JP5190169B2 - Surgical access instruments and methods - Google Patents

Surgical access instruments and methods Download PDF

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Publication number
JP5190169B2
JP5190169B2 JP2002537168A JP2002537168A JP5190169B2 JP 5190169 B2 JP5190169 B2 JP 5190169B2 JP 2002537168 A JP2002537168 A JP 2002537168A JP 2002537168 A JP2002537168 A JP 2002537168A JP 5190169 B2 JP5190169 B2 JP 5190169B2
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surgical
gel
incision
handport
surgeon
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JP2004512076A (en
Inventor
リチャード シー ユアーズ
ジョン ブルースタッド
エドワード ディ ピングルトン
ナビル ヒラル
ゲイリー アール デュラク
パヤン アドルパーヴァー
ロバート アール ボーズ
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アプライド メディカル リソーシーズ コーポレイション
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Priority to US24195800P priority Critical
Priority to US60/241,958 priority
Application filed by アプライド メディカル リソーシーズ コーポレイション filed Critical アプライド メディカル リソーシーズ コーポレイション
Priority to PCT/US2001/029682 priority patent/WO2002034108A2/en
Publication of JP2004512076A publication Critical patent/JP2004512076A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/34Trocars; Puncturing needles
    • A61B17/3417Details of tips or shafts, e.g. grooves, expandable, bendable; Multiple coaxial sliding cannulas, e.g. for dilating
    • A61B17/3421Cannulas
    • A61B17/3423Access ports, e.g. toroid shape introducers for instruments or hands
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/02Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for holding wounds open; Tractors
    • A61B17/0218Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for holding wounds open; Tractors for minimally invasive surgery
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/02Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for holding wounds open; Tractors
    • A61B17/0293Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for holding wounds open; Tractors with ring member to support retractor elements
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/34Trocars; Puncturing needles
    • A61B17/3474Insufflating needles, e.g. Veress needles
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/34Trocars; Puncturing needles
    • A61B17/3498Valves therefor, e.g. flapper valves, slide valves
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M13/00Insufflators for therapeutic or disinfectant purposes, i.e. devices for blowing a gas, powder or vapour into the body
    • A61M13/003Blowing gases other than for carrying powders, e.g. for inflating, dilating or rinsing
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/00234Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for minimally invasive surgery
    • A61B2017/00238Type of minimally invasive operation
    • A61B2017/00265Hand assisted surgery, i.e. minimally invasive surgery with at least part of an assisting hand inside the body
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B2017/00526Methods of manufacturing
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/34Trocars; Puncturing needles
    • A61B17/3417Details of tips or shafts, e.g. grooves, expandable, bendable; Multiple coaxial sliding cannulas, e.g. for dilating
    • A61B2017/3419Sealing means between cannula and body
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/34Trocars; Puncturing needles
    • A61B17/3417Details of tips or shafts, e.g. grooves, expandable, bendable; Multiple coaxial sliding cannulas, e.g. for dilating
    • A61B17/3421Cannulas
    • A61B2017/3445Cannulas used as instrument channel for multiple instruments
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/34Trocars; Puncturing needles
    • A61B2017/348Means for supporting the trocar against the body or retaining the trocar inside the body
    • A61B2017/3492Means for supporting the trocar against the body or retaining the trocar inside the body against the outside of the body

Description

[0001]
(Field of the Invention)
The present invention relates generally to surgical tools, such as instruments and other instruments that facilitate close access by a surgeon's hand into a body cavity across a body wall.
[0002]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
In some areas of surgery, there is a need to provide a mechanism or instrument that can seal a body cavity or space and yet allow the introduction of surgical tools such as guidewires, endoscopes, and the hands of surgeons. ing. A representative example of these surgical areas is laparoscopic surgery that utilizes a surgical tool inserted through the abdominal wall to reach the surgical site in the abdominal cavity. In order to increase the space around the surgical site in the abdominal cavity, an insufflation gas is typically introduced to inflate the abdominal cavity and lift the abdominal wall. This pressurization of the abdominal cavity is called a pneumoperitoneum. In this scheme, the need to seal the body cavity or body space arises from the need to maintain an insufficiency state even if tools are present.
[0003]
In laparoscopic surgery, trocars are typically used to provide tool access. These trocars have a sophisticated seal structure with a zero seal that prevents gas leakage when the tool is not in use and a tool seal that prevents gas leakage when the tool is present. Unfortunately, tool seals can only fit a narrow range of tool diameters. Where a wide range was desired, multiple pairs of seals had to be provided.
Some tools, such as the surgeon's hand, are too large to bring the trocar closer. Under these circumstances, a assisted laparoscopic seal has been developed. Such instruments are large and cumbersome and are largely inefficient in providing the required sealing mechanism. Other access devices such as Touhy-Borst seals have been used, but this is only used for very small diameter access, eg as required by a guidewire Met.
[0004]
Each conventional device has drawbacks that make the device difficult or cumbersome to use. For example, a toy-boast seal requires two hands to use and no seal is formed when attempting to introduce a guidewire or other instrument. Current trocar seals and assistive seals require two valves, one valve forming a tool seal when the tool is present and the other when the tool is not present Form a zero seal. For example, in assistive instruments, sophisticated mechanisms are required to seal around the surgeon's arm. When the arm was removed, a separate zero seal was required to prevent leakage of blood or insufflation gas.
[0005]
[Summary of the Invention]
These shortcomings of the prior art are solved by the present invention, which relates to both a sealing instrument and a method of performing sophisticated surgery using this instrument. In one embodiment, the device has a valve structure formed of gel and oil, including, for example, a thermoplastic base, such as Kraton (a trademark of Shell Corporation). The resulting elastomer has excellent tear strength, an elongation of 1000% or more, a very low durometer hardness, and biocompatibility. The method of manufacturing this device is greatly simplified using a molding method.
[0006]
Importantly, the access device can function as both a zero seal and a tool seal. Further, the access instrument can accommodate a full range of tool diameters, eg, 2 French (Fr) for a guidewire to 3-4 inches (7.62 to 10.16 cm) for a surgeon's hand. In addition, several tools can be accommodated simultaneously with a single access device.
To facilitate both tear strength and sealing function, the gel may be encapsulated within a sheath or provided with a peripheral reinforcement around the valve structure. Additives may be applied either on or in the gel to enhance properties such as, for example, lubricity, appearance, wound healing and / or protection, anticancer, antibacterial properties. When additional chemicals, compounds, agents or mechanical devices are mixed with or embedded within the gel material, the chemical, pharmaceutical or physical properties of the access device can be altered.
These and other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent upon reference to the description of the preferred embodiment and the associated drawings.
[0007]
[Description of Preferred Embodiment and Optimum Mode of Invention]
A patient is shown generally at 10 in FIG. Patient 10 is shown lying prone on operating table 12, on which abdominal surgery is performed by surgeon 14 with arm 16 and hand 17. In the illustrated example, the surgical procedure is performed within the abdominal cavity 18 using tool access means provided through the abdominal wall 21. In this type of surgery, commonly referred to as laparoscopic surgery, trocars 23 and 25 are commonly used to provide minimally invasive access through the abdominal wall 21 for tools such as grasper 27 and endoscope 30. .
