JP5181117B2 - Mosquito aquaculture equipment and moss aquaculture method - Google Patents

Mosquito aquaculture equipment and moss aquaculture method Download PDF

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JP5181117B2
JP5181117B2 JP2008039562A JP2008039562A JP5181117B2 JP 5181117 B2 JP5181117 B2 JP 5181117B2 JP 2008039562 A JP2008039562 A JP 2008039562A JP 2008039562 A JP2008039562 A JP 2008039562A JP 5181117 B2 JP5181117 B2 JP 5181117B2
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ginger
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JP2009195150A (en
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洋行 鈴木
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Nagasaki Prefectural Government
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Description

本発明は、蟹類の養殖装置及びその使用方法に関する。詳しくは、蟹類を養殖するための新規な装置とその装置を用いて蟹類を養殖する新規な方法に関する。さらに詳しくは海水中、汽水中又は淡水中に生息する蟹類を飼育ないし、養殖する際に発生する「共食い」等に起因する生存数の低下を抑え、かつ、脚部欠損の蟹類の増加を防止するための蟹類の養殖装置及びその装置を使用する蟹類の養殖方法に関する。 The present invention relates to an aquaculture device and a method of using the same. Specifically, the present invention relates to a novel apparatus for cultivating moss and a novel method for culturing moss using the apparatus. More specifically, the decrease in the number of survivors caused by “cannibalism” that occurs when breeding or cultivating moths that live in seawater, brackish water, or freshwater, and increase in pods with leg defects The present invention relates to a cultivating apparatus for moss for preventing the occurrence and a method for culturing moss using the apparatus.

蟹類のほとんどは、日中は潜砂する、岩陰に身を潜める等、行動が低調であるのに対し、夜間は餌を求めて活発に行動する性質を有する。 Most of the moss are subdued during the day and submerged in the shadows of the rocks, but have a tendency to be active in search of food at night.

蟹類は脱皮によって成長する動物であり、稚ガニから親ガニに成長するまでに数回から20回前後(通常は15回程度)の脱皮を繰り返す。脱皮直後の新生体は、甲羅及び脚部が軟甲であるため、砂底に潜ることができない。この脱皮直後の軟甲個体が同種の蟹類または外敵に遭遇すると、攻撃されて、共食い死又は斃死する。これが蟹類の養殖時の生存数や生存歩留まりを低下させている大きな原因である。蟹類等の共食いの激しい水棲動物の養殖には、共食いを緩和するために多量の生物餌料を与える、配合餌料や冷凍生餌を投餌回数の頻度を高く給餌する、飽食以上の給餌を行う等の方法がある。しかし、生物餌料を十分な量を与えるには購入経費が高く、配合餌料や冷凍生餌の投餌頻度をあげるには人的経費が高いため、経済行為としては成立しがたい。また、飽食以上の給餌は陸上水槽では腐敗による水質悪化を招き、生残が低下する。他の方法としてシェルターを多数設置し蟹同士の遭遇頻度を下げる方法もあるが、陸上水槽飼育時には残餌の除去が難しく、水まわりも悪化する為、残餌・糞等が発生した場合は腐敗による水質悪化を招き、生残が大きく低下することがある。したがって、蟹類の大量生産ベースでの養殖技術はいまだ確立されていない。蟹類の飼育方法として、特開2006-254880、特開2003-274793や特開2002-360110が見られるが、全ての飼育方法が池や水槽による飼育を基本とした発明であり、施設の拡大が困難である。今回の技術のような生簀式の飼育方法とは根本的に異なる。魚類の飼育方法として照明器具を用いた飼育方法は既に考案されているが、魚類飼育での目的は自然の生物餌を有効に使う目的のみで、蟹類の生態的特徴を生かした共食いの防止としての目的は蟹類固有のものであるため、目的そのものが一部異なる。また、今回の発明では共食いをより効果的に防止する為シェルターを併用する、照明器具を複数設置する方法も示しているが、魚類の飼育ではシェルターを併用する方法や照明器具を複数設置する方法は検討されていない。 Mosses are animals that grow by molting and repeat molting several times to around 20 times (usually around 15 times) until they grow from juvenile crabs to parent crabs. The neoplasm immediately after molting cannot dive into the sandy bottom because the shell and legs are soft. When a mollusc individual immediately after molting encounters the same species of moss or an enemy, it is attacked and cannibalized or drowned. This is a major cause of the decrease in the number of survivors and survival yield during culturing of moss. For aquaculture of aquatic animals with high cannibalism such as moss, feed a large amount of biological food to ease cannibalism, feed compounded food and frozen raw food at a high frequency of feeding, and feed beyond satiation There are methods. However, the purchase cost is high to give a sufficient amount of biological feed, and the human cost is high to raise the frequency of feeding mixed feed and frozen raw food, so it is difficult to establish an economic act. In addition, feeding above satiety leads to deterioration of water quality due to rot in onshore tanks, and survival is reduced. Another method is to install many shelters to reduce the frequency of encounters between the sharks, but it is difficult to remove the remaining food when raising the aquarium, and the surrounding water also deteriorates. The water quality may be deteriorated due to water, and the survival may be greatly reduced. Therefore, aquaculture technology based on mass production of moss has not been established yet. JP 2006-254880, JP 2003-274793 and JP 2002-360110 can be seen as breeding methods for moss, but all breeding methods are inventions based on breeding by ponds and water tanks, and the expansion of facilities Is difficult. This is fundamentally different from the ginger-type breeding method as in this technology. Breeding methods using lighting fixtures have already been devised as a way of breeding fish, but the purpose of fish breeding is only to effectively use natural biological food, and prevention of cannibalism taking advantage of the ecological characteristics of moss Because the purpose is unique to moss, the purpose itself is partially different. In addition, the present invention also shows a method of installing multiple lighting fixtures together with a shelter to more effectively prevent cannibalism, but a method of using multiple shelters and a method of installing multiple lighting fixtures in fish breeding Has not been considered.

