JP5317864B2 - Adapter device and transmission line evaluation system - Google Patents

Adapter device and transmission line evaluation system Download PDF

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JP5317864B2
JP5317864B2 JP2009160226A JP2009160226A JP5317864B2 JP 5317864 B2 JP5317864 B2 JP 5317864B2 JP 2009160226 A JP2009160226 A JP 2009160226A JP 2009160226 A JP2009160226 A JP 2009160226A JP 5317864 B2 JP5317864 B2 JP 5317864B2
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JP2011015370A (en
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重喜 小林
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新光電気工業株式会社
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  The present invention relates to an adapter device and a transmission line evaluation system connected to an evaluation apparatus that evaluates transmission characteristics of a transmission line by observing an evaluation signal that has passed through the transmission line.

  Several methods for evaluating the transmission quality of a transmission line used for high-speed serial transmission have been proposed (Non-Patent Document 1). Evaluation items in the frequency domain of the transmission path include S-parameters measured and calculated by a TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) / TDT (Time Domain Transmission) measuring device or a network analyzer. As evaluation items in the time domain of the transmission line, characteristic impedance obtained from the step response waveform, eye diagram obtained when a pseudo-random data signal is input to the transmission line, and “eye pattern” are also referred to as “eye pattern”. ), Jitter amount, and bit error rate (BER).

  FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating a transmission path evaluation system that has been generally used. Hereinafter, components having the same reference numerals in different drawings mean components having the same functions. The transmission line 2 to be evaluated is connected to a pulse pattern generator (PPG) 101 and an oscilloscope 3-1 or a bit error rate tester (BERT) 3-2 via a coaxial cable 102. Connected. When the pulse pattern generator 101 receives a pseudo-random data signal as a test signal from one end of the transmission path 2, the output from the other end of the transmission path 2 is an output. If the bit error rate tester 3-2, the bit error rate is observed.

Overview of jitter basics and measurement techniques in high-speed serial communications, Agilent Technologies, Inc. [Search June 25, 2009], Internet <http://cp.literature.agilent.com/litweb/pdf/5989-8674EN .pdf>

  When S-parameters and characteristic impedance are used as evaluation items, there is no particular problem in managing and analyzing the transmission quality of the transmission line, but it does not grasp the characteristics of changes in the signal waveform. It cannot be said that the transmission characteristics of the network can be grasped.

  On the other hand, when using an eye diagram, jitter amount, or bit error rate as an evaluation item, a pseudo-random data signal close to the signal used for actual data communication is used as the evaluation signal. Is close to the transmission characteristics during actual operation. The transmission loss of the transmission line is divided into a reflection loss due to a reflection component and a passage loss (loss depending on the material of the transmission line) that occurs when passing through the transmission line. The shorter the transmission line length, the smaller the passage loss. When transmission loss increases due to the length of the transmission line being evaluated, each evaluation item such as eye diagram, jitter amount and bit error rate appears as a clear difference (variation) for each transmission line. It is easy to determine whether the transmission quality for each transmission path is good or bad. However, if the transmission line length is very short, the dielectric loss is almost zero, and the reflection loss caused by the deviation of the characteristic impedance of the transmission line is small, any of these eye diagrams, jitter amount, bit error rate, etc. Differences in transmission lines are not likely to appear for items.

  In particular, a transmission line in which a transmission medium in which a pad is formed at one end of the transmission path is not uniform (hereinafter referred to as “a transmission path with a pad” in this specification) is a transmission path composed of a uniform transmission medium. (Hereinafter referred to as “uniform transmission path” in this specification), the differences (variations) inherent to the transmission path for any of the evaluation items such as the eye diagram, jitter amount, and bit error rate are as follows. Is more difficult to appear. FIGS. 7-12 is a figure explaining the contrast of the S parameter of a uniform transmission line and a transmission line with a pad.

  FIG. 7A is a diagram illustrating a simulation circuit that models a uniform transmission line having a characteristic impedance of 50Ω, and FIG. 7B illustrates an S parameter of the simulation circuit illustrated in FIG. It is a figure which shows a simulation result. Here, the line length of the microstrip line, which is a uniform transmission line, is 15.0 mm, and the line width is 50.0 μm. FIG. 8A is a diagram showing a simulation circuit that models a uniform transmission line having a characteristic impedance of 55Ω, and FIG. 8B shows an S for the simulation circuit shown in FIG. It is a figure which shows the simulation result of a parameter. Here, the line length of the microstrip line, which is a uniform transmission line, is 15.0 mm, and the line width is 41.7 μm.

FIG. 9A is a diagram showing a simulation circuit that models the case where a pad is connected to one end of the uniform transmission line shown in FIG. 7A having a characteristic impedance of 50Ω, and FIG. These are figures which show the simulation result of S parameter about the simulation circuit shown to Fig.9 (a). Here, the size of the pad is set to 500 μm × 500 μm. FIG. 10A is a diagram showing a simulation circuit that models the case where a pad is connected to one end of the uniform transmission line shown in FIG. 8A having a characteristic impedance of 55Ω. FIG. 10B is a diagram illustrating a simulation result of the S parameter for the simulation circuit illustrated in FIG. Here, the size of the pad is set to 500 μm × 500 μm.

  Each waveform of S11 and S22 represents a reflection characteristic, and each waveform of S12 and S21 represents a pass characteristic.

  FIG. 7B, FIG. 8B, FIG. 9B, and FIG. 10B are compared. In FIG. 9B and FIG. In both the 50Ω padded transmission line and the 55Ω characteristic transmission padded transmission line, the reflection characteristics S11 and S22 are raised in most frequency regions and deteriorated over the entire frequency range, and in particular, the higher the frequency, the worse. I understand. As for the pass characteristic S21, both the padded transmission line with the characteristic impedance of 50Ω and the transmission line with the pad with the characteristic impedance of 55Ω pass rapidly when the frequency becomes higher than the uniform transmission line without the pad. It can be seen that the loss increases.

