JP5265500B2 - Pile digging method, foundation pile structure - Google Patents

Pile digging method, foundation pile structure Download PDF

Info

Publication number
JP5265500B2
JP5265500B2 JP2009261392A JP2009261392A JP5265500B2 JP 5265500 B2 JP5265500 B2 JP 5265500B2 JP 2009261392 A JP2009261392 A JP 2009261392A JP 2009261392 A JP2009261392 A JP 2009261392A JP 5265500 B2 JP5265500 B2 JP 5265500B2
Authority
JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
pile
ready
diameter
excavation
ground
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
JP2009261392A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Other versions
JP2010031647A (en
Inventor
好伸 木谷
Original Assignee
三谷セキサン株式会社
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to JP2002287127 priority Critical
Priority to JP2002287127 priority
Application filed by 三谷セキサン株式会社 filed Critical 三谷セキサン株式会社
Priority to JP2009261392A priority patent/JP5265500B2/en
Publication of JP2010031647A publication Critical patent/JP2010031647A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of JP5265500B2 publication Critical patent/JP5265500B2/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/22Piles
    • E02D5/62Compacting the soil at the footing or in or along a casing by forcing cement or like material through tubes

Abstract

An internal excavation method through a pile, comprising the steps of (a) fitting a tip metal device (13) to an existing concrete pile (1), inserting an excavating rod (15) without a soil discharging mechanism into the existing concrete pile, and excavating by a rotary excavating arm (21) of an excavator head (18) to immerse the existing pile (1), (b, c, d) excavating a ground, while loosening, with a diameter 1.4 times the outer diameter of the existing pile (1) or more and stamping the loosened excavated soil to the outside by the outer face of the exiting pile (1), and filling, agitating, and mixing cement mill in stratums (26A, 26B) designated by design to form solidified mixed layers (29A, 29B) with recovered or improved ground strength, (e) forming a foot protection layer (30) filled with cement mill on a pile hole bottom (31) side, and (f) raising the excavating head (18) to the ground, lowering the existing pile (1), and positioning the tip metal device (13) in the foot protection layer (30), whereby a supporting force of approx. two times that of an existing internal excavation method can be developed, and a soil discharge amount can be remarkably decreased.

Description

  The present invention relates to an intermediate excavation method in which a ready-made pile is buried while excavating a pile hole, and a foundation pile structure in which the ready-made pile is buried in a pile hole constructed based on this method. In particular, it is particularly effective when a relatively soft ground layer is included in the middle of the ground, and sufficient supporting force cannot be obtained with that layer.

  In the general method of excavating piles, the excavation head and the excavation rod that forms the earth removal spiral are inserted into the hollow part of the ready-made pile, and the excavation rod that protrudes beyond the ready-made pile is excavating the formation, Ready-made piles were sunk. In this case, the excavation diameter of the excavation head is set to be slightly smaller (about minus 40 mm) than the inner diameter of the ready-made pile to be embedded (Non-Patent Document 1). And, the ready-made pile was pushed into the pile hole as it was, or cement milk was poured into the gap between the inner wall of the pile hole and the ready-made pile, and the ready-made pile was pushed in (for example, Patent Document 1, page 2, 5th line from upper left) ).

  Also, in the case of increasing the diameter of the root-sealed part and increasing the tip support force by the medium digging method, the direction perpendicular to the axis of the excavating blade (Patent Document 1) or the excavating rod that can be expanded and excavated by swinging the excavating head Excavation blades protruding in the (horizontal direction) were formed, and the enlarged root was excavated.

  In addition, prior to laying the ready-made pile, in the method of digging all of the pile holes with the excavating rod and then burying the ready-made pile and burying the foundation pile (the pre-excavation method), an expanding blade is formed in the middle part of the excavating rod And although the construction method which excavates a diameter-expansion part to the axial part of a pile hole is proposed (patent document 2), it cannot employ | adopt with a soft geological formation etc., but the use range was limited.

  In addition, as described above, in the medium excavation method, a pile hole having a diameter smaller than the outer diameter of the ready-made pile is excavated. It was not possible to use it, and it was exclusively using pre-made cylindrical piles.

  Patent Documents 3 to 5 are disclosed as inventions aimed at reducing earth removal.

JP-A-8-291682 Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 2-108724 JP-A-57-74534 JP 2002-54135 A JP 2002-81059 A

"From investigation and design of pile foundation to construction" (2nd revised edition), Geotechnical Society of Japan, May 25, 1993, first edition issued, pages 425-431

(1) In the so-called pre-drilling method, prior to the laying of ready-made piles, after excavating all the pile holes, the pre-made piles can be buried, and the pile hole walls can be leveled with a drilling drum to stir and fill cement milk. In the medium excavation method, in general, most of the excavated soil is discharged by the excavating rod, and it is difficult to attach the kneading drum to the excavating rod from the structure. Therefore, the pile peripheral part between a ready-made pile and a pile hole was not fully able to be utilized as a supporting force.

  In addition, in the excavation rod for medium digging, there is a structural limitation that the hollow portion of the ready-made pile (usually concrete system) has to pass, even when the diameter expansion is relatively easy (Patent Document 2), It had to take three positions: a hollow part passing state (minimum diameter), a pile hole shaft excavating state (intermediate diameter), and a pile hole widening part excavating state (maximum diameter), and the design strength was limited by a complicated structure. . Further, in the normal two-stage switching type of the excavation diameter, when forming the bottomed root consolidation part, the excavation diameter of the root consolidation part is up to about 1.2 times the shaft diameter of the pile hole. Even when a swing arm with an excavating blade was provided on the head, the limit was 1.5 times. In particular, when a large-diameter ready-made pile such as an outer diameter of 1000φ was used, it was limited to about 1.2 times.

  Further, in the Nakabori method, generally, the tip of the ready-made pile is positioned immediately above the excavation head, and excavation is performed while the ready-made pile is submerged. Therefore, as in Patent Document 2, an enlarged blade is formed in the intermediate portion of the excavation rod. As a result, the enlarged diameter portion could not be excavated.

  Therefore, in the medium excavation method, in order to increase the excavation speed, it is necessary to increase the discharge of excavated soil. As a result, it is not preferable from the environmental viewpoint, and the soil quality to be constructed is limited. That is, various ideas have been made to improve the discharge of excavated soil (Japan, Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 5-3353, such as air blowing).

(2) Also, in general, in the middle digging method that forms an expanded bottom solidified part in the ground such as sandy soil, gravelly soil,
Total supporting force R a = 1/3 (R p + R f ) (kN / piece)
Is calculated.

Here, R p = α × N ave × A p
α: Bearing capacity constant (usually around 250)
N ave: Pile tip average N values A p: is the tip cross-sectional area of the ready-made pile. Here, the tip cross-sectional area of the ready-made pile corresponds to the adhesion area with the soil cement layer that contributes to the propagation of the shearing force due to the load.

Also, R f is the pile surface frictional resistance, depending on whether or not the pile circumference fixing liquid is used,
・ When using pile circumference fixing liquid: R f = C × N ave × L × φ
(C = 2 to 3)
・ When not using pile circumference fixing liquid: R f = C × L × φ
(C = 15)
Use the value of.

Also here
L: Length of the ground which can consider the peripheral frictional force of the pile φ: Perimeter of the pile N ave : Average N value of the section using the pile circumference fixing liquid.

In general, when the N value is low (for example, 10 or less), when an ordinary cylindrical pile is used as an off-the-shelf pile, R f (pile circumferential surface frictional resistance) is smaller than that of a foundation pile structure such as a joint pile. It was.

Therefore, in the medium excavation method, it is necessary to increase either or both of R p and R f in order to increase the bearing capacity.

In this invention, in order to enlarge Rf , it aims at improving the ground strength as the whole peripheral surface of a ready-made pile by improving the axial part outer peripheral part of a pile hole. As a result, the overall frictional resistance of the peripheral surface of the ready-made pile is secured and increased, and the stress propagation area is increased so that the stress can be widely relaxed and propagated. That is, in the above formula of R f , N or the coefficient C is increased.

(3) Also, in order to increase R p (tip support force), the pile outer surface at the lower end of the pile (tip) is widened to increase the adhesion area with the soil cement, and there is sufficient stress from the adhesion surface. The purpose is to form a solidified portion with high solidification strength that can be propagated to the surface. That is, in the above formula, α and Ap are increased.

  Another object of the present invention is to reduce the amount of soil discharged to the ground from the hollow portion of a ready-made pile during excavation of a pile hole in the medium excavation method.

(4) In addition, the invention of Patent Document 3 is a steel pipe with a metal fitting that can be screwed into the ground at the tip in advance, and is screwed into the ground as a casing, and then a ready-made pile (made of concrete) is placed in the steel pipe. An invention that realizes reduction of soil removal by an insertion method is disclosed. However, in this construction method, the ready-made piles are simply placed on the metal fittings, there is no integrity of the pre-made piles and the metal fittings, and solidified mixed layers such as a soil cement layer that ensures stress propagation between the ground and the ready-made piles There is no consideration of this, and it is not possible to expect high support. In addition, since this method requires metal fittings, it cannot be applied to the digging method at all.