特開2006-254880JP 2006-254880 特開2003-274793JP2003-274793 特開2002-360110JP2002-360110 栽培漁業シリーズ No.8 ハタハタの生物特性と種苗生産技術 社団法人 日本栽培漁業協会 平成14年3月発行 p32-33Cultivation and Fishery Series No.8 Biological Characters and Seedling Production Technology of Grouper Group Japan Cultivation and Fisheries Association Published in March 2002 p32-33

このような状況に鑑み、本発明は稚ガニから市場に出荷できるサイズの親ガニに至るまでの養殖期間中における共食い死や斃死による蟹類の生存数の減少を効果的に防止するための蟹類の養殖装置及びその装置を用いて効果的に蟹類を養殖する方法を提供することを課題とする。 In view of such a situation, the present invention is a kite for effectively preventing a decrease in the number of surviving mosquitoes due to cannibalism or drowning during the culture period from juvenile crabs to parent crabs that can be shipped to the market. It is an object of the present invention to provide an aquaculture device and a method for effectively culturing moss using the device.

上記の課題を達成するための、本発明1は、蟹類等の種苗を収容した海面飼育用生簀網内もしくは周辺を水中もしくは水面直上〜10mに設置した灯火、電球、蛍光灯、LED球等の電照器具により照明した蟹類の養殖装置である。 In order to achieve the above-mentioned problems, the present invention 1 is a lamp, a light bulb, a fluorescent lamp, an LED bulb, etc. installed in the sea surface raising ginger net containing seedlings such as moss or the like in or around the water up to 10 m above the water surface. This is an aquaculture device for moss illuminated by the electric lighting equipment.