11 and 12 show a uniform transmission line with a characteristic impedance of 50Ω and a transmission line with a pad as shown in FIGS. 7A, 8A, 9A and 10A, and a uniform transmission line with a characteristic impedance of 55Ω. The absolute value of the reflection characteristic difference “S11 50Ω −S11 55Ω ” and the transmission characteristic difference “S21 50Ω −S21 55Ω ” were obtained for a simple transmission line and a transmission line with a pad. a) represents the difference between the reflection characteristics S11 in FIGS. 7B and 8B, and FIG. 11B represents the difference between the reflection characteristics S11 in FIGS. 9B and 10B. FIG. 12A shows the difference between the pass characteristics S21 in FIGS. 7B and 8B, and FIG. 12B shows the pass characteristics in FIGS. 9B and 10B. It is a figure showing the difference of S21.

  When the characteristics shown in FIGS. 11A and 11B are compared with respect to the difference in reflection characteristics, in the case of a uniform transmission line without a pad, the difference in reflection characteristics is averaged over the entire frequency range. Although the average is almost constant, in the case of a transmission line with a pad, the difference in reflection increases from around 20 GHz.

  Similarly, when the characteristics shown in FIGS. 12 (a) and 12 (b) are compared with respect to the difference in pass characteristics, the difference in pass characteristics is opposite to that in the case of a uniform transmission line without a pad. Although it increases with frequency, it is averaged in the case of a transmission line with a pad. In addition, across the entire frequency range, the transmission characteristic with a pad has a smaller difference in pass characteristics than a uniform transmission line without a pad.

  From the above, it can be seen that due to the large reflection caused by the connection point (step) between the transmission line and the pad, the reflection characteristic of the pad becomes dominant, and the difference in the transmission characteristic of the transmission line itself is less likely to appear clearly. This means that the transmission line with a pad is more unlikely to show a difference (variation) for each individual transmission line with respect to the evaluation items than a uniform transmission line without a pad. For example, even when a test signal is input for a transmission line with a pad and the eye pattern of the signal output from this padded transmission line is observed, the difference in eye diagram (transmission characteristic difference) for each individual transmission line is identified. It becomes difficult to do. In other words, what is difficult to identify the difference even in a uniform transmission path without a pad becomes more difficult when the pad is connected to the transmission path.

  If the transmission line is uniform, the pulse pattern generator can be used to reach the frequency region where the transmission loss of the transmission line becomes larger in order to clearly show the difference (variation) between the individual transmission lines for the above evaluation items. It is conceivable to increase the transmission rate of the evaluation signal to be output. However, in the case of a transmission line with a pad, even if the transmission rate is increased, the expected effect (difference in eye pattern) like a uniform transmission line cannot be obtained, and the characteristic variation of the transmission line is identified by the eye pattern. It is almost impossible.

  Therefore, in view of the above problems, an object of the present invention is to provide an adapter device connected to an evaluation device and a transmission line evaluation system including the adapter device, which enables an evaluation device to evaluate transmission characteristics of a transmission line with a pad. There is.

  In order to achieve the above object, in the present invention, when a test signal is input to the input end of the evaluation target transmission path, the transmission characteristics of the evaluation target transmission path are based on the output signal output from the output end of the evaluation target transmission path. The adapter device connected to the evaluation device that evaluates the reference transmission line having the same input as the test signal input to the input terminal of the evaluation target transmission line and the output terminal of the evaluation target transmission line A reflection component amplification signal obtained by amplifying a difference signal between the reflection component of the test signal obtained at the input end of the reference transmission path and the reflection component of the test signal obtained at the input end of the evaluation target transmission path from the output signal to be output. And a signal generated by subtracting the amplified signal of the passing loss obtained by amplifying the difference signal between the passing loss of the test signal in the reference transmission path and the passing loss of the test signal in the evaluation target transmission path, Is input to Comprising an evaluation signal generating means for generating a value signal.

  A transmission line evaluation system according to the present invention is connected to the adapter device described above, a pulse pattern generator that is connected to the adapter device, generates a test signal, and inputs the test signal to the adapter device, and is connected to the adapter device and output from the adapter device. And an evaluation device for evaluating the transmission characteristics of the transmission line based on the evaluation signal.

  By simply connecting the adapter device according to the present invention to a conventional evaluation device, it is possible to easily evaluate the transmission characteristics of the transmission line to which the pad is connected. According to the present invention, even if the evaluation target is a transmission line to which the pad is connected, any evaluation item such as an eye diagram, a jitter amount, and a bit error rate appears as a clear difference (variation) for each transmission line. Therefore, it is possible to easily determine whether the transmission quality for each transmission path is good or bad.

