JP5126730B2 - Method for manufacturing field effect transistor - Google Patents

Method for manufacturing field effect transistor Download PDF

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JP5126730B2
JP5126730B2 JP2005325369A JP2005325369A JP5126730B2 JP 5126730 B2 JP5126730 B2 JP 5126730B2 JP 2005325369 A JP2005325369 A JP 2005325369A JP 2005325369 A JP2005325369 A JP 2005325369A JP 5126730 B2 JP5126730 B2 JP 5126730B2
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JP2006165531A (en
JP2006165531A5 (en
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久人 薮田
政史 佐野
達哉 岩崎
秀雄 細野
利夫 神谷
研二 野村
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キヤノン株式会社
国立大学法人東京工業大学
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/68Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor controllable by only the electric current supplied, or only the electric potential applied, to an electrode which does not carry the current to be rectified, amplified or switched
    • H01L29/76Unipolar devices, e.g. field effect transistors
    • H01L29/772Field effect transistors
    • H01L29/78Field effect transistors with field effect produced by an insulated gate
    • H01L29/786Thin film transistors, i.e. transistors with a channel being at least partly a thin film
    • H01L29/7869Thin film transistors, i.e. transistors with a channel being at least partly a thin film having a semiconductor body comprising an oxide semiconductor material, e.g. zinc oxide, copper aluminium oxide, cadmium stannate
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/68Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor controllable by only the electric current supplied, or only the electric potential applied, to an electrode which does not carry the current to be rectified, amplified or switched
    • H01L29/76Unipolar devices, e.g. field effect transistors
    • H01L29/772Field effect transistors
    • H01L29/78Field effect transistors with field effect produced by an insulated gate
    • H01L29/786Thin film transistors, i.e. transistors with a channel being at least partly a thin film
    • H01L29/7869Thin film transistors, i.e. transistors with a channel being at least partly a thin film having a semiconductor body comprising an oxide semiconductor material, e.g. zinc oxide, copper aluminium oxide, cadmium stannate
    • H01L29/78693Thin film transistors, i.e. transistors with a channel being at least partly a thin film having a semiconductor body comprising an oxide semiconductor material, e.g. zinc oxide, copper aluminium oxide, cadmium stannate the semiconducting oxide being amorphous

Description

  The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing a field effect transistor.

  2. Description of the Related Art In recent years, flat and thin image display devices (Flat Panel Displays: FPD) have been put into practical use due to advances in liquid crystal and electroluminescence (EL) technologies.

  These FPDs are driven by an active matrix circuit of a field effect thin film transistor (TFT) using an amorphous silicon thin film or a polycrystalline silicon thin film provided on a glass substrate as an active layer.

  On the other hand, in order to further reduce the thickness, weight, and breakage resistance of these FPDs, an attempt has been made to use a lightweight and flexible resin substrate instead of a glass substrate.

  However, the manufacture of the transistor using the above-described silicon thin film requires a relatively high temperature thermal process and is generally difficult to form directly on a resin substrate having low heat resistance.

In view of this, TFTs that can be formed at a low temperature and that use an oxide semiconductor thin film made of, for example, ZnO have been actively developed (Patent Document 1).
Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 2003-298062

According to the knowledge of the present inventors, ZnO generally cannot form a stable amorphous phase, and most ZnO exhibits a polycrystalline phase, so that carriers are scattered at the interface between the polycrystalline particles. As a result, it was found that the electron mobility could not be increased.
That is, a method for producing an amorphous oxide that is suitably used for an active layer of a field effect transistor has been sought.

  In view of the above background, an object of the present invention is to provide a novel method for manufacturing a field effect transistor.

  The present invention will be specifically described below.

A method for producing a field effect transistor according to the present invention includes:
A first step of preparing a substrate, and a second step of forming an active layer including an amorphous oxide on the substrate, the amorphous oxide comprising In—Zn—Ga—O Oxide, In—Zn—Ga—Mg—O oxide, In—Zn—O oxide, In—Sn—O oxide, In—O oxide, In—Ga—O oxide And a Sn—In—Zn—O-based oxide, and before the second step, the substrate surface is irradiated with ultraviolet rays in an ozone atmosphere, or plasma is applied to the substrate surface. At least one of the irradiation step and the step of cleaning the surface of the substrate with a chemical solution containing hydrogen peroxide is performed, and the manufactured field effect transistor includes an electron of the amorphous oxide. The carrier concentration is 10 15 / cm 3 or more and less than 10 18 / cm 3 , It is characterized in that the current between the source and drain terminals when no gate voltage is applied is less than 10 microamperes, and the field effect mobility is more than 2 cm 2 / (V · sec).

In the present invention , another step may be included between the first step and the second step. In the present invention, the formation of an amorphous oxide on a substrate means not only the formation of a film directly on the substrate but also the formation of an amorphous oxide on the substrate via another layer. Is also included.

  The present invention provides a method for manufacturing a novel field effect transistor having an amorphous oxide.

  Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.

  In the following, first to third embodiments of the present invention will be described in first to third embodiments.

Thereafter, matters common to the respective embodiments of the amorphous oxide according to the present invention will be described.
(First embodiment: from before film formation to after film formation)
1-A A method of manufacturing a field effect transistor according to the present embodiment includes a substrate, and after forming a substrate, before forming an active layer including an amorphous oxide on the substrate, A process is performed.
The step is a step of irradiating the substrate surface with ultraviolet rays in an ozone atmosphere, a step of irradiating the substrate surface with plasma, a step of cleaning the substrate surface with a chemical solution containing hydrogen peroxide, or silicon. And a process of coating a film containing oxygen.