[0008]
Although this specification is particularly concerned with the preferred laparoscopic procedure, laparoscopic surgery is merely a representative example of the type of procedure in which the procedure can be performed in a body cavity with minimal access through the body wall. It will be noticed.
Despite the generality described above, it is important to note that for laparoscopic surgery, it is often desirable for the surgeon 14 to be able to insert his hand 17 through the abdominal wall 21 into the abdominal cavity 18. This insertion of hand 17 allows surgeon 14 direct access to the various elements of the anatomy.
[0009]
A small incision 32 is typically formed in the abdominal wall 21 to accept the hand 17 and arm 16 of the surgeon 14. An access device 34 of the present invention may be provided to further facilitate this access by the surgeon 14. Particularly in the case of laparoscopic surgery, it is advantageous to inject gas, for example carbon dioxide, into the abdominal cavity 18 to lift the abdominal wall 21 and thereby increase the volume of the working space within the abdominal cavity 18. This maintenance of insufflation pressure (which is commonly referred to as pneumoperitoneum) is when it is desired that access be performed across the abdominal wall 21, eg, through the trocars 23, 25 as well as the access device 34. Especially difficult. For this reason, considerable effort has been made to provide such access devices with sealing properties in both the presence and absence of tools such as the gripper 29, scope 30 and hand 27.
[0010]
Thus, typically, the trocar 23, 25 comprises a complex valve structure, such as a tool that forms a tool seal in the presence of the tool for each of a narrow range of tool sizes. A zero valve that forms a zero seal in the absence of valves and tools. By providing both a tool seal and a zero seal, the valve structure can prevent gas leakage through the trocar both in the presence and absence of the tool.
[0011]
Tool seals are particularly troublesome as described above and are only efficient for a narrow range of tool diameters. For example, a separate tool seal is needed for tools that may be only 2 to 3 French in diameter, such as a guide wire. For medium size tools with a diameter of 3 mm to 5 mm, a second tool seal is required. In some cases, a third tool seal was necessary to accept tools with a diameter of, for example, 9-12 mm. Typically, various tool sizes also required individual zero seals for each range, thus, for complex trocars, such as trocar 23, there are as many as six separate seals associated with the access device. May be provided.
[0012]
If it is not desirable to maintain a pneumoperitoneal condition, the trocar 23, 25 or the access device 34 may be unnecessary. An incision may be provided in the abdominal wall 21 and the tool inserted directly through the incision. However, without an appropriate valve or seal, the injected gas will simply escape through the incision. This may be particularly undesirable in the case of an incision 32 that must be large enough to accept the hand 17 of the surgeon 14. Thus, the main purpose of the access device 34 is to form an access or working channel 34 with the incision 32 to provide a valve or other sealing structure across the working channel 34 for maintaining pneumoperitoneum.
[0013]
An enlarged view of one embodiment of the access device 34 is shown in FIG. 2, which also shows the abdominal wall 21 and the incision 32. In this simple example, the access device 34 has the general form of a pad 35, which means that the pad is generally flat and is provided in a plane, eg, a plane 38. Typically, a pair of major surfaces 41, 43 are provided parallel to the plane 38, and these major surfaces give the pad 35 a considerable surface area. An opening or slit 45 as a whole can be formed through the pad 35 along an axis 47 perpendicular to the plane 38.
[0014]
The opening 45 of the pad 35, when provided operatively, communicates with the incision 32 and in this case, together with the incision 32 forms the working channel 36. The alignment of the opening 45 and the incision 32 is such that the pad 35 is provided outside the abdominal wall as shown in FIG. 2, provided inside the abdominal wall 21 as shown in FIG. 3, or as shown in FIG. Can occur in a state of being provided inside. In any of these positions, the operational placement of the pad 35 relative to the abdominal cavity 21 requires that the pad 35 be maintained in its operational position and that the pad 35 form a seal around the incision 32. Referring to the plan view of FIG. 5, these two functions are accomplished with the adhesive 50 applied around the incision 32 between the pad 35 and the abdominal wall 21.
[0015]
When the adhesive 50 is formed as a continuous ring 52 as shown in FIG. 5, if the pad 35 is disposed with the ring 52 disposed circumferentially around the incision 32, the pad 35 and the abdominal wall 21 A seal can be formed between the two. In the illustrated example, when the pad 35 is operatively positioned, leakage of the injected gas is prevented between the pad 35 and the abdominal wall 21 by the adhesive ring 52.
The self-sealing property of the material forming the pad 35 prevents leakage of the injected gas through the opening 45 of the pad 35. This material and its very advantageous properties are described in detail below.
[0016]
It will be appreciated that the function of the adhesive ring 52 can be achieved in many different ways using many different materials and shapes. For example, many materials other than adhesives can be used to maintain the pad 35 in position on the incision 32. The formation of a seal around the incision 32 can also be achieved by methods other than the adhesive method. Furthermore, the shape of the continuous seal formed by the adhesive 50 does not have to be a circular shape. On the contrary, a continuous pattern that is large enough to form a perimeter around the incision 32 can facilitate the establishment of the desired sealing relationship. Finally, it will be noted that simply placing a pad 35 inside the abdominal wall 21, for example as shown in FIG. 3, can form a peripheral seal simply as a result of the injected gas pressure.
Another embodiment of the access device 32 is shown in FIG. 6, where elements of construction similar to those described above are shown with the same number followed by a. In this embodiment, the position maintenance and sealing functions are achieved in a variation on the access device itself. In this case, the pad 35 is provided in the incision 32 as shown in FIG. However, the outer flange 54 and the inner flange 56 are formed integrally with the pad 35.
[0017]
When the outer flange 54 is operatively disposed, the outer flange 54 is positioned outside the abdominal wall 21, and the inner flange 56 is disposed inside the abdominal wall 21a. Thus, the pad 35 can be held in place by the flanges 54 and 56 in a state where the pad 35 is disposed in the incision 32a. When the hand 17 of the surgeon 14 is inserted through the access instrument 34, the outer flange 54 prevents the pad 35a from moving distally. Similarly, when the surgeon's 14 hand 17 is withdrawn, the inner flange 56 prevents the pad 35a from moving proximally.
In this embodiment, the opening 45 a extends through the pad 35 a and the flanges 54, 56 and completely constitutes the working channel 34 that penetrates the incision 32.
[0018]
The main seal required between the access device 34a and the abdominal wall 21 may include an adhesive ring 52a as described with reference to FIG. Alternatively, this embodiment having an internal flange 56 may simply utilize surface contact between the flange 56a and the abdominal wall 21. In this case, a main seal may be formed between these structural elements, and performance may be improved by insufflation pressure that presses the inner flange 56 against the abdominal wall as indicated by arrows 58. This seal is formed mainly in a radial plane that is generally perpendicular to the axis 47.
The function of the main seal can be further enhanced by the additional sealing action that occurs between the pad 35a and the portion of the abdominal wall 21 that forms the incision 32. At this location, the abdominal wall 21 is compressed radially by simply providing the pad 35 within the incision 32. The resulting pressure creates an axial seal between the pad 35a and the abdominal wall 21.
[0019]
If an adhesive ring 52a is desired for this embodiment, it is most advantageous to place the adhesive ring around the incision 32 between the outer flange 54 and the abdominal wall 21.