It is a basic block diagram which shows the adapter apparatus by this invention. It is a circuit diagram which shows the adapter apparatus by the Example of this invention. It is a figure which shows the simulation result of the eye diagram observed with an evaluation apparatus in the case of using the adapter apparatus by the Example of this invention, Comprising: It is a figure which shows the eye diagram whose characteristic impedance of an evaluation object transmission line is 50 (ohm). It is a figure which shows the simulation result of the eye diagram observed with an evaluation apparatus in the case of using the adapter apparatus by the Example of this invention, Comprising: It is a figure which shows the case where the characteristic impedance of an evaluation object transmission line is 45 ohms. It is a figure which shows the simulation result of the eye diagram observed with an evaluation apparatus in the case of using the adapter apparatus by the Example of this invention, Comprising: It is a figure which shows the case where the characteristic impedance of an evaluation object transmission line is 55 ohms. It is a figure which illustrates the transmission line evaluation system generally used conventionally. FIG. 7A is a diagram for explaining a comparison of S parameters of a uniform transmission line and a transmission line with a pad. FIG. 7A shows a simulation circuit that models a uniform transmission line having a characteristic impedance of 50Ω. (B) is a figure which shows the simulation result of S parameter about the simulation circuit shown to Fig.7 (a). FIG. 8A is a diagram for explaining the comparison of S parameters of a uniform transmission line and a transmission line with a pad. FIG. 8A shows a simulation circuit that models a uniform transmission line having a characteristic impedance of 55Ω. (B) is a figure which shows the simulation result of S parameter about the simulation circuit shown to Fig.8 (a). FIG. 9A is a diagram for explaining a comparison between S parameters of a uniform transmission path and a transmission path with a pad, and FIG. 9A shows a pad at one end of the uniform transmission path shown in FIG. FIG. 9B is a diagram showing a simulation result of S parameters for the simulation circuit shown in FIG. 9A. FIG. 10A is a diagram for explaining comparison of S parameters of a uniform transmission line and a transmission line with a pad, and FIG. 10A shows a pad at one end of the uniform transmission line shown in FIG. FIG. 10B shows a simulation result of the S parameter for the simulation circuit shown in FIG. 10A. FIG. 11A is a diagram for explaining a comparison of S parameters of a uniform transmission line and a transmission line with a pad, and FIG. 11A shows a difference between reflection characteristics S11 in FIG. 7B and FIG. 11 (b) is a diagram showing the difference between the reflection characteristics S11 in FIG. 9 (b) and FIG. 10 (b). FIG. 12A is a diagram for explaining a comparison of S parameters of a uniform transmission line and a transmission line with a pad, and FIG. 12A shows a difference between pass characteristics S21 in FIG. 7B and FIG. 12 (b) is a diagram showing the difference between the pass characteristics S21 in FIG. 9 (b) and FIG. 10 (b).

  FIG. 1 is a basic block diagram showing an adapter device according to the present invention. The adapter device 1 according to the present invention is connected between the evaluation target transmission line 2 and the evaluation device 3 that evaluates the transmission characteristics of the evaluation target transmission line 2. The measurement probe P3 of the adapter apparatus 1 is connected to the input end of the evaluation target transmission line 2 whose transmission characteristics are to be evaluated, and the measurement probe P4 of the adapter apparatus 1 is connected to the output end of the evaluation target transmission line 2. It will be. In the adapter device 1, a test signal is input from the input port In of the adapter device 1 by the pulse pattern generator 101, and an evaluation signal is output from the output port Out of the adapter device 1 toward the evaluation device 3. The evaluation target transmission line is a transmission line (padded transmission line) to which a pad is connected.

  The adapter device 1 includes a reference transmission path 11 and an evaluation signal generation unit 12.

  The reference transmission line 11 has an input terminal P1 to which the same signal as the test signal input to the input terminal of the evaluation target transmission line 2 via the measurement probe P3 of the adapter device 1 is input. The reference transmission line 11 is a transmission line to which a pad is connected.

  The evaluation signal generation means 12 is a reflection component of the test signal obtained at the input terminal P1 of the reference transmission line 11 from the output signal output from the output terminal of the evaluation target transmission line 2 via the measurement probe P4 of the adapter device 1. And a reflection component amplification signal obtained by amplifying a difference signal between the reflection component of the test signal obtained at the input terminal of the evaluation target transmission line 2, a test signal in the evaluation target transmission path, and a reflected signal amplification signal. A signal generated by subtracting the amplified signal for the passage loss obtained by amplifying the difference signal with respect to the passage loss is generated as an evaluation signal to be input to the evaluation device.

  Since the measurement probe P3 of the adapter device 1 is connected to the input end of the evaluation target transmission line 2, the “reflected component of the test signal obtained at the input end of the evaluation target transmission line 2” is the adapter device. It is detected at the position of one measurement probe P3. Therefore, in this specification, for the sake of simplicity, the “input end of the evaluation target transmission line 2” is assumed to be at the same position as the “measurement probe P3 of the adapter device 1”. The “input end of the path 2” is represented by the reference symbol P3. For the same reason, the “output end of the evaluation target transmission line 2” is represented by the reference symbol P4.

  The above-described evaluation signal generation means 12 includes a first difference signal generation means 21, a delay transmission path 22, a reflection component amplification means 23, a first delay means 24, a first addition means 25, and a second addition signal. Difference signal generation means 26, second delay means 27, second addition means 28, passing loss amplification means 29, third delay means 30, and third addition means 31. .

  The first difference signal generating means 21 is a difference signal between the reflection component of the test signal obtained at the input terminal P1 of the reference transmission line 11 and the reflection component of the test signal obtained at the input terminal P3 of the evaluation target transmission line 2. Is generated.

  The delay transmission path 22 is configured by a transmission path having the same signal propagation time as that of the reference transmission path 11. A difference signal output from the first difference signal generation means 21 is input to the delay transmission path 22. The delay transmission path 22 is preferably a uniform transmission path to which no pad is connected. Note that the delay transmission path 22 may be a transmission path having a transmission characteristic equivalent to that of the reference transmission path 11 within a band of the test signal and connected to a pad.

  The reflection component amplifying unit 23 inverts or non-inverts the signal output from the delay transmission path 22. The reflection component amplifying unit 23 inverts or non-inverts the signal output from the delay transmission path 22 so that the eye aperture ratio of the eye diagram observed in the evaluation device 3 is reduced. For this reason, the reflection component amplification means 23 outputs the first inverting amplification means for inverting amplification of the input signal, the first non-inverting amplification means for non-inverting amplification of the input signal, and the output of the reflection component amplification means 23 to the first First switching means for switching to the output of either one inverting amplification means or first non-inverting amplification means. Note that the first inverting amplification means, the first non-inverting amplification means, and the first switching means are not shown in FIG. 1, but will be described in detail later.