  Moreover, invention of patent document 4 is a pre-digging method which excavates the pile hole of the diameter equal to the outer diameter of a ready-made pile, and embeds the ready-made pile which has a spiral blade after that. The point which reduces the discharge | emission amount of excavated soil by making the diameter of the axial part of a pile hole relatively small is disclosed. However, in the invention of Patent Document 4, when twisting the spiral wing, a large twist occurs in the ready-made pile, and especially when the ground is hard, a huge twist occurs in the ready-made pile. is there. Also, if the stratum contains a soft layer, the pile hole diameter is small, so it is difficult to form a solidified mixed layer such as cement milk in the gap between the pile hole wall and the outer surface of the ready-made pile. It is difficult to exert frictional force.

  In addition, the invention of Patent Document 5 is such that a propulsion head having a spiral blade and an excavating blade is fitted to the lower end of a hollow prefabricated pile, and the propulsion head is rotated with a rotating rod passing through the prefabricated pile, so that the prefabricated pile is not used. A method of making it penetrate by rotation is disclosed. However, in the invention of Patent Document 5, since the integrity of the buried propulsion head and the ready-made pile is uncertain and expansion excavation is not possible, it is possible to enhance the bearing capacity around the effective support ground using the propulsion head. Absent. In addition, when a soft layer is included in the formation at an intermediate depth, a solidified mixed layer cannot be formed at that portion, and the peripheral frictional force cannot be enhanced. Furthermore, the propulsion head having a complicated structure cannot be recovered from the supporting ground, and costs are required.

  In order to solve the above-mentioned problems, in the present invention, a pile hole having a larger excavation diameter (with respect to a pile diameter of an already-made pile) is also excavated including the shaft portion of the pile hole, and further excavation of the pile hole is performed. The pile hole was excavated while forming a solidified mixed layer in an appropriate section at least in the desired depth range in design.

That is, in the first invention, the drilling head of the drilling rod protrudes from the tip of the hollow part of the ready-made pile, the ready-made pile is lowered while excavating the ground to form the pile hole, and the ready-made pile is placed in the predetermined pile hole. In the pile excavation method, the ready-made pile has a tip fitting fixed to the tip, and the tip fitting has an inner diameter equal to or larger than the inner diameter of the ready-made pile and the outside of the ready-made pile. The steel pipe body has a large diameter portion at least at the upper end portion and the lower end portion, and the large diameter portion forms a partially conical inclined slope on the lower surface, and the inclined slope of the lower end portion. lower is formed so as to reach the lower end of the steel pipe body, using a drill rod having no dumping mechanism spiral like, and projects the drill rod from the tip of said end bracket, while loosening the ground Kuiana Excavate the loosened excavated soil at the outer surface of the ready-made pile. While compacted to a drilling method in the pile was characterized by sinking the prefabricated pile.

Moreover, 2nd invention makes a digging head of a digging rod protrude from the front-end | tip of the hollow part of a ready-made pile, descend | falls a ready-made pile while excavating the ground and forming a pile hole, The said ready-made pile is put in a predetermined pile hole. In the intermediate digging method of piles, the ready-made pile is a lower end portion, and a lower shaft portion having a diameter smaller than that of the upper shaft portion is formed on the upper shaft portion via a step portion, and the stepped portion is inclined. Forming a large-diameter portion having a lower surface and forming a large-diameter portion having an inclined lower surface in the lower shaft portion;
Using a drilling rod that does not have a soil removal mechanism such as a spiral, excavate a pile hole while loosening the ground, and set the ready-made pile while pressing the loosened excavated soil outward on the outer surface of the ready-made pile. This is a method of digging piles characterized by that .

Further, in the inventions, ahead end fitting is located in the soil cement layer formed in the pile hole, the tip fitting the supporting surface is formed on the large diameter portion of the outer surface of the tubular base portion, said support surface In a pile that is inclined with respect to a vertical plane and can be used as a tip support force by propagating an upward or downward shear force toward the soil cement layer. It is desirable to use the excavation method. Further, to form an inclined top surface and inclined lower surface in the large-diameter portion of the already Seikui, wherein the inclined upper surface and the inclined lower surface, upward or downward, the support surface which can be utilized as a front end supporting force by propagating shear and it is desirable that the drilling method in the pile which is characterized by that form. In addition, cement milk is poured into the excavated soil at a predetermined ground depth and stirred and mixed to form a solidified mixed layer, and the outer diameter of the solidified mixed layer and the outer diameter of the root consolidation portion of the pile hole It is desirable to use a pile digging method characterized by forming the slabs with substantially the same outer diameter.

Moreover, 3rd invention is the foundation pile structure comprised by burying a ready-made pile in a pile hole, Comprising: The said pile hole is excavated while loosening the ground, The loosened excavation soil is made into the outer surface of the said ready-made pile. Formed while pressing outward, the ready-made pile has a tip fitting attached to the lower end, and the tip fitting is located in the soil cement layer formed in the pile hole and is excavated at a preset ground depth Cement milk is poured into the soil and mixed by stirring to form a solidified mixed layer. The inclined lower surface of the large diameter portion forms a supporting surface, and the supporting surface is a surface inclined with respect to the vertical surface. A foundation pile structure characterized in that an upward or downward shear force can be propagated toward the soil cement layer and used as a tip support force.

  The relatively soft stratum in the above is the ground where the ready-made pile is to be buried, and the ground strength of the ground having only one strength lower than the assumed ground strength with respect to the ground strength assumed in advance in one of the pile holes. Point to. For example, when the assumed ground strength is “20” in sandy soil with an N value of “20”, the bearing strength has a value that is significantly lower than the average N value, for example, an N value that is smaller than “5”. It refers to the ground that can hardly be considered. In this case, the ground strength assumed in advance may be set for each pile hole or may be set for the entire site.

  In the above, cement milk refers to cement milk that solidifies after elapse of a predetermined time if mixed in excavated soil and mixed with stirring, and a hydraulic material equivalent to cement milk.

In addition, in the above, the “predetermined depth range determined by design” is that the normal ground is formed from strata with various ground strengths, and the depth range to be set depends on the overall strength of the foundation pile structure. Determine the scope to be. That is, when a soft stratum is defined as a “predetermined depth range” or an intermediate layer having a relatively strong ground strength is defined as a “predetermined depth range”, the soft stratum is appropriately combined to form a “predetermined depth range”. In some cases, a certain depth range is defined as a “predetermined depth range” regardless of the ground strength.

  Moreover, in the above, “excavation with 1.4 times or more of the outer diameter of the ready-made pile” was made, but there is no upper limit especially in the shaft portion of the pile hole. Yes, and an increase in supportiveness can be expected. However, if the diameter is large, a larger excavation rod is required, and the excavation speed becomes slower, resulting in poor construction efficiency. Therefore, by comparing and adjusting the installation interval of the above and foundation piles (off-the-shelf piles), it is usually about 1.4 to 1.5 times the same diameter as the excavation diameter at which high tip support force can be obtained at the root consolidation part Is desirable.

  In addition, “propagation of shear force” in the above is “prepared pile with tip metal fitting 13” or “prefabricated pile with an uneven portion on the outer side of the lower end” embedded in a solidified soil cement layer in the pile hole. In some cases, shear force can be propagated toward the soil cement layer. Further, the “support surface capable of propagating the shearing force” includes a protrusion (for example, an annular protrusion) 10 on the “outer surface of the cylindrical base portion (steel pipe main body) 6 of the tip metal fitting” or “the lower end portion outer surface of the ready-made pile”. When formed, the lower surface of the projection 10 constitutes a support surface B that can propagate the shearing force downward, and the upper surface of the projection 10 can propagate the shearing force upward. A support surface A is formed (FIG. 4A). In this case, it is desirable that the upper and lower surfaces of the protrusion 10 are slightly inclined with respect to the vertical surface. Further, according to experiments, it has been found that the direction in which the shearing force propagates acts obliquely with respect to the vertical plane, so that it is desirable that the shearing force be formed at a right angle to the propagation direction.

  In addition, when the support surface on which the vertical shearing force acts is formed as a recess on the outer surface of the cylindrical base 1 in order to obtain a wide protrusion, the side walls of the recess constitute the support surfaces A and B. (FIG. 4B). Furthermore, the support surface is not limited to the protrusions and the recesses, but can be formed as a support surface A or a support surface B having a similar function by forming a step on the outer surface of the cylindrical base 6 (FIG. 4C). d)), its shape is arbitrary. In short, the cylindrical base portion 6 (the lower shaft portion 36 when the annular protrusion 37 is formed on the ready-made pile 1. Some means effective for the propagation of shearing force (for example, a step portion) on the outer surface of FIG. Etc.) and can be used as the tip support force, the support surface can be configured regardless of the shape of the irregularities.

  The cylindrical base portion 6 (or the lower shaft portion 36, FIG. 2A) is preferably cylindrical in terms of stress propagation balance, but the shape of the rectangular tube or the like is arbitrary.