Whenever a tool, such as the arm 16 or hand 17 of the surgeon 14, is inserted through the pad 35, the pad material conforms to the surface of the tool and together with the tool forms a tool seal. Will be noted. Thus, during the entire period beginning with instrument insertion and ending with instrument removal, the loss of insufflation gas through the pad 35a is substantially zero, or no loss of pneumoperitoneum within the abdominal cavity 18 occurs.
[0020]
Referring now to FIG. 7, it will be appreciated that the arm 16 and hand 17 of the surgeon 14 are merely examples of tools that can be inserted through the access device 34a. In the absence of a tool, or in the case of FIG. 7, in the absence of the hand 17, the opening or slit 45a simply closes itself to form a zero seal, thus preventing leakage of the injected gas through the access device 34a. When a tool, such as the hand 17 is inserted through the opening or slit 45a, a tool seal is formed between the material of the access tool 34a and the outer surface of the tool. This prevents leakage of the injected gas through the access device 34a even when the tool is present. Thus, the injected gas pressure can be maintained within the abdominal cavity 18 whether the tool is in place or not. It should be noted that these seals, i.e., zero seal, abdominal seal, can be formed as a single valve structure with the property of accepting a full range of tool sizes.
[0021]
The formation of the pad 35a is typically achieved by a simple molding method described in detail below. In such a molding method, the opening or the slit 45a can be formed as a part of the molding process.
In most cases, a single access opening 45a will be sufficient to accommodate a surgical procedure. However, another advantage of the access instrument 34a will be particularly appreciated by the surgeon 14 who requires further access means through the pad 35a. For example, consider the case where the surgeon 14 has inserted his / her arm 16 through the opening 45a when determining that another tool is required for the surgical procedure. Under these circumstances, another opening through the pad 35a can be achieved simply by inserting the desired surgical tool through the pad 35a. In this way, the tool can form its own access hole separately from the main opening 45a.
[0022]
Particularly in the case of a surgical tool with a pointed distal end, it may simply be pushed into the pad 35a while moving it distally, thereby forming its own access hole, for example an opening 45a. To do. This opening formed by the surgical tool itself will automatically form a tool seal when inserting the tool and a zero seal when removing the tool.
For surgical tools that do not have a pointed distal end, a new access hole can be formed using an auxiliary instrument, such as a trocar obturator. After the access hole is formed, the obturator may be removed, thereby emptying the access hole and receiving the surgical tool. Throughout this method of first forming the access hole and finally inserting the surgical tool into the access hole, both a zero seal and a tool seal are formed to create a pneumoperitoneum.
[0023]
With respect to the advantages associated with forming tool seals and zero seals with a single valve that accommodates a wide range of diameters and using the tool itself to form the tool opening, the technical idea of the present invention is typically It will be understood that it is embodied in a structure that depends in particular on the constituent material of the access device 34. In a preferred embodiment, pad 35 is formed of a kraton / oil mixture comprising a combination of styrene-ethylene / butylene-styrene (SE / BS) structure Kraton Tri-block and mineral oil. Has been. Other tri-block polymers are, for example, styrene-isoprene-styrene (S-I-S), styrene-butadiene-styrene (S-B-S), styrene made under the trademark SEPTON by Kuraray Corporation -Ethylene / propylene-styrene (SE / PS) can be used for this application. These common blends can be further distinguished by the ratio of styrene and rubber content, for example grade 1650 is a SE / BS triblock with a styrene / rubber ratio of 29/71.
[0024]
In addition to the tri-block, there are also di-block forms of these materials in which styrene is present only at one end of the chemical formula, ie, styrene-ethylene / butylene (SE / B) di-block.
Different base formulations can also achieve different intermediate properties when alloyed. For example, KRATON G1701X is a 70% S / E / B 30% S / E / B-S mixture with an overall styrene to rubber ratio of 28/72. It can be appreciated that an almost infinite number of combinations, alloys, and ratios of styrene and rubber can be formulated, each of which can provide benefits to particular embodiments of the present invention. These advantages will typically include low durometer, high elongation and good tear strength.
[0025]
The material of the pad 35 may also include a hard plastic that provides the desired sealability by the addition of silicone, soft urethane and foaming agent. The silicone material may be of the type currently used for electronics encapsulation processes. Hard plastics include PVC, isoprene, KRATON neat and other kraton / oil mixtures. For example, in a kraton / oil mixture, an oil such as plant Oil, petroleum, and silicone oil may be used instead of mineral oil. In the broadest sense, all these mixtures can generally be referred to as gels. Gels typically have properties that include the ability to flow close to the properties of fluids. In particular, in the vicinity of an opening or slit 45 extending through the access device 34, the propagation of the opening is of concern. Stresses resulting from the presence of the tool will be concentrated at the ends of such openings or slits. For this reason, good tear resistance is desirable for gel materials. Such tear resistance is often an inherent property in kraton / oil mixtures, and to improve this, the gel should be encapsulated in other materials. For example, encapsulating a low tear resistance gel in a urethane sheath can improve the tear resistance of the resulting product. Such a sheath does not need to be elastic, and for example, it may be configured by overlapping sheets of non-elastic material.
[0026]
Any gel material intended for use can be modified to achieve various properties such as improved lubricity, appearance, wound protection, or to provide anticancer or antibacterial properties. . For example, in the case of pharmaceuticals, the additive may be mixed directly into the gel, or it may be applied to the gel, for example, as a surface treatment agent to improve lubricity or appearance. Other compounds can be added to the gel to aid in subsequent surface modification by altering its physical properties or providing binding sites or surface charges. Antioxidants and radioprotectants can be added to the mixture to increase the shelf life of the finished product or to increase its ability to withstand sterilization by radiation.
[0027]
Sealing materials used in conventional medical access devices have been selected primarily in terms of their durometer and elongation. It is these properties that measure the likelihood of material entering a small space or gap when needed to form a tool seal across the trocar working channel. For example, conventionally, a silicone mixture has been used in medical valves. This mixture had the following properties: an ultimate elongation of about 1000% or less and a durometer of about 5 Shore A scale hardness or more.
In some respects, the properties associated with the present invention that provide significant advantages are far superior to those of prior art materials. In fact, the difference between the prior art material and the material of the present invention is probably quite misleading if the material of the present invention is simply called a gel. Therefore, the material of the present invention having the property of including an ultimate elongation of about 1000% or more and a durometer of about 5 Shore A scale hardness or less will be referred to herein as "ultragel".
[0028]
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ultragel comprises craton and mineral oil, resulting in a sealing material with the following properties: ultimate elongation of about 1500% or more and durometer of about 200 bloom or less. The durometer is in this case considerably lower than the durometer of the prior art material. In fact, the durometer of the material of the present invention is so soft that it cannot be measured with Shore A scale hardness.
The resulting elongation and durometer of the material of the invention makes it easy to use the material of the invention in an access valve that can form a seal with a full range of tool sizes, but can also function as a zero seal. . Prior art access devices require as many as six separate seals to accommodate the full range of tool sizes, but now the access device has only a single valve made of ultragel material. Can be manufactured.