  The first delay unit 24 is connected to the reference signal path 11 at a signal propagation time when the first difference signal generation unit 21, the delay transmission path 22, and the reflection component amplification unit 23 pass from the input terminal P 1 of the reference transmission path 11. The signal output from the output terminal P2 of the reference transmission line 11 is delayed so that the signal propagation times when the input terminal P1 passes through the reference transmission line 11 and the output terminal P2 of the reference transmission line 11 match.

  The first addition means 25 adds the signal output from the first delay means 24 and the signal output from the reflection component amplification means 23.

  The second difference signal generation unit 26 generates a difference signal between the signal output from the evaluation target transmission path 2 and the signal output from the reference transmission path 11.

  The second delay unit 27 propagates the signal from the input terminal P1 of the reference transmission line 11 via the first difference signal generation unit 21, the delay transmission line 22, the reflection component amplification unit 23, and the first addition unit 25. The second signal propagation time coincides with the time from the input end P1 of the reference signal path 11 to the reference transmission path 11, the output end P2 of the reference transmission path 11, and the second difference signal generating means 26. The difference signal output from the difference signal generator 26 is delayed.

  The second addition means 28 adds the inverted signal of the signal output from the second delay means 27 and the signal output from the first addition means 25.

  The passage loss amplification unit 29 inverts or non-inverts the difference signal output from the second difference signal generation unit 26. The passage loss amplification means 29 inverts or non-inverts the difference signal output from the second difference signal generation means 26 so that the eye aperture ratio of the eye diagram observed in the evaluation device 3 is reduced. For this reason, the passage loss amplification means 29 receives the output of the second inverting amplification means for inverting amplification of the input signal, the second non-inverting amplification means for non-inverting amplification of the input signal, and the output of the passage loss amplification means. And second switching means for switching to the output of either the second inverting amplification means or the second non-inverting amplification means. Note that the second inverting amplification means, the second non-inverting amplification means, and the second switching means are not shown in FIG. 1, but will be described in detail later.

  The third delay unit 30 includes a first difference signal generation unit 21, a delay transmission line 22, a reflection component amplification unit 23, a first addition unit 25, and a second addition unit 28 from the input terminal P 1 of the reference transmission line 11. In the signal propagation time when passing through the reference signal path 11, the input terminal P 1 of the reference signal path 11 passes through the reference transmission path 11, the output terminal P 2 of the reference transmission path 11, the second difference signal generation means 26, and the passage loss amplification means 29. The signal output from the passage loss amplifying means 29 is delayed so that the signal propagation times coincide with each other.

  The third addition means 31 adds the signal output from the third delay means 30 and the signal output from the second addition means 28 to generate an evaluation signal.

  The evaluation signal generated as described above is output to the evaluation device 3 via the output port Out of the adapter device 1. The evaluation device 3 is, for example, an oscilloscope or a bit error rate tester that displays, with an eye diagram, jitter generated when a digital signal is transmitted through a transmission line.

  According to the present invention, the transmission line evaluation system 10 includes the above-described adapter device 1, a pulse pattern generator 101 that is connected to the adapter device 1, generates a test signal, and inputs the test signal to the adapter device 1, and the adapter device 1. And an evaluation device 3 that evaluates the transmission characteristics of the evaluation target transmission line 2 based on the evaluation signal output from the adapter device 1.

  FIG. 2 is a circuit diagram illustrating an adapter device according to an embodiment of the present invention. The adapter device 1 according to the embodiment of the present invention is connected between the evaluation target transmission line 2 and the evaluation device 3 that evaluates the transmission characteristics of the evaluation target transmission line 2.

  A pulse pattern generator (PPG) 101 is connected to the input port In of the adapter device 1. The pulse pattern generator 101 generates a pseudo random data signal that is a test signal.

  An oscilloscope or a bit error rate tester (BERT) is connected to the output port Out of the adapter device 1 as the evaluation device 3. Based on the evaluation signal from the output port Out of the adapter device 1 to the evaluation device 3 using the evaluation device 3, the aperture of the eye diagram, the jitter amount, etc. are measured to evaluate the transmission quality.

The measurement probe P3 of the adapter apparatus 1 is connected to the input end of the evaluation target transmission line 2 whose transmission characteristics are to be evaluated, and the measurement probe P4 of the adapter apparatus 1 is connected to the output end of the evaluation target transmission line 2. . In this embodiment, the evaluation target transmission line 2 is a transmission line (padded transmission line) to which a pad (PAD) is connected. Let Z 0 be the characteristic impedance of the transmission line 2 to be evaluated.

The reference transmission line 11 has an input terminal P1 to which the same signal as the test signal input to the input terminal of the evaluation target transmission line 2 via the measurement probe P3 of the adapter device 1 is input. The signal propagation time from the output terminal C1 of the divider device-1 to the input terminal P1 of the reference transmission line 11 and the signal propagation time from the output terminal C2 of the divider device-1 to the input terminal P3 of the evaluation target transmission line 2 are: The signal lines are configured to be the same. Here, in order to make the test path of the reference transmission line 11 and the test path of the evaluation target transmission line 2 have the same transmission characteristics, the input terminal P1 and the output terminal P2 of the reference transmission line 11 are in relation to the evaluation target transmission line 2. It consists of the same parts as the measurement probes P3 and P4. By adopting such a configuration, the influence of the test path does not appear in the difference signal between the reference transmission line 11 and the evaluation target transmission line 2 which will be described later. Therefore, the reference transmission line 11 and the evaluation target transmission line 2 are not affected. Even when the difference signal is amplified, the influence of the test path does not appear in the amplified signal. The reference transmission path 11 is a transmission path (padded transmission path) to which a pad (PAD) is connected. In this embodiment, the characteristic impedance Z 0 of the reference transmission line 11 is 50Ω.

