JP5342628B2 - X-ray imaging device - Google Patents

X-ray imaging device Download PDF

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JP5342628B2
JP5342628B2 JP2011221300A JP2011221300A JP5342628B2 JP 5342628 B2 JP5342628 B2 JP 5342628B2 JP 2011221300 A JP2011221300 A JP 2011221300A JP 2011221300 A JP2011221300 A JP 2011221300A JP 5342628 B2 JP5342628 B2 JP 5342628B2
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position sensor
position
position information
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JP2012000519A (en
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卓弥 坂口
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株式会社東芝
東芝メディカルシステムズ株式会社
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  The present invention relates to an X-ray imaging apparatus, and in particular, by optimizing imaging conditions, image correction conditions, and display conditions, it is possible to obtain a high-quality image in reducing the exposure dose to a patient and imaging a part with movement. It relates to what can be done.

  An X-ray imaging apparatus is an image apparatus that displays the intensity of X-rays transmitted through a patient's body as a grayscale image, and there are various apparatuses depending on purposes such as diagnosis and treatment. In particular, techniques for three-dimensional reconstruction of a subject include methods such as tomographic techniques, direct reconstruction techniques, and numerical reconstruction techniques, which are generally used (see, for example, Patent Documents 1 and 2).

  The X-ray imaging apparatus is provided, for example, on a bed on which a patient is placed, a C-arm that is supported and rotated by a gantry, an X-ray source provided at one end of the C-arm, and an other end An X-ray detector, X-rays emitted from an X-ray source are detected by the X-ray detector, and a three-dimensional image is reconstructed based on the obtained image data. According to such an X-ray imaging apparatus, it is applied to a subject part with a small movement, such as the head, abdomen, and extremities, and has a great diagnostic effect.

  A technique for processing an image obtained by an X-ray imaging apparatus so that an operator can easily see the image is known (see, for example, Patent Document 3). In addition, 3D position sensors for knowing the position of a catheter or the like in real time are known (for example, see Non-Patent Documents 1 to 3).

JP 2002-65654 A JP 2003-230554 A US Pat. No. 5,822,391

Shigeru Ikeguchi, "Intracardiac mapping using Electronatomical mapping (Carto system)", Respiration and Circulation, Sogakuin, May 2003, 51, 5, p. 481-485 Dafina Tanase and 3 others, "Multi-parameter sensor system with intravascular navigation for catheter / guide wire application) ", Sensors and Actuators A (Netherlands), ELSEVIER, April 1, 2002, Volumes 97-98, P.A. 116-124 Laura Sacolick, 4 others, "Electromagnetically tracked placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter", Proc Proceedings of SPIE, (USA), The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2004, Vol. 5367, P.A. 724-728

  The X-ray imaging apparatus described above has the following problems. That is, since it is necessary to search for optimum imaging conditions while actually irradiating X-rays during imaging, the amount of work for the operator is large and the patient may be wasted. In addition, since the movement of an organ such as the heart cannot be stopped even during image acquisition, the distal end of an instrument such as a catheter is difficult to see. There was a problem that the image quality deteriorated.

  Therefore, the present invention provides an X-ray imaging apparatus capable of reducing the exposure dose to the subject, reducing the labor of the operator, and improving the image quality, thereby providing accurate diagnostic information. It is aimed.

  In order to solve the above problems and achieve the object, the X-ray imaging apparatus of the present invention is configured as follows.

An X-ray source for irradiating the subject with X-rays, an X-ray detector for detecting X-rays from the X-ray source, a position sensor inserted in the subject, and the X-ray detector An image processing unit for processing the detected image data, an image display unit for displaying an image processed by the image processing unit, and the X-ray source and the X-ray detector based on the position information of the position sensor An adjustment mechanism that adjusts the relative position of the bed mechanism so that the position sensor is within an imaging range, and the image processing unit is configured to administer a contrast agent to the subject. So that the first position information from the position sensor and the second position information from the position sensor of the second image obtained without administering the contrast agent to the subject substantially coincide with each other. , upper Symbol image display by superimposing the first image and the second image X-ray imaging apparatus, wherein a position on the screen of the position sensor to be displayed for processing to be identical by parts.