[0029]
In a typical production method, Kraton G1651 is mixed with mineral oil in a weight ratio of 1: 9. To produce this material, the mixture is heated to a temperature of about 200 ° C. In a preferred manufacturing method, the mold comprises a peripheral ring insert that is molded into a gel state and a slit insert that can be removed from the gel to form an opening or slit 45. The resulting gel should be covered with corn starch to reduce stickiness and allowed to cool at room temperature.
Many of the characteristics of a kraton / oil mixture will change with adjustment of the weight ratio of the components. In general, the higher the proportion of mineral oil, the higher the fluidity of the mixture, and the higher the proportion of craton, the higher the stiffness of the material. A low craton to oil weight ratio of 1: 5 is used to obtain a more rigid structure. As the craton / oil weight ratio approaches 1:10, the mixture becomes more liquid. A high weight ratio of 1:15 is used in the present invention.
[0030]
The processing temperature can also vary considerably as this is primarily determined by the nature of the craton used. Temperatures in the range of about 150 ° C to about 250 ° C are planned.
With the understanding that these ratios and temperatures may produce quite different properties, it is clear that layering these materials can generally result in different properties within each layer. For example, the outer layer is made of a craton / oil mixture with a stiff property, thereby providing the pad 35 with a stiff outer layer. After the layer is at least partially cured, another layer of material may be poured into the outer layer. This second layer is soft and gives the pad 35 a substantial sealing performance. Although successively located layers tend to merge slightly at these interfaces, it has generally been found to maintain their distinct properties. Adding additional layers can result in a transition in the properties of a particular instrument.
[0031]
Although desirable properties and manufacturing methods for gel materials have been described, other embodiments of technical ideas that can provide other advantages for a particular surgical procedure can now be addressed. The embodiment of the access device 34 shown in the use position in FIG. 6 is shown alone in the axial cross-sectional view of FIG.
This embodiment can be reinforced with O-rings 61, 63 as shown in FIG. 9, where the structural elements are shown with the same reference number followed by a “b”. Providing these O-rings 61, 63 may facilitate the execution of some functions associated with the access device 34b. For example, the rings 61, 63 typically help maintain a radial sealing pressure applied to all sides of the opening 45b. Rings 61 and 63 also tend to maintain flanges 54b and 56b, respectively, in their generally flat form. This ensures that the flanges 54, 56 do not collapse into the incision 32 upon insertion or withdrawal of a tool, such as the surgeon's hand 17. Of course, the O-rings 61, 63 must be large enough to accept the tool during insertion and removal.
[0032]
Another embodiment of the present invention is shown in FIG. 10, where structural elements similar to those disclosed above are indicated with the same reference number followed by a “c”. . This embodiment has a pad 35c with an opening or slit 45c. An outer peripheral O-ring 61c is insert-molded into the peripheral portion of the pad 35c. The internal O-ring 63c is coupled to the pad 35c by being attached to the O-ring 61c by a membrane 65, for example. In this case, the membrane 65 has a cylindrical shape as a whole and has an elastomeric property. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane 65 is made of urethane, neoprene or isoprene.
[0033]
When the embodiment of FIG. 10 is operatively positioned, the internal O-ring 63b is first retracted and inserted into the incision 32 (FIG. 2). The pad 35c and the external O-ring 61c are left outside the incision 32 so that the only material that extends across the incision 32 is the membrane 65. In this case, it will be noted that the working channel 36c is formed by a slit 45c, a cylindrical membrane 65 and an internal O-ring 63b.
In this particular embodiment, pad 35c generally functions as described with reference to FIG. A primary seal between the pad 35c and the abdominal wall 21 can be formed with a peripheral ring, eg, an adhesive ring 52c, or utilizing the sealing properties of the injected gas to the inner O-ring 63b and the membrane 65.
[0034]
This embodiment of FIG. 10 is particularly advantageous because it has a pad 35c, perhaps in its simplest form, while providing a primary seal that is easily constructed between the instrument 34c and the abdominal wall 21 by the injected gas pressure. Furthermore, the membrane 65 enhances the sealing characteristics of the instrument 34c and serves as a backing for the incision 32. Because the membrane 65 is provided, it is not necessary to stretch the incision 32 to a diameter larger than that required by a tool inserted through the working channel 36c.
Another embodiment of the present invention is shown in FIG. 11, in which structural elements similar to those disclosed above are indicated by the same reference numeral followed by a “d”. . This embodiment is similar to the embodiment of FIG. 8 in that it has a pad 35b, a slit 45d, an outer flange 54d, and an inner flange 56d. The embodiment of FIG. 11 differs from the embodiment of FIG. 8 in that it has a pull-in cavity or cavity 70 in communication with the slit 45d.
[0035]
In the preferred embodiment, the cavity 70 is sized and shaped to receive the arm 16 of the surgeon 14 in the manner shown in FIG. In this case, the slit 45d functions primarily to maintain a zero seal, and the portion of the pad 35d or flange 54d that forms the void 70 functions primarily to form a tool seal.
Another embodiment of the present invention is shown in the plan view of FIG. 12 and the cross-sectional views of FIGS. In this embodiment, structural elements that are similar to the structural elements disclosed above are designated by the same reference numeral followed by an “e”. In this case, the drawing-in space has an overall shape of the cylinder 72 having an axis line that is located on the same straight line as the axis line 47e of the pad 35e.
[0036]
Perhaps best shown in FIG. 13, the slit 45e has a trapezoidal shape. Thus, the slit begins on the proximal side with a short length approximately equal to the diameter of the tube 72. The length of the slit 45e increases as the position advances from the void 70e through the pad 35e to the distal side. In the illustrated embodiment, the trapezoidal slit 45e is formed as an isosceles triangular truncated body.
Another embodiment of the present invention is shown in FIGS. 15 and 16, in which structural elements similar to those disclosed above are indicated by the same reference numeral followed by “f”. Has been. As described above with reference to FIG. 12, the pad 35 f of this embodiment includes a proximal surface 71 and a distal surface 73. The pad 35f further includes a coaxial drawing cylinder 72f and a trapezoidal slit 45f. In this case, however, a duck-bill valve 74 is provided in order to further improve the characteristics of the zero seal. As shown in the figure, the working channel 36f is formed by an extension of the slit 45f constituted by the lead-in cavity 70f, the slit 45f and the duckbill valve 74f.
[0037]
The duckbill valve 74 may include opposed flanges 76, 78 extending distally of the distal surface 73. When operatively positioned, the pad 35f may be positioned with its distal surface 73 hitting the outer surface of the abdominal wall 21 (FIG. 2) and the flanges 76, 78 extending into the incision 32. In this form and operative placement method, the abdominal wall 21 at the incision 32 produces a reverse force that tends to close the slit 45f, particularly in the absence of a tool, and applies this force to the flanges 76,. It will affect 78. Thus, the use of the duckbill valve 74 can improve the zero seal characteristics.
[0038]
Another embodiment of the present invention is shown in FIGS. 17 and 18, in which structural elements similar to those disclosed above are denoted by the same reference numeral followed by a “g”. ing. In the access device 34g of this embodiment, the pad 35g is generally formed as described with reference to FIG. However, in this embodiment, pad 35g may be surrounded by base 81 along its sides and distal surface 73g. In this case, the pad 35g is made of the above-described highly elastic material, and the base 81 is more rigid than this, but nevertheless is formed of a flexible material such as urethane. In this configuration, the duckbill valve 74f is configured to extend distally of the distal surface 83 associated with the base 81. Thereby, the duckbill 74f can be made of the base material instead of the superelastic material. This also improves the zero seal characteristics for certain surgical applications.