Further, in the above, the outer diameter D 11 of the tubular base part 6 of the end bracket 13, if a diameter smaller than the outer diameter D 01 of the prefabricated pile 1 (D 11 ≦ D 01) , the outer diameter D 01 of the prefabricated pile 1 It is desirable because it is sufficient to drill a pile hole according to the condition. In this case, the upper end of the tubular base part 6, to form a large diameter portion 7 corresponding to the outer diameter D 01 of the prefabricated pile 1 (Figure 2 (b)). In this case, the outer diameter D 13 of the annular projection 10 which forms a support surface, the outer diameter D 01 of the prefabricated pile 1 (i.e., the outer diameter of the large diameter portion 7) and smaller than (D 13 <D 01), Alternatively, the outer diameter D 13 can in be a larger diameter than the outer diameter D 01 of the prefabricated pile 1 (D 01 <D 13) . Of course, D 13 = D 01 can also be set. Further, since the outer diameter D 13 is better not greater than D 01 resistance when inserting the prefabricated pile is small, it is effective in the construction of the ground, such as high ground intensity (or density of the soil).

Further, the outer diameter D 11 of the cylindrical base 6 is made equal to the outer diameter D 01 of the ready-made pile 1 (D 01 ≈D 11 ), or the outer diameter D 11 of the cylindrical base 1 is set outside the ready-made pile 1. The diameter may be larger than the diameter D 01 (D 01 <D 11 ). These dimensions can be properly used according to the ground strength, the density of the soil, the required strength required for the foundation pile, and the like.

  Further, in the case where the lower shaft portion 36 having a small diameter is formed on the ready-made pile 1 and the annular protrusions 37 and 37 are formed on the portion without using the end fitting 13 (FIG. 2A), the cylindrical base portion The outer surface 6 corresponds to the outer surface of the lower shaft portion and is set to have a similar configuration.

Further, in the above, the inner diameter D 12 of the cylindrical base portion 6 is preferably set to equal to or more than the inner diameter D 02 of the prefabricated pile 1. This is because it becomes easy to insert the excavation head through the portion.

(1) Since a solidified mixed layer is formed in a predetermined section and the ground is pressed by the outer peripheral wall of the ready-made pile without discharging the excavated soil, it is compared with the conventional excavation method using a ready-made pile of the same diameter. Thus, it is possible to exert about twice the supporting force.

  In addition, regardless of the N value, when pile holes are excavated with a large diameter as appropriate and cement milk is injected to form a solidified mixed layer, the friction force around the pile can be further restored and reinforced. The support capacity will surely increase.

(2) The conventional medium digging method has a difficulty in that the amount of excavated soil is large, but in the present invention, the diameter is larger than the outer diameter of the ready-made pile (for example, about 1.4 times or more the outer diameter of the ready-made pile). By unwinding and forming a pile hole with a large diameter), it is also possible to sink a pre-made pile without providing a soil removal mechanism, especially on the excavating rod. It can be reduced to the amount of injected material. In addition, it is possible to form a solidified mixed layer by injecting cement milk into the excavated soil and stirring and mixing only in a depth section including a formation that is relatively weak and cannot be expected to have a bearing capacity (a poor formation). In addition, when excavating a large-diameter pile hole with a diameter of about 1.4 times or more of the outer diameter of the ready-made pile, a solidified part that provides high bearing capacity is formed. Pile can be built at the same time.

(3) Since the solidified mixed layer is formed in the excavated pile hole, if the solidified mixed layer can adhere to the outer peripheral surface of the prefabricated pile, a prefabricated pile having a large-diameter annular projection on the outer periphery can be constructed, so the adjacent foundation If the solidified mixed layer is formed with substantially the same depth by the pile and can be constructed before solidification, the adjacent solidified mixed layers can be connected to each other, and a stronger foundation pile structure can be realized as an interconnected group.

(4) By making the outer diameter of the solidified mixed layer approximately the same as the diameter of the pile hole consolidation part, the drilling work for the pile hole is simplified, the control process is simplified, and the reliability of the drilling head is also improved. improves. Moreover, the excavation head which can make the outer diameter of a solidification mixed layer 1.5 times or more of the outer diameter of a foundation pile is also easily realizable.

  In addition, when the construction ground is hard or dense, even if the construction speed is increased by providing some excavation mechanism to the excavation rod, if this construction method is combined, the excavation rod will be drastically reduced. The amount of soil can be reduced.

(5) Moreover, although it is desirable to use a front-end | tip metal fitting, there exists an effect which can obtain the same high bearing force by employ | adopting the ready-made pile made from concrete which formed the uneven | corrugated | grooved part in the lower end part. In this case, since the same construction method can be adopted with the concave and convex portion having the same configuration as the tip metal fitting, the same root as in the case of embedding a concrete ready-made pile with a concave and convex portion formed at the lower end by a conventional pre-digging method is used. By forming the hardened portion, a high supporting force can be obtained.

Fig.1 (a) represents the ready-made pile and excavation rod of the Example of this invention, the enlarged front view which broke the ready-made pile, (b) is the basic pile structure of this invention. FIG. 2 is an enlarged front view of a root-solidified portion of a foundation pile structure, and (a) and (b) are examples of the present invention. FIG. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view for explaining the medium excavation method of the present invention. 4 (a) to 4 (d) are schematic longitudinal sectional views for explaining propagation of the shear force and the support surface of the tip metal fitting of the present invention. FIG. 5 is a front view of another excavation head used in the practice of the present invention. FIG. 6 is an enlarged front view of the foundation consolidation portion of the foundation pile structure, and represents a comparative example excavated by a pre-digging method.

  A basic embodiment of the present invention will be described.

(1) The inside of a pile hole 28 formed by loosening the ground while excavating the pile hole 28 with the excavation head 18 inserted through the hollow part 2 of the ready-made pile 1 and projecting in the ground where the ready-made pile 1 is to be buried Then, the ready-made pile 1 is lowered and set (FIGS. 3A to 3C). The excavation diameter of the pile hole 28 excavated by the excavation head 18 is excavated from the ground 25 with a larger diameter than the outer diameter of the ready-made pile 1 to be set, for example, about 1.4 to 1.5 times. Here, since the excavated soil is not discharged during excavation and when the ready-made piles are laid down, it is not always necessary to provide a conventional function (such as spiral) for excavating the middle portion of the excavation rod.

  At this time, when excavating the formations 26A and 26B corresponding to the ground to be improved, excavating and stirring while injecting a solidifying agent into the excavated soil from the excavating head 18 to create an improved ground having a predetermined solidification strength. Then, the ready-made pile 1 is sunk sequentially.

  In the conventional digging method, the outer periphery of the ready-made pile 1 immediately reaches the ground via a pile-fixed liquid layer having a thickness of 1 to 2 cm. In the present invention, the solidified mixed layer is formed thick in the solidified mixed layer. The entire outer periphery of the solidified mixed layer (outer diameter) is in contact with the ground.

  For example, when the ready-made pile 1 has an outer diameter of 600 mm, the outer diameter of the solidified mixed layer is about 840 to 900 mm, and the thickness of the solidified mixed layer (the length in the vertical direction) is secured in order to secure a sufficient thickness for the stress to propagate. Is preferably 1 m or more from the viewpoint of strength.

  Here, since the ground is appropriately loosened and loosened by the large-diameter excavation of the present invention, concrete pre-made piles with irregularities on the outer surface can be subsidized even without discharging the excavated soil, so that almost no soil is discharged. Can create foundation piles that are not present. Of course, the ready-made pile made of steel pipe having a thinner wall thickness than that of the ready-made pile made of concrete is easier to set, so that the ready-made pile made of steel pipe can be used. Further, since there is a discharge of excavated soil for the injection of the solidifying agent or the like, it is desirable that the solidified mixed layer be as few as possible.

(2) As a solidifying agent, for example, high-concentration cement milk is used, poured into excavated soil, and stirred and mixed by the excavating head 18 to form solidified mixed layers (soil cement layers) 29A and 29B. In this case, the adhesion strength between the inner peripheral surfaces of the solidified mixed layers (soil cement layers) 29A and 29B and the outer peripheral surface of the ready-made pile 1 is greater than the adhesive strength between the outer peripheral surfaces of the solidified mixed layers 29A and 29B and the original ground surface. This is necessary for improving the propagation of stress.

  The doughnut-shaped solidified mixed layers 29A and 29B attached to the outer periphery of the ready-made pile 1 are solidified and act as annular protrusions of the ready-made pile. That is, the vertical load or pulling force on the ready-made pile 1 can propagate the shearing force from the upper and lower surfaces of the solidified mixed layer to the upper and lower raw ground, thereby enhancing the vertical support force and the pulling force (FIG. 1 (b) chain line arrow Shown).

(3) In a layer that does not form a solidified mixed layer, no solidifying agent is injected into the excavated soil, so that the loosened and loosened excavated soil is pressed against the outer periphery of the prefabricated pile 1 by the outer periphery of the prefabricated pile that is laid down as it is. Accumulated in the state. That is, in the layer (depth range) between the solidified mixed layer 29A and the solidified mixed layer 29B, the excavated soil layer pressed radially is formed on the outer peripheral side of the ready-made pile.