  The substrate surface treatment process removes impurities adhering to the substrate surface and cleans the substrate surface.

Through the above steps, performance deterioration due to impurity diffusion into a film constituting a field effect transistor such as a TFT (Thin Film Transistor) can be reduced.
In addition, the adhesion between the substrate and the film forming the transistor can be improved by removing the deposits from the substrate surface.

1-B In addition, a method for manufacturing a field effect transistor according to the present invention includes:
After preparing a substrate for film formation, an amorphous oxide film is formed in a predetermined atmosphere.

  The predetermined atmosphere is an atmosphere containing at least one of ozone gas, nitrogen oxide gas, oxygen-containing radical, atomic oxygen, oxygen ion, and oxygen radical.

  Note that the ozone gas, the nitrogen oxide gas, the oxygen-containing radical, and the oxygen radical can be introduced into the film formation chamber from the outside of the film formation chamber.

  Further, by irradiating the substrate with oxygen-containing plasma, atomic oxygen, oxygen ions, and oxygen radicals can be generated in the deposition chamber.

  The ozone gas or the like is suitable for obtaining an amorphous oxide with few oxygen vacancies because it has stronger oxidizing power than molecular oxygen.

  Note that when the amorphous oxide is used as an active layer of a field effect transistor, unnecessary oxygen defects can be reduced according to the present invention, so that deterioration of transistor characteristics due to defect level formation can be suppressed. It becomes possible.

  Further, the present invention includes a case where the amorphous oxide is used as an insulating layer. And if the said insulating layer is formed by the said method, the effect that the insulation improves will be acquired.

  Note that the present invention includes a case where oxygen molecules are included in addition to the above atmosphere during the formation of an amorphous oxide film.

1-C The present invention also provides a substrate (first step), and after the second step of forming an active layer including an amorphous oxide on the substrate,
At least one of the following post-processing steps (post-processing step) is performed.
The post-processing step is
A heat treatment step in which heat treatment is performed at a temperature higher than the film formation temperature of the active layer in the second step, or a step of irradiating the substrate having the active layer with oxygen-containing plasma.

The film formation temperature is, for example, room temperature. Specifically, it is in the range of 0 ° C to 40 ° C.
When the active layer is formed, the film may be formed without intentionally heating the substrate, as in the case where the film is formed at room temperature.

The heat treatment step can be appropriately performed as long as the amorphous oxide is formed.
Needless to say, the heat treatment step may be performed after the gate insulating film is formed on the substrate or after an electrode film such as a drain electrode, a source electrode, or a gate electrode is formed.

  In particular, when an oxide is used as the electrode film, it is preferable to perform a heat treatment step after the electrode film is formed.

  Note that the heat treatment can be performed in an atmosphere containing ozone, an atmosphere containing a nitrogen oxide gas, an atmosphere containing water vapor, an atmosphere containing oxygen radicals, or the like.

  The temperature in the heat treatment step is, for example, higher than room temperature and 600 ° C. or lower. Preferably, it is 200 degrees C or less. When a flexible substrate such as PET (polyethylene terephthalate) is used, the temperature is 200 ° C. or lower, preferably 100 ° C. or lower, more preferably 50 ° C. or lower.

  Accordingly, unnecessary oxygen defects can be reduced, and deterioration of transistor characteristics due to defect level formation can be reduced.

  In addition, when an insulating film made of an oxide is provided on the substrate, the insulating property can be improved.

  Further, the step of performing the oxygen-containing plasma irradiation can be appropriately performed after the formation of the amorphous oxide.

  Specifically, after forming the active layer of the amorphous oxide or after forming the gate insulating film when an oxide is used for the gate insulating film, the electrode film of the drain electrode, the source electrode, or the gate electrode is formed. This is after the electrode film is formed when an oxide is used.

  Note that plasma irradiation can be performed while heating the substrate.

  Such plasma irradiation can reduce unnecessary oxygen defects and suppress deterioration of transistor characteristics due to defect level formation. Further, when an insulating film is provided on the substrate, the insulating property can be improved.

  Note that after the second step, a film formed to form a field effect transistor such as a TFT can be patterned.

  Specifically, a mask layer for the patterning is deposited. Alternatively, after the film is formed, etching can be performed after resist application and a lithography process.

By doing so, the number of steps in forming the TFT element can be reduced, and a circuit and a device with little characteristic variation between elements can be obtained.
(Second Embodiment: Film Forming Method)
The method of manufacturing the field effect transistor according to this embodiment is as follows:
A substrate is prepared (first step), and then, in the second step of forming an active layer including an amorphous oxide on the substrate, the second step is performed as follows:
It is characterized by performing by resistance heating vapor deposition, electron beam vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, line beam laser vapor deposition, or electrodeposition.

  In the present invention, a substrate is prepared, and then, at least one of an amorphous oxide active layer, a source electrode, a drain electrode, a gate insulating film, and a gate electrode of a field effect transistor is formed on the substrate. In this case, the above-described method includes forming by the resistance heating vapor deposition method, electron beam vapor deposition method, chemical vapor deposition method, line beam laser vapor deposition method, or electrodeposition method.

  Thereby, an active layer, an electrode film or an insulating film having a quality equivalent to or higher than that of a normal pulse laser deposition method can be obtained. In addition, according to the invention according to the present embodiment, the above-described amorphous oxide can be deposited on a substrate having an area equivalent to or larger than that of the sputtering method.

  Note that the oxygen-related conditions (for example, oxygen partial pressure) in the case where an amorphous oxide film is formed by the above manufacturing method can be set in the following range, for example, depending on the apparatus used for film formation.