  ADVANTAGE OF THE INVENTION According to this invention, while being able to reduce the exposure amount to a test object, it becomes possible to provide an accurate diagnostic information by reducing an operator's effort and improving an image quality.

The figure which shows the structure of the X-ray imaging device which concerns on one embodiment of this invention. Explanatory drawing which shows the imaging principle in the same X-ray imaging device. Explanatory drawing which shows the imaging principle in the same X-ray imaging device. Explanatory drawing which shows the example of a display screen in the same X-ray imaging device. Explanatory drawing which shows the imaging principle in the same X-ray imaging device. Explanatory drawing which shows the imaging principle in the same X-ray imaging device. Explanatory drawing which shows the imaging principle in the same X-ray imaging device. Explanatory drawing which shows the imaging principle in the same X-ray imaging device. Explanatory drawing which shows the imaging principle in the same X-ray imaging device. Explanatory drawing which shows the imaging principle in the same X-ray imaging device. Explanatory drawing which shows the principle of positioning in the X-ray imaging device. Explanatory drawing which shows the imaging principle in the same X-ray imaging device. Explanatory drawing which shows the imaging principle in the same X-ray imaging device. Explanatory drawing which shows the imaging principle in the same X-ray imaging device. Explanatory drawing which shows the imaging principle in the same X-ray imaging device.

  FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a configuration of an X-ray imaging apparatus 10 according to the first embodiment of the present invention. The X-ray imaging apparatus 10 includes a bed 11 on which a patient (subject) K is placed, a gantry 12, and a C arm 13 that is supported by the gantry 12 and rotates around the P axis in FIG. An X-ray source 14 provided at one end of the C-arm 13, an X-ray detector 15 provided at the other end of the C-arm 13, a monitor 16 for displaying a generated image, The 3D position detection device 20 for detecting the position of an instrument such as a catheter to be inserted into the body of the patient K and these devices are linked and controlled, and pixel data captured from multiple directions are collected to obtain a three-dimensional image. And a control unit 30 to be reconfigured.

  The bed 11 is movable in the vertical direction and the horizontal direction, so that the patient K is appropriately disposed between the X-ray source 14 and the X-ray detector 15.

  The C arm 13 has a structure in which the X-ray source 14 and the X-ray detector 15 are held facing each other. The X-ray source 14 includes an X-ray tube 14a that irradiates the patient K with X-rays, and a collimator 14b that collimates the X-rays irradiated from the X-ray tube (see FIG. 5). The X-ray tube 14a is a vacuum tube that generates X-rays, and generates X-rays by accelerating electrons by a high voltage generated by a high voltage generator (not shown) and colliding with a target. The X-ray detector 15 is, for example, I.D. I. (Image intensifier) and an optical system. The X-ray detector 15 is an I.D. I. The X-ray information transmitted through the patient K is converted into optical information, and this optical information is collected by the optical lens by the optical system. In addition, I.I. I. An X-ray flat panel detector may be used as a detection device other than the above.

  The 3D position detection device 20 includes a first position sensor 21 attached to a distal end portion of an instrument to be inserted into a patient K such as a catheter, a second position sensor 22 attached to the X-ray source 14, A third position sensor 23 attached to the X-ray detector 15 and a receiver 24 that receives signals from the first to third position sensors 21 and outputs the respective position information as position signals. ing.

  The control unit 30 controls the controller 31 that controls the position of the bed 11 and the gantry 12 and the entire apparatus, the X-ray control unit 32 that controls the X-ray irradiation in the X-ray source 14, and the X-ray detector 15. An X-ray detector control unit 33 for controlling, a 3D position information interface 34 for controlling the 3D position detection device 20, an image calculation device 35 for performing calculation based on collected image data, position information, and the like, And a display control unit 36 for appropriately displaying the generated image.