(4) As described above, if the pile hole 28 is excavated to a predetermined depth while forming the solidified mixed layers 29A and 29B at a predetermined depth position (FIGS. 3A to 3C), then Form a rooted part. That is, in the root consolidation part, only the lower end part of the pile hole is stirred and mixed while injecting high-concentration cement milk from the lower end part of the excavation head 18, and if necessary, the excavation mud is pushed upward and the excavation mud in the consolidation part is pushed up. Is replaced with cement milk to form the root hardening layer 30 (FIGS. 3D and 3E). The root hardening layer 30 is filled with cement milk having a solidification strength equal to or higher than the ground strength. Subsequently, the excavation head 18 is closed and pulled up to the ground 25 through the hollow portion 2 of the ready-made pile 1 (FIG. 3 (f)).

  At the same time, the tip of the ready-made pile 1 is sunk in the root consolidation part of the pile hole 28 filled with cement milk (existing in the form of soil cement), and the bottom surface of the ready-made pile 1 is predetermined from the bottom of the root consolidation part. Leave only the length. As described above, the foundation pile structure 33 is formed after the burying of the ready-made pile 1 is completed and the cement milk is solidified (FIG. 1B).

  In this case, in order to strengthen the root consolidation part, a drilling rod provided with a spiral for the purpose of earthing and stirring on the main body part or upper part of the drilling head 18 can also be used (not shown). This is because the excavated soil is eliminated as much as possible from the root consolidation part, or the cement milk and the excavated soil are sufficiently mixed with stirring to form a good-quality root consolidation layer 30.

(5) The ready-made pile 1 used in the digging method of the present invention is integrated with the root consolidation layer 30 in the root consolidation layer 30 made of cement milk formed in the root consolidation portion, and has a high vertical support force and pulling force. In order to exhibit the above, the ready-made pile 1 with projections (or nodes, spiral wings) having a large adhesion area is desirable. In particular, a tip fitting 13 having a cylindrical steel pipe body 6 with a protrusion as a base is attached to the tip of the ready-made pile 1 in order to reduce the indentation resistance when the ready-made pile 1 is laid down and to be easily inserted and to increase the adhesion surface area. 3 is preferable to be mounted.

  In the case of adopting this digging method, a large-diameter protrusion formed on the lower end portion of the ready-made pile 1 to be used or formed on the end fitting 13, for example, a large-diameter helical wing having a relatively small penetration resistance structure Etc., and a foundation pile having a high supporting force can be constructed.

  In addition, the tip metal fitting 13 is not attached to the cylindrical steel pipe body 6 larger than the outer diameter of the ready-made pile 1 in order to increase the adhesion area with the protrusion, and the outer diameter of the protrusion is mounted on the upper portion in order to reduce the pushing resistance. The number of protrusions should be equal to or less than the outer diameter of the ready-made pile 1 and the number of protrusions should match the required adhesion area with the required root hardening layer 30 in order to balance the required bearing capacity. Appropriate from the point of view. Furthermore, when the ready-made pile 1 is laid down, it is necessary to prevent soil mud from adhering to the protruding surface of the tip metal fitting 13 and to increase the adhesion in the rooting layer 30. It is desirable to increase the adhesion area by making it slightly larger than the outer diameter of the protrusion, or to provide a tapered inclination on the upper and lower surfaces of the protrusion.

  Moreover, the initial settlement after the root hardening layer 30 solidifies can be prevented by performing the process which prevents the mud from adhering to the projection surface.

  Further, in order to increase the proof stress, it is necessary to increase the surface area of the protrusion of the tip metal fitting 13, but the outer diameter of the protrusion is conversely small in terms of the effectiveness of shear force propagation under load and construction practice. It is necessary. Therefore, the outer diameter of the steel pipe body 6 located at the base of the protrusion is as small as possible, and the outer diameter of the protrusion is the ready-made pile 1 connected to the upper part so that penetration resistance does not occur as much as possible when the ready-made pile is laid down. It is desirable that the dimension is approximately the same as the outer diameter of the slab and not too large. That is, when considering the propagation of shearing force generated from the projecting surface involved in the support force, at least the outer surface (lower surface or upper surface) of the projecting portion has a required dimensional shape and a soil cement layer with a higher solidification strength than the ground strength. This is because it is essential to be formed.

  In addition, in order to ensure the adhesion strength between the surface of each part of the tip metal fitting 13 and the root hardening layer (soil cement layer) 30 of the root hardening part, the surface area of the protruding part of the tip metal fitting 13 is designed to be wide. Furthermore, at the time of construction, it is necessary to prevent soil mud from adhering to the surface of the protrusion and reducing the adhesion strength of both. In particular, in the middle digging method, unlike the case where the ready-made pile 1 is sunk in the pile hole filled with the soil cement as in the pre-digging method, the height position where the soil cement is formed by excavating the pile hole 28 ( Since the tip 3 of the ready-made pile 1 is located immediately above the position of the excavation head 18, it is necessary to consider the attachment between the tip fitting 13 and the root hardening layer 30. Therefore, it is desirable that the upper and lower surfaces of the protrusions are not horizontal but inclined, so they can be made into a node shape, or slightly larger than the outer diameter of the upper pile so that soil mud does not get caught on the upper surface of the protrusions (the outer diameter). The support force can be reliably and stably expressed by devising the shape and dimensions of the tip of the protrusion, such as a large protrusion.

(6) Moreover, the excavation rod 15 used in the intermediate excavation method of the present invention can excavate a pile hole with an outer diameter 1.4 to 1.5 times the outer diameter of the ready-made pile 1 when opened, and has a reduced diameter. And the excavation head 18 which can be closed as an outer diameter below the internal diameter so that it can pass the hollow part 2 of the ready-made pile 1 is used. That is, the excavation head 18 requires a structure having a large ratio between the diameter reduction and the diameter expansion. For example, the excavation arm 21 having the excavation blade 22 at the tip is swingably attached to both sides of the head main body 19 that can be connected to the rod main body 16 (FIG. 1A). Therefore, if this excavation head 18 is used, the outer diameter of the projection of the tip fitting of the ready-made pile 1 (or the protrusion formed on the outer periphery of the lower end of the ready-made pile) becomes larger than the outer diameter of the shaft portion of the ready-made pile. Even if it is a case, if it is the shape (for example, spiral wing | blade etc.) which considered the resistance at the time of penetration, the ready-made pile 1 can be penetrated easily and embedded in the pile hole 28. FIG.

  In addition, in the conventional medium digging method using the excavation head using a rocking excavation arm that can realize a large diameter expansion relatively easily, small-diameter excavation at the shaft portion of the pile hole 28 (the outer diameter of the ready-made pile). + 2cm), large-diameter excavation at the bottom-solidified portion of the pile hole 28 (about 1.2 times the outer diameter of the ready-made pile), when the diameter of the excavation head 18 is reduced (below the inner diameter of the ready-made pile) Although three control steps are required, the construction method is reduced to two control steps for large-diameter excavation and agitation and extraction of the excavation head 18, so that the structure of the excavation head 18 can be simplified and rigid. Strength can be increased. Accordingly, the control of large-diameter excavation is reliable and stable, and the reliability is improved, and the repair and maintenance management are also stabilized and economical.

  The excavation head 18 used in this construction method requires an excavation diameter at least 1.4 to 1.5 times the outer diameter of the ready-made pile 1 as compared with the conventional one. Therefore, it was realized by using the excavation head 18 having a structure having the excavating arm 21 and a structure having high rigidity and strength.

  Further, the rod main body 16 of the excavation rod 15 can omit a spiral mainly for the purpose of soil removal like a conventional excavation rod. It is desirable to project a member having a stabilizer function for aligning the core of the pile hole 28 and the hollow portion 2 of the ready-made pile 1 with the core of the excavating rod 15 and the function of stirring the excavated soil around the excavating rod 15. (FIG. 1 (a)).

(7) In this method, depending on the soil, the size of the excavation diameter is adjusted (adjusted by increasing / decreasing the ratio of the excavation diameter of the excavation head 18 with respect to the outer diameter of the ready-made pile 1), and the ready-made pile 1 However, in order to further improve the excavation and crushability of the ground, an excavation head suitable for large-diameter excavation is necessary.

  For example, the outer cylinder 41 is attached to the cylindrical head main body 19 so as to be movable up and down, the upper end of the upper arm 42 is connected to the upper end of the head main body 19, and the lower end of the lower arm 43 is connected to the lower end of the outer cylinder 41 with pins, The excavation head 18 can also be configured by connecting the lower end of the upper arm 42 and the upper end of the lower arm 43 with a pin (FIG. 5). In this case, the excavating arm 21 is composed of the upper arm 42 and the lower arm 43, the excavating blades 20, 20 are formed at the lower end of the outer cylinder 41, and the excavating blades 22, 22 are formed on the lower surface side of the upper arm 43.

  In this excavation head, the outer cylinder 41 and the head main body 19 are relatively moved up and down, and the excavation diameter can be expanded so that the upper arm 42 and the lower arm 43 of the excavation arm 21 overlap (approach to the horizontal), Since the drive range can be taken longer, the ratio compared with the normal excavation head when the diameter is reduced (the upper arm 42 and the lower arm 43 of the excavation arm 21 are arranged in the vertical direction), that is, the ratio compared with the outer diameter of the ready-made pile Excavation is possible, and excavation blades can be formed in multiple stages, so that the grinding performance can be controlled. Therefore, the excavation head 18 can excavate and agitate a large diameter that is twice or more of the pile diameter ratio with the ready-made pile, and can exhibit a greater support force.