In the resistance heating vapor deposition method and the electron beam vapor deposition method, the oxygen partial pressure or the total pressure is set in the range of 10 −3 to 10 Pa.

  In the case of chemical vapor deposition, half of the total pressure in the chamber is, for example, the oxygen partial pressure.

  In the case of the line beam laser deposition method, the range of the oxygen partial pressure is, for example, 4.5 Pa to less than 6.5 Pa.

This line beam laser vapor deposition method uses a laser used in a pulse laser vapor deposition method (PLD method) described later, and performs deposition using a laser line beam having a predetermined width generated by adding a line optical system thereto. Is the method.
(Third embodiment: substrate temperature)
In the method of manufacturing a field effect transistor according to this embodiment, a substrate is prepared (first step), and
In the second step of forming an active layer including an amorphous oxide on the substrate, the film formation temperature is set to 70 ° C. or higher.

  Here, the film formation temperature is, for example, the temperature of the substrate, the temperature of the outermost surface of the substrate (the surface on which the film is grown), the temperature in the vicinity of the substrate, or an in-chamber thermometer attached to each film formation apparatus. Is the temperature indicated by.

  Therefore, even when the film is formed at an ambient temperature of room temperature (for example, when the film is formed without heating by a heater or the like), the temperature of the substrate itself or the temperature of the outermost surface of the substrate is the result. If the temperature is 70 ° C. or higher, it is within the scope of the invention according to this embodiment.

  The lower limit of the film formation temperature (for example, the substrate temperature) can be set as appropriate, but it is preferably lower than the thermal deformation temperature of the substrate, for example.

  The heat distortion temperature depends on the substrate, but is, for example, 100 ° C. or higher and 200 ° C. or lower.

  By setting the film formation temperature (for example, the substrate temperature) to 70 ° C. or higher at the time of film formation, it becomes difficult for the characteristics of the film to vary in the process after the formation of the amorphous oxide film. The variation of is reduced. Here, the element characteristics include electron mobility, on / off ratio, drain-source voltage, gate threshold voltage, and the like when a transistor is manufactured using the amorphous oxide.

  Note that the temperature is set to 70 ° C. or higher when an amorphous oxide is used to form a transistor such as a display device or the like, in a subsequent process, heating at about 60 ° C. is performed or the device is used This is because sometimes it may be about 60 ° C.

  Furthermore, the stability of the device is improved during high temperature operation and after storage in a high temperature environment. The concept is shown using FIG.

  In FIG. 7A, the vertical axis represents typical (element characteristic variation after storage at 60 ° C. for 10 hours) / (element characteristic variation before storage), and the horizontal axis represents the formation of an amorphous oxide film. The relationship when the substrate temperature at the time is used is shown. It can be seen that the characteristic variation is reduced by setting the temperature to 70 ° C or higher.

  The preferred substrate temperature range depends on the film formation method and conditions, but for example, in the case of sputtering, high energy particles are irradiated onto the substrate surface, so that even a relatively low temperature is good. Therefore, the sputtering method is a preferable film forming method.

  Here, the substrate temperature is strictly the temperature of the substrate surface at the time of film formation, but when it is difficult to directly measure the temperature at the time of film formation, the substrate temperature before the film formation and the substrate immediately after the film formation. It can also be set as the average value of temperature. The substrate temperature can be measured using an arbitrary thermometer such as a radiation thermometer or a thermocouple.

Moreover, it is preferable that the film formation temperature (for example, substrate temperature) is lower than the thermal deformation temperature of the substrate.
In particular, when a resin substrate is used, when the film is formed at a temperature higher than the thermal deformation temperature, the film may be peeled off or the film may be damaged.

  That is, the production yield decreases. FIG. 7B is a conceptual diagram showing the relationship between the yield, where the yield is on the vertical axis and the horizontal axis is the substrate temperature during film formation. It can be seen that the yield decreases when the substrate temperature is higher than the heat distortion temperature.

  Furthermore, it is preferable to use a substrate having a thermal deformation temperature of 100 ° C. or more and 200 ° C. or less from the viewpoint of device stability and substrate flexibility.

  Although it depends on what kind of substrate is used, it is preferable that the film formation temperature (for example, the substrate temperature) in the invention according to this embodiment is set to 70 ° C. or more and 200 ° C. or less. More preferably, it is 70 degreeC or more and 100 degrees C or less.

  Further, using a material having a thermal deformation temperature of about 120 to 150 ° C. and forming a film at a substrate temperature of about 80 to 100 ° C. is a preferable condition for producing a TFT on a flexible substrate.

  Typical heat deformation temperatures of resin substrates are about 75 ° C. for acrylic resin (PMMA), about 70 ° C. for PET, and about 150 ° C. for PC (polycarbonate), but there are various types depending on the production method and the mixture. . For example, there are PET materials and materials whose thermal deformation temperature is increased to about 200 ° C. by reinforcing them with glass fibers.

  Here, the heat distortion temperature can be evaluated according to the test standard of JIS K7206.

  Note that a glass substrate, a plastic substrate, a plastic film, or the like can be used as the substrate on which the transparent film is formed. As the type of plastic, any resin made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyimide, acrylic (PMMA), epoxy or the like can be used.

  In addition to the film forming method described in the second embodiment, the film forming method in the present embodiment is appropriately selected from, for example, a pulse laser deposition method (PLD method) and a sputtering method (SP method). Is done.