本発明2は養殖装置内に、シェルターは網や布、人工海藻、天然海藻、天然柴、藁等を材料としたものであり、シェルターの配置は電照装置からの光がなるべく多く生簀の外へ漏れる様、光の進行方向に対し平行に配置してある蟹類の養殖装置である。 In the present invention 2, the shelter is made of a net, cloth, artificial seaweed, natural seaweed, natural shiba, cocoon, etc. in the aquaculture device, and the shelter is arranged as much light as possible from the lighting device. It is a cultivating device for moss that is arranged in parallel with the light traveling direction.

また、本発明3は養殖装置内に、複数の電照器具を生簀内もしくは生簀上に設置する場合は生簀全面をできるだけ均等に照らすよう、分散して配置する蟹類の養殖装置である。 In addition, the present invention 3 is a cultivating apparatus for mosquitoes distributed and arranged so as to illuminate the entire surface of the ginger as evenly as possible when a plurality of lighting devices are installed in the ginger or on the ginger in the aquaculture apparatus.

本発明4は発明1から3のいずれ蟹記載の養殖装置を使用して実施する蟹類の養殖方法である。 The present invention 4 is a method for cultivating moss using the aquaculture apparatus according to any one of the first to third aspects.

本発明の蟹類の養殖装置とその装置を用いる蟹類の養殖方法を実施したところ、養殖期間中の共食い死や斃死を大幅に減少できた。
例えば、ガザミの場合、初夏に飼育を開始し、冬には食用サイズまで成長した。今回の発明により養殖事業が開始されれば、漁業による漁獲量が大幅に減少する冬場の漁獲量を補う形で大量に供給できる。
When the culturing apparatus for moss and the culturing method for moss using the apparatus of the present invention were carried out, cannibalism and moribund during the cultivation period could be greatly reduced.
For example, in the case of crab, breeding started in early summer and grew to food size in winter. If the aquaculture business is started by this invention, it can be supplied in large quantities to compensate for the catch in winter when the catch by the fishery is greatly reduced.

まず、本発明の養殖装置に用いる照明器具について詳しく説明する。本発明で用いる照明器具は灯火、電球、蛍光灯、LED球等、水面もしくは水中を照らせるものであればどのような照明器具でも差し支えない。ただし、水面上で使用する場合も野外で使用するため、一定レベルの防水機能を兼ね備えたものが望ましい。 First, the lighting fixture used for the culture apparatus of this invention is demonstrated in detail. The lighting fixture used in the present invention may be any lighting fixture that can illuminate the water surface or water, such as a lamp, a light bulb, a fluorescent lamp, and an LED bulb. However, since it is used outdoors even when used on the surface of the water, it preferably has a certain level of waterproof function.

水面上に照明器具を設置する位置については、照明器具が1基の場合は水面から離れると照度が落ちる為、生簀中央の可能な限り水面近くに設置する。これは、餌生物が出来るだけ多く生簀内にとどまるための措置である。ただし、照明器具が複数の場合は生簀内をなるべく均しく照明できるよう、場合により水面から離して設置することもありうる。これは、生簀内の餌生物や稚ガニを生簀全体に広く分散させるための措置である。 As for the position of installing the lighting equipment on the surface of the water, if there is only one lighting equipment, the illuminance will drop when leaving the water surface, so install it as close to the water surface as possible in the center of the ginger. This is a measure to keep as much prey as possible in the ginger. However, when there are a plurality of lighting fixtures, it may be installed away from the water surface in some cases so that the inside of the ginger can be illuminated as evenly as possible. This is a measure to widely disperse prey organisms and juvenile crabs in the ginger throughout the ginger.

水中に照明器具を設置する場合、照明器具の位置は、照明器具が1基の場合は生簀の中心部分に配置する。ただし、照明器具が複数の場合は生簀内をなるべく均等に照明できるよう配置する。 When installing a lighting fixture in water, the position of the lighting fixture is arranged at the center of the ginger when there is only one lighting fixture. However, when there are a plurality of lighting fixtures, they are arranged so that the inside of the ginger can be illuminated as evenly as possible.

