JP5222560B2 - Composite material - Google Patents

Composite material Download PDF

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JP5222560B2
JP5222560B2 JP2007538494A JP2007538494A JP5222560B2 JP 5222560 B2 JP5222560 B2 JP 5222560B2 JP 2007538494 A JP2007538494 A JP 2007538494A JP 2007538494 A JP2007538494 A JP 2007538494A JP 5222560 B2 JP5222560 B2 JP 5222560B2
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ni
sma
structure according
structure
fiber
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JP2008518072A (en
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ラクシュマン チャンドラセカラン
アンドリュー ディヴィッド フォアマン
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キネティック リミテッド
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Priority to PCT/GB2005/004043 priority patent/WO2006046008A1/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C14/00Alloys based on titanium
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C70/00Shaping composites, i.e. plastics material comprising reinforcements, fillers or preformed parts, e.g. inserts
    • B29C70/04Shaping composites, i.e. plastics material comprising reinforcements, fillers or preformed parts, e.g. inserts comprising reinforcements only, e.g. self-reinforcing plastics
    • B29C70/06Fibrous reinforcements only
    • B29C70/10Fibrous reinforcements only characterised by the structure of fibrous reinforcements, e.g. hollow fibres
    • B29C70/16Fibrous reinforcements only characterised by the structure of fibrous reinforcements, e.g. hollow fibres using fibres of substantial or continuous length
    • B29C70/22Fibrous reinforcements only characterised by the structure of fibrous reinforcements, e.g. hollow fibres using fibres of substantial or continuous length oriented in at least two directions forming a two dimensional structure
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B5/00Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts
    • B32B5/22Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed
    • B32B5/24Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed one layer being a fibrous or filamentary layer
    • B32B5/28Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed one layer being a fibrous or filamentary layer impregnated with or embedded in a plastic substance
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G
    • C08J5/00Manufacture of articles or shaped materials containing macromolecular substances
    • C08J5/04Reinforcing macromolecular compounds with loose or coherent fibrous material
    • C08J5/041Reinforcing macromolecular compounds with loose or coherent fibrous material with metal fibres
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C19/00Alloys based on nickel or cobalt
    • C22C19/03Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D03WEAVING
    • D03DWOVEN FABRICS; METHODS OF WEAVING; LOOMS
    • D03D1/00Woven fabrics designed to make specified articles
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D03WEAVING
    • D03DWOVEN FABRICS; METHODS OF WEAVING; LOOMS
    • D03D15/00Woven fabrics characterised by the material or construction of the yarn or other warp or weft elements used
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D03WEAVING
    • D03DWOVEN FABRICS; METHODS OF WEAVING; LOOMS
    • D03D15/00Woven fabrics characterised by the material or construction of the yarn or other warp or weft elements used
    • D03D15/02Woven fabrics characterised by the material or construction of the yarn or other warp or weft elements used the warp or weft elements being of stiff material, e.g. wire, cane, slat
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS OR TO MATERIALS FOR MOULDS, REINFORCEMENTS, FILLERS OR PREFORMED PARTS, e.g. INSERTS
    • B29K2995/00Properties of moulding materials, reinforcements, fillers, preformed parts or moulds
    • B29K2995/0037Other properties
    • B29K2995/0089Impact strength or toughness
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS OR TO MATERIALS FOR MOULDS, REINFORCEMENTS, FILLERS OR PREFORMED PARTS, e.g. INSERTS
    • B29K2995/00Properties of moulding materials, reinforcements, fillers, preformed parts or moulds
    • B29K2995/0037Other properties
    • B29K2995/0091Damping, energy absorption
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2101/00Inorganic fibres
    • D10B2101/02Inorganic fibres based on oxides or oxide ceramics, e.g. silicates
    • D10B2101/06Glass
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2101/00Inorganic fibres
    • D10B2101/10Inorganic fibres based on non-oxides other than metals
    • D10B2101/12Carbon; Pitch
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2101/00Inorganic fibres
    • D10B2101/20Metallic fibres
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2321/00Fibres made from polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D10B2321/02Fibres made from polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds polyolefins
    • D10B2321/021Fibres made from polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds polyolefins polyethylene
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2331/00Fibres made from polymers obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, e.g. polycondensation products
    • D10B2331/02Fibres made from polymers obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, e.g. polycondensation products polyamides
    • D10B2331/021Fibres made from polymers obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, e.g. polycondensation products polyamides aromatic polyamides, e.g. aramides
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2505/00Industrial
    • D10B2505/02Reinforcing materials; Prepregs
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/24Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.]
    • Y10T428/2419Fold at edge
    • Y10T428/24215Acute or reverse fold of exterior component

Description

  The present invention relates to composite materials, and more specifically to fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites.