  The X-ray imaging apparatus 10 configured as described above captures a tomographic image of the patient K as follows. That is, X-rays are emitted toward the X-ray detector 15 from the X-ray source 14 controlled by the X-ray irradiation control unit 32 according to a command from the controller 31. The X-ray detector 15 collects pixel data, inputs it to the X-ray detector control unit 33, and sends the image data to the image calculation device 35.

  On the other hand, the position information of the first position sensor 21 is acquired from the receiver 24 and input to the 3D position information interface 34 as a position signal. The position signal is further input to the image calculation device 35.

  The image calculation device 35 corrects the image data as follows based on the collected image data and the position information of the first position sensor 21. 2 is an explanatory diagram schematically showing the positional relationship among the X-ray source 14, the organ G, and the X-ray detector 15, and FIG. 3 is an explanatory diagram showing image correction processing.

  When the organ W is an organ having a certain movement such as a heart, for example, the distal end of the instrument E for performing the operation also moves along with this movement. For this reason, the tip of the instrument displayed on the monitor 16 is always moving and is difficult to see. However, the position information of the first position sensor 21 is taken into the image calculation device 35 and image processing is performed so that the movement of the first position sensor 21 is fixed at a fixed position on the screen of the monitor 16.

  Specifically, the image data Gn ′ obtained by correcting the image data Gn at every time tn based on the position information fn of the first position sensor 21 is generated. For example, when the image G1 and the position information f1 are input at the time t1, which is the reference time, the image G1 is displayed as it is. Next, when the image G2 and the position information f2 at the time t2 are input, the image G2 is moved in the reverse direction by the same movement amount as the difference between the position information f2 and the position information f1. As a result, the position of the first position sensor 21 does not move within the screen. The position information fn is a value converted from the actual position information into a two-dimensional difference in the in-plane direction of the X-ray detector 15. Therefore, the tip of the instrument E is fixed on the screen of the monitor 16, and the treatment is easy. FIG. 4 is a diagram showing an example of the images G1, G2 ′, G3 ′ processed in this way. Regardless of the position of the organ W, the tip of the instrument E is always located at the center of the screen.

  In the case where the patient K moves greatly during the operation and moves between the X-ray source 14 and the X-ray detector 15, that is, out of the imaging range, based on the position information from the first position sensor 21. The bed 11 can be moved in the horizontal direction or the vertical direction so that it always falls within the imaging range. This eliminates the need for the operator to check the imaging range while looking at the monitor 16 and the auxiliary operation by the assistant for moving the bed 11, and makes it possible to perform an efficient operation.

  As described above, according to the X-ray imaging apparatus 10 according to the present embodiment, the distal end of the instrument E is fixed and displayed on the screen of the monitor 16, and the treatment is facilitated. In addition, since it is not necessary to check and adjust the imaging range, efficient treatment is possible.

  In the X-ray imaging apparatus 10 described above, it is possible to obtain a desired image by optimally positioning the X-ray source 14, the X-ray detector 15, and the bed 11. For example, when imaging an organ W having a periodic motion such as a heart or an abdomen, a motion vector of the first position sensor 21 can be acquired.

  When the X-ray source 14 and the X-ray detector 15 are positioned so that the vector connecting the X-ray source 14 and the X-ray detector 15 is orthogonal to the motion vector, the movement of the organ W is maximized and is visually recognized on the image. Although it becomes difficult, the movement of the organ W becomes easy to understand. On the other hand, when the X-ray source 14 and the X-ray detector 15 are positioned so that the vector connecting the X-ray source 14 and the X-ray detector 15 coincides with the motion vector, the movement of the organ W is minimized and on the image. Easy to see. As described above, the X-ray source 14, the X-ray detector 15, and the bed 11 can be optimally positioned without irradiating the patient K with unnecessary X-rays, and a desired image can be obtained. .

  FIG. 5 is a diagram showing another embodiment of the X-ray imaging apparatus 10 described above. In other words, in the present embodiment, based on the position information from the first position sensor 21, the region separated from the first position sensor 21 is not irradiated with X-rays.