Hereinafter, the amorphous oxide applied in the first to third embodiments will be described in detail.
(Amorphous oxide)
The electron carrier concentration of the amorphous oxide according to the present invention is a value when measured at room temperature. The room temperature is, for example, 25 ° C., specifically, a certain temperature appropriately selected from the range of about 0 ° C. to 40 ° C. Note that the electron carrier concentration of the amorphous oxide according to the present invention does not need to satisfy less than 10 18 / cm 3 in the entire range of 0 ° C. to 40 ° C. For example, a carrier electron density of less than 10 18 / cm 3 may be realized at 25 ° C. Further, when the electron carrier concentration is further reduced to 10 17 / cm 3 or less, more preferably 10 16 / cm 3 or less, a normally-off TFT can be obtained with a high yield.

The term “less than 10 18 / cm 3” is preferably less than 1 × 10 18 / cm 3 , and more preferably less than 1.0 × 10 18 / cm 3 .

  The electron carrier concentration can be measured by Hall effect measurement.

  In the present invention, an amorphous oxide refers to an oxide that exhibits a halo pattern in an X-ray diffraction spectrum and does not exhibit a specific diffraction line.

The lower limit of the electron carrier concentration in the amorphous oxide of the present invention is not particularly limited as long as it can be applied as a TFT channel layer. The lower limit is, for example, 10 12 / cm 3 .

Therefore, in the present invention, the material, composition ratio, production conditions, etc. of the amorphous oxide are controlled as in the examples described later, for example, the electron carrier concentration is 10 12 / cm 3 or more and 10 18 / cm 3. Less than. More preferably, it is in the range of 10 13 / cm 3 or more and 10 17 / cm 3 or less, and more preferably 10 15 / cm 3 or more and 10 16 / cm 3 or less.

As the amorphous oxide, in addition to InZnGa oxide, In oxide, In x Zn 1-x oxide (0.2 ≦ x ≦ 1), In x Sn 1-x oxide (0.8 ≦ x ≦ 1) or In x (Zn, Sn) 1-x oxide (0.15 ≦ x ≦ 1).

Note that an In x (Zn, Sn) 1-x oxide can be described as an In x (Zn y Sn 1-y ) 1-x oxide, and the range of y is 1 to 0.

Note that in the case of an In oxide containing no Zn and Sn, part of In can be substituted with Ga. That is, it is the case of In x Ga 1-x oxide (0 ≦ x ≦ 1).

Hereinafter, an amorphous oxide having an electron carrier concentration of less than 10 18 / cm 3 successfully produced by the present inventors will be described in detail.

The oxide includes In—Ga—Zn—O, the composition in the crystalline state is represented by InGaO 3 (ZnO) m (m is a natural number less than 6), and the electron carrier concentration is 10 18 / cm 3. It is characterized by being less than.

The oxide includes In—Ga—Zn—Mg—O, and the composition of the crystalline state is InGaO 3 (Zn 1−x Mg × O) m (m is a natural number less than 6, 0 <x ≦ 1 The electron carrier concentration is less than 10 18 / cm 3 .

Note that it is also preferable to design a film formed using these oxides so that the electron mobility exceeds 1 cm 2 / (V · sec).

When the above film is used for a channel layer, transistor characteristics with a normally-off gate current of less than 0.1 microampere and an on / off ratio of more than 10 3 can be realized. In addition, a flexible TFT having transparency or translucency with respect to visible light is realized.

  The film is characterized in that the electron mobility increases as the number of conduction electrons increases. As the substrate on which the transparent film is formed, a glass substrate, a resin plastic substrate, a plastic film, or the like can be used.

When the amorphous oxide film is used as a channel layer, a gate insulating layer is formed of Al 2 O 3 , Y 2 O 3 , HfO 2 , or a mixed crystal compound containing at least two of these compounds. Available for membranes.

  In addition, it is also preferable to form a film in an atmosphere containing oxygen gas without intentionally adding impurity ions for increasing electric resistance to the amorphous oxide.

  The present inventors have found that the semi-insulating oxide amorphous thin film has a unique characteristic that the electron mobility increases as the number of conduction electrons increases. Then, a TFT was formed using the film, and it was found that transistor characteristics such as an on / off ratio, a saturation current in a pinch-off state, and a switch speed were further improved. That is, it has been found that a normally-off type TFT can be realized by using an amorphous oxide.

When an amorphous oxide thin film is used as the channel layer of the film transistor, the electron mobility can exceed 1 cm 2 / (V · sec), preferably 5 cm 2 / (V · sec).

When the electron carrier concentration is less than 10 18 / cm 3 , preferably less than 10 16 / cm 3 , the current between the drain and source terminals when off (when no gate voltage is applied) is less than 10 microamperes, Preferably it can be less than 0.1 microamperes.

When the film is used, when the electron mobility is more than 1 cm 2 / (V · sec), preferably more than 5 cm 2 / (V · sec), the saturation current after pinch-off can be more than 10 microamperes, The on / off ratio can be greater than 10 3 .

  In the TFT, in a pinch-off state, a high voltage is applied to the gate terminal, and high-density electrons exist in the channel.

  Therefore, according to the present invention, the saturation current value can be further increased by the amount of increase in electron mobility. As a result, improvements in transistor characteristics such as an increase in on / off ratio, an increase in saturation current, and an increase in switching speed can be expected.

  In a normal compound, when the number of electrons increases, electron mobility decreases due to collisions between electrons.