  FRP composites as a class of materials are known and comprise a relatively low modulus polymer matrix phase incorporating therein a relatively high modulus fiber phase, representative fibers being carbon fibers Glass fiber or aramid fiber. Such composites can be prepared to exhibit high strength-to-weight ratios and can be shaped to form complex curved load-bearing structures, which in many aerospace applications It means having special utility. However, conventional FRP composites may be added in use in the case of aircraft structures, for example, due to runway debris or bird impacts, tool drops during maintenance procedures, or similar impacts. Has relatively low resistance to impact damage. This is due to the lack of a plastic deformation mechanism for absorbing impact energy within such materials. That is, such materials undergo very little or no plastic deformation during impact events due to the low strain versus failure properties of the fibers and the brittleness of the (typically epoxy resin) matrix. Instead, impact energy is absorbed through various fracture processes such as matrix cracking, delamination, and fiber cutting. This fact is especially true for important FRP composite structures that are prone to impact hazards during use, subject to rigorous and expensive inspection and repair regimes and / or to reduce impact damage problems. This means that more material must be incorporated than is required for a high yield capability, thereby increasing the weight and cost of the structure.

In order to enhance the impact resistance of FRP composite structures, the incorporation of a proportion of shape memory alloy (SMA) fibers (or wires, the term is used preferentially herein) dispersed in the material Has been proposed. For example, US 5614305 proposes the incorporation of an SMA wire exhibiting a stress-induced martensitic transformation, more specifically a superelastic titanium-nickel (Nitinol) alloy for this purpose. Such alloys allow a much greater amount of strain energy to be absorbed than components of conventional FRP composites in a recoverable manner, thus potentially increasing the impact resistance of the composites in which they are incorporated. It is known to have However, to the best of Applicants' knowledge, SMA reinforced FRP composite structures have never been produced on a commercial scale. For example, US Pat. No. 5,614,305, one or more individual layers of SMA wire are placed between folds of conventional reinforcing fibers or such wires are intermingled with conventional fibers in the folds. It describes a specimen layup method, but does not show how it can be achieved in a time and cost effective manner.
Accordingly, the present invention provides a fiber reinforced polymer composite structure with enhanced impact resistance by incorporating SMA wire in a manner that is easier to produce commercially than those known in the prior art.

US5614305

  In one aspect, the present invention therefore resides in a composite structure comprising a polymer matrix with reinforcing fibers and a shape memory alloy (SMA) wire incorporated therein, the SMA wire being in its predetermined operation. Compositions and proportions that substantially enhance the impact resistance of the structure at temperature or range, and the SMA wire is woven together with at least some of the reinforcing fibers in one or more integral preforms. It is a thing.

By incorporating a monolithic woven preform SMA wire into a structure according to the present invention together with conventional fiber reinforcement, several advantages can be generated.
First, the manufacturing cost of the preform is that SMA wire can be incorporated with fibrous tows in the same weaving process, so that traditional woven carbon (or similar) as typically used in FRP composites. ) Should not be higher than for cloth. Furthermore, the overall manufacturing process for this structure is such that the SMA is already integrated with the fiber reinforcement, requiring fewer layers and resin films, thereby saving considerable time and cost, so that the individual SMA wire It is simplified compared to the prior art example with placement in the composite. Also, reducing the thickness of the composite because one of the layers (and any necessary matrix interlayers) is substantially eliminated compared to the example including a separate SMA layer and a woven fibrous preform. Which can be particularly advantageous for the production of thin bearing surfaces for aerodynamic surfaces.