[0039]
Another simplified form of the present invention is shown in FIGS. 19 and 20, where structural elements similar to those disclosed above are identified by the same reference number followed by “h”. Shown with it. The lead-in cavity 78h is in this case formed as an inverted cone 87 with a base or base at the proximal surface 71h and a vertex near the distal surface 73h. Thus, the lead-in cavity 70h has a radial cross-sectional area that decreases as the position advances distally through the pad 35h. In this embodiment, the distal region near the bottom of the cone 87 forms a tool seal and the distal region at the apex of the cone forms a zero seal. Due to the conical shape of the retracting cavity 70h, the tool tends to be introduced into the opening 45h extending distally to the apex of the conical 87.
[0040]
In general, it will be appreciated that the slit 45 and the lead-in cavity 70 may have many different individual and cooperating configurations. By way of example, perhaps the simplest form of pad 35 is shown in the embodiment of FIGS. 21 and 22, in which structural elements similar to those disclosed above are identified by the same reference numerals. Next, it is indicated with “j”. In this embodiment, pad 35j with proximal surface 71j and distal surface 73j includes a simple trapezoidal slit 45j. In this case, the slit 45j extends between the proximal surface 71j and the distal surface 73j.
[0041]
The slit 45j of this embodiment in FIG. 21 is a representative example of many structures that constitute the flat slit 45j. In such a case, the portion of the pad 35j that forms the slit will constitute, for example, the opposing flat surfaces indicated by the reference numerals 90 and 92 in FIG.
It will be apparent that the slit 45 need not be formed by opposed surfaces in the form of a flat surface. Nevertheless, these facing surfaces need to be able to make sealing contact with each other to form a zero seal. Other slit configurations that can perform this function can provide additional advantages in certain procedures. Other examples of slit configurations are shown by way of example only in FIGS.
[0042]
The embodiment of FIG. 23 is similar to the embodiment of FIG. 22 in that the opening 45j has a single slit that extends from the proximal surface 71j to the distal surface 73j. In the case of the embodiment of FIG. 22, the axis 47j is located in the plane of the slit 45j. In the case of the embodiment of FIG. 23, the plane of the slit 45j does not include the axis 47j. The slit 45j is formed in a plane having an angular relationship with the axis 47j, the proximal surface 71j, and the distal surface 73j. With this configuration, the slit 45j can have a length larger than the thickness of the pad 35j.
[0043]
In the embodiment of FIG. 24, structural elements that are similar to the structural elements disclosed above are designated with the same reference numeral followed by “k”. In this case, the opening 45k is configured as two slits 94 and 96 formed in individual planes positioned at an angle with respect to each other. Of course, two or more of the flat slits 94, 96 should be positioned equiangularly around the axis 47k. In one embodiment, the individual flat slits 94, 96 intersect at an axis 47k. As a variant, the slits 94, 96 may be spaced axially to facilitate the formation of a tool seal.
In the embodiment of FIG. 25, structural elements that are similar to the structural elements disclosed above are indicated by the same reference numeral followed by an “m”. In this embodiment, the opening 45m is configured as a slit 98 having a curved shape instead of a flat shape. In the illustrated embodiment, the curved slit 98 is formed as a spiral around the axis 47m. The opposing surfaces forming the helical slit 98 can “flow” in close proximity to each other along the axis 47m to form a zero seal.
[0044]
FIG. 26 shows a similar embodiment with a spiral slit. In this figure, structural elements that are similar to the structural elements disclosed above are indicated by the same reference numeral followed by “n”. In this embodiment, the spiral slit 98n is formed around the axis 47n of the pad 35n. In this case, the portion forming the slit 98n does not completely extend to the axis 47n. As a result, the axial channel 100 is at least partially formed along the axis 47n. This channel 100 can function in a manner similar to the lead-in cavity 70 described with reference to FIGS. The channel 100 may have a conical shape similar to that described with reference to FIG.
[0045]
In embodiments where the channel 100 remains open, a zero seal is constructed by positioning the diaphragm valve across the channel 100. Such an embodiment is shown in FIG. 27, where the diaphragm valve is indicated by reference numeral 101, and other elements of construction similar to those described above are indicated with the same reference number followed by a "p". Yes.
Thus, the embodiment of FIG. 27 has a spiral slit 98p, a pad 35p and an axis 47p. This embodiment of FIG. 27 is merely representative of many other embodiments that combine slits, such as slit 98p, with other valve structural members, such as diaphragm valve 101.
[0046]
Other curved slit configurations include embodiments in which the slit is curved, sinusoidal or S-shaped when viewed from the side. Such a configuration results in a slit portion having a length greater than the thickness of the pad. In general, the more the slit path is detoured, the better the sealing characteristics.
[0047]
Another more complex form for opening 45 is shown in the embodiment of FIG. 28, where structural elements similar to those disclosed above are identified by the same reference number followed by “q”. Shown with it. This embodiment cooperates with a single valve to form a zero seal as well as a complex shape and different materials to achieve the desired function of forming a tool seal that can accommodate a full range of tool sizes. Is a representative example of many complex embodiments. In the embodiment of FIG. 28, the pad 35q includes a base 110 provided in the circumferential direction of the core 112. In this case, the core 112 is formed of a superelastic material or gel and has a conical shape 87q as described with reference to FIGS. The base 110 is not elastic but is preferably made from a flexible material. In a preferred embodiment, the base 110 is made of urethane.
[0048]
In this configuration, the base 110 includes a plurality of spokes 114 that each extend radially inward from the base 116 to the tip 118. The core 112 extends outward from the axis 47q to the tip 118 of the spoke 114. In the illustrated embodiment, the core 112 has fingers 121 that extend beyond the tip 118 and toward the base 116 between each adjacent pair of spokes 114. These fingers 121 extend radially outward to the end face 123, which ends in front of the base 116, between which a void or void 125 is formed.
[0049]
The voids 125 are of particular interest for this embodiment, and these voids can be incorporated into any of the above-described embodiments. Such void 125 constitutes a space or material absence where a highly elastic material, such as the high elasticity material of finger 121, can expand and enter during insertion of a tool, such as arm 16 (FIG. 7). Since the gel material is almost fluid in nature, the void 125 allows the gel to expand and has very little resistance to it. The voids, such as void 125 in the embodiment of FIG. 28, can be configured only in the gel material or between the gel material and any other base material.
[0050]
In the case of FIG. 28, the spoke 114 and the finger 121 are formed in a plane parallel to the axis 47q as a whole. Similar fingers shown in the embodiment of FIG. 31 are generally configured in a plane perpendicular to this axis. In this embodiment, structural elements similar to those disclosed above are indicated by the same reference numeral followed by “r”. As illustrated, the pad 35r may include a relatively large opening 45r having the form of a coaxial cylinder 130. A plurality of fingers or flaps 132 tend to extend into the opening 45r and form a retracting cavity 70r with the characteristics described with reference to FIG. 19, for example. In this case, the annular flap 132 is in the form of a cone extending from the base 134 to the apex 136. It will be noted that the area between the flaps 132 forms a void 125r into which the flaps 132 can enter upon insertion of a tool, eg, the arm 16.