  The test signal input from the input port In of the adapter device 1 is divided into two by the divider Divider-1. Here, the input / output impedance of the divider Device-1 is 50Ω, and the input signal of the divider Device-1 and the magnitude of each output signal are the same. As a result, the same test signal is input to the evaluation target transmission line 2 and the reference transmission line 11.

  The test signals distributed in two by the divider Device-1 are output to the output amplifiers Amp-1 and Amp-2, respectively. The output amplifiers Amp-1 and Amp-2 have a gain (voltage gain) of 1 and an output impedance of 50Ω. The output signal of the output amplifier Amp-1 is input to the reference transmission line 11 via the measurement probe P1, and the output signal of the output amplifier Amp-2 is input to the evaluation target transmission line 2 via the measurement probe P3. Here, a is the magnitude of the output signals of the output amplifiers Amp-1 and Amp-2.

In the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, the first difference signal generating means 21 shown in FIG. 1 includes probe amplifiers Amp-3 and Amp-4 and a differential amplifier Amp-5. The probe amplifiers Amp-3 and Amp-4 are assumed to have an extremely high input impedance Z i . The input terminal of the probe amplifier Amp-3 is mounted at a point very close to the connection point between the measurement probe P1 and the reference transmission line 11 to be probed. The input terminal of the probe amplifier Amp-4 is mounted at a point very close to the connection point between the measurement probe P3 and the evaluation target transmission line 2 that is the probe target. The output impedance of the probe amplifiers Amp-3 and Amp-4 is 50Ω, and the gain is 1. Here, the magnitude of the reflected signal at the measurement probe P1 is b p1, and the magnitude of the output signal of the probe amplifier Amp-3 is a a3 . Also, the magnitude of the reflected signal at the measurement probe P3 is b p3, and the magnitude of the output signal of the probe amplifier Amp-4 is a a4 . The magnitude a a3 of the output signal of the probe amplifier Amp-3 and the magnitude a a4 of the output signal of the probe amplifier Amp-4 are expressed as Expression 1 and Expression 2, respectively.

The differential amplifier Amp-5 generates a difference signal between the output signal of the probe amplifier Amp-3 and the output signal of the probe amplifier Amp-4 and outputs the difference signal to the delay transmission path 22. The input / output impedance of the differential amplifier Amp-5 is 50Ω, and the differential gain is 1. Here, the magnitude a a5 of the output signal of the differential amplifier Amp-5 is expressed as in Expression 3.

  Equation 3 is a reflection component of the test signal obtained at the input terminal P1 of the reference transmission line 11 by the first difference signal generating means 21 constituting the probe amplifiers Amp-3 and Amp-4 and the differential amplifier Amp-5. And a difference signal between the reflection component of the test signal obtained at the input terminal P3 of the evaluation target transmission line 2 is generated.

The delay transmission path 22 is configured by a transmission path having the same signal propagation time as that of the reference transmission path 11. Here, let L d be the passage loss of the delay transmission path 22. The delay transmission path 22 is preferably a uniform transmission path to which no pad is connected. In consideration of cost, the delay transmission line 22 may be a transmission line having a transmission characteristic equivalent to that of the reference transmission line 11 within the band of the test signal and connected to a pad.

  In the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, the reflection component amplifying means 23 shown in FIG. 1 includes the switches SW-1a and SW-1b constituting the first switching means and the amplifier Amp-6a which is the first inverting amplification means. And an amplifier Amp-6b, which is a first non-inverting amplification means, and a low-pass filter LPF-1.

Amplifier Amp-6a and the amplifier Amp-6b are both input and output impedance at 50 [Omega, an inverting amplifier and a non-inverting amplifier having a gain G r.

  In the switches SW-1a and SW-1b, the contacts A and B are switched in conjunction with each other, and either the amplifier Amp-6a or the amplifier Amp-6b is selected. Specifically, the amplifier is switched to either the amplifier Amp-6a or the amplifier Amp-6b so that the eye aperture ratio of the eye diagram observed in the evaluation device 3 is reduced, and the signal output from the delay transmission path 22 is inverted. Amplify or non-invert. Further, by adjusting the gain of the amplifier Amp-6a or the amplifier Amp-6b, the aperture ratio of the eye diagram observed with the evaluation device oscilloscope connected to the output port Out of the adapter device 1 can be adjusted.

Here, assuming that the contacts of the switch SW-1a and the switch SW-1b are on the side of the A contact, the magnitude aa6 of the output signal of the amplifier Amp-6 is expressed by Expression 4.

  The output of the amplifier Amp-6 passes through the low-pass filter LPF-1 and is limited to an appropriate frequency band (frequency band necessary for the transmission test of the evaluation target transmission path). Here, the input / output impedance of the low-pass filter LPF-1 is 50Ω, and the loss is zero in the pass frequency band.

  The first delay means 24 shown in FIG. 1 is constituted by a delay line Delay-1 in the embodiment shown in FIG. The first adding means 25 shown in FIG. 1 is composed of a combiner Combiner-1 in the embodiment shown in FIG.