シェルターは網や布、人工海藻、天然海藻、天然柴、藁等を材料としたもので、収容した蟹類同士の遭遇率を低下させるものであれば、どのようなものでも構わない。シェルターの配置は照明器具からの光をできるだけ、生簀の外へ漏らすよう光の進行方向に対して平行に配置するのが望ましい。これは出来るだけ広い範囲から光に集まる生物を集める為の措置である。また、照明器具に近い場所を中心に、光に集まる餌生物は高い密度となる上、蟹類の種類や成長過程によっては光に集まる習性もあるため、照明器具に近い場所に蟹類が集まることが多い。このため、照明器具に近い場所にシェルターを重点的に配置することが望ましい。また、初期は浮遊生活を行うが成長するに伴い底性生活へ移行するような蟹類の場合は、成長に合わせて底面に重点をおいたシェルターの数量、配置に変えていくのが望ましい。 The shelter is made of a net, cloth, artificial seaweed, natural seaweed, natural shiba, cocoon, etc., and any material can be used as long as it reduces the encounter rate between the stored moss. It is desirable to arrange the shelter parallel to the traveling direction of the light so that the light from the luminaire is leaked out of the ginger as much as possible. This is a measure to collect organisms that gather in light from as wide a range as possible. In addition, the prey that gathers in the light, mainly in places close to the lighting fixtures, has a high density, and depending on the type and growth process of the moss, there is a habit of gathering in the light, so that the moss gathers in a location near the lighting fixtures There are many cases. For this reason, it is desirable to place the shelter in a place close to the lighting fixture. In addition, in the case of moss that initially live floating but shift to bottom life as it grows, it is desirable to change to the number and arrangement of shelters with emphasis on the bottom as they grow.

生簀網を複数基設置する場合は、可能であれば別の生簀網の光が届かない程度に離したほうが良い。これは生簀網同士が光に集まる生物の競合を防ぐためである。 If multiple ginger nets are installed, it is better to separate them so that the light from other ginger nets does not reach. This is to prevent the competition of living organisms where the ginger nets gather in the light.

投餌を行う場合、餌の種類は蟹類が捕食可能なサイズの魚類、甲殻類等の活きているものが望ましい。都合により死んだ生物餌や配合飼料等を与える場合は、可能な限り投餌回数が多いほうが良い。 When feeding, it is desirable that the type of feed is a living fish or shellfish of a size that can be eaten by moths. When giving biological feed or mixed feed that has died due to circumstances, it is better to feed as many times as possible.

以下、本発明を図面に基づき、実施例によってさらに説明する。図1と図2は、本発明で使用する照明器具1と網生簀2、人工海藻シェルター3及び水面位置4の配置例を示している。以下、本発明を試験例によってさらに説明する。 Hereinafter, the present invention will be further described with reference to the drawings. FIG. 1 and FIG. 2 show an arrangement example of the lighting apparatus 1, net ginger 2, artificial seaweed shelter 3, and water surface position 4 used in the present invention. Hereinafter, the present invention will be further described with test examples.

(試験例1)
〈照明器具設置の効果を検討する試験〉2007年に種苗生産されたガザミ稚ガニを使用し、容量1tの240径モジ網生簀2(2基)にそれぞれ、長さが5mの人工海藻シェルター3を投入し、配合飼料を昼夜関係無く2時間おき12回に分けて、飽食量以上に十分与えた。さらに試験区には照明器具1として60W耐震電球を水面上20cmに設置し、8月13日より25日間飼育した。飼育期間中、数回にわたり試験区及び対照区の稚ガニの生残数と成長を観察した。試験結果を表1に示す。
(Test Example 1)
<Test to examine the effect of installing lighting fixtures> Using artificial crab juveniles that were produced in 2007, seedlings with a capacity of 1 ton 240 diameter moji net ginger 2 (2 units), each 5m long artificial seaweed shelter 3 The mixed feed was divided into 12 times every 2 hours regardless of day and night, and given enough to the amount of satiation. In the test area, a 60W seismic bulb was installed as a lighting fixture 1 20cm above the water surface and raised for 25 days from August 13. During the breeding period, the number of survivors and growth of juvenile crabs in the test and control groups were observed several times. The test results are shown in Table 1.