[0051]
Another embodiment of the present invention is shown in FIG. 32, where structural elements similar to those disclosed above are indicated by the same reference number followed by “s”. . The access device 34s shown in this exploded view not only has a pad 35s, but also maintains the position of the pad 35s, forms a seal between the pad 35s and the abdominal wall 21, and an incision as desired by the surgeon 14 It has a complementary structure that variably expands 32. In this case, the access device 34 s has three parts: a gel cap 143, a base 145, and a retracting sheath 147. The gel cap 143 has not only a gel pad 35s but also a peripheral cap ring 154 that can be inserted into and integrally formed with the pad 35s. The resulting gel cap 143 together with the base 145 forms a seal, thereby forming a working channel 36s through the pad 35s, cap ring 154, base 145 and retracting sheath 147. The working channel 36s has a single valve formed by the gel pad 35s, as described above, which provides both a zero seal and a tool seal for a wide range of tool diameters.
[0052]
The structure associated with the gel cap 143 will be described in detail with reference to FIGS. In the plan view of FIG. 33, it can be seen that this embodiment has a gel pad 35 s provided in the center within the peripheral cap ring 154. A retaining tab 156 may be provided to extend radially outward of the cap ring 154. These retaining tabs 156 can facilitate sealing engagement of the gel cap 143 and the base 145 in the manner described in detail below. The gel pad 35s can be made of any of the materials described above. However, in a preferred embodiment, a kraton / mineral oil gel is used. It may be advantageous to form the cap ring 154 of such an embodiment solely from the craton. This makes the cap ring 154 more rigid than the gel pad 35s while maintaining an excellent material interface between the pad 35s and the ring 154. In a typical manufacturing operation, the cap ring is pre-placed in the mold for the gel pad 35s, resulting in an integral structure of the gel cap 143.
[0053]
The cross-sectional view of FIG. 34 shows the gel cap 143 s and the annular cavity 158 formed on the inner periphery of the cap ring 154. This void 158 is particularly advantageous in sealing relationship with the base 154 in the manner described in detail below.
The base 154 of this embodiment is shown in detail in the plan view of FIG. 34 and the cross-sectional view of FIG. From these figures, the base 145 may include a smooth generally cylindrical inner surface 161 that extends proximally to the rounded end surface 163 and from the end surface 163 along the annular lip 165. Extend outward. A plurality of tabs 167 may be provided equidistantly to extend outwardly and distally around the periphery of the lip 165.
[0054]
The annular flange 170 may include an annular protrusion 172 at the distal side of the inner surface 163 such that the annular protrusion forms a desired sealing relationship between the gel cap 143 and the base 145. Dimensional shape. In order to facilitate the manufacturing process of the base 145, the base may be formed as, for example, two separate parts divided by a dotted line 174 in FIG. In a preferred embodiment, the base 145 is molded from a polycarbonate material.
A preferred embodiment of the retracting sheath 147 is shown in FIG. In this view, the retracting sheath 147 has a tubular wall 175 that is in the form of a truncated cone 176 at its distal end and in the form of a tube 177 at its proximal end. Have. A flexible retaining ring 152 ends the distal end, while a fold 154 is formed at the proximal end. Tubular wall 175 is shown as having an outer surface 180 and an inner surface 181. In a preferred embodiment, the sheath 147 is formed of an elastomer, such as neoprene, and thus its frustoconical and cylindrical forms occur primarily in the natural unstretched state.
[0055]
As the sheath 147 is stretched axially, the diameter of the cylindrical proximal end increases, thereby applying a radial force to the incision 32. The more the sheath 147 is stretched in the axial direction, the larger the diameter of the sheath becomes. As a result, the opening through the incision 32 becomes larger. This feature is particularly advantageous because it allows the surgeon to determine the size of the incision 32 with moderate axial tension applied to the sheath 147. By maintaining this tension, the preferred size of the incision 132 is maintained throughout the operation. In the preferred instrument and method, the sheath 147 is stretched over the tab 167 (FIG. 34) of the base 145 to maintain axial tension. A marker 182 may be printed on the sheath 147 so that the relationship between the axial extension of the sheath 147 and the size of the incision 32 can be seen.
[0056]
The fold line 153 is provided to facilitate grasping of the proximal end portion of the sheath 147. This fold 153 can also serve as a reinforcing means for the wall of the sheath 147 to engage the tab 167 of the base 145. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 38, additional creases 184, 186 are provided at axially spaced locations, for example, locations comprised of the markings 182 in FIG. With these folds 184 and 186 provided, additional reinforcement points are provided to engage the tabs 167 while providing the sheath 147 with predetermined axial stretches associated with different sizes of the incision 32. ing.
[0057]
A method using the embodiment of FIG. 32 is shown in the sequential use phase of FIGS. FIG. 39 shows a plan view of the abdominal wall 21 of the patient 10 with the template 195 positioned to facilitate the position setting of the incision 32. The size of the incision 32 can be determined, for example, by an indicator 182 on the template 195 showing a number of length lines 197, each length being considered equivalent to the glove size for the surgeon's hand 17 (FIG. 7). It is. Once the surgeon knows his glove size, he will simply make an incision along the appropriate length line 197. Longer length lines 197 are associated with larger incisions, larger glove sizes and thus larger hands 17. The template 195 may be removed after the incision 32 is cut and formed along the line 197.
[0058]
Next, as shown in FIG. 40, a retracting sheath 147 may be attached through the incision 32. First, the ring 152 is compressed and fed through the incision 32. The ring 152 can freely expand to its large diameter on the inner surface of the abdominal wall 21, as shown by the dotted line 158 in FIG. As shown in FIG. 40, the portion of the wall 176 constituting the tube 177 remains penetrating the opening 32 to the proximal side.
A base 145 may be placed around the incision 32 before or after insertion of the sheath 147. The exposed portion of the sheath 147 then penetrates the incision 32 and extends into the peripheral base 147. As shown in FIG. 41, the sheath 147 may then be stretched axially by pulling the wall 176 of the sheath 147 proximally outward of the page of FIG. As noted, when the sheath 147 is stretched in the axial direction, this creates a radial force that tends to expand the incision 32 and this force is applied to the abdominal wall 21. The greater the axial stretching, the larger the incision 32.
[0059]
Once the incision 32 has the desired size, the stretched sheath 147 can be pulled along the tab 167 to maintain the axial extent and maintain the desired size of the incision 32. . Marks 182 as shown in FIG. 36 or additional folds 184 and 186 as shown in FIG. 37 may be aligned with tab 167 to provide a predetermined size for incision 32. At this point, the seal between the abdominal wall 21, the sheath 147, and the base 145 is completely configured.
The final step in this method is the attachment of the gel cap 143 to the base 145. This is accomplished by capturing the lip 172 of the base 145 within the annular cavity 158 of the gel cap 143 as shown in FIG. Bending the retention tab 156 upward and outward facilitates this engagement, thereby ultimately forming a seal between the base 145 and the gel cap 143.