  The delay line Delay-1 is connected from the input terminal P1 of the reference transmission line 11 to the plus side input terminal C3 of the differential amplifier Amp-5, the switch SW-1a, the amplifier Amp-6a or Amp-6b, the switch SW-1b, and the low puff. In the signal propagation time from the filter LPF-1 to the input terminal C5 of the combiner Combiner-1, the input terminal P1 of the reference signal path 11 to the reference transmission path 11, the output terminal P2 of the reference transmission path 11, and the input amplifier The signal output from the output terminal P2 of the reference transmission line 11 is delayed so that the signal propagation times from Amp-7 to the input terminal C6 of the combiner Combiner-1 are the same.

  The signal output from the reference transmission line 11 passes through the input amplifier Amp-7, and is added to the output signal of the low-pass filter LPF-1 by the combiner Combiner-1 after matching the timing by the delay line Delay-1. The input / output impedance of the input amplifier Amp-7 is 50Ω, and the input / output impedance of the delay line Delay-1 is 50Ω.

Here, assuming that the passage loss of the reference transmission line 11 is L r , the gain of the input amplifier Amp-7 is 1, and there is no loss in the delay line Delay-1, the magnitude of the output signal of the combiner Combiner-1 a c1 is expressed by Equation 5.

Equation 5 shows that a difference “(1−L d ) × (b p1 −−) between the reflection signal of the reference transmission line 11 and the evaluation target transmission line 2 from the passing signal“ a × (1−L r ) ”of the reference transmission line 11. b p3 ) ”indicates that a signal amplified to G r times which is the gain of the amplifier Amp-6 is subtracted.

The signal output from the evaluation target transmission line 2 passes through the input amplifier Amp-8 and is terminated with a 50Ω termination resistor R. The input / output impedance of the input amplifier Amp-8 is 50Ω and the gain is 1. Here, assuming that the passage loss of the evaluation target transmission line 2 is L t , the magnitude a a8 of the output signal of the input amplifier Amp-8 is expressed as in Expression 6.

The second difference signal generation means 26 shown in FIG. 1 is configured by a differential amplifier Amp-9 in the embodiment shown in FIG. The differential amplifier Amp-9 generates a difference signal between the output signal of the input amplifier Amp-7 and the output signal of the input amplifier Amp-8, and outputs the difference signal to the divider Device-2. The differential amplifier Amp-9 is assumed to have an extremely high input impedance Z i . Signal propagation time from the output terminal P2 of the reference transmission line 11 to the input terminal C11 of the differential amplifier Amp-9, and signal propagation from the output terminal P4 of the evaluation target transmission line 2 to the input terminal C12 of the differential amplifier Amp-9 The signal line is configured to be the same as time. The output impedance of the differential amplifier Amp-9 is 50Ω, and the differential voltage gain is 1. The output magnitude a a9 of the differential amplifier Amp-9 is expressed as shown in Equation 7.

  The output signal from the differential amplifier Amp-9 is divided into two by the divider Divider-2. Here, the input / output impedance of the divider device-2 is 50Ω, and the output signals of the divider device-2 have the same magnitude. As a result, the output signal from the same differential amplifier Amp-9 is input to the amplifier Amp-10 and the switch SW-2a.

  The output signal from the differential amplifier Amp-9 distributed in two by the divider Divider-2 is output to the amplifier Amp-10 and the switch SW-2a, respectively.

  The second delay means 27 shown in FIG. 1 is constituted by a delay line Delay-2 in the embodiment shown in FIG. The second adding means 28 shown in FIG. 1 is composed of an inverting amplifier Amp-10 and a combiner Combiner-2 in the embodiment shown in FIG.

  The delay line Delay-2 is connected from the input terminal P1 of the reference transmission line 11 to the plus side input terminal C3 of the differential amplifier Amp-5, the switch SW-1a, the amplifier Amp-6a or Amp-6b, the switch SW-1b, and the low puff. Output of the reference transmission line 11 and the reference transmission line 11 from the input terminal P1 of the reference signal line 11 to the signal propagation time from the filter LPF-1 and the combiner Combiner-1 to the input terminal C7 of the combiner Combiner-2 The signal propagation times from the terminal P2, the input amplifier Amp-7, the differential amplifier Amp-9, the divider Device-2, and the inverting amplifier Amp-10 to the input terminal C8 of the combiner Combiner-2 are matched. The signal output from the output terminal P2 of the reference transmission line 11 is delayed.

  The inverting amplifier Amp-10 has an input / output impedance of 50Ω and a gain of 1. Further, the input / output impedance of the delay line Delay-2 is 50Ω, and there is no passage loss.

The signal output from the reference transmission line 11 passes through the input amplifier Amp-7, the differential amplifier Amp-9, the divider Device-2, and the inverting amplifier Amp-10, and the timing is adjusted by the delay line Delay-2, and then the combiner combiner. -2 is added to the output signal of the combiner Combiner-1. The magnitude a c2 of the output signal of the combiner Combiner-2 is expressed by Equation 8.

Expression 8 is obtained by calculating the difference “(1−L d ) × (b p1 ) between the reflection signal of the reference transmission path 11 and the evaluation target transmission path 2 from the passing signal“ a × (1−L t ) ”of the evaluation target transmission path 2. −b p3 ) ”indicates that the signal amplified to G r times which is the gain of the amplifier Amp-6 is subtracted. Here, in Expression 5, the difference in the reflection component is subtracted from the passing signal of the reference transmission path 11, but in Expression 8, the difference in the reflection component is subtracted from the passing signal of the evaluation target transmission path 2. Should.

  In the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, the passage loss amplification means 29 shown in FIG. 1 includes switches SW-2a and SW-2b constituting the second switching means, and an amplifier Amp that is the second non-inverting amplification means. -11a, an amplifier Amp-11b as a second inverting amplification means, and a low-pass filter LPF-2.

Amplifier Amp-11a and the amplifier Amp-11b are both input and output impedance at 50 [Omega, a non-inverting amplifier and an inverting amplifier having a gain G t.