  The use of a woven SMA / fibrous preform is also advantageous with respect to handling. Separate SMA wire meshes are difficult to handle because the wires are slippery over each other, which deforms the mesh shape. In order to prevent this from happening, a need has been found to keep them on a resin film or prepreg pleat to allow their movement. This problem is completely eliminated when using a monolithic fabric that is easy to handle as well as not reinforced with SMA.

The drapeability of the preform can be expected to be affected by the incorporation of SMA wire. However, this problem is greatly limited by integrating the SMA into the woven structure so that the structure has the same geometric shape as the fiber reinforcement. In comparison, the placement of individual SMA meshes at the interface of the composite pleat is considered to have a significant impact on drapability.
Incorporation of SMA wires into FRP composites can also be expected to adversely affect static mechanical properties and fatigue performance due to their potential to act as stress concentrators. However, the integration of these wires into a woven preform reduces the impact of SMA wires because they can be nested with fiber reinforcements, and the fibers in a way that would not be achieved by the use of individual SMA meshes. Improve load transmission with reinforcements.

  The wire material in the structure according to the invention can be of any kind that gives the stress-strain characteristics of the shape memory alloy system. More specifically, such alloys have a martensitic twin deformation (shape memory effect) or martensitic transformation (superelasticity) function of the wire that absorbs strain energy at the operating temperature or range of the respective structure. Or can be prepared to be attributable to any of the known hysteretic responses that are actually a combination of the two. Currently preferred alloys are of the Ti—Ni type (Nitinol), but other candidate alloys include ternary Ti—Ni—Cu, Ti—Ni—Nb, or Ti—Ni—Hf, Cu— A copper-based SMA such as Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni, Cu-Al-Zn-Mn, Cu-Al-Ni-Mn, or Cu-Al-Mn-Ni, or Fe-Mn-Si, Iron-based SMAs such as Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si-Co, Fe-Ni-Mn, Fe-Ni-C, or Fe-Ni-Co-Ti can be included. The volume ratio of SMA wire within the structure can typically be in the range of 2-25%, or more specifically in the range of 3-12%.

  In a variation of the invention, the SMA wire is not circular in cross section, but is oval, oval, or other “flat” that is substantially longer in the first direction than in the second direction perpendicular to the first direction. They have a cross section and they are woven into the respective preforms, the longer direction being approximately parallel to the plane of the preform. This can achieve a reduction in the overall thickness of the preform compared to a circular wire of the same cross-sectional area. Furthermore, a larger surface area compared to a round wire can improve the binding of SMA to the matrix. Similarly, for a given thickness, a single flat wire can have the same SMA volume as a combination of two or more circular wires, but due to a larger “homogeneous” volume. Should be more robust. There may also be a cost advantage per unit volume of SMA material, and a single wire should be less expensive to produce.

The fiber reinforcement in the structure according to the present invention can be any of the normal (non-SMA) types used in FRP composites, but includes carbon (including graphite) fibers, glass fibers, aramid fibers (eg, “Kevlar®”), preferably one of the group of high-grade fibers comprising high modulus polyethylene or boron fibers (typically having a tensile modulus greater than 50 GPa, or more preferably greater than 200 GPa) .
The matrix material in the structure according to the invention can also be any of the usual types used in FRP composites containing both thermosetting resins and thermoplastic resins, but there are constraints on the transformation temperature of the SMA incorporated. Thermosetting resins are currently preferred due to their low processing temperature, which means less. Conventional FRP composite manufacturing methods can be used with SMA / fibrous preforms and one or more weaves of SMA / fiber along with one or more fibre-only weave folds. Using pleats, multiple pleat embodiments can be generated.

  The SMA wires in a structure according to the present invention use the respective structure as opposed to known active structures where they use heated SMA elements to impart motion or apply force. In that it is not intended to change shape in response to temperature changes, and no means is provided for deliberately applying a voltage to the wires or otherwise initiating their thermal transition. Usually, it will function in a purely passive sense. They are also usually not pre-distorted within the woven preform. However, the use of any of these means is within the scope of the present invention, eg, temporarily repairing damaged structures or avoiding catastrophic damage by reversing its deformation by heating. It is considered possible. Other functionalities can also be expressed in the form of passive roles, for example, SMA wires provide structures with enhanced attenuation or other energy absorption characteristics, or lightning protection or other electrical coupling Can be provided.

