-based aluminum alloy plate containing Zn that is excellent in press formability by suppressing the SS mark. went. Specifically, the structure was observed using a 100,000-fold FE-TEM (transmission electron microscope) most effective for measuring fine MgZn clusters in the plate structure. The results are shown in FIGS.
  FIG. 7 shows a structural photograph of the Al—Mg—Zn-based alloy plate of the present invention, in which the SS mark is suppressed and the press formability is excellent (Invention Example 1 in Examples Tables 2 and 3 to be described later). For comparison, an Al-Mg-Zn-based alloy plate as a comparison, in which fine MgZn clusters (precipitates) having an average maximum length of about 10 nm are aging-deposited, and the SS mark property is inferior with the same composition. (The comparative example 28 of the Example table | surface 2 and 3 mentioned later) is shown. As can be seen from FIG. 7, this structure observation also has an effect on the SS mark property of an Al—Mg-based aluminum alloy plate containing Zn having excellent SS mark property (hereinafter also referred to as “Al—Mg—Zn-based alloy plate”). A novel fine MgZn cluster that appears to be present could not be found (observed).
  Therefore, the present inventors have affected the SS mark property due to the existence of a novel ultrafine MgZn cluster that cannot be observed with a TEM or SEM, in other words, almost no significant difference from the solid solution state. I thought that. If such a novel ultra-fine MgZn cluster is present in the Al-Mg-based aluminum alloy sheet structure containing Zn, the movement of dislocations during deformation due to the press forming is hindered, and an SS mark is generated. This is because it is estimated that there is an inhibitory effect.
In order to confirm this point, the present inventors measured the EELS spectrum of the structures of the Al—Mg—Zn alloy plates with different stretcher strain mark generation states by electron energy loss spectroscopy. Here, EELS means Electron Energy
Abbreviation for Loss Spectroscopy, which means electron beam energy loss spectroscopy.
  This electron energy loss spectroscopy is a method for observing (analyzing) precipitates used in field emission TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope), edited by the Japan Iron and Steel Institute, Material Structure and Properties Subcommittee, Precipitate Metallurgy Study Group. It is also introduced in "3.4 Observation of precipitates using a spectroscopic electron microscope" in the seminar text of "Steel precipitation control metallurgy forefront". Moreover, it is known in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2008-297477 as the definition and characteristic evaluation of the diamond-like carbon film of the sliding member, and is known in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2004-3043 as the specification and characteristic evaluation of the flame-resistant carbon fiber material.
EELS spectrum:
The radial distribution function measured by the electron energy loss spectroscopy of the Al—Mg alloy plate defined by the present invention is shown in FIGS.
  The radial distribution function of the atomic frequency in FIGS. 1 and 2 is obtained by further Fourier transforming the vibration function obtained by analyzing the EELS spectrum of the Mg K loss edge measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is done. At this time, when the vibration function is obtained, naturally, the generated noise is cut. FIG. 2 is a partially enlarged view of the region of 1.4 to 2.6 in the vicinity of the first adjacent peak position of the radial distribution (Radial distinction: unit angstrom “Å”) in FIG.
  More specifically, the analysis of the EELS spectrum refers to the position of the proximate peak in the radial distribution function of the atomic frequency (dynamic) obtained by further Fourier transforming the vibration function obtained by analyzing the EELS spectrum. Analysis and comparison are performed with reference to a radial distribution position (radial distance). Hereinafter, this radial distribution function is simply referred to as a radial distribution function measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy.
  The position of this proximity peak represents the distance from the Mg atom of the atoms present around the Mg atom. Of the proximity peaks, the first proximity peak that appears first is the proximity peak of the atom closest to the Mg atom, and the second proximity peak that appears next is the proximity peak of the atom closest to the Mg atom. In some cases, adjacent peaks are generated according to the distance from the Mg atoms of the atoms present around the Mg atoms.
  1 and 2, the curve indicated by a thick solid line is an Al-6Mg-3Zn alloy plate containing Zn in which the ultrafine MgZn clusters of the present invention are aged (in Examples 2 and 3 described later). Invention Example 1). Moreover, although the curve shown with a thick dotted line is an Al-6Mg-3Zn alloy plate of the same composition for comparison, the ultrafine MgZn cluster of the present invention is not aged and is aged at a high temperature. This is a plate containing relatively coarse MgZn clusters such as the η phase (Comparative Example 27 in Examples Tables 2 and 3 described later). Further, the curve shown by the thin solid line is an Al-6Mg alloy plate that does not contain Zn and does not precipitate the ultrafine MgZn clusters of the present invention for comparison (Examples 2 and 3 described later). Comparative Example 15).