  Further, the excavation head 18 can be provided with a plurality of stoppers in the vertical direction (not shown). In this case, it is possible to easily cope with different excavation diameters. Therefore, by using this excavation head 18, when excavating the excavator (rod body 16 of the excavation rod 15) with one excavation head 18 being mounted and changing the excavation position to form pile holes of different diameters, Continuous excavation is possible only by adjusting the stopper. In addition, when forming a pile hole having a shaft portion with a different diameter in the depth direction with one pile hole, the excavation diameter can be easily changed only by adjusting the stopper, and solidified mixed layers with different diameters can be formed. Construction of the foundation pile that has it becomes easy.

(8) As described above, according to the present invention, this high-concentration soil can be excavated to about 1.4 to 1.5 times the outer diameter of the ready-made pile 1 to form a solidified mixed layer on a predetermined ground. The solidified mixed layer made of cement also acts as an annular protrusion formed on the outer periphery of the ready-made pile 1. For example, in the case of a ready-made pile having an outer diameter of 800 mm, a solidified mixed layer having an outer diameter of about 1120 to 1200 mm is formed, that is, an annular protrusion having a protrusion height (horizontal protrusion distance) of 160 to 200 mm is formed on the outer periphery of the ready-made pile. Can be formed.

  In this case, since the ready-made pile 1 and the solidified mixed layers 29A and 29B act integrally, the external surface area of the ready-made pile is increased to increase adhesion to the ground, and a vertical load or a pulling force is applied to the ready-made pile 1. In this case, the upper and lower surfaces of the solidified mixed layers 29A and 29B act as stress propagation surfaces, and the shear force can be effectively propagated from the upper and lower surfaces to the ground located above and below the soft ground to enhance the supporting force (FIG. 1 ( b)).

In this way, by loosening the ground, the frictional force of the pile periphery of the ready-made pile is reduced,
The reduced friction force of the pile periphery of the ready-made pile can be restored and reinforced by appropriately forming a solidified mixed layer or the like, and further the adhesion between the solidified mixed layer 29A, 29B and the outer surface of the ready-made pile 1 can be prevented. If it is constructed so as to be sufficiently increased, a support force of about twice the support force exhibited by the shaft portion of the conventional ready-made pile 1 can be obtained.

  In addition, since the surface area of the ready-made piles is substantially increased and the stress propagation area of the ready-made piles is increased, the degree of propagation load stress (stress per area) to the surrounding weak raw ground is reduced and relaxed. Increase load capacity.

  In addition, the prefabricated pile 1 is pushed in by sequentially pushing the prefabricated pile 1 before it hardens immediately after forming the solidified mixed layers 29A and 29B at the height of the designated formation and excavating and stirring. Resistance (penetration resistance) is reduced and ready-made piles can be easily laid.

  Moreover, unlike the conventional medium digging method, the excavation rod does not require a drilling soil discharge mechanism like a spiral shape, and the total amount of soil discharged can be reduced. That is, when the excavation diameter is significantly larger than before (for example, 1.4 times or more of the pile diameter of ready-made piles) and the ground is loosened and loosened, and the ready-made piles are laid down, ), The ready-made piles are laid down and the foundation piles are constructed while pressing the loosened excavated soil almost radially on the surrounding ground, so there is no need to provide a soil removal mechanism on the excavating rod as in the past. Ready-made piles can be laid.

(9) A pile hole having an expanded bottom consolidation portion 35 is excavated by a pre-digging method, and the lower shaft portion 36 is made into a small diameter in the expanded bottom consolidation portion 35 filled with soil cement having a solidification strength higher than the ground strength. When the ready-made pile 1 in which the annular protrusions 37 and 37 are formed in the lower end including the shaft portion 36 is embedded to form the foundation pile structure 38, the shearing force can be sufficiently propagated from the surfaces of the annular protrusions 37 and 37. (Fig. 6), it has been confirmed that about twice the supporting force can be obtained as compared with the supporting force exhibited by a conventional cylindrical ready-made pile. In the foundation pile structure 33 of the present invention, the ready-made pile 1 to which the tip metal fitting 13 is fixed or the ready-made pile 1 in which the annular protrusion 37 is formed is embedded in the above procedure (FIGS. 2A and 2B). 3) It is possible to develop a high bearing capacity equivalent to that of the foundation pile structure 38 by the conventional pre-digging method (FIG. 6).

  Therefore, in the present invention, the amount of soil removal can be reduced as a whole by making the excavation diameter larger than the outer diameter of the ready-made pile (for example, 1.4 times or more the outer diameter of the ready-made pile) by the medium excavation method. At the same time, a high supporting force can be realized.

  Next, specific embodiments of the present invention will be described based on examples.

          [1] Ready-made pile 1

As the ready-made pile 1, a cylindrical concrete pile having the following shape and size is adopted. In addition, when required proof stress is large, a steel pipe covering concrete pile (SC pile) etc. can also be selected (FIG. 1 (a), FIG.2 (b)).
Pile outer diameter D 01 = 800mm
Pile thickness t 01 = 110mm
Pile inside diameter D 02 = 580mm
Pile length L 01 = 19m

          [2] Tip fitting 13

Outer diameter D 11, the inner diameter D 12, the upper end portion of the steel pipe pile body (thickness t 11) 6 of the total length L 11, forms a large diameter portion 7 of the outer diameter D 13, the large diameter portion 7 of the ready-made pile 1 Let it be a connecting part. The large-diameter portion 7 is formed with a partially conical inclined slope whose upper surface 8 has a horizontal flat surface and whose lower surface 9 has a gradually smaller diameter. The outer diameter of the connecting portion, i.e., the outer diameter D 13 of the large diameter portion 7 is a substantially equal to the outer diameter of the prefabricated pile 1 to be connected (the outer diameter of D 01 lower end). Width of the large diameter portion 7 (height) is formed by L 13.

A disc-shaped (doughnut-shaped) annular protrusion 10 having an outer diameter D 13 is provided on the outer surface of the lower end portion of the steel pipe body 6. The upper surface 11 of the annular protrusion 10 is formed in a horizontal plane, the lower surface 12 forms a partially conical inclined slope, and the lower end of the inclined slope reaches the lower end of the steel pipe body 6. The width of the annular projection 10 (height) is formed by L 13 (Figure 2 (b)).

As described above, the end fitting 13 is formed (FIGS. 2B and 1A). The distance between the large diameter portion 7 and the annular projection 10 is formed in L 12, protrusion length L 14 (= (D 13 -D 11) ÷ 2) when to the propagation of the shear force from the supporting surface without failure in order to act, at least L 12> L 14 × tanθ ≒ L 14 × tan30 ° = L 14 × √3
It is formed to satisfy.

The dimensions are formed as follows.
- steel body 6 the outer diameter D 11 = 610 mm
-Steel pipe body 6 inner diameter D 12 = 572 mm
-Steel pipe body 6 length L 11 = 749 mm
・ Width L 13 of the large diameter portion 7 = 119 mm
-Distance L 12 = 430 mm between the large diameter portion 7 and the annular protrusion 10

In the above embodiment, the inner diameter D 12 of the steel tube body 6 is the same as the inner diameter D 02 of the prefabricated pile 1 which connects to the upper, since the thickness t 11 of the steel pipe pile body 6 is set to about 15 to 40 mm, the annular projection 10 of the outer diameter D 13 of the section shape of the steel it can be set on top of the outer diameter D 01 or more ready-made pile 1, (adhesion area between the soil cement) projection area can be taken large. Therefore, just by increasing the number of the annular protrusions 10 to be formed, the support force equivalent to the support force exerted by the ready-made pile 1 on the outer diameter of the ready-made pile 1 by one rank can be obtained.

          [3] Drilling rod 15

  An excavation head 18 is attached to the tip of the hollow rod body 16 to constitute the excavation rod 15. The excavation head 18 is configured by swinging the upper ends of the excavation arms 21 and 21 on both sides of the head main body 19 that can be connected to the rod main body 16 (FIG. 1A). The head main body 19 is formed with a flat portion that tapers from the middle portion toward the lower end portion, and digging blades 20 and 20 project from the tip of the flat portion.

  The excavation arm 21 is attached to the head main body 19 at the upper end portion thereof by the rotation shaft 24, and the intermediate portion is bent downwardly and along the flat portion of the head main body 19 so as to approach the head main body 19, and the excavation blade The lower end portions that form 22 and 22 are bent downward so as to open outward together with the excavating blades 22 and 22. By adopting such a shape, the excavating arms 21, 21 have a small rotational resistance, are easy to swing and the entire excavating head 18 is compact, and it is easy to insert the hollow portion of the ready-made pile, Large diameter drilling is easy.

  The head main body 19 is provided with stoppers 23 and 23 for limiting the range in which the excavation arms 21 and 21 swing according to the excavation diameter of the pile hole 28.

  Further, the rod main body 16 is provided with horizontal plates 17 and 17 symmetrically with respect to the diameter every predetermined height (for example, 5 m) by omitting a spiral for earth removal. The horizontal plates 17 and 17 have a stabilizer function for aligning the axis of the excavation rod 15 with the axis of the pile hole 28 or the axis of the ready-made pile 1 (centering), the function of stirring the excavated soil, and the like.