The present invention is also in itself a fabric comprising SMA wire woven with fibers of different composition, whether or not the SMA wire is used as a preform in an FRP reinforced composite structure, Of a composition and ratio that substantially enhances the impact resistance of the fabric at that predetermined operating temperature or range. For example, such fabrics can also find utility in the manufacture of bulletproof vests or other impact resistant garments.
The invention will now be described in more detail below by way of example with reference to the accompanying schematic drawings.

Referring to FIG. 1, there is shown a woven SMA / fibrous preform cut from a continuous length of fabric whose warp direction is indicated by an arrow. The warp yarns comprise a series of composite yarns each comprising a flat tow 1 of carbon fiber and a pair of SMA wires 2 at each side edge of the tow 1. The weft yarn comprises a series of composite yarns each comprising a flat tow 3 of carbon fiber and a single SMA wire 4 on one side edge of the tow 3.
The preform shown in FIG. 2 is similar to the embodiment of FIG. 1 except that in this case there are two SMA wires per carbon tow for both warp and weft. If a higher number of SMA wires 2 or 4 per carbon tow 1 or 3 is desired in either direction, additional wires can be incorporated at regular intervals across the width of each tow.

In each of the illustrated embodiments, the type of weaving shown is that each weft tow overlaps on every fifth warp tow, and a continuous tow loop is displaced one over the fabric to give the illustrated diagonal pattern. Although known as "5 harness satin", in principle, any conventional weave pattern can be used.
The following table shows the configuration of a series of exemplary FRP composite laminates made in accordance with the present invention.

(table)

  Each of these laminates contained an epoxy resin matrix containing the indicated number of woven carbon fiber preform folds and the indicated number and type of woven carbon fiber / SMA wire preform. Each carbon tow within each preform contained a flat bundle of about 6000 individual fibers having a diameter of 7.1 μm, and each SMA wire was nitinol having a diameter of about 250 μm. The carbon / SNA weave designation indicates the number of SMA wires per carbon tow in the warp and weft directions of each integral preform, so for example 2 wp1 wf is 2 SMA wires and wefts per tow in the warp direction 2wp2wf means 2 SMA wires per tow in the warp direction and 2 SMA wires in the weft direction (corresponding to the embodiment of FIG. 1) Corresponding to the form). The last column of the table shows the resulting volume ratio of SMA in each overall laminate.

In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present invention in enhancing the impact resistance of FRP composites, the following experiments were conducted.
A sample laminate was made that included four pleats of a conventional woven carbon fiber preform in a matrix of “Hexcel® 8552” epoxy resin. Sample laminates are also made according to each of the compositions 1-8 shown in the table above, so all also have a total of 4 pleats, 3 or 2 of which are the same within the same matrix resin One or two of which were woven carbon fiber / SMA wire preforms with the indicated weave. In this case, the type of alloy mainly exhibited a stress-induced martensitic twin response at ambient temperature.

  Each sample held in a “Crag” ring with a diameter of 100 mm is a “Rosand®” falling weight impactor using a 16 mm hemispherical punch that gives an impact energy of 50 J at a speed of about 4 m / s. A full penetration impact energy absorption test was taken. All of samples 1-8 according to the present invention, normalized for different sample thicknesses, absorb more than 40% more impact energy than some carbon samples, some more than twice did. Visual inspection also shows that the sample according to the present invention dispersed energy absorption over a substantially larger area of the stack than the total carbon sample. As an example, the total carbon sample is 1.33 mm thick, absorbs 9.4 joules (7.1 J / mm), and laminate 2 incorporating one carbon / SMA pleat corresponding to FIG. A laminate 7 that is .59 mm thick, absorbs 16.8 Joules (10.6 J / mm) and incorporates two carbon / SMA pleats corresponding to FIG. 2 is 1.94 mm thick; 1 Joule (13.5 J / mm) was absorbed.