  As shown in FIG. 1, in both the inventive example and the comparative example, the frequency of the atom (Normalized) on the vertical axis is the peak of the frequency of the atom closest to the Mg atom in the vicinity of the radial distribution of 2 mm on the horizontal axis. Peak = first adjacent peak in common. The peak of the frequency of atoms indicates the presence of a fine group (or structure) composed of a plurality of atoms such as the clusters. Therefore, it can be said that both the invention example and the comparative example have a group composed of a plurality of atoms such as clusters having the same composition.
  On the other hand, in FIG. 2 in which the region of the radial distribution 1.4 to 2.6 mm on the horizontal axis in FIG. 1 is partially enlarged, the position of the first adjacent peak is greatly deviated between the inventive example and the comparative example. I understand that That is, in FIG. 2, the position of the first proximity peak in Invention Example 1 is in the vicinity of 1.9 cm, which is in the range of 1.8 mm to 2.0 mm. On the other hand, the position of the first proximity peak in each comparative example is in the vicinity of 2.1 cm, which is far from this range. That is, it can be seen that the position of the first adjacent peak in Invention Example 1 is shifted to the left side of the figure larger than the position of the first adjacent peak in each comparative example.
  The smaller the value of the radial distribution on the horizontal axis of the first proximity peak position, the smaller the size (diameter, length) of the group consisting of a plurality of atoms indicated by the first proximity peak. . Therefore, although both the inventive example and the comparative example have clusters (groups consisting of a plurality of atoms) having the same composition, the size of the cluster indicated by the first adjacent peak of the inventive example 1 is considerably larger than that of the comparative example. It can be said that it is small.
MgZn cluster:
As described above, the EELS spectrum at the K loss edge of Mg measures the distance from the Mg atoms of the atoms present around the Mg atoms. Therefore, the EELS spectrum of the Al—Mg-based alloy plate containing Zn obtained by aging precipitation of the above-described novel ultrafine MgZn cluster is obtained from the EELS of a known typical MgZn cluster in the Al—Mg—Zn-based alloy plate. By comparing with the spectrum, it is possible to confirm (guess) at least qualitatively the form of the ultrafine MgZn cluster.
  Here, known typical MgZn clusters existing in an Al—Mg alloy plate containing Zn are the η phase schematically shown in FIG. 5 and the θ phase schematically shown in FIG. Therefore, the radial distribution function measured by the electron energy loss spectroscopy of these η-phase and θ-phase MgZn clusters was obtained by calculation instead of actual measurement as shown in FIGS. And it compared with the measured radial distribution function of the said invention example 1. The results are shown in FIGS.
  3 and 4, the dotted lines are the calculation results of the radial distribution function measured by the electron energy loss spectroscopy of η-phase and θ-phase MgZn clusters, respectively. A curve indicated by a thick solid line is Invention Example 1 (Al-6Mg-3Zn alloy plate containing Zn obtained by aging precipitation of the ultrafine MgZn clusters). Further, the curves indicated by the thick dotted lines are 1η-phase MgZn clusters in FIG. 3, and θ-phase MgZn clusters in FIG. The thin solid line is the Al-6Mg alloy plate of Comparative Example 3 that does not contain Zn and does not cause any aging precipitation of MgZn clusters regardless of the size, as in FIGS.
  First, as shown in FIG. 3, the EELS spectrum of Inventive Example 1 is similar to the η-phase MgZn cluster indicated by the dotted line in the proximity peak position but has a different waveform and is not the same. Usually, it is known that a relatively large aging precipitate having a size of about 20 nm or more existing in an Al—Mg alloy plate has a MgZn cluster structure of η phase. It can be seen that the cluster is smaller than the MgZn cluster.
  Next, as shown in FIG. 4, the EELS spectrum of Invention Example 1 is similar in the proximity peak position and waveform to the MgZn cluster of the θ phase indicated by the dotted line, rather than the η phase of FIG. 3. However, it can be seen that they are slightly different and not the same. Therefore, the EELS spectrum of Invention Example 1 is similar to the MgZn clusters in the η phase and θ phase in the proximity peak position and waveform, and although there is no mistake that they are MgZn clusters, they are different MgZn clusters. I understand that.
SS mark:
As a result of such analysis, the present inventors have found that the position of the first adjacent peak is greatly different depending on the Al—Mg—Zn-based alloy plates having different SS mark generation states.
  That is, as the value (Å) of the position of the first proximity peak becomes smaller, the occurrence of the SS mark is suppressed. That is, the position of the first adjacent peak indicates the existence state of the novel ultrafine MgZn cluster that is close to the Mg atom, and such MgZn cluster hinders the movement of dislocations during deformation by the forming. It can be guessed.