表1に基づいて、試験の結果を考察する。試験区における稚ガニの成長及び生残率は対照区と比較して良好であった。また、夜間観察すると、照明器具で照らされた水面近くを中心に生簀の網目を通過した小型の生物が集まり、それらを捕食する稚ガニの行動が観察された。このことから、試験区の稚ガニは照明器具の設置により、光に餌となる生物が集まり、それを食べたことで対照区と比較して成長が良好となったと考えられた。試験区は活きた餌を捕食する為、照明器具の下に稚ガニが集まり他個体との接触機会が多く、また試験区対照区ともに配合飼料を飽食量与えているにもかかわらず、対照区の生残率が試験区より低かったことから、試験区は光により稚ガニの活動が鈍り、他の稚ガニを攻撃することが少なかったと考えられた。 Based on Table 1, consider the results of the test. The growth and survival rate of juvenile crabs in the test plot was better than that in the control plot. Moreover, when observed at night, small creatures that passed through ginger nets gathered near the water surface illuminated by the lighting fixtures, and the behavior of juvenile crabs preying on them was observed. From this, it was considered that the juvenile crabs in the test area gathered organisms that became food for the light by installing the lighting fixtures, and that they ate it and grew better than the control area. Because the test plots prey on live food, juvenile crabs gathered under the lighting fixtures and had many opportunities to contact other individuals. Since the survival rate of the larvae was lower than that of the test area, the activity of the juvenile crabs was slowed down by the light, and it was thought that there were few attacks on other crabs.

(試験例2)
〈シェルターの設置数を検討する試験〉2007年に種苗生産されたガザミ稚ガニを使用し、容量0.4tの240径モジ網生簀3基に60W耐震電球を水面上20cmに設置し、各生簀にそれぞれ人工海藻シェルター6m、13.5m、24mを投入し、9月24日より24日間飼育した。各生簀に収容した稚ガニは試験例1より少ない500尾であった。飼育期間中、数回にわたり試験区及び対照区の稚ガニの生残数と成長を観察した。試験結果を表2に示す。
(Test Example 2)
<Test to examine the number of shelters installed> Using crab juvenile crabs produced in seedlings in 2007, installed a 60W earthquake-resistant bulb 20cm above the surface of the water on three 240-diameter moji net ginger with a capacity of 0.4t. Artificial seaweed shelters 6m, 13.5m, and 24m were introduced and bred for 24 days from September 24th. The number of juvenile crabs accommodated in each ginger was 500 fewer than in Test Example 1. During the breeding period, the number of survivors and growth of juvenile crabs in the test and control groups were observed several times. The test results are shown in Table 2.

表2に基づいて、試験の結果を考察する。本試験結果よりシェルター数を増やすことで、大きく生残率は向上することが分かった。また、試験例1と比較して収容尾数を減らし、シェルター数を増やした本試験結果は、試験例1より生残率が高いことから、生残率は収容尾数とは反比例、シェルター数とは比例関係にあることが考えられた。試験例1の試験区では配合飼料を併用していたが、本試験では配合飼料は給餌していない。しかし、本試験では試験例1の試験区の結果より良好な生残率であったことから、配合飼料等の追加の餌は必ずしも必要無く、光に集まった生物餌量が不足していると判断される場合に併用する程度で良いと考えられた。 Based on Table 2, consider the results of the test. From this test result, it was found that the survival rate was greatly improved by increasing the number of shelters. Moreover, since this test result which decreased the number of accommodations and increased the number of shelters compared with Test Example 1 has a higher survival rate than Test Example 1, the survival rate is inversely proportional to the number of accommodations, and the number of shelters It was thought that there was a proportional relationship. In the test area of Test Example 1, the mixed feed was used together, but the mixed feed was not fed in this test. However, in this test, since the survival rate was better than the result of the test section of Test Example 1, additional food such as mixed feed is not necessarily required, and the amount of biological food collected in light is insufficient. It was thought that it would be enough to use it together when judged.