In the sample described above, the SMA wire has a circular cross section, but for reasons previously revealed, it may be advantageous to use a flatter tape-like wire instead. As an example, FIG. 3 is rolled from a standard round wire of diameter 250 μm to the illustrated oval cross section with a main cross sectional dimension d 1 of about 310 μm and a small cross section dimension d 2 of about 190 μm and used for this purpose. FIG. 2 shows a cross section of a wire 5 that can be woven into each preform that can be made and that is aligned with the plane of the preform and has a width d 1 . In other embodiments, the tape-like SMA wire can be drawn into the desired form with a higher d 1 : d 2 ratio during manufacture.

1 is a plan view of a first embodiment of a woven SMA / fibrous preform for incorporation into an FRP composite structure according to the present invention. FIG. FIG. 6 is a plan view of a second embodiment of a woven SMA / fibrous preform for incorporation into an FRP composite structure according to the present invention. 1 is a cross-sectional view through a preferred form of SMA wire for use in a structure according to the present invention.

Explanation of symbols

1, 3 Carbon fiber or other high-grade fiber 2, 4 Shape memory alloy wire

Claims (11)

  1. A polymer matrix with reinforcing fibers and a shape memory alloy (SMA) wire incorporated therein,
    The SMA wire has a configuration and ratio that substantially enhances the impact resistance of the structure at its predetermined operating temperature or range;
    The SMA wire is woven into one or more integral preforms with at least a portion of the reinforcing fibers;
    The preform includes a composite tow of reinforcing fiber and SMA wire in either or both of the warp direction and the weft direction.
    A composite structure characterized by that.
  2.   The SMA is Ti—Ni, Ti—Ni—Cu, Ti—Ni—Nb, Ti—Ni—Hf, Cu—Zn—Al, Cu—Al—Ni, Cu—Al—Zn—Mn, Cu—Al—. Ni-Mn, Cu-Al-Mn-Ni, Fe-Mn-Si, Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si-Co, Fe-Ni-Mn, Fe-Ni-C, and Fe-Ni-Co-Ti 2. A structure according to claim 1, wherein the structure is selected from the group comprising alloys.
  3.   The structure according to claim 1 or 2, wherein a volume ratio of the SMA wire in the structure is in a range of 2 to 25%.
  4.   The structure according to claim 3, wherein the volume ratio of the SMA wire in the structure is in a range of 3 to 12%.
  5.   The structure according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the alloy is of a type that exhibits primarily a stress-induced martensitic twin response at the operating temperature or range.
  6.   The structure according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the alloy is of an alloy type that mainly exhibits a stress-induced martensitic transformation response at the operating temperature or range.
  7.   5. The alloy of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the alloy is of a type that exhibits a combination of stress-induced martensitic twinning response and stress-induced martensitic transformation response at the operating temperature or range. The structure described in 1.
  8.   The SMA wire has a cross section that is substantially longer in a first direction than a second direction perpendicular to the first direction and is woven into each of the preforms, the long direction being The structure according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the structure is parallel to a plane of reform.
  9.   The structure according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the reinforcing fiber is selected from the group including carbon fiber, glass fiber, aramid fiber, polyethylene fiber, and boron fiber.
  10.   The structure according to any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the reinforcing fiber has a tensile modulus of more than 50 GPa.
  11.   The structure according to claim 10, wherein the reinforcing fiber has a tensile modulus of more than 200 GPa.
JP2007538494A 2004-10-28 2005-10-20 Composite material Active JP5222560B2 (en)

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GBGB0423948.9A GB0423948D0 (en) 2004-10-28 2004-10-28 Composite materials
GB0423948.9 2004-10-28
PCT/GB2005/004043 WO2006046008A1 (en) 2004-10-28 2005-10-20 Composite materials

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JP5222560B2 true JP5222560B2 (en) 2013-06-26

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US (1) US20070202296A1 (en)
EP (2) EP3135473B1 (en)
JP (1) JP5222560B2 (en)
CN (1) CN101044018A (en)
CA (1) CA2581625C (en)
DK (2) DK3135473T3 (en)
ES (2) ES2692020T3 (en)
GB (1) GB0423948D0 (en)
TR (1) TR201815471T4 (en)
WO (1) WO2006046008A1 (en)

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DE102014001383A1 (en) * 2014-02-01 2015-08-06 GM Global Technology Operations, LLC (n.d. Ges. d. Staates Delaware) Composite material
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