The TFT structure includes a stagger (top gate) structure in which a gate insulating film and a gate terminal are sequentially formed on a semiconductor channel layer, or a reverse structure in which a gate insulating film and a semiconductor channel layer are sequentially formed on a gate terminal. A staggered (bottom gate) structure can be used.
(First film formation method: PLD method)
An amorphous oxide thin film whose composition in the crystalline state is represented by InGaO 3 (ZnO) m (m is a natural number less than 6) is amorphous up to a high temperature of 800 ° C. or higher when the value of m is less than 6. Although the quality state is kept stable, it becomes easier to crystallize as the value of m increases. That is, as the ratio of ZnO to InGaO 3 increases and approaches the ZnO composition, it becomes easier to crystallize.

  Therefore, the value of m is preferably less than 6 for the channel layer of the amorphous TFT.

As a film forming method, a vapor phase film forming method is preferably used with a polycrystalline sintered body having an InGaO 3 (ZnO) m composition as a target. Of the vapor deposition methods, sputtering and pulsed laser deposition are suitable. Furthermore, the sputtering method is most suitable from the viewpoint of mass productivity.

However, when the amorphous film is produced under normal conditions, a lot of oxygen vacancies are generated, so far, the electron carrier concentration can be less than 10 18 / cm 3 and the electric conductivity can be 10 S / cm or less. There wasn't. When such a film is used, a normally-off transistor cannot be formed.

  The present inventors produced In—Ga—Zn—O produced by a pulse laser deposition method using the apparatus shown in FIG.

  Film formation was performed using a PLD film formation apparatus as shown in FIG.

  In the figure, 701 is RP (rotary pump), 702 is TMP (turbo molecular pump), 703 is a preparation chamber, 704 is an electron gun for RHEED, 705 is a substrate holding means for rotating and moving the substrate up and down, and 706 is This is a laser incident window. 707 is a substrate, 708 is a target, 709 is a radical source, 710 is a gas inlet, 711 is a target holding means for rotating and moving the target up and down, 712 is a bypass line, 713 is a main line, 714 is TMP ( Turbo molecular pump). Reference numeral 715 denotes an RP (rotary pump), 716 denotes a titanium getter pump, and 717 denotes a shutter. In the figure, 718 is an IG (ion vacuum gauge), 719 is a PG (Pirani vacuum gauge), 720 is a BG (Baratron vacuum gauge), and 721 is a growth chamber (chamber).

An In-Ga-Zn-O amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film was deposited on a SiO 2 glass substrate (Corning 1737) by pulsed laser deposition using a KrF excimer laser. As a pre-deposition treatment, the substrate was degreased and cleaned with ultrasonic waves for 5 minutes each using acetone, ethanol, and ultrapure water, and then dried at 100 ° C. in air.

As the polycrystalline target, an InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 sintered body target (size 20 mmΦ5 mmt) was used. This is because, as a starting material, In 2 O 3 : Ga 2 O 3 : ZnO (each 4N reagent) is wet-mixed (solvent: ethanol), calcined (1000 ° C .: 2 h), dry pulverized, main sintered ( 1550 ° C: 2 hours). The electric conductivity of the target thus prepared was 90 (S / cm).

The film was formed while the ultimate vacuum in the growth chamber was 2 × 10 −6 (Pa) and the oxygen partial pressure during growth was controlled to 6.5 (Pa).

  The partial pressure of oxygen in the chamber 721 is 6.5 Pa, and the substrate temperature is 25 ° C.

The distance between the target 708 and the film formation substrate 707 is 30 (mm), and the power of the KrF excimer laser incident from the incident window 716 is 1.5-3 (mJ / cm 2 / pulse). It is a range. The pulse width was 20 (nsec), the repetition frequency was 10 (Hz), and the irradiation spot diameter was 1 × 1 (mm square). Thus, film formation was performed at a film formation rate of 7 (nm / min).

  The thin film obtained was subjected to grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (thin film method, incident angle 0.5 degree) of the thin film, and no clear diffraction peak was observed. Thus, the produced In-Ga-Zn-O thin film Can be said to be amorphous.

Furthermore, as a result of measuring the X-ray reflectivity and analyzing the pattern, it was found that the mean square roughness (Rrms) of the thin film was about 0.5 nm and the film thickness was about 120 nm. As a result of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, the metal composition ratio of the thin film was In: Ga: Zn = 0.98: 1.02: 4.
The electrical conductivity was less than about 10-2 S / cm. The electron carrier concentration is estimated to be about 10 16 / cm 3 or less, and the electron mobility is estimated to be about 5 cm 2 / (V · sec).

From the analysis of the light absorption spectrum, the energy band gap of the fabricated amorphous thin film was found to be about 3 eV. From the above, the fabricated In-Ga-Zn-O-based thin film exhibits an amorphous phase close to the composition of crystalline InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 , has a small oxygen deficiency, and has a low electrical conductivity and is a transparent flat surface. It turned out to be a thin film.

This will be specifically described with reference to FIG. This figure shows a transparent amorphous oxide thin film composed of In-Ga-Zn-O and having a composition expressed by InGaO 3 (ZnO) m (m is a number less than 6) assuming a crystalline state. It is a characteristic view in the case of creating under the same conditions as the example. This characteristic diagram shows the change in the electron carrier concentration of the deposited oxide when the oxygen partial pressure is changed.

By forming a film in an atmosphere where the oxygen partial pressure is higher than 4.5 Pa under the same conditions as in this example, the electron carrier concentration can be reduced to less than 10 18 / cm 3 as shown in FIG. did it. In this case, the temperature of the substrate is maintained at substantially room temperature without intentionally heating. In order to use a flexible plastic film as a substrate, the substrate temperature is preferably kept below 100 ° C.