  However, as described above, the existence of these MgZn clusters has not been confirmed by SEM, TEM, or the like, which is effective for measuring fine MgZn clusters by structure observation. For this reason, it is only a hypothesis or speculation so far that the movement of dislocations during the deformation of the molding by the MgZn cluster is prevented and the SS mark is effectively generated.
  However, as compared with the Al-Mg-Zn alloy plate of the present invention having a good SS mark property and typical MgZn clusters such as η phase and θ phase normally present in this plate, these typical Although not the same as the MgZn cluster, the presence of the MgZn cluster itself is confirmed in the Al—Mg—Zn alloy plate of the present invention. Therefore, this MgZn cluster, which is effective in generating the SS mark, is not limited to the so-called solid solution state, and it is presumed that the MgZn cluster is precipitated extremely finely, although there are some solid solutions.
This is because, depending on the amount of typical MgZn clusters such as η phase (MgZn 2 ) and θ phase (Mg 2 Zn 11 ), the SS mark generation state of the Al—Mg—Zn alloy plate cannot be improved. Is also supported. In other words, these typical MgZn clusters have no effect of improving the SS mark, and do not greatly affect the SS mark generation state.
  As described above, the proximity peak of the EELS spectrum at the K loss edge of Mg is effective for classification and discrimination of the SS mark generation state of the Al—Mg—Zn alloy plate. Further, it is inferred that the state of this proximate peak indicates the presence state of a novel ultrafine MgZn cluster that has an influence on the SS mark generation state. However, since it is currently impossible to quantitatively grasp or discriminate the existence of such ultrafine MgZn clusters, this ultrafine MgZn cluster cannot be directly applied to the classification or index of the SS mark occurrence state. .
  Therefore, in the present invention, the SS mark generation state is improved by using the proximity peak of the EELS spectrum at the K loss edge of the Mg as a classification or index of the SS mark generation state of the Al—Mg—Zn alloy plate. An Al—Mg—Zn-based alloy plate that is not used is distinguished from an improved Al—Mg—Zn-based alloy plate.
First proximity peak position value:
More specifically, in the present invention, in the Al-Mg-Zn alloy plate, the first proximity peak is used as an effective index indicating the presence of ultrafine MgZn clusters in the plate structure and the press formability of the plate. Specifies the position value (Å). That is, in the present invention, the radial distribution function of the atomic frequency obtained by further Fourier transforming the vibration function obtained by analyzing the EELS spectrum of the Mg K loss edge measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is assumed that the position of the first proximate peak in is in the range of 1.8 cm (angstrom) or more and 2.0 cm or less.
  When the value (Å) of the position of the first adjacent peak is in this range, the critical strain amount (critical strain amount: tensile) of serration generation of the Al—Mg alloy plate is compared with those outside this range. The critical strain on the stress-strain curve in the test) is significantly increased. As a result, serration on the stress-strain curve is suppressed, and the parallel band resulting from this is suppressed, thereby suppressing the occurrence of SS marks.
  As described above, when the value of the position of the first proximity peak (Å) is in the range of 1.8Å to 2.0Å, as described above, the structure of the Al-Mg-Zn alloy plate has the above-mentioned novelity. It is presumed that there exists a very fine MgZn cluster (cluster of Mg and Zn: an ultrafine intermetallic compound). Moreover, it is estimated that the effect which prevents the movement of the dislocation | rearrangement at the time of deformation | transformation by shaping | molding, such as press molding, by such an ultrafine MgZn cluster also becomes the maximum.
  On the other hand, when the position of the first proximity peak exceeds 2.0%, the ultrafine MgZn cluster of the present invention is η phase, and the effect of hindering the movement of dislocations during deformation due to molding such as press molding. Becomes smaller. For this reason, generation | occurrence | production of SS mark at the time of press molding cannot be suppressed. In addition, since the electron beam diameter at the time of measurement in the FE-TEM is larger than the size of the ultrafine MgZn cluster, the information on both the aluminum matrix and the ultrafine MgZn cluster is added to this first adjacent peak position. It is measured and analyzed in the form. For this reason, the position of the first proximity peak position is determined by the ratio of the volume fraction of the aluminum matrix in the area where the electron beam is transmitted and the volume fraction of the ultrafine MgZn cluster. Therefore, when the volume fraction of the ultrafine MgZn cluster of the present invention increases, the position of the first proximity peak decreases, and the effect of suppressing the generation of SS marks during press forming increases. Here, the lower limit of the first proximity peak position theoretically decreases until the ultrafine MgZn cluster reaches 100% in volume fraction. However, at present, it is industrially impossible to obtain a state in which the volume fraction of this ultrafine MgZn cluster is 100%, and the structure has not been determined. For this reason, it is difficult to obtain a calculation lower limit from the theoretical structure. Therefore, an actual SS mark generation suppressing effect is obtained, and 1.8 mm is set as a feasible lower limit in an industrial range.