[0060]
Although the present invention has been disclosed with respect to certain structural forms, it will be understood that these forms are merely representative of many different embodiments of the present invention. Therefore, the technical idea of the present invention is not limited to the disclosed embodiments, and the scope of the present invention is defined only based on the description of the scope of claims.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a patient lying on an operating table with the stomach infused and the trocar and access device of the present invention approaching the tool.
2 is an enlarged side view of the access device of FIG. 1 operatively disposed externally as an abdominal wall.
FIG. 3 is a side view similar to FIG. 2, showing the access device operably disposed within the abdominal wall.
4 is a side view similar to FIG. 2, showing an access device operatively disposed in an incision provided in the abdominal wall. FIG.
FIG. 5 is a plan view taken along line 5-5 in FIG. 2;
FIG. 6 is a side view similar to FIG. 2 showing another embodiment of an access device with an outer flange and an inner flange.
7 is a side view similar to FIG. 6, showing the surgeon's hand inserted through the access device. FIG.
8 is an axial sectional view of the access instrument shown in FIG. 6. FIG.
FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view similar to FIG. 8, showing an embodiment with a peripheral reinforcing member.
10 is an axial cross-sectional view similar to FIG. 9, showing a double ring retractor with the access device of the present invention.
FIG. 11 shows an embodiment with a retracting cavity or pocket.
12 is a plan view of the embodiment shown in FIG.
13 is a cross-sectional view in the direction of the arrow line 13-13 in FIG. 12;
14 is a cross-sectional view in the direction of the arrow line 14-14 in FIG.
15 is an axial cross-sectional view similar to FIG. 13, showing an embodiment with a duckbill valve.
16 is a cross-sectional view in the direction of the arrow line 16-16 in FIG.
FIG. 17 is a radial cross-sectional view similar to FIG. 13, showing an embodiment with a soft hand seal and a hard rinse seal.
18 is a sectional view taken along the line 18-18 in FIG.
FIG. 19 is an axial cross-sectional view of an embodiment having a retracting cavity or pocket in the shape of a cone or funnel.
20 is a plan view of the embodiment shown in FIG.
FIG. 21 is an axial cross-sectional view similar to FIG. 13, showing another embodiment with a trapezoidal slit.
22 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 22-22 in FIG.
23 is a cross-sectional view similar to FIG. 22 and taken along the line 23-23 in FIG. 21, and shows a slit having a relationship that is not perpendicular to the plane of the pad.
FIG. 24 is a perspective view of another embodiment of an access device with an opening formed by a number of slits provided at an angle to each other and spaced axially.
FIG. 25 is a side view of an access device with a spiral shaped slit.
FIG. 26 is a plan view of an access device with a spiral slit and an axial channel.
FIG. 27 is a side view of an embodiment with a spiral slit and diaphragm seal.
FIG. 28 is an axial cross-sectional view of another embodiment having a flexible base with a superelastic conical seal and an annular spoke cam.
29 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 29-29 in FIG.
30 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 30-30 in FIG.
FIG. 31 is an axial cross-sectional view similar to FIG. 28, showing an embodiment having a flapper.
FIG. 32 is an exploded perspective view of another embodiment having a gel cap, a base, and a retracting sheath.
33 is a plan view of the gel cap of FIG. 32. FIG.
34 is a sectional view taken along the line 34-34 in FIG. 33.
35 is a plan view of the base shown in FIG. 32. FIG.
36 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 36-36 in FIG. 35.
37 is a side view of the retracting sheath shown in FIG. 32. FIG.
FIG. 38 is a side view of another embodiment of a retracting sheath.
FIG. 39 is a diagram illustrating the gradual stages of a preferred method of use associated with the embodiment of FIG.
FIG. 40 is a diagram illustrating the gradual stages of a preferred method of use associated with the embodiment of FIG. 32, and a plan view illustrating how the retracting sheath is arranged.
FIG. 41 is a diagram illustrating the gradual stages of a preferred method of use in connection with the embodiment of FIG. 32, and a plan view showing how to place the base ring and how to secure the retracting sheath.
42 is a partial axial cross-sectional view showing the gradual stages of a preferred method of use associated with the embodiment of FIG. 32 and showing how the gel cap is positioned relative to the base.

Claims (45)

  1.   A surgical access device adapted to be placed against an incision provided in a patient, the access device facilitating insertion of the surgeon's hand through the access device and maintaining a sealing relationship with the surgeon's arm. The access device has a valve that includes a gel material with a portion that forms an access channel, the gel material covering substantially the entire opening of the incision, the access channel being approximately It has a length of ¼ inch (6.35 mm) or more and extends in communication with the patient's incision, and the gel material has characteristics including an elongation of about 1000% or more. And an elastomer oil mixture having a durometer having a Shore A scale hardness of about 5 or less, the valve facilitating insertion of the surgeon's hand through the valve, and Suitable for maintaining the sealing relationship of Surgical access device which are characterized by.
  2.   The surgical access instrument of claim 1, wherein the elastomer comprises silicone.
  3.   The surgical access instrument according to claim 1, wherein the elastomer includes urethane.
  4.   The surgical access instrument according to claim 3, further comprising a foaming agent that forms a foam gel together with urethane.
  5.   The surgical access instrument according to claim 1, wherein the gel includes at least one of urethane, polyvinyl chloride, Isoprene, Kraton, oil, and a foaming agent.
  6.   The surgical access instrument of claim 1, wherein the elastomer comprises a base and an oil that together with the base forms an elastomer oil mixture.
  7. The surgical access instrument of claim 6, wherein the oil comprises at least one of vegetable oil, petroleum oil, and silicone oil.
  8.   A surgical access device that facilitates insertion of a surgeon's hand through a hand port in a sealing relationship with a surgeon's arm during laparoscopic surgery through an incision in a patient's abdominal wall. A valve structure that forms a pad that is disposed over and that forms a seal around the incision, the pad forming an access channel through the pad and in communication with the patient incision A gel material with a portion that extends to provide a pad with properties including lubricity, appearance, wound healing, anti-cancer and anti-bacterial properties, the surgical access instrument comprising: And an additive with the property of modifying at least one of the lubricity, appearance, wound healing, anticancer and antibacterial properties of the pad, wherein the gel material comprises: Cover substantially the entire opening of the incision And the gel material facilitates insertion of the surgeon's hand through the gel material and maintains a sealed relationship with the surgeon's arm, the gel material having an elongation of about 1000% or more. And a mixture of elastomer oils having a durometer with a Shore A scale hardness of about 5 or less.
  9.   The surgical access instrument according to claim 8, wherein the additive includes at least one of powder, corn starch, and fine particles.
  10.   The surgical access instrument of claim 9, wherein the additive is disposed on the elastomer as a surface treatment agent.