If the oxygen partial pressure is further increased, the electron carrier concentration can be further reduced. For example, as shown in FIG. 1, in the InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 thin film formed at a substrate temperature of 25 ° C. and an oxygen partial pressure of 5 Pa, the number of electron carriers could be further reduced to 10 16 / cm 3 .

The obtained thin film had an electron mobility of more than 1 cm 2 / (V · sec) as shown in FIG. However, in the pulse laser vapor deposition method of the present embodiment, when the oxygen partial pressure is set to 6.5 Pa or more, the surface of the deposited film becomes uneven, making it difficult to use it as a TFT channel layer.

Therefore, it is expressed by the composition InGaO 3 (ZnO) m (m is a number of less than 6) in a crystalline state by pulse laser deposition in an atmosphere having an oxygen partial pressure of more than 4.5 Pa, desirably more than 5 Pa and less than 6.5 Pa. A transparent amorphous oxide thin film is prepared. If this transparent amorphous oxide thin film is used, a normally-off transistor can be formed.

Further, the electron mobility of the thin film was obtained to exceed 1 cm 2 / V · second, and the on / off ratio could be increased to more than 10 3 .

  As described above, when an InGaZn oxide film is formed by the PLD method under the conditions shown in this embodiment, the oxygen partial pressure can be controlled to be 4.5 Pa or more and less than 6.5 Pa. desirable.

Note that, in order to realize the electron carrier concentration of less than 10 18 / cm 3 , the electron carrier concentration depends on the oxygen partial pressure conditions, the configuration of the film formation apparatus, the material and composition of the film formation, and the like.

Next, an amorphous oxide was produced under the condition of an oxygen partial pressure of 6.5 Pa in the above apparatus, and a top gate type MISFET element shown in FIG. 5 was produced. Specifically, first, a semi-insulating amorphous InGaO 3 (ZnO) having a thickness of 120 nm used as a channel layer (2) is formed on the glass substrate (1) by the above-described method for producing an amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O thin film. Four films were formed.

Further, an InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film and a gold film having a high electric conductivity are laminated to 30 nm by a pulse laser deposition method with an oxygen partial pressure in the chamber of less than 1 Pa. And the drain terminal (5) and the source terminal (6) were formed by the photolithographic method and the lift-off method. Finally, a Y 2 O 3 film used as the gate insulating film (3) is formed by electron beam evaporation (thickness: 90 nm, relative dielectric constant: about 15, leakage current density: 10 -3 A when 0.5 MV / cm is applied) / cm 2 ), and deposit gold on it. And the gate terminal (4) was formed by the photolithographic method and the lift-off method.

FIG. 6 shows the current-voltage characteristics of the MISFET element measured at room temperature. As the drain voltage V DS increases, the drain current I DS increases, which indicates that the channel is an n-type semiconductor. This is consistent with the fact that amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O based semiconductors are n-type. I DS shows the behavior of a typical semiconductor transistor that saturates (pinch off) at about V DS = 6 V. When the gain characteristic was examined, the threshold value of the gate voltage V GS when V DS = 4 V was applied was about −0.5 V. When V G = 10 V, a current of I DS = 1.0 × 10 −5 A flowed. This corresponds to the fact that carriers can be induced in the In-Ga-Zn-O amorphous semiconductor thin film of the insulator by the gate bias.

The on / off ratio of the transistor was more than 10 3 . When the field effect mobility was calculated from the output characteristics, a field effect mobility of about 7 cm 2 (Vs) −1 was obtained in the saturation region. A similar measurement was performed by irradiating the fabricated device with visible light, but no change in transistor characteristics was observed.

  According to this embodiment, it is possible to realize a thin film transistor having a channel layer having a low electron carrier concentration, a high electrical resistance, and a high electron mobility.

  The above-described amorphous oxide had excellent characteristics that the electron mobility increased with an increase in the electron carrier concentration and further exhibited degenerate conduction.

  In this embodiment, a thin film transistor is formed on a glass substrate. However, since the film formation itself can be performed at room temperature, a substrate such as a plastic plate or a film can be used.

Further, the amorphous oxide obtained in this example hardly absorbs visible light and can realize a transparent flexible TFT.
(Second film formation method: sputtering method (SP method))
A case where a film is formed by a high-frequency SP method using argon gas as an atmosphere gas will be described.

  The SP method was performed using the apparatus shown in FIG. In the figure, reference numeral 807 denotes a film formation substrate, 808 denotes a target, 805 denotes a substrate holding means with a cooling mechanism, 814 denotes a turbo molecular pump, 815 denotes a rotary pump, and 817 denotes a shutter. Reference numeral 818 denotes an ion vacuum gauge, 819 denotes a Pirani vacuum gauge, 821 denotes a growth chamber (chamber), and 830 denotes a gate valve.

As the film formation substrate 807, a SiO 2 glass substrate (1737 manufactured by Corning) was prepared. As pre-deposition treatment, the substrate was subjected to ultrasonic degreasing and cleaning with acetone, ethanol, and ultrapure water for 5 minutes each and then dried at 100 ° C. in air.

As a target material, a polycrystalline sintered body (size 20 mmΦ5 mmt) having an InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 composition was used.

In this sintered body, as a starting material, In 2 O 3 : Ga 2 O 3 : ZnO (each 4N reagent) is wet-mixed (solvent: ethanol), calcined (1000 ° C: 2h), dry pulverized, main-fired It was produced after crystallization (1550 ° C: 2h). The electric conductivity of the target 808 was 90 (S / cm) and was in a semi-insulating state.