  In the switches SW-2a and SW-2b, the contacts A and B are switched in conjunction with each other, and either the amplifier Amp-11a or the amplifier Amp-11b is selected. Specifically, the amplifier is switched to either the amplifier Amp-11a or the amplifier Amp-11b so that the eye aperture ratio of the eye diagram observed in the evaluation device 3 is reduced, and the signal output from the divider Diver-2 is inverted. Amplify or non-invert. Further, by adjusting the gain of the amplifier Amp-11a or the amplifier Amp-11b, the aperture ratio of the eye diagram observed by the evaluation device oscilloscope connected to the output port Out of the adapter device 1 can be adjusted.

  The output of the amplifier Amp-11 passes through the low-pass filter LPF-2 and is limited to an appropriate frequency band (frequency band necessary for the transmission test of the evaluation target transmission path). Here, the input / output impedance of the low-pass filter LPF-2 is 50Ω, and the loss is zero in the pass frequency band.

  The third delay means 30 shown in FIG. 1 is constituted by a delay line Delay-3 in the embodiment shown in FIG. The third adding means 31 shown in FIG. 1 is composed of a combiner Combiner-3 in the embodiment shown in FIG.

  The delay line Delay-3 is connected from the input terminal P1 of the reference transmission line 11 to the plus side input terminal C3 of the differential amplifier Amp-5, the switch SW-1a, the amplifier Amp-6a or Amp-6b, the switch SW-1b, and the low puff. In the signal propagation time from the filter LPF-1, the combiner Combiner-1 and the combiner-2 to the input terminal C9 of the combiner Combiner-3, the reference transmission line 11, the reference transmission, The output terminal P2, the input amplifier Amp-7, the differential amplifier Amp-9, the divider Divider-2, the switch SW-2a, the amplifier Amp-11a or Amp-11b, the switch SW-2b, and the low-pass filter LPF-2. To the input terminal C10 of the combiner Combiner-3 As the signal propagation time matched, which delays the signal output from the low pass filter LPF-2. The delay line Delay-3 has an input / output impedance of 50Ω and a passage loss of zero.

The output signal of the low-pass filter LPF-2 is added to the output signal of the combiner combiner-2 at the combiner combiner-3 after matching the timing at the delay line Delay-3. Here, when the contact point of the switches SW-2a and SW-2b is the B contact point, and the magnitude of the output signal of the amplifier Amp-11 is a a11 , the magnitude a c3 of the output signal of the combiner Combiner-3 is given by It is expressed as follows.

Equation 9 is obtained by calculating a difference “(1−L d ) × (b p1 ) between the reflection component of the reference transmission path 11 and the evaluation target transmission path 2 from the passing signal“ a × (1−L t ) ”of the evaluation target transmission path 2. −b p3 ) ”is the difference between the signal amplified to G r times that is the gain of the amplifier Amp-6 and the passage loss of the reference transmission line 11 and the evaluation target transmission line 2“ a × (L t −L r ) ”. "Indicates that the signal amplified to G t times which is the gain of the amplifier Amp-11 is subtracted.

  The output signal of the combiner Combiner-3 is output to the output port Out via the output amplifier Amp-12. The output amplifier Amp-12 has an input / output impedance of 50Ω and a gain of 1.

  By observing and measuring the eye diagram, jitter, or bit error rate (BER) of this output signal with the evaluation device 3, it is possible to clearly know the variation in the transmission characteristic of the evaluation target transmission line 2 with respect to the reference transmission line 11.

  A transmission line evaluation system 10 according to an embodiment of the present invention includes the adapter device 1 described above, a pulse pattern generator 101 that is connected to the adapter device 1, generates a test signal, and inputs the test signal to the adapter device 1, and the adapter device 1. And an evaluation device 3 that evaluates the transmission characteristics of the evaluation target transmission line 2 based on the evaluation signal output from the adapter device 1.

Next, simulation results of the transmission line evaluation system according to the above-described embodiment of the present invention will be described. For the simulation, “Xilinx Virtex-4 RoquetIO Simulation Model” (TX model) manufactured by Xilinx was used. The characteristic impedance of the reference transmission path and 50 [Omega, and the characteristic impedance of the evaluation target transmission path with 45 Omega and 55 Omega.

3 to 5 are diagrams showing eye diagram simulation results observed by the evaluation device when the adapter device according to the embodiment of the present invention is used. FIG. 3 shows that the characteristic impedance of the transmission line to be evaluated is 50Ω. FIG. 4 shows a case where the characteristic impedance of the evaluation target transmission line is 45 Ω, and FIG. 5 is a diagram showing a case where the characteristic impedance of the evaluation target transmission line is 55 Ω. The reference transmission line and the evaluation transmission line are padded transmission lines.

  As shown in FIGS. 4 and 5, the adapter device according to the embodiment of the present invention shows a clear difference in the size of the eye even in the padded transmission line, and the present invention is effective. Proved.