  In the present invention, the generation of random marks by suppressing the occurrence of yield elongation is performed by applying the pre-strain (pre-processing) as usual. As a result, in the present invention, the generation of both stretcher strain marks (SS marks) of the random mark generated at the portion having a relatively low amount of strain and the parallel band generated at the portion having a relatively high amount of strain. Is sufficiently suppressed.
  Even if the required level of the surface property of the outer panel whose outer appearance is particularly important as an automotive panel material plate becomes more severe, the present invention is accompanied by the generation of random marks due to the yield elongation and the stress-strain curve. The generation of parallel bands related to the serrations can be suppressed at the same time. As a result, the performance of the automobile panel material plate can be greatly improved.
(Chemical composition)
The chemical component composition of the aluminum alloy hot-rolled sheet of the present invention is basically an aluminum alloy corresponding to JIS 5000, which is an Al—Mg alloy. In addition,% display of content of each element means the mass% altogether.
  Especially this invention needs to satisfy various characteristics, such as press moldability, intensity | strength, weldability, and corrosion resistance, as a raw material board for motor vehicle panels. For this reason, the hot-rolled sheet of the present invention includes, among the 5000 series aluminum alloys, in mass%, Mg: 0.5 to 7.0%, Zn: 1.0 to 4.0%, the balance being Al and inevitable An Al—Mg aluminum alloy plate made of impurities is used.
  Moreover, this Al-Mg based aluminum alloy plate is further Fe: 1.0 mass% or less, Si: 0.5 mass% or less, Mn: 1.0 mass% or less, Cr: 0.3 mass% or less, 1 type or 2 types or more chosen from Zr: 0.3 mass% or less, V: 0.3 mass% or less, Ti: 0.1 mass% or less, Cu: 1.0 mass% or less Is acceptable.
Mg: 0.5-7.0 mass%
Mg enhances work hardening ability and ensures necessary strength and durability as a material plate for automobile panels. In addition, the material is uniformly plastically deformed to improve the fracture crack limit and improve the formability. It is also presumed that the ultrafine MgZn clusters are formed to suppress the generation of SS marks during press molding. If the content of Mg is less than 0.5%, these effects of containing Mg will be insufficient. Further, the ultrafine MgZn cluster is also insufficient, and the vibration function obtained by analyzing the EELS spectrum of the K loss edge of Mg measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy is further subjected to Fourier transform, The position of the first proximate peak in the frequency distribution function of the frequency does not fall within the range of 2.0 mm or less.
  On the other hand, if the Mg content exceeds 7.0%, it becomes difficult to produce a plate, and intergranular fracture is more likely to occur during press molding, which significantly reduces press formability. Therefore, the content of Mg is 1.5 to 7.0% by mass, preferably 2.5 to 6.5% by mass.
Zn: 1.0-4.0 mass%
Zn is presumed to form the new ultrafine MgZn clusters and suppress the generation of SS marks during press molding. When Zn is too small as less than 1.0% by mass, the effect of suppressing the generation of SS marks during press molding is insufficient. Further, the ultrafine MgZn cluster is also insufficient, and the vibration function obtained by analyzing the EELS spectrum of the K loss edge of Mg measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy is further subjected to Fourier transform, The position of the first proximate peak in the frequency distribution function of the frequency does not fall within the range of 2.0 mm or less.
  On the other hand, if the Zn content exceeds 4.0% by mass, the corrosion resistance is lowered. Therefore, the Zn content is 4.0% by mass or less, and is within the range of 1.0 to 4.0% by mass. Is desirable. More preferably, it exists in the range of 2.0-3.5 mass%.
  In an Al—Mg-based aluminum alloy plate, Zn is generally recognized as an effective element for improving the strength by precipitation strengthening together with Cu. Moreover, in the said patent document 1, Zn is recognized as an element effective also in suppression of SS mark. However, as in the present invention, it is not publicly known that the ultrafine MgZn clusters are formed in combination with manufacturing conditions described later to suppress the generation of SS marks during press molding.
Other elements:
In the present invention, it is allowed to contain one or more selected from Fe, Si, Mn, Cr, Zr, V, Ti and Cu as other elements. These elements are impurity elements whose content increases as the amount of aluminum alloy scrap (ratio to aluminum metal) increases as a melting raw material. In other words, from the viewpoint of recycling Al alloy plates, not only high-purity aluminum bullion but also 5000 series alloys, other Al alloy scrap materials, and low-purity Al bullion are used as melting raw materials. The amount (content) of these elements inevitably increases. Then, reducing these elements to, for example, below the detection limit itself increases the cost, and it is necessary to allow a certain amount of inclusion.