  11.   In a surgical handport that facilitates a sealing relationship with a surgeon's arm that extends through the surgical handport and into the incision in the patient's abdominal wall, the surgical handport is positioned relative to the incision in the abdominal wall A valve structure including only a single valve, wherein the single valve exhibits a first condition in the absence of a surgeon's arm extending through the valve structure and extends through the valve structure. Presenting a second condition in the presence of an arm, the surgical handport further comprising means for coupling the valve structure to the abdominal wall in sealing relationship with the abdominal wall around the incision; The valve forms a zero seal in the absence of the surgeon's arm extending through the valve structure in the first state, and the single valve is the surgeon's arm extending through the hand port in the second state. In the presence of the arm to form an arm seal The valve structure further includes a gel, the gel has a portion that at least partially configures an opening that penetrates the valve structure, and the opening component of the gel is open in the first state. And the ability to seal the opening in the absence of the surgeon's arm extending through the section, the gel material having a property including an elongation of about 1000% or more, and a Shore A scale hardness Surgical handport characterized in that it comprises an elastomeric oil mixture having a durometer of about 5 or less.
  12. The surgical handport according to claim 11 , wherein the opening component of the gel constitutes an opening in the form of at least one slit.
  13. The valve structure is provided entirely within the first plane, according to claim 12 slit, characterized in that provided in the second plane not perpendicular to the first plane as a whole The described surgical handport.
  14. The surgical structure according to claim 12 , wherein the valve structure is provided in a first plane as a whole and the slit is provided in a second plane as a whole perpendicular to the first plane. Hand port.
  15. The surgical handport according to claim 11 , wherein the opening component of the gel comprises a helically shaped opening.
  16. 12. The surgical handport of claim 11 , wherein the opening component of the gel comprises an opening with at least one pair of mating flappers.
  17. The valve structure has an axis, the opening component of the gel is configured as a line as a whole when the opening is viewed in radial cross section, and the length of the line is distal along the axis of the valve structure The surgical handport of claim 11 , wherein the surgical handport increases as the position advances to the side.
  18. The surgical handport of claim 11 , wherein the zero seal and the arm seal have the property of preventing leakage of liquid and gas through the single seal.
  19. The surgical handport of claim 11 , wherein the gel includes an elastomer and a foaming agent.
  20. The surgical handport of claim 11 , wherein the gel comprises silicone.
  21. The surgical handport of claim 11 , wherein the gel comprises oil.
  22. 12. A surgical handport according to claim 11 , wherein the coupling means comprises an adhesive having the property of attaching the valve structure to the abdominal wall.
  23. The surgical handport of claim 11 , further comprising at least one support ring disposed around the valve structure to reinforce a single valve of the valve structure.
  24. The surgical handport of claim 11 , wherein the gel is a thermoplastic elastomer.
  25. The surgical handport of claim 11 , wherein the gel is a thermoset elastomer.
  26. Surgical handport that facilitates insertion of a surgeon's hand through the surgical handport in a sealing relationship with the surgeon's arm during laparoscopic surgery through an incision in the patient's abdominal wall The handport includes a valve structure coupled to the abdominal wall in a sealing relationship with the abdominal wall around the incision , the valve structure being disposed relative to the incision , the valve structure including the valve structure In the absence of the surgeon's arm extending therethrough, the first state is assumed, and in the presence of the surgeon's arm extending through the valve structure, the second state is assumed, the valve structure being in the first state , have the property of forming a gas seal by itself, the valve structure is in the second state, in cooperation with the surgeon's arm extending through the hand port forms a gas seal, the valve structure, Penetrate the valve structure to accept the surgeon's arm Comprising a gel that forms a mouth and maintains a sealing relationship with the surgeon's arm, wherein the gel of the valve structure covers substantially the entire opening of the incision; Surgical hand characterized in that the gel material comprises an elastomer oil mixture having a property including an elongation of about 1000% or more and a durometer having a Shore A scale hardness of about 5 or less port.
  27. 27. The surgical handport of claim 26 , further comprising a proximal cavity in communication with an opening defined by the valve structure.
  28. 28. A surgical handport according to claim 27 , wherein the cavity has a rectangular shape when viewed in radial cross section.
  29. 28. The surgical handport of claim 27 , wherein the cavity has a trapezoidal shape when viewed in a radial cross section.
  30. 28. A surgical handport according to claim 27 , wherein the valve structure has an axis and the gel defines an opening along the axis.
  31. 31. The surgical handport of claim 30 , wherein the gel has sidewalls that converge distally along the axis.
  32. 29. A surgical handport according to claim 28 , wherein the void is in the shape of a cylinder.
  33. The gel is a first gel, and the valve structure further includes a second gel provided radially outward of the first portion of the first gel constituting the opening, and the second gel 28. The surgical handport of claim 27 , wherein the gel is stiffer than the first gel to reinforce the first gel comprising the opening.
  34. 27. A surgical handport according to claim 26 , wherein the gel comprises an elastomer and an oil.
  35.   Surgical handport that facilitates insertion of a surgeon's hand through the surgical handport in a sealing relationship with the surgeon's arm during laparoscopic surgery through an incision in the patient's abdominal wall The handport includes a valve structure disposed over the incision and forming a seal around the incision, and a valve included in the valve structure, the valve allowing access to the incision Made of a gel material that includes a portion that constitutes a sealable opening that seals the opening in the absence of an object extending through the opening and around the surgeon's arm extending through the opening The gel material comprises an elastomeric oil mixture and substantially covers the entire opening of the incision to facilitate insertion of the surgeon's hand through the gel material, and Maintain a sealed relationship with the arm The elastomeric oil mixture has properties including an elongation of at least about 1000%, and surgical hand port, wherein the Shore A scale hardness has about 5 or less durometer.
  36.   The surgical access instrument of claim 1, further comprising a base hermetically coupled to the valve.
  37. And further comprising an adjustable retracting sheath including a proximal end, a distal end, a tubular wall, and a retaining ring disposed at the distal end, the proximal end of the retracting sheath coupled to the valve The surgical access instrument of claim 36 , wherein the surgical access instrument is engageable with the base.
  38. 37. The surgical access instrument of claim 36 , wherein the valve further includes a cap ring, the gel is coupled to the cap ring, and the cap ring is coupled to the base.
  39.   Further comprising an adjustable retractable sheath having an inner ring and a flexible sleeve, the inner ring extending around the inner edge of the incision, and the flexible sleeve extending to the outside of the incision The surgical instrument of claim 1, wherein a portion of the flexible sleeve is axially stretched proximally to retract the incision.
  40.   And an adjustable retractable sheath including a distal ring, a proximal ring, and a retractable sheath extending between the distal ring and the proximal ring in use, the adjustable retractable sheath being attached to the patient. At least one working channel configured to provide variable retraction of a provided incision, creating a seal between the adjustable retraction sheath and the incision, and in communication with the access channel; The surgical access instrument according to claim 1, wherein the surgical access instrument constitutes a part.
  41. 41. The surgical access instrument of claim 40, wherein the adjustable retractable sheath is adjustable to attach the base and the distal ring to a patient body wall.
  42. 41. The surgical access instrument of claim 40, wherein the adjustable retraction sheath is configured to receive a number of instruments extending simultaneously through the working channel.
  43. 41. The surgical access instrument of claim 40, wherein the adjustable retractable sheath has an adjustable distance between the distal ring and the proximal ring by pulling one end of the retractable sheath. .
  44. 41. The surgical access instrument of claim 40, wherein the adjustable retractable sheath is adjustable to adjust the size of the incision.
  45. 41. The surgical access instrument of claim 40, wherein the adjustable retractable sheath is adjustable by pulling one end of the tubular wall away from the patient.
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