  The present invention can be applied when evaluating the transmission quality of a transmission line used for high-speed serial transmission. By simply connecting the adapter device according to the present invention to a conventional evaluation device, it is possible to easily evaluate the transmission characteristics of a transmission line with a pad. According to the present invention, even if the evaluation target is a transmission line connected to a pad, any evaluation item such as an eye diagram, a jitter amount, and a bit error rate appears as a clear difference (variation) for each transmission line. Therefore, it is possible to easily determine whether the transmission quality for each transmission path is good or bad.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Adapter apparatus 2 Evaluation object transmission path 3 Evaluation apparatus 11 Reference transmission path 12 Evaluation signal generation means 21 First difference signal generation means 22 Delay transmission path 23 Reflection component amplification means 24 First delay means 25 First addition means 26 Second difference signal generation means 27 Second delay means 28 Second addition means 29 Passing loss amplification means 30 Third delay means 31 Third addition means Amp-1, Amp-2, Amp-12 Output amplifier Amp-3, Amp-4 Probe amplifier Amp-5, Amp-9 Differential amplifier Amp-6a, Amp-6b, Amp-11a, Amp-11b Amplifier Amp-7, Amp-8 Input amplifier Amp-10 Inverting amplifier Combiner -1, Combiner-2, Combiner-3 Combiner Delay-1, Delay-2, Delay- 3 Delay line Device-1, Device-2, Device-3 Divider In Input port LPF-1, LPF-2 Low pass filter Out Output port P1 Reference transmission line input P2 Reference transmission line output P3, P4 Measurement probe R Termination resistor SW-1a, SW-1b, SW-2a, SW-2b switch

Claims (10)

  1. An adapter device connected to an evaluation device that evaluates transmission characteristics of the evaluation target transmission path based on an output signal output from the output end of the evaluation target transmission path when a test signal is input to the input end of the evaluation target transmission path Because
    A reference transmission line having an input terminal to which the same signal as the test signal input to the input terminal of the evaluation target transmission line is input;
    From the output signal output from the output end of the evaluation target transmission path, the reflection component of the test signal obtained at the input end of the reference transmission path and the test signal obtained at the input end of the evaluation target transmission path A reflection component amplification signal obtained by amplifying a difference signal from the reflection component, and a passage loss obtained by amplifying a difference signal between the passage loss of the test signal in the reference transmission path and the passage loss of the test signal in the evaluation target transmission path. An evaluation signal generation means for generating a signal generated by subtracting the amplified signal as an evaluation signal input to the evaluation device;
    An adapter device comprising:
  2. The evaluation signal generating means includes
    First difference signal generating means for generating a difference signal between the reflection component of the test signal obtained at the input end of the reference transmission line and the reflection component of the test signal obtained at the input end of the evaluation target transmission line When,
    A delay transmission line having the same signal propagation time as the reference transmission line, the delay transmission line to which the difference signal output from the first difference signal generating means is input;
    Reflection component amplification means for inverting amplification or non-inverting amplification of the signal output from the delay transmission path;
    The reference transmission path is connected from the input end of the reference signal path to the signal propagation time when passing through the first difference signal generating means, the delay transmission path and the reflection component amplification means from the input end of the reference transmission path. First delay means for delaying the signal output from the reference transmission path so that the signal propagation times when passing through match,
    First addition means for adding the signal output from the first delay means and the signal output from the reflection component amplification means;
    Second difference signal generating means for generating a difference signal between the signal output from the evaluation target transmission path and the signal output from the reference transmission path;
    The input of the reference signal path from the input end of the reference transmission path to the signal propagation time when passing through the first difference signal generation means, the delay transmission path, the reflection component amplification means, and the first addition means A second delay for delaying the difference signal output from the second difference signal generating means so that the signal propagation times when passing through the reference transmission line and the second difference signal generating means from the end coincide with each other Means,
    Second addition means for adding the inverted signal of the signal output from the second delay means and the signal output from the first addition means;
    Passing loss amplification means for inverting amplification or non-inverting amplification of the difference signal output from the second difference signal generation means;
    The signal propagation time from the input end of the reference transmission path through the first difference signal generation means, the delay transmission path, the reflection component amplification means, the first addition means, and the second addition means Output from the passage loss amplification means so that the signal propagation times when passing through the reference transmission line, the second difference signal generation means and the passage loss amplification means from the input end of the reference signal path match. Third delay means for delaying the signal to be transmitted;
    A third addition means for adding the signal output from the third delay means and the signal output from the second addition means to generate the evaluation signal;
    The adapter device according to claim 1.
  3.   3. The adapter according to claim 2, wherein the reflection component amplifying unit inverts or non-inverts a signal output from the delay transmission path so that an eye opening ratio of an eye diagram observed in the evaluation device is reduced. apparatus.
  4. The reflection component amplification means includes
    First inverting amplification means for inverting and amplifying an input signal;
    First non-inverting amplification means for non-inverting amplification of the input signal;
    First switching means for switching the output of the reflection component amplification means to the output of either the first inverting amplification means or the first non-inverting amplification means;
    The adapter device according to claim 2 or 3, comprising:
  5.   The passage loss amplification means inverts or non-inverts the difference signal output from the second difference signal generation means so that the eye aperture ratio of the eye diagram observed in the evaluation device is reduced. The adapter device according to claim 2.
  6. The passage loss amplification means is
    Second inverting amplification means for inverting and amplifying the input signal;
    Second non-inverting amplification means for non-inverting amplification of the input signal;
    Second switching means for switching the output of the passage loss amplification means to the output of either the second inverting amplification means or the second non-inverting amplification means;
    The adapter device according to claim 2, comprising:
  7.   The adapter device according to claim 1, wherein the evaluation target transmission line and the reference transmission line are transmission lines to which pads are connected.
  8.   The adapter device according to claim 7, wherein the delay transmission line is a transmission line having a transmission characteristic equivalent to that of the reference transmission line within a band of the test signal, to which a pad is connected.
  9. The adapter device according to any one of claims 1 to 8,
    A pulse pattern generator connected to the adapter device for generating the test signal and inputting it to the adapter device;
    An evaluation device that is connected to the adapter device and evaluates transmission characteristics of the evaluation target transmission line based on the evaluation signal output from the adapter device;
    A transmission path evaluation system comprising:
  10.   10. The transmission line evaluation system according to claim 9, wherein the evaluation device is an oscilloscope or a bit error rate tester that displays jitter generated when transmitting a digital signal in the evaluation target transmission line in an eye diagram.
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