  Further, when these elements are contained in a small amount, they also have an effect of refining crystal grains. Roughness during press forming of an Al—Mg-based aluminum alloy plate is likely to occur when the crystal grain size is large, such as when the average crystal grain size of the plate exceeds 50 μm, and the smaller the crystal grain size of the plate, the better. These elements are also contained in small amounts, and have the effect of improving the formability limit.
  However, on the other hand, if the content of these elements increases, the adverse effects of these elements also increase the number of coarse crystals and precipitates resulting from these elements, which tend to be the starting point of destruction. Reduces moldability. Furthermore, the crystal grain size becomes too fine, and if it is less than 25 μm, an SS mark is likely to appear. Therefore, when these elements are contained, Fe: 1.0% by mass or less, Si: 0.5% by mass or less, Mn: 1.0% by mass or less, Cr: 0.3% by mass or less, Zr: 0.3 mass% or less, V: 0.3 mass% or less, Ti: 0.1 mass% or less, Cu: 1.0 mass% or less.
(Production method)
The manufacturing method of the board of this invention is demonstrated concretely below.
  In the present invention, until the rolling process before the solution treatment, it is manufactured by a manufacturing method according to a normal manufacturing process of an Al-Mg alloy for forming containing about 4.5% of Mg such as 5182, 5082, 5083, and 5056. Is possible. That is, an aluminum alloy hot-rolled sheet having a thickness of 1.5 to 5.0 mm is manufactured through normal manufacturing processes such as casting (DC casting or continuous casting), homogenization heat treatment, and hot rolling. The At this stage, a product plate may be used. Further, it is further cold-rolled while selectively performing one or more intermediate annealings before or during cold rolling, and the plate thickness is 1.5 mm or less. It is good also as the product board of the cold-rolled sheet.
  After applying solution treatment and quenching (final annealing) to the Al—Mg-based aluminum alloy plate (product plate) having the above-mentioned composition and then performing cold working such as a skin pass, this plate is pre-strained. Then, this plate is subjected to addition annealing or aging treatment at a low temperature of 50 to 100 ° C. More specifically, a solution that is heated to a temperature within the range of 450 to 570 ° C. and rapidly cooled to a temperature of 100 ° C. at a cooling rate of 5 ° C./sec or higher without being held or after being held for 180 seconds or less. After the solution treatment / quenching, and after the solution treatment / quenching, the steel plate was rapidly cooled to 100 ° C., and further cold-worked within 1 hour to give pre-strain to the plate. An aging treatment is performed by annealing at a temperature of ° C. Here, in order to promote the formation of fine MgZn clusters for improving the critical strain of serration generation, after cold working such as the skin pass, room temperature aging that is maintained at room temperature until the additional annealing is described later It is necessary for a short time.
  Then, as an index indicating the plate structure (the presence of the new fine MgZn cluster) and the press formability of the plate, it is obtained by analyzing the EELS spectrum of the K loss edge of Mg measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy. The position of the first adjacent peak in the radial distribution function of the atomic frequency obtained by further Fourier transforming the obtained vibration function is set within a range of 1.8 Å (angstrom) to 2.0 Å.
Solution treatment (final annealing):
In order to obtain the plate of the present invention, these hot-rolled plates or cold-rolled plates having the required thickness obtained by the above-described conventional method are first subjected to rapid heating and rapid cooling as final annealing. Perform solution treatment and quenching. As a result, the material that has undergone such solution treatment / quenching treatment, the so-called T4 treatment material, has an excellent balance between strength and formability compared to the batch annealed material, and the action of pores introduced during quenching. The occurrence of SS marks is also reduced.
  Here, although the appropriate value of the solution treatment temperature varies depending on the specific alloy composition, it must be within the range of 450 ° C. or more and 570 ° C. or less, and the retention at the solution treatment temperature is 0 second (not retained). ) Or within 180 seconds (3 minutes). When the solution treatment temperature is less than 450 ° C., the alloy element is not sufficiently dissolved, the strength and ductility are lowered, and the formation of the new ultrafine MgZn clusters is insufficient, and the effect of suppressing the SS mark is small. Become. On the other hand, if the solution treatment temperature exceeds 570 ° C., the crystal grains become excessively coarse, which causes problems such as deterioration of moldability and generation of rough skin during molding. In addition, if the holding time at the solution treatment temperature is increased, a problem of excessive coarsening of crystal grains occurs.