The ultimate vacuum in the growth chamber 821 is 1 × 10 −4 (Pa), and the total pressure of oxygen gas and argon gas during growth is constant in the range of 4 to 0.1 × 10 −1 (Pa). The value of And the partial pressure ratio of argon gas and oxygen was changed, and the oxygen partial pressure was changed in the range of 10 < -3 > -2 * 10 <-1> (Pa).

  The substrate temperature was room temperature, and the distance between the target 808 and the deposition target substrate 807 was 30 (mm).

The input power was RF 180 W, and the film formation rate was 10 (nm / min).
With respect to the obtained film, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (thin film method, incident angle 0.5 degree) was performed on the film surface, but no clear diffraction peak was detected, and the produced In—Zn—Ga—O-based film was amorphous. It was shown to be a membrane.

  Furthermore, as a result of measuring the X-ray reflectivity and analyzing the pattern, it was found that the mean square roughness (Rrms) of the thin film was about 0.5 nm and the film thickness was about 120 nm. As a result of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, the metal composition ratio of the thin film was In: Ga: Zn = 0.98: 1.02: 4.

  The oxygen partial pressure of the atmosphere during film formation was changed, and the electrical conductivity of the obtained amorphous oxide film was measured. The result is shown in FIG.

As shown in FIG. 3, the electrical conductivity could be reduced to less than 10 S / cm by forming a film in an atmosphere having a high oxygen partial pressure exceeding 3 × 10 −2 Pa.
By further increasing the oxygen partial pressure, the number of electron carriers could be reduced.
For example, as shown in FIG. 3, in an InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 thin film formed at a substrate temperature of 25 ° C. and an oxygen partial pressure of 10 −1 Pa, the electrical conductivity is further reduced to about 10 −10 S / cm. I was able to. In addition, the InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 thin film formed at an oxygen partial pressure exceeding 10 −1 Pa had an electrical resistance that was too high to measure the electrical conductivity. In this case, although the electron mobility could not be measured, the electron mobility was estimated to be about 1 cm 2 / V · second by extrapolating from the value in the film having a high electron carrier concentration.

That is, it is composed of In—Ga—Zn—O produced by sputter deposition in an argon gas atmosphere with an oxygen partial pressure of over 3 × 10 −2 Pa, preferably over 5 × 10 −1 Pa, and the composition InGaO in the crystalline state. A transparent amorphous oxide thin film represented by 3 (ZnO) m (m is a natural number of less than 6) was prepared. Using this transparent amorphous oxide thin film, a transistor having a normally-off and an on / off ratio exceeding 10 3 could be constructed.

In the case of using the apparatus and materials shown in this embodiment, the oxygen partial pressure during film formation by sputtering is, for example, in the range of 3 × 10 −2 Pa to 5 × 10 −1 Pa. In the thin film formed by the pulse laser deposition method and the sputtering method, as shown in FIG. 2, the electron mobility increases as the number of conduction electrons increases.

  As described above, by controlling the oxygen partial pressure, oxygen defects can be reduced, and as a result, the electron carrier concentration can be reduced. In the amorphous state, unlike the polycrystalline state, there is essentially no particle interface, so that an amorphous thin film with high electron mobility can be obtained.

Even when a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film having a thickness of 200 μm was used instead of the glass substrate, the obtained InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 amorphous oxide film showed similar characteristics.

If polycrystalline InGaO 3 (Zn 1-x Mg x O) m (m is a natural number less than 6 and 0 <x ≦ 1) is used as a target, a high-resistance amorphous material even under an oxygen partial pressure of less than 1 Pa. An InGaO 3 (Zn 1-x Mg x O) m film can be obtained.

For example, when a target in which Zn is replaced with 80 at% Mg is used, the electron carrier concentration of the film obtained by the pulse laser deposition method is less than 10 16 / cm 3 in an atmosphere with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.8 Pa. (The electric resistance value is about 10 −2 S / cm).

The electron mobility of such a film is lower than that of the Mg-free film, but the degree is small, and the electron mobility at room temperature is about 5 cm 2 / (V · sec), which is one digit that of amorphous silicon. A large value is shown. When the film is formed under the same conditions, both the electrical conductivity and the electron mobility decrease as the Mg content increases, so the Mg content is preferably more than 20% and less than 85% (x). 0.2 <x <0.85).

  As described above, by controlling the oxygen partial pressure, oxygen defects can be reduced, and as a result, the electron carrier concentration can be decreased without adding specific impurity ions. In the amorphous state, unlike the polycrystalline state, there is essentially no particle interface, and thus an amorphous film with high electron mobility can be obtained. Furthermore, since the number of conduction electrons can be reduced without adding specific impurities, there is no scattering due to impurities, and electron mobility can be kept high.

In the thin film transistor using the above-described amorphous oxide film, a gate insulating film is preferably formed using a mixed crystal compound containing at least two of Al 2 O 3 , Y 2 O 3 , HfO 2 , or a compound thereof.

If there is a defect at the interface between the gate insulating thin film and the channel layer thin film, the electron mobility is lowered and the transistor characteristics are hysteresis. Further, the leakage current varies greatly depending on the type of the gate insulating film. For this purpose, it is necessary to select a gate insulating film suitable for the channel layer. If an Al 2 O 3 film is used, leakage current can be reduced. Further, the hysteresis can be reduced by using a Y 2 O 3 film. Further, if a high dielectric constant HfO 2 film is used, the electron mobility can be increased. Further, by using mixed crystals of these films, a TFT with small leakage current and hysteresis and high electron mobility can be formed. In addition, since the gate insulating film formation process and the channel layer formation process can be performed at room temperature, both a staggered structure and an inverted staggered structure can be formed as the TFT structure.