  That is, position information from the first position sensor 21 is input to the X-ray irradiation control unit 32 via the 3D position information interface 34. In the X-ray irradiation control unit 32, the irradiation range is limited by the first position sensor 21 collimator 14b. In addition, B in FIG. 5 has shown the area | region which is not irradiated.

  Thereby, since X-rays are always irradiated in the vicinity of the first position sensor 21, imaging is always performed on the organ W, and X-rays are not irradiated on a portion that does not require imaging. It is possible to reduce the X-ray dose irradiated to the.

  FIG. 6 is a diagram showing another embodiment of the X-ray imaging apparatus 10 described above. That is, in the present embodiment, the movement amount of the first position sensor 21 is obtained based on the position information from the first position sensor 21, and the X-ray irradiation pattern from the X-ray source 14 is obtained based on the movement amount. Is to adjust. In the present embodiment, the moving subject corresponds to the situation that the image is blurred when the motion is intense.

  When the amount of movement is small, the influence of noise is reduced by reducing the irradiation intensity of one pulse and extending the irradiation time. On the other hand, when the movement amount is large, it is possible to prevent blurring of the image of the subject by increasing the irradiation intensity of one pulse and shortening the irradiation time. In addition, the total dose of one time is the same regardless of the amount of movement.

  FIG. 7 is a diagram showing another embodiment of the X-ray imaging apparatus 10 described above. That is, in the present embodiment, the movement amount of the first position sensor 21 is obtained based on the position information from the first position sensor 21, and the X-ray irradiation pattern from the X-ray source 14 is obtained based on the movement amount. Is to adjust. In this embodiment, the moving subject corresponds to the situation that the image becomes less visible when the movement is intense.

  When the movement amount is small, the exposure amount can be minimized by reducing the frame rate. On the other hand, when the movement amount is large, the visibility can be improved by increasing the frame rate even when the subject moves quickly.

  FIG. 8 is a diagram showing another embodiment of the X-ray imaging apparatus 10 described above. That is, in the present embodiment, the movement amount of the first position sensor 21 is obtained based on the position information from the first position sensor 21, and the X-ray irradiation pattern from the X-ray source 14 is obtained based on the movement amount. Is to adjust. In this embodiment, when recognizing a moving subject, it is not used as a reference when the movement is intense, and it corresponds to the situation that the detailed observation is often performed when the movement is slow.

  When the movement amount is small, the image quality is improved by increasing the frame rate. On the other hand, when the movement amount is large, by reducing the frame rate, it is possible to generate a low-quality image from which information of a reference level can be obtained and to reduce the exposure amount.

  When the amount of movement is small, the image quality is improved by increasing the irradiation intensity of one pulse. On the other hand, when the movement amount is large, by reducing the irradiation intensity of one pulse, it is possible to generate a low-quality image from which information of a reference level can be obtained, and to reduce the exposure amount.

  FIG. 9 is a diagram showing another embodiment of the X-ray imaging apparatus 10 described above. That is, in the present embodiment, the movement amount of the first position sensor 21 is obtained based on the position information from the first position sensor 21, and the X-ray irradiation pattern from the X-ray source 14 is obtained based on the movement amount. And an image calculation device 35 generates a complementary image. The present embodiment aims to reduce the exposure dose to the patient K.

  That is, when acquiring image data normally, imaging is performed at a normal frame rate (for example, 30 fps) as indicated by α1 to α5 in FIG. In this embodiment, imaging is performed at a slow frame rate (for example, 15 fps) as indicated by β1 to β3 in FIG. Then, the amount of movement is obtained from the position information from the first position sensor 21, and each image data is corrected by this amount of movement, thereby generating complementary image data as indicated by β1 'and β2' in FIG. It becomes possible. Then, by alternately displaying the image data and the complementary image data, it is possible to display an image similar to that obtained when imaging is performed at a normal frame rate. In this case, since the frame rate is slow, the exposure dose can be reduced.

  FIG. 10 is a diagram showing another embodiment of the X-ray imaging apparatus 10 described above. The present embodiment aims to obtain an image with little deviation even when the amount of contrast medium administered to the patient K is reduced.