Quenching process:
Furthermore, the cooling rate during the quenching after the solution treatment needs to be rapidly cooled to room temperature at a cooling rate of 15 ° C./sec or more. When the cooling rate is less than 15 ° C./second, the effect of suppressing the generation of the SS mark is reduced, and there is a possibility that the SS mark may be generated even if pre-processing and annealing are performed thereafter.
  Such solution treatment / quenching may be performed continuously using a continuous annealing line (CAL) or furnace, or a salt bath for heating, water quenching for oil cooling, oil quenching, forced air cooling, etc. It may be used in a batch manner. Here, when the solution treatment / quenching using the most preferable CAL is performed, the general heating and cooling rates from room temperature to the solution treatment temperature are both about 5 to 100 ° C./second.
Predistortion:
In order to obtain the plate of the present invention, after the solution treatment / quenching (final annealing), cold working (pre-working) for pre-straining the plate is further performed. Such pre-processing is performed within 1 hour after the rapid cooling to room temperature after the final annealing. When the time to pre-processing exceeds 1 hour, fine pores at the atomic level introduced during quenching are eliminated or reduced, and even if pre-strained and annealed at low temperature, It is assumed that there is a high possibility that the fine MgZn clusters cannot be present or the amount thereof is insufficient. When the time until pre-processing exceeds 1 hour, as a practical matter, the first proximity peak position measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy is out of the above-described range, and the occurrence of SS marks is difficult to be suppressed. Because.
  Regardless of the type of pre-processing, it is performed by means of normal pre-processing, for example, skin pass rolling, cold rolling, or repeated bending using a roller leveler. Thus, by adjusting the increment of the proof stress value to be within a specific range and performing cold working as pre-processing, the occurrence of yield elongation during press forming is reliably suppressed, and the SS mark, In particular, it is possible to reliably prevent the generation of random marks. Therefore, it is preferable that the Al—Mg-based aluminum alloy plate of the present invention is pre-formed after being given a certain pre-strain.
  Here, the processing rate of pre-processing that gives a pre-strain to the plate (amount of pre-strain) is determined by the following radial distribution function by precipitating the ultrafine MgZn clusters by additional annealing at a low temperature. Add so that the position of the first adjacent peak is in the range of 1.8 to 2.0 mm. The optimum processing rate varies depending on the composition such as the amount of Zn and Mg and the tempering conditions up to the pre-processing, and seriously, the subsequent annealing temperature is an aging precipitation temperature (150 to Compared to about 200 ° C.), the temperature is extremely low, so it cannot be generally stated, and there is no choice but to try and error.
  However, if this processing rate is too high, the proof stress value of the plate becomes too high and the formability deteriorates. Further, if the processing rate is too low, since the subsequent annealing is low temperature, the amount of precipitation of the ultrafine MgZn clusters is reduced, the position of the first adjacent peak in the specified radial distribution function is 1.8% or more, Out of the range of 2.0 mm or less.
Addition annealing:
In this invention, the aging treatment (addition annealing) which anneals at a comparatively low temperature of 40-90 degreeC is performed after this pre-processing. As described above, this additional annealing is significantly lower in temperature than the normal aging precipitation temperature. By combining the special additional annealing and the pre-processing, the ultra-fine MgZn cluster is newly generated or further present, and the first proximity peak measured by the electron energy loss spectroscopy described above is used. It can be set as the board of this invention which a position becomes in the said appropriate range and can suppress SS mark. As described above, it is necessary to form fine MgZn clusters in order to improve the critical strain of serration generation. For this reason, before performing this additional annealing, after the solution treatment and quenching treatment and the skin pass for imparting the pre-strain, it is necessary to keep the room temperature (aging at room temperature) for a relatively short time. As this room temperature aging (holding) time, several hours to several days (about 5 days) are sufficient, and there is no need to make it any longer. This room temperature aging time is the time (elapsed or required time) from the end of the pre-processing (completed) to the start of heating in the artificial aging treatment (additional annealing).
  Since the supersaturated solid solubility after solution quenching increases when the additional annealing temperature is lower, the ultrafine MgZn clusters are stably formed. On the other hand, since the diffusion rate is reduced, the temperature is less than 40 ° C. If it is too low, it takes too much time to form the ultrafine MgZn cluster, and the effect of the additional annealing (aging) treatment is small, which is insufficient as industrial conditions. On the other hand, when this additional annealing temperature is too high, the ultrafine MgZn clusters are decomposed, and coarse MgZn-based precipitates such as the η phase are generated. In addition, coarsening of the second phase particles containing Mg, Cu or other alloy additive elements occurs at the grain boundaries or the like, resulting in a decrease in ductility, formability or corrosion resistance.