  In this excavation head 18, the operation modes are as follows: excavation of the pile hole 28 (during excavation of the pile hole shaft, excavation / agitation to form a solidified mixed layer, excavation / agitation of the solidified portion) and the hollow portion of the ready-made pile 1. 2 steps are simplified when passing through 2. By swinging the excavating arm 21, the outer diameter is about 1.5 times the outer diameter of the ready-made pile 1 (1200 mm), and even if the excavating rod 15 does not have a soil removal mechanism, reliable and stable excavation and agitation are realized. did.

          [4] Explanation of digging method

(1) The ground (the main part is sandy soil) where the ready-made pile 1 is to be buried is 1 meter in thickness from 6.5 m to 7.5 m and 1 m in thickness from 13.5 m to 14.5 m from the ground 25 , There are two geological layers 26A and 26B designated by design (for example, a relatively weak N value of about 5) (FIGS. 1B and 3).

(2) The upper surface 8 of the large-diameter portion 7 of the tip metal fitting 13 is applied to the tip 3 (the lower surface of the lower end plate) of the ready-made pile 1, and the large-diameter portion 7 and the lower end plate are integrally fixed with bolts or welding. The ready-made pile 1 with the tip metal fitting 13 is constituted (FIG. 2 (b), FIG. 1 (a)).

(3) At a predetermined excavation position, the excavation rod 15 is inserted through the hollow portion 2 of the ready-made pile 1 with the tip fitting 12 and the hollow portion 6 a of the tip fitting 13, and the excavation head 18 is moved from the tip 14 of the tip fitting 13. Make it protrude.
In this state, if the ready-made pile 1 and the excavating rod 15 are vertically supported and the excavating rod 15 is rotated, the excavating arm 21 is swung until it is regulated by the stopper 23, and the rocking angle is maintained. The pile hole 28 can be excavated with the excavating blades 22 and 22 of the excavating arm and the excavating blades 20 and 20 of the head body 19. The shaft portion of the pile hole 28 having a diameter larger than the outer diameter of the ready-made pile 1 is excavated by the excavation head 18 protruding from the tip 14 of the tip fitting 13. While excavating, the excavation rod 15 is lowered and the ready-made pile 1 is subsequently lowered (FIG. 3A).

(4) When excavated about 6.0 m from the ground, cement milk (solidification strength of about 20 N / mm 2 ) is injected into the excavated soil from the head body 18 and mixed with the excavated soil for about 2 m. The excavated soil and cement milk are excavated while being stirred and mixed, and pressed to form a soil cement layer 29 </ b> A around the ready-made pile 1. The formation of the soil cement layer (solidified mixed layer) is performed at a position designated in the design, and the vertical height including the formation 26A is the object of formation. When injecting the cement milk, the excavation head 18 is moved up and down, so that it is well stirred and a homogeneous soil cement layer is formed. The soil cement layer (solidified mixed layer) 29A has a solidification strength of about 0.5 N / mm 2 .

  Moreover, since the height position which forms a solidified mixed layer can be roughly grasped | ascertained by N value by a prior standard penetration test, it is desirable to form a solidified mixed layer in the height position where the N value corresponds. That is, if the current value of the motor of the auger that rotates and moves the excavating rod 15 during excavation is measured and integrated every predetermined height range (for example, 50 cm), the integrated current value is calculated. Since the ground strength can be compared at the same depth as the N value, and the height position indicating the integrated current value is the ground to be improved, by using it together with the N value, an accurate depth section can be obtained. A solidified mixed layer can be formed.

(5) Similarly, the ready-made pile 1 is lowered to the formed soil cement layer 29 </ b> A, and then the excavation rod 15 is lowered and the ready-made pile 1 is lowered while excavating the pile hole 28 with the excavation head 18.

(6) Corresponding to the formation 26B specified in the design, the cement milk is similarly discharged from the head main body 19 at the height of 13.0 m to 15.0 m from the ground, and mixed with the excavated soil. A soil cement layer (solidified mixed layer) 29B is formed (FIG. 3B). Thereafter, similarly, the pile hole 28 is excavated without using cement milk (FIG. 3C).
Thus, since the ready-made pile 1 is sequentially laid down while improving the ground, etc., the outflow of the soil cement can be prevented, and the solidified mixed layers 29A and 29B can be reliably formed.

(7) If a pile hole is excavated to a predetermined depth (about 21 m), which is the supporting ground (N value 30), cement milk (solidification strength 20 N / mm 2 ) between the pile hole bottom 31 and about 2 m in height. The excavation head 18 is rotated and moved up and down while injecting, and the solidified layer 30 is formed while stirring and mixing the excavated soil and the cement milk (FIGS. 3D and 3E). If necessary, the cemented milk can be discharged from the bottom of the root consolidation part to push up the excavated soil and replace the excavated soil with cement milk.

(8) If the root hardening layer 30 having a solidification strength of about 20 N / mm 2 higher than the surrounding ground strength is formed, the excavation rod 15 is reversed and the excavation arms 21 and 21 are closed to temporarily rotate the excavation rod 15. The excavation arms 21 and 21 are hung along the head body 19 (in this state, the maximum outer diameter of the excavation head 18 is equal to or smaller than the inner diameter D02 of the ready-made pile 1). Subsequently, the excavation head 18 is moved together with the excavation rod 15 and the hollow portion 6a of the end fitting 13 and the ready-made product while the excavation rod 15 is slowly rotated so that the excavation arms 21 and 21 do not swing and the root consolidation layer 30 is agitated. The hollow portion 2 of the pile 1 is inserted (FIG. 3 (f)) and pulled up to the ground.

  In addition, a stopper can be attached (not shown) to the side of the head main body 19 of the excavation head 18 where the excavation arms 21 and 21 swing when the excavation rod 15 rotates in the reverse direction. If the excavation head 18 is pulled up while rotating in reverse, the excavation head can be reliably recovered without damaging the inner wall of the hollow portion 2 of the ready-made pile 1.

(9) Subsequently, or in parallel with the lifting of the excavating rod 15, the ready-made pile 1 is lowered (FIG. 3 (f)), the tip fitting 13 is positioned in the rooting layer 30, and the tip of the tip fitting 13 is moved. (Bottom end) 14 and pile hole bottom 31 are the distance L 20 (here, about 1 m, FIG. 2 (b)) about the shaft outer diameter D 01 of the ready-made pile 1. The attached ready-made pile 1 is held in the pile hole 28.

  After the soil cement layers 29A and 29B and the root hardening layer 30 are solidified, the soil cement layers 29A and 29B and the root hardening layer 30 and the ready-made pile 1 are fixed to form a foundation pile structure 33 formed integrally. 1 (b), FIG. 2 (b)).

          [5] Test results

  When constructing this foundation pile structure 33, the excavated soil is hardly discharged with a small amount of soil equivalent to the amount of cement milk injected, so the surrounding ground strength is also compacted and high bearing capacity in the loading test. 9300 kN (maximum load) is obtained. In addition, improvement in variation in settlement characteristics can be expected.

  Moreover, it is a conventional medium digging method, which does not use the tip metal fitting 13 of this method, and is made of concrete formed from the upper end to the lower end with the same diameter as the outer diameter 600 mm of the tip metal fitting 13 in the rooting layer of this method. Compared with the conventional excavation method using existing piles. When a ready-made pile having an outer diameter of 600 mm was used and the tip of the ready-made pile was fixed in the rooting layer in the same manner, the maximum load was about 3100 kN on the same ground.

          [6] Other embodiments

(1) In the said Example, the timing which descends the ready-made pile 1 is arbitrary like the conventional digging method. However, in the formed soil cement layers 29A and 29B, it is desirable to install the ready-made pile 1 immediately after the layer formation.

(2) In the above embodiment, the two sections of the formations 26A and 26B were improved and replaced with high-concentration soil cement layers 29A and 29B to form a solidified mixed layer. In addition, it is possible to appropriately form a high-concentration soil cement layer to enhance the supporting force of the shaft portion (not shown). Moreover, in the said Example, although the solidified mixed layer was formed only in the section with especially small N value, and the total solidified mixed layer with a high support force reinforcement effect was formed with few processes, depending on construction ground, the pile hole 28 was formed. A solidified mixed layer is formed at a solidification strength of 0.5 N / mm 2 or less over the entire depth of the soil, and a soil cement layer (solidified mixed layer) having a high solidification strength of about 1.0 N / mm 2 in a poor ground. It is also possible to form

  However, since the excavated soil is discharged from the pile hole by the amount of cement milk newly injected into the pile hole, in order to reduce the discharge of excavated soil etc., the injection of cement milk etc. should be reduced as much as possible. desirable.

(3) Moreover, in the said Example, although the ready-made pile 1 which fixed the front-end | tip metal fitting 13 to the lower end was embed | buried, the other pre-made pile 1 which does not use the front-end | tip metal fitting 13 can also be used.