  First, the first position sensor 21 is positioned using an instrument E such as a guide wire or a stent in a necessary portion of an organ W such as a blood vessel as a subject. Next, a contrast medium is administered to the organ W to perform imaging. The image at this time is stored as the basic image D0 in the image calculation unit 35 together with the position information from the first position sensor 21.

  Next, imaging of the organ W is performed without administering a contrast agent. A new image Dn ′ is generated by superimposing the basic image D0 of the organ W clearly imaged using the contrast agent and the real-time image Dn of the instrument E imaged without using the contrast agent. At the time of superposition, the superposition is performed so that the position of the first position sensor 21 is the same position. Thereby, it is clear in real time where the instrument E is located in the organ W in a clear image. As a result, since the contrast medium is administered only when the basic image D0 is captured, the burden on the patient K is reduced.

  Therefore, according to the X-ray imaging apparatus 10, a clear real-time image of the organ W can be obtained even when the posture of the patient K changes, and the dose of the contrast medium can be minimized. The burden on K can be reduced.

  FIG. 11 is an explanatory view schematically showing another embodiment of the X-ray imaging apparatus 10 described above. In this embodiment, the X-ray source 14 and the X-ray detector 15 are rotated around the body axis W0 of the patient K, image data is collected, and a three-dimensional image is reconstructed.

  When a three-dimensional image is reconstructed, it is necessary that the organ W as a subject is within the irradiation range of the X-ray source 14. At this time, the organ W is imaged from one direction to confirm the image, and then the image is also imaged from the other direction to confirm the image. At this time, for example, when an image of the organ W cannot be obtained by imaging from other directions as in the case of W2 or W3 in FIG. 11, the position of the bed 11 in the horizontal direction or the vertical direction is adjusted again. However, when adjustment is repeated, there is a problem that the exposure dose to the patient K increases.

  In the X-ray imaging apparatus 10, the position information of the first position sensor 21, the X-ray source 14, and the X-ray detector 15 is input to the controller 31, and the geometrically optimal X is based on these position information. The relative positional relationship between the radiation source 14, the X-ray detector 15, and the bed 11 is calculated, and each is moved to a predetermined position. Thereby, by moving the organ W to a position indicated by W1 in FIG. 11 in the region S, for example, adjustment can be performed without performing unnecessary X-ray irradiation.

  Therefore, according to the X-ray imaging apparatus 10, the X-ray source 14, the X-ray detector 15, and the bed 11 can be positioned without giving unnecessary X-ray irradiation to the patient K.

  12 and 13 are explanatory views schematically showing another embodiment of the X-ray imaging apparatus 10 described above. In this embodiment, the X-ray source 14 and the X-ray detector 15 are rotated around the patient K, image data is collected, and a three-dimensional image is reconstructed. Of course, simple rotation photography may be used.

  As shown in FIG. 12, the stenosis Wa generated in a tubular organ W such as a blood vessel can obtain an image with completely different evaluation depending on the direction of imaging. That is, when the width of the organ W is Σ1 and the width of the stenosis is σ1, the width of the organ W is Σ2 and the width of the stenosis is σ2, the width of the organ W is Σ3 and the width of the stenosis is σ3. In some cases, the doctor may make a completely different decision. Therefore, in the case of a tubular organ W such as a blood vessel, it is necessary to obtain an optimal image by obtaining an image through trial and error from multiple directions in order to take an image with a cross section as shown in FIG. May give unnecessary X-ray irradiation.

  As shown in FIG. 13, the X-ray imaging apparatus 10 includes a pair of first position sensors 21 and 21 ′ provided at a predetermined interval (for example, 3 cm) on an instrument E such as a wire. The instrument E is inserted into the organ W. Position information is obtained from each of the first position sensors 21 and 21 ′, and this position information is input to the controller 31. The controller 31 obtains a straight line φ connecting the pair of first position sensors 21 based on the pair of position information. Next, the orthogonal plane Ω orthogonal to the straight line φ is calculated. Accordingly, the axial direction of the tubular organ W can be easily found, and the X-ray source 14, the X-ray detector 15, and the bed 11 are positioned so that an appropriate orthogonal plane Ω, that is, a tomographic image can be obtained. I do.