This additional annealing (aging) treatment time is preferably performed by heating and holding in the temperature range for about 30 minutes to 240 minutes. If it is less than 30 minutes, the effect of the additional annealing (aging) treatment is not obtained. On the other hand, the effect does not change even if it exceeds 240 minutes, and it is meaningless if it is too long.
In the prior art, a series of manufacturing steps is completed by the solution treatment / quenching (final annealing), or 3-5% cooling after solution treatment / quenching as in Patent Document 1. The intermediate process is performed, and then the final annealing at about 300 to 400 ° C. is performed to complete the process. However, in such a conventional process, the critical strain improvement of serration generation is insufficient.
  EXAMPLES Hereinafter, the present invention will be described more specifically with reference to examples. However, the present invention is not limited by the following examples, but may be appropriately modified within a range that can meet the purpose described above and below. It is also possible to implement, and they are all included in the technical scope of the present invention.
  Next, examples of the present invention will be described. After manufacturing Al-Mg type alloy plates having the respective compositions of the invention examples and comparative examples shown in Table 1 and tempering and manufacturing under the conditions shown in Table 2, the structure and mechanical properties of the tempered plates are shown. Each was measured and evaluated. The results are shown in Table 3. In addition, "-" description of element content in Table 1 shows that the content of the element is below a detection limit.
  The manufacturing method of a hot-rolled sheet and a cold-rolled sheet was performed in common with each example. That is, a 50 mm thick ingot cast by book mold casting was subjected to a homogenization heat treatment at 480 ° C. for 8 hours, and then hot rolling was started at 400 ° C. The plate thickness was a 3.5 mm hot rolled plate. After cold rolling the hot-rolled sheet to a thickness of 1.35 mm, as shown in Table 2, while appropriately performing intermediate annealing in a glass furnace as necessary (there is no description of intermediate annealing conditions) The example was not subjected to intermediate annealing), and was further cold-rolled to form a cold-rolled sheet having a thickness of 1.0 mm.
  As shown in Table 2 together with the alloy numbers in Table 1, these cold-rolled sheets are subjected to solution tempering and quenching treatments under different conditions, and then a tempering of a skin pass as a cold working to give pre-strain and subsequent additional annealing. Each treatment was performed selectively. A test piece (thickness 1 mm) was cut out from these tempered plates, and the structure and mechanical properties of the test piece (tempered plate) were measured and evaluated. These results are shown in Table 3, respectively. Here, the abbreviations in Table 2 and Table 3 are the same, and the same abbreviations indicate the same examples.
(EELS spectrum analysis)
As a structural investigation of the plate, five disk-shaped samples having a diameter of 3 mm were cut out from any location of the test piece, a test piece for TEM observation was prepared by a thin film method, and Mg measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy was used. The average value of the positions of the first adjacent peaks in the radial distribution function of the atomic frequency, obtained by further Fourier transforming the vibration function obtained by analyzing the EELS spectrum of the K loss edge of was obtained. As a representative of these results, the above-mentioned behaviors of Invention Example 1, Comparative Example 15 (no ZnZn and no MgZn clusters), and Comparative Example 27 (including relatively coarse MgZn clusters such as an aging-precipitated η phase) are described. Examples of the diameter distribution function are shown in FIGS.
  This EELS spectrum analysis was performed under the following conditions in common with each example. As a test apparatus, Hitachi, Ltd .: HF-2000 field emission transmission electron microscope (FE-TEM) was used, an acceleration (200 kV), a Gatan model 678 energy filter, and an aperture (effective lens aperture) of 2 mm, The dispersion (spectral conditions) was 0.5 eV / pixel, the measurement time was 4 sec, and the number of integrations was 20. The element (atom) to be measured was Mg.
(Organization)
In order to confirm the presence or absence of relatively coarse MgZn clusters such as the η phase, the structure of the plate was examined by FE-TEM used for the EELS spectrum analysis at a magnification of 300,000 times. Then, the average maximum length of the observed MgZn clusters was determined. Of these, representatively, the structure photographs of Invention Examples 1 in Tables 2 and 3 are shown in FIG. 7 and Comparative Example 28 in Tables 2 and 3 are shown in FIG. 8 for comparison. This same FIG. 8 is an example of inferior SS mark property in which fine MgZn clusters (precipitates) having an average maximum length of about 20 nm are aged while having the same composition as Invention Example 1.
(Mechanical properties)
As an investigation of the mechanical properties of the plate, the above test pieces were subjected to a tensile test, and tensile strength (MPa), 0.2% proof stress (MPa), and elongation (%) were measured. These results are shown in Table 3. As test conditions, a No. 5 test piece (25 mm × 50 mmGL × sheet thickness) of JISZ2201 in a direction perpendicular to the rolling direction was sampled and subjected to a tensile test. The tensile test was performed at room temperature of 20 ° C. based on JISZ2241 (1980) (metal material tensile test method). The crosshead speed was 2 mm / min, and the test was performed at a constant speed until the test piece broke.