  As the ready-made pile 1, a lower shaft portion 36 that is thinner than the upper shaft portion 34 is formed at the lower end portion, and a step portion (boundary portion) between the upper shaft portion 34 and the lower shaft portion 36, above the step portion, below the step portion ( Annular projections 37 and 37 are formed on the lower part of the lower shaft part, respectively. When the required proof stress is large, the lower pile can be selected as the above-mentioned ready-made pile, and the upper pile can be selected as a steel pipe covered concrete pile (SC pile) (FIG. 2A). The upper shaft portion 34 in the above is a portion excluding the lower shaft portion 36 formed at the lower end portion of the shaft portion, and is a shaft portion including an intermediate portion.

・ Pile outer diameter (shaft) D 01 = 700mm
· KuinikuAtsu t 01 = 100mm
・ Pile inner diameter D02 = 500mm
And lower shaft portion of the outer diameter D 11 = 600 mm
・ Outer diameter D 13 of annular projection 37 = 750 mm
・ Drilling diameter of pile hole D 21 = 1100mm
-N value of the ground where the tip of the pile is located = 30

In this case, the length L 14 of the annular projection 37 from the distance L 12 and the lower shaft portion 36 of the annular projection 37 is likewise set to the interval L 12 between the large diameter portion 7 and the annular projection 10 of the embodiment To do. The annular protrusion 37 has an inclined upper surface 37 a and an inclined lower surface 37 b, and the inclined lower surface 37 b is set to have the same function as the lower surface 9 of the large-diameter portion of the steel pipe body 6 and the lower surface 12 of the annular protrusion 10. The inclined upper surface 37a is similarly formed.

Further, in the above, the length L 14 of the annular projection 37 can in a range not projected from the outer surface of the upper shaft portion 34, the inclined upper and lower surfaces 37a of the annular projection 37, also only can be widely ensured configuration possible 37b, set in relation to the L 12 as described above.

In the case of the foundation pile structure 33 formed by the same construction as the above-described embodiment using the ready-made pile 1 in which the annular protrusion 37 is formed without using the tip metal fitting 13 (FIG. 2A), the same As a result of the loading test, a high supporting force of 7492 kN was obtained at the maximum load. When this is compared with the supporting force per unit cross-sectional area in consideration of the difference in the diameters of the annular protrusion 37 and the annular protrusion 10 in the root consolidation portion, the foundation pile structure 33 using the tip fitting 13 (FIG. 2 (b) )) Is 618 kN / m 2 , and in the case of the ready-made pile 1 with the annular protrusion 37 (FIG. 2A), it is 565 kN / m 2 , and a similar supporting force can be expected.

  Moreover, this ready-made pile 1 is embed | buried in the pile hole 28 in the process similar to the ready-made pile 1 which fixed the front-end | tip metal fitting 13 of the said Example, and comprises the foundation pile structure 33 (FIG. 2 (a)). In this case, since the outer periphery of the tip of the annular protrusion 37 has the largest outer diameter, soil mud is likely to adhere to it. If the annular protrusions 37 and 37 are covered by an appropriate method (not shown), the root will be solidified. A larger supporting force that is stable in the layer 30 can be exhibited.

  In this ready-made pile 1, instead of the annular protrusion 37, a protrusion can be formed from a non-annular protrusion obtained by cutting the annular protrusion or a protrusion arranged in a dispersed manner (not shown). Moreover, if this ready-made pile 1 has the same function as the inclined upper surface 37a and the inclined lower surface 37b, an annular recess (not shown) can be formed instead of the annular protrusion (convex portion) 37.

(4) In the above embodiment, it is desirable to use the excavation rod 15 in which the rod main body 16 is not formed with the earth discharging spiral from the viewpoint of reducing the earth discharging, but the earth discharging spiral is partially used. It is also possible to use a drilling rod (not shown) in which a rod having a smaller outer diameter than usual is formed on a part or all of the rod body 16. This is effective when priority is given to increasing the excavation speed in a portion where the ground strength is high, or when priority is given to removing excavated soil from the root consolidation portion as much as possible.

  Therefore, when excavating a hole with a diameter larger than the diameter of the pile according to the present invention, by providing some excavation mechanism to the excavation rod and controlling the amount of soil removed, the construction speed and the amount of soil removed (the amount of soil removed) It can be seen that the foundation pile can be constructed more economically than before.

1 Ready-made pile 2 Hollow part of ready-made pile 3 Tip of ready-made pile 6 Steel pipe body (tubular base)
7 Large-diameter portion 8 Upper surface of the large-diameter portion 9 Lower surface of the large-diameter portion 10 Annular protrusion 11 Annular protrusion upper surface 12 Annular protrusion lower surface 13 End fitting 15 Excavation rod 16 Rod body 17 Horizontal plate 18 Excavation head 19 Head body 20 Excavation blade 21 Excavation arm 22 Excavation blade 23 Stopper 24 Rotating shaft 25 Ground 26A, 26B Formation 28 Pile hole 29A, 29A Solidified mixed layer 30 Rooting layer 31 Pile hole bottom 33 Foundation pile structure 34 Upper shaft part 36 Lower shaft part 37 Annular projection 38 Foundation pile structure (conventional)
41 outer cylinder 42 upper arm 43 lower arm

Claims (6)

  1. An excavation method of a pile in which a drilling head of a drilling rod protrudes from the tip of a hollow portion of a ready-made pile, and the ready-made pile is lowered while forming a pile hole by excavating the ground and burying the ready-made pile in a predetermined pile hole In
    The ready-made pile has a tip fitting fixed to the tip, and the tip fitting has an inner diameter equal to or larger than the inner diameter of the ready-made pile and has an outer diameter smaller than the outer diameter of the ready-made pile. A large-diameter portion is formed at least at the upper end portion and the lower end portion, the large-diameter portion forms a partially conical inclined slope on the lower surface, and the lower end of the inclined slope at the lower end portion reaches the lower end of the steel pipe body. Using a drilling rod that does not have a soil removal mechanism such as a spiral , project the drilling rod from the tip of the tip fitting, drill the pile hole while loosening the ground, The pile excavation method, wherein the ready-made pile is sunk while pressing outward on the outer surface of the ready-made pile.
  2. Drilling head of the drilling rod from the tip of the hollow part of the ready-made pile, lowering the ready-made pile while excavating the ground to form a pile hole, and burying the ready-made pile in a predetermined pile hole In
    The ready-made pile is a lower end portion, and a lower shaft portion having a smaller diameter than the upper shaft portion is formed on the upper shaft portion via a step portion, and a large diameter portion having an inclined lower surface is formed on the step portion. Forming a large-diameter portion having an inclined lower surface in the lower shaft portion,
    Using a drilling rod that does not have a soil removal mechanism such as a spiral, excavate a pile hole while loosening the ground, and set the ready-made pile while pressing the loosened excavated soil outward on the outer surface of the ready-made pile. Pile digging method characterized by that.
  3. Earlier end fitting is located in the soil cement layer formed in the pile hole, the tip fitting the supporting surface is formed on the large diameter portion of the outer surface of the tubular base portion, the support surface is inclined with respect to a vertical plane The pile digging method according to claim 1 , wherein the pile is a structure that can be used as a tip support force by propagating an upper or lower shear force toward the soil cement layer. .
  4. To form an inclined top surface and inclined lower surface in the large diameter portion of the ready-made pile, said the inclined upper surface and the inclined lower surface, upward or downward, the support surface can be utilized as a front end supporting force by propagating shear forces, the form The pile digging method according to claim 2 , wherein the pile is dug.
  5. Cement milk is poured into the excavated soil at a preset ground depth and stirred and mixed to form a solidified mixed layer. The outer diameter of the solidified mixed layer and the outer diameter of the root consolidation portion of the pile hole are roughly reduced. 3. The pile digging method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the piles have the same outer diameter.
  6. It is a foundation pile structure configured by burying a ready-made pile in a pile hole, the pile hole is excavated while loosening the ground, and the loosened excavated soil is formed while pressing outside on the outer surface of the ready-made pile,
    The ready-made pile has a tip fitting attached to the lower end, and the tip fitting is located in a soil cement layer formed in the pile hole,
    Cement milk is poured into the excavated soil at a preset ground depth and stirred and mixed to form a solidified mixed layer, and the inclined lower surface of the large diameter portion forms a support surface,
    The support surface is a surface inclined with respect to a vertical surface, and is characterized in that an upward or downward shear force can be propagated toward the soil cement layer and used as a tip support force. Foundation pile structure.
JP2009261392A 2002-09-30 2009-11-16 Pile digging method, foundation pile structure Active JP5265500B2 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2002287127 2002-09-30
JP2002287127 2002-09-30
JP2009261392A JP5265500B2 (en) 2002-09-30 2009-11-16 Pile digging method, foundation pile structure

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2009261392A JP5265500B2 (en) 2002-09-30 2009-11-16 Pile digging method, foundation pile structure

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
JP2004544915 Division 2003-09-30

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
JP2010031647A JP2010031647A (en) 2010-02-12
JP5265500B2 true JP5265500B2 (en) 2013-08-14

Family

ID=32104947

Family Applications (4)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
JP2004544915A Revoked JP4625896B2 (en) 2002-09-30 2003-09-30 Pile digging method
JP2009261392A Active JP5265500B2 (en) 2002-09-30 2009-11-16 Pile digging method, foundation pile structure
JP2010120838A Active JP5114529B2 (en) 2002-09-30 2010-05-26 Pile digging method
JP2012173109A Active JP5520347B2 (en) 2002-09-30 2012-08-03 Pile digging method