  Therefore, according to the X-ray imaging apparatus 10, the X-ray source 14 and the X-ray detector 15 are configured so as to perform imaging of the tubular organ W in an appropriate direction without giving unnecessary X-ray irradiation to the patient K. The bed 11 can be positioned.

  In FIG. 14, instead of providing a pair of first position sensors 21, two pieces of position information in the organ W can be obtained by moving the instrument E in the organ W. Based on these two pieces of position information, the X-ray source 14, X-ray detector 15 and bed 11 can be positioned to obtain an optimum tomographic image in the same manner as in the embodiment of FIG.

  FIG. 15 is an explanatory view schematically showing another embodiment of the X-ray imaging apparatus 10 described above. In this embodiment, the X-ray source 14 and the X-ray detector 15 are rotated around the patient K, image data is collected, and a three-dimensional image is reconstructed. In the present embodiment, the C-arm 13 bends due to the weight of the X-ray source 14 and the X-ray detector 15 to cause a slight positional deviation from the design value, and the image quality of the reconstructed three-dimensional image is deteriorated. It corresponds.

  In the X-ray imaging apparatus 10, the position information of the second position sensor 22 provided in the X-ray source 14 and the third position sensor 23 provided in the X-ray detector 15 is sent to the controller 31 at a predetermined timing. Entered. In FIG. 15, U is a pulse at a constant interval, V1 is design position information of the first position sensor 21, V2 is design position information of the second position sensor 22, and V3 is a third position sensor 23. The position information on the design is shown, and the plot shows the position information actually obtained.

  Based on these pieces of position information, the positions of the X-ray source 14 and the X-ray detector 15 are acquired in real time, the difference between these positions and the designed position information is corrected, and the tomographic image is obtained by the image calculation unit 35. Or reconstruct the tertiary source image. Thereby, the influence by bending can be calibrated and an image of high image quality can be obtained. In the present embodiment, the organ W is applied to imaging of an organ that hardly moves, such as the head and legs.

  As described above, according to the X-ray imaging apparatus 10 according to the present embodiment, the amount of exposure to the patient K can be reduced, the operator's effort is reduced, and the image quality is improved, thereby providing accurate diagnostic information and the like. It becomes possible to provide.

  Note that the present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiment as it is, and can be embodied by modifying the constituent elements without departing from the scope of the invention in the implementation stage. In addition, various inventions can be formed by appropriately combining a plurality of components disclosed in the embodiment. For example, some components may be deleted from all the components shown in the embodiment. Furthermore, constituent elements over different embodiments may be appropriately combined.

  DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 ... X-ray imaging device, 11 ... Bed, 12 ... Stand, 13 ... C arm, 14 ... X-ray source, 15 ... X-ray detector, 16 ... Monitor, 20 ... 3D position detection device, 21 ... 1st position Sensor, 22 ... 2nd position sensor, 23 ... 3rd position sensor, 30 ... Control part, 31 ... Controller, 34 ... 3D position information interface, 35 ... Image operation apparatus.

Claims (1)

  1. An X-ray source that emits X-rays to a subject placed on a bed mechanism ;
    An X-ray detector for detecting X-rays from the X-ray source;
    A position sensor that is inserted into the subject and detects a three-dimensional position;
    An image processing unit for processing image data detected by the X-ray detector;
    An image display unit for displaying an image processed by the image processing unit ;
    An adjustment mechanism for adjusting the relative position of the X-ray source, the X-ray detector, and the bed mechanism based on the position information of the position sensor so that the position sensor is within the imaging range ;
    The image processing unit is obtained without first administering the contrast agent to the subject and the first position information from the position sensor of the first image obtained by administering the contrast agent to the subject. and as the second position information from the position sensor of the second image substantially coincide, the displayed by the upper Symbol image display section by superimposing the first image and the second image An X-ray imaging apparatus that performs processing so that positions of a position sensor on a screen are the same.
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