(SS mark generation evaluation)
At the same time, in order to evaluate the occurrence of SS marks as the press formability of the plate, the yield elongation (%) during the tensile test and the amount of strain that generates serrated serrations on the stress-strain curve (critical strain amount: %) And stress (critical stress amount: N / mm 2 ). The results are shown in Table 3.
  As shown in Tables 1 and 2, each invention example (however, invention example 19 in Table 2 is a missing number) satisfies the composition provisions of the present invention, and is produced under the preferred production conditions. As a result, as shown in Table 3, each invention example is an atom obtained by further Fourier transforming the vibration function obtained by analyzing the EELS spectrum of the K loss end of Mg measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy. The position of the first proximate peak in the radial distribution function of the frequency is in the range of 1.8 Å (angstrom) or more and 2.0 Å or less. On the other hand, in each invention example, as shown in Table 3, there is no relatively coarse MgZn cluster such as the η phase.
  Thus, as shown in Table 3, each of Invention Examples 1 to 21 (invention Example 19 of Table 3 is a missing number) has a critical strain of serration generation on the stress-strain curve of the aluminum alloy plate of 8% or more. A high thing is 10.0% or 15.0% or more. In addition, these excellent SS mark characteristics can be achieved without degrading excellent mechanical characteristic levels such as tensile strength and elongation of 5000 series aluminum alloy plates such as JIS 5052 alloy and JIS 5182 alloy.
  On the other hand, in Comparative Examples 22 to 27, as shown in Table 2, the tempering conditions deviate from the preferable ranges while using the same alloy number 1 of Table 1 as that of Invention Example 1. In Comparative Example 22, no skin pass was performed and no predistortion was applied. In Comparative Example 23, the solution treatment temperature is too low. In Comparative Example 24, the cooling rate during quenching after the solution treatment is too low. In Comparative Example 25, no additional annealing was performed. In Comparative Example 26, the time required to start the skin pass after completion of the quenching process to room temperature is too long. In Comparative Example 27, the additional annealing temperature is too high, and relatively coarse aging precipitates are generated as shown in FIG.
  On the other hand, in Comparative Examples 28 to 31, the tempering conditions are in a preferable range, but the alloy composition in Table 1 is outside the scope of the invention. Comparative Example 28 does not contain Zn (Alloy 15 in Table 1). Although the comparative example 29 contains Zn, there is too little content (alloy 16 of Table 1). Comparative Example 30 has too much Zn content (Alloy 17 in Table 1). Comparative Example 31 has too much Mg content (alloy 18 in Table 1).
  As a result, as shown in Table 3, in each comparative example, the position of the first adjacent peak deviates from the upper limit range. In addition, there is an example (Comparative Examples 23, 24, and 27) in which the critical strain of serration generation on the stress-strain curve of the aluminum alloy plate is as low as less than 8% and relatively coarse aging precipitates are generated. For this reason, in each comparative example, the mechanical properties such as strength and elongation are not significantly different from those of the invention examples except for the case where the coarse aging precipitate is generated, but the SS mark characteristics are remarkably higher than those of the invention examples. Low.
  The above examples support the critical significance of each requirement or preferred condition of the present invention for the SS mark characteristics.
  As described above, according to the present invention, it is possible to provide an Al—Mg-based aluminum alloy plate containing Zn which has few stretcher strain marks (SS marks) and has excellent formability. As a result, the application of the Al—Mg-based aluminum alloy plate to many uses such as the automobile described above, which is used by press-molding the plate, is expanded.

Claims (2)

  1.   An Al—Mg-based aluminum alloy plate containing, by mass%, Mg: 0.5 to 7.0%, Zn: 1.0 to 4.0%, the balance being Al and inevitable impurities, As an index representing the relationship between the structure and press formability, the vibration function obtained by analyzing the EELS spectrum of the K loss end of Mg measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy is obtained by further Fourier transforming. An aluminum alloy plate excellent in formability, wherein the position of the first adjacent peak in the radial distribution function of the frequency of atoms is in the range of 1.8 Å (angstrom) or more and 2.0 Å or less.
  2. The aluminum alloy plate is further Fe: 0.4 mass% or less, Si: 0.5 mass% or less, Mn: 0.3 mass% or less, Cr: 0.3 mass% or less, Zr: 0.3 mass % Or less, V: 0.3% by mass or less, Ti: 0.1% by mass or less, Cu: 1.0% by mass or less, one type or two or more types selected from the following: Aluminum alloy plate with excellent properties.
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