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
JP2004544915A Revoked JP4625896B2 (en) 2002-09-30 2003-09-30 Pile digging method

Family Applications After (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
JP2010120838A Active JP5114529B2 (en) 2002-09-30 2010-05-26 Pile digging method
JP2012173109A Active JP5520347B2 (en) 2002-09-30 2012-08-03 Pile digging method

Country Status (5)

Country Link
JP (4) JP4625896B2 (en)
KR (1) KR101071122B1 (en)
CN (1) CN100510276C (en)
AU (1) AU2003266716A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2004035942A1 (en)

Families Citing this family (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN100510276C (en) * 2002-09-30 2009-07-08 三谷石产株式会社 Internal excavation method through pile, and foundation pile structure
JP5674189B2 (en) * 2010-04-30 2015-02-25 三谷セキサン株式会社 Pile hole drilling head
CN101974905B (en) * 2010-10-22 2013-04-24 上海中技桩业股份有限公司 Pile-embedding method for hollow pile and auger drill for implementing same
CN102383429B (en) * 2011-01-18 2016-08-10 上海城地建设股份有限公司 Digging pile-sinking device in the middle of a kind of heavy caliber pile tube
CN102383428B (en) * 2011-02-23 2015-12-09 上海城地建设股份有限公司 Middle pick reverse drawing method prestressed centrifugally pile tube pile-sinking device and pile-sinking method thereof
CN102373708B (en) * 2011-02-23 2016-03-02 上海城地建设股份有限公司 Anchor method prestressed centrifugally pile tube and square sunk pile device and pile-sinking method thereof are drawn in middle pick
KR101416865B1 (en) * 2011-05-12 2014-07-09 시지엔지니어링(주) Construction method of screw file
KR101224440B1 (en) 2011-05-12 2013-01-21 시지엔지니어링(주) Construction method of screw file
CN102776885A (en) * 2011-05-13 2012-11-14 上海城地建设发展有限公司 Middle-stirring inverse-pulling method based pre-stressed centrifugal tubular pile sinking device, and pile sinking method
CN102776884B (en) * 2011-05-13 2016-01-20 上海城地建设股份有限公司 In stir and rotate prestressed centrifugally pile tube pile-sinking device and pile-sinking method thereof
CN102953382A (en) * 2011-08-18 2013-03-06 上海城地建设发展有限公司 Pile sinking device and pile sinking method for steel pipe pile by central stirring and reverse drawing
JP5959980B2 (en) * 2012-08-01 2016-08-02 三谷セキサン株式会社 Method of burying ready-made piles
CN103628480A (en) * 2012-08-27 2014-03-12 上海中技桩业股份有限公司 Construction method and device for guide displacement pressure precast pile
CN105064351A (en) * 2015-08-14 2015-11-18 云南大学 Pile planting method
KR101834948B1 (en) * 2017-05-15 2018-04-19 (주)나다건설 Steel pipe micro-pile foundation system and construction method of micropile foundation using the same
KR101834950B1 (en) * 2017-05-15 2018-03-07 (주)나다건설 Micropile foundation structure and construction method of micropile foundation

Family Cites Families (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS58185826A (en) * 1982-04-23 1983-10-29 Tenotsukusu:Kk Construction of foundation pile
GB2132668B (en) * 1982-12-22 1987-01-14 Shekisan Kogyo Co Ltd Concrete pile installing method
JPH0583684B2 (en) * 1986-10-14 1993-11-29 Nippon Kokan Kk
JPH026107Y2 (en) * 1988-04-14 1990-02-14
JPH02108724A (en) * 1988-10-14 1990-04-20 Takechi Koumushiyo:Kk Enlarged-dia. hole drilling method and enlarged-dia. knot piling method
JPH0325121A (en) * 1989-06-22 1991-02-01 Nippon Concrete Ind Co Ltd Sinking of pile in inner drilling pile method
JP2832481B2 (en) * 1990-03-14 1998-12-09 三谷セキサン 株式会社 Drilling rig for hole for concrete pile installation
JP2846925B2 (en) * 1990-05-22 1999-01-13 旭化成工業株式会社 Nakabori construction method with tip enlarged diameter pile
JPH0626036A (en) * 1992-07-03 1994-02-01 Mitani Sekisan Co Ltd Concrete pile installation method by inner excavation
JP3025121B2 (en) * 1992-12-24 2000-03-27 キヤノン株式会社 Information processing method and apparatus
JP2000144727A (en) * 1998-11-09 2000-05-26 Geotop Corp Construction method of footing pile
JP4671143B2 (en) * 1999-04-13 2011-04-13 三谷セキサン株式会社 Pile hole drilling head and pile hole drilling method
JP5024692B2 (en) * 1999-12-27 2012-09-12 三谷セキサン株式会社 Construction method of foundation pile, ready-made pile, pile hole drilling rod
JP4360745B2 (en) * 2000-07-27 2009-11-11 Jfeスチール株式会社 Construction method of ready-made piles
JP4599508B2 (en) * 2000-08-23 2010-12-15 三谷セキサン株式会社 Method of burying ready-made piles with protrusions and foundation pile structure in Nakabori method
JP2002129557A (en) * 2000-10-23 2002-05-09 Tokyo Tokushu Kiso Kogyo:Kk Pile burying method
JP4471510B2 (en) * 2001-02-01 2010-06-02 住友金属工業株式会社 Steel pipe soil cement pile, its construction method and construction equipment
CN100510276C (en) * 2002-09-30 2009-07-08 三谷石产株式会社 Internal excavation method through pile, and foundation pile structure

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN1685113A (en) 2005-10-19
KR20050059183A (en) 2005-06-17
WO2004035942A1 (en) 2004-04-29
AU2003266716A1 (en) 2004-05-04
JP2012207532A (en) 2012-10-25
JP2010031647A (en) 2010-02-12
KR101071122B1 (en) 2011-10-07
JP5520347B2 (en) 2014-06-11
JPWO2004035942A1 (en) 2006-02-16
JP5114529B2 (en) 2013-01-09
JP4625896B2 (en) 2011-02-02
CN100510276C (en) 2009-07-08
JP2010209678A (en) 2010-09-24

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN103835284B (en) A kind of Pile In Drill In Karst Terrain structure and construction method
KR101014796B1 (en) Top-down underground construction method using prefabricated concrete column member as temporary bridge column
CN102124163B (en) Method for constructing a chair-type, self-supported earth retaining wall
US7326004B2 (en) Apparatus for providing a rammed aggregate pier
JP4375733B2 (en) Steel pipe placing method
KR20040052779A (en) Pile with an Extended Head and working method of the same
KR100869815B1 (en) Apparatus to upgrade end bearing capacity of pile and pile construction method
US8221034B2 (en) Methods of providing a support column
JP4027264B2 (en) How to construct soil cement composite piles
CN101270579B (en) Foundation pit guard method for expansion construction from deep foundation pit to shallow foundation pit
EA007849B1 (en) Method of constructing a pile foundation
KR20040073415A (en) Extracting casing after lower part curing type cast-in-place pile method
US4411557A (en) Method of making a high-capacity earthbound structural reference
CN105822311B (en) The Super-large-section tunnel enlarging constructing structure in situ and construction method of the inside opening increase scope of operation
CN100510276C (en) Internal excavation method through pile, and foundation pile structure
KR100618597B1 (en) Cast in place concrete pile using vibro magnetic shovel hammer, and the construction method of this
DE69823223T2 (en) Method for holes and founding punches
JP5102187B2 (en) Pile construction method combined with ground improvement
US9243379B2 (en) Method of providing a support column
US10513831B2 (en) Open-end extensible shells and related methods for constructing a support pier
US4832535A (en) Process for compaction-reinforcement-grouting or for decompaction-drainage and for construction of linear works and plane works in the soils
JP2003184078A (en) Cast-in-place concrete pile and its construction method
CN203741820U (en) Cast-in-situ bored pile structure for karst area
US3250075A (en) Method of retaining wall construction and anchoring
KR20110041391A (en) Pile structure

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
A621 Written request for application examination

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A621

Effective date: 20091210

A977 Report on retrieval

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A971007

Effective date: 20120117

A131 Notification of reasons for refusal

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A131

Effective date: 20120221

A521 Written amendment

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A523

Effective date: 20120423

A131 Notification of reasons for refusal

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A131

Effective date: 20130205

A521 Written amendment

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A523

Effective date: 20130219

TRDD Decision of grant or rejection written
A01 Written decision to grant a patent or to grant a registration (utility model)

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A01

Effective date: 20130312

A61 First payment of annual fees (during grant procedure)

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A61

Effective date: 20130501

R150 Certificate of patent or registration of utility model

Ref document number: 5265500

Country of ref document: JP

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: R150

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: R150

R250 Receipt of annual fees

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: R250

R250 Receipt of annual fees

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: R250

R250 Receipt of annual fees

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: R250

R250 Receipt of annual fees

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: R250

R250 Receipt of annual fees

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: R250