本発明に係る養殖装置及び養殖方法は、蟹類の種類を問わず、どのような蟹類にも適用できるが、例えば、ガザミ、ノコギリガザミ、タイワンガザミ、ジャノメガザミ、イボガザミ、サワガニ、イシガニ、フタホシイシガニ、ケガニ、ズワイガニ、タラバガニ、ハナサキガニ、タイザガニ、ベニズワイガニ、アサヒガニ、シマイシガニ、イバラガニ、ヒラツメガニ、タカアシガニ、ヤシガニ、モクズガニ、チュウゴクモクズガニ等を対象に出来る。また、蟹類同様に共食いが激しく飼育が困難な、イセエビ、ニシキエビ、ゴシキエビ、カノコイセエビ、ウチワエビ、セミエビ、ゾウリエビ、アメリカウミザリガニ、ザリガニ、アメリカザリガニ、クルマエビ、クマエビ、コウライエビ、ヨシエビ、テナガエビ、ホッカイエビ、アカザエビ等の海老類にも適用できる。 The aquaculture apparatus and the aquaculture method according to the present invention can be applied to any kind of moss regardless of the kind of moss, for example, crab, saw crab, tiger crab, jade mega crab, lobster crab, crayfish, shrimp, phragm crabs , Crabs, snow crab, king crab, king crab, king crab, red crabs, red crabs, shrimp crabs, crayfish, tiger crab, hawk crab, coconut crabs, mock crab, chug crab crabs, etc. In addition, like shrubs, cannibalism is intense and difficult to breed, lobster, tiger shrimp, shrimp, shrimp lobster, prickly shrimp, semi-shrimp, elephant shrimp, crayfish, crayfish, crayfish, tiger shrimp, bear shrimp, shrimp, shrimp, lobster It can also be applied to shrimp such as red shrimp.

本発明に係る一実施例を示す蟹類養殖装置の縦断面図である。It is a longitudinal cross-sectional view of the moss culture apparatus which shows one Example which concerns on this invention. 本発明に係る一実施例を示す蟹類養殖装置の平面図である。[BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS] It is a top view of the moss culture apparatus which shows one Example based on this invention.

符号の説明Explanation of symbols

1 照明措置
2 網生簀
3 水面位置
4 人工海藻シェルター

1 Lighting Measures 2 Net Ginger 3 Water Surface Position 4 Artificial Seaweed Shelter

Claims (4)

蟹類の種苗を収容した海面飼育用生簀網内もしくは周辺を水中もしくは水面を照明する照明器具を設置したことを特徴とする蟹類養殖装置。 A cultivating apparatus for cultivating moss, which is provided with a lighting device for illuminating the surface of the ginger net for rearing seawater containing moss seedlings in or around the water. 上記蟹類養殖装置内に、シェルターを照明器具からの光の進行方向に対し平行に配置することを特徴とする請求項1に記載の蟹類養殖装置。 2. The cultivating apparatus for mosquitoes according to claim 1, wherein a shelter is disposed in the cultivating apparatus for mosquitoes parallel to the traveling direction of light from the lighting equipment. 上記照明器具を生簀内もしくは生簀上に一個または複数個、光が均等に分散する様に配置することを特徴とする請求項1に記載の蟹類養殖装置。 2. The apparatus for cultivating reptiles according to claim 1, wherein one or a plurality of the lighting fixtures are arranged in the ginger or on the ginger so that light is evenly distributed. 蟹類の種苗を収容した海面飼育用生簀網内もしくは周辺を水中もしくは水面を照明する照明器具を設置した蟹類養殖装置を用いて蟹類を養殖することを特徴とする蟹類の養殖方法。 A method for cultivating moss, comprising cultivating moss using a cultivating device for culturing mosquitoes, which is provided with a lighting device for illuminating the surface of a ginger net for rearing seawater containing moss seedlings .
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