  The TFT thus formed is a three-terminal element having a gate terminal, a source terminal, and a drain terminal. In this TFT, a semiconductor thin film formed on an insulating substrate such as ceramics, glass, or plastic is used as a channel layer through which electrons or holes move. The TFT is an active element having a function of switching a current between a source terminal and a drain terminal by applying a voltage to a gate terminal to control a current flowing in a channel layer.

  It is important in the present invention that the desired electron carrier concentration can be achieved by controlling the oxygen deficiency.

  In the above description, the amount of oxygen (oxygen deficiency) in the amorphous oxide film is controlled by performing it in an atmosphere containing oxygen at a predetermined concentration during film formation. However, it is also preferable to control (reduce or increase) the amount of oxygen vacancies after film formation by post-processing the oxide film in an atmosphere containing oxygen.

  In order to effectively control the oxygen deficiency, the temperature in the atmosphere containing oxygen is 0 ° C. or higher and 300 ° C. or lower, preferably 25 ° C. or higher and 250 ° C. or lower, more preferably 100 ° C. or higher and 200 ° C. or lower. Is good.

Needless to say, the film formation may be performed in an atmosphere containing oxygen, and the post-treatment after the film formation may be performed in the atmosphere containing oxygen. If a predetermined electron carrier concentration (less than 10 18 / cm 3 ) can be obtained, oxygen partial pressure control is not performed during film formation, and post-treatment after film formation is performed in an atmosphere containing oxygen. Also good.

Note that the lower limit of the electron carrier concentration in the present invention is, for example, 10 14 / cm 3 or more, although it depends on what kind of element, circuit or device the oxide film obtained is used for.
(Expansion of materials)
Furthermore, as a result of expanding the composition system and researching it, an amorphous oxide composed of an oxide of at least one of Zn, In and Sn, an amorphous material with a low electron carrier concentration and a high electron mobility. It has been found that an oxide film can be produced.

  Further, the present inventors have found that this amorphous oxide film has a unique characteristic that the electron mobility increases as the number of conduction electrons increases.

  A TFT is formed using the film, and a normally-off type TFT excellent in transistor characteristics such as an on / off ratio, a saturation current in a pinch-off state, and a switch speed can be formed.

  Of the above Zn, In, and Sn, a composite oxide containing the following elements can be formed on an amorphous oxide containing at least one element.

  Group 2 element M2 having an atomic number smaller than Zn (M2 is Mg, Ca), Group 3 element M3 having an atomic number smaller than In (M3 is B, Al, Ga, Y), and an atomic number smaller than Sn 4 The genus element M4 (M4 is Si, Ge, Zr), the genus element M5 (M5 is V, Nb, Ta) and at least one element of Lu and W.

In the present invention, an oxide having the following characteristics (a) to (h) can be used.
(A) An amorphous oxide having an electron carrier concentration at room temperature of less than 10 18 / cm 3 .
(B) An amorphous oxide characterized by an increase in electron carrier concentration and an increase in electron mobility.

Here, room temperature refers to a temperature of about 0 ° C. to 40 ° C. Amorphous refers to a compound in which only a halo pattern is observed in an X-ray diffraction spectrum and does not show a specific diffraction line. Moreover, the electron mobility here means the electron mobility obtained by Hall effect measurement.
(C) The amorphous oxide described in the above (a) or (b), wherein the electron mobility at room temperature is more than 0.1 cm 2 / V · sec.
(D) The amorphous oxide described in any one of (b) to (c) above showing degenerate conduction. Here, degenerate conduction refers to a state in which the thermal activation energy in the temperature dependence of electrical resistance is 30 meV or less.
(E) The amorphous oxide described in any one of (a) to (d) above, which contains at least one element of Zn, In, and Sn as a constituent component.
(F) To the amorphous oxide described in (e) above, the Group 2 element M2 having an atomic number smaller than Zn (M2 is Mg, Ca), the Group 3 element M3 having an atomic number smaller than In (M3 is B, Among the four group elements M4 (M4 is Si, Ge, Zr) and the five group elements M5 (M5 is V, Nb, Ta) and Lu, W having a smaller atomic number than Al, Ga, Y) and Sn, An amorphous oxide film containing at least one element.
(G) the crystal composition in a state that In 1-x M3 x O 3 (Zn 1-y M2 y O) m (0 ≦ x, y ≦ 1, m is 0 or less than 6 natural number) is a compound alone or m The amorphous oxide film according to any one of (a) to (f), which is a mixture of different compounds. M3 is, for example, Ga, and M2 is, for example, Mg.

 (h) The amorphous oxide film according to the above (a) to (g) provided on a glass substrate, metal substrate, plastic substrate or plastic film.

  The present invention is (10) a field effect transistor using the amorphous oxide or the amorphous oxide film described above as a channel layer.

Note that a field effect type in which an amorphous oxide film having an electron carrier concentration of less than 10 18 / cm 3 and more than 10 15 / cm 3 is used for a channel layer, and a gate terminal is arranged via a source terminal, a drain terminal, and a gate insulating film. A transistor is formed. When a voltage of about 5 V is applied between the source and drain terminals, the current between the source and drain terminals when no gate voltage is applied can be about 10 −7 ampere.

The electron mobility of the oxide crystal increases as the s orbital overlap of the metal ions increases, and the oxide crystal of Zn, In, Sn having a large atomic number has a value of 0.1 to 200 cm 2 / (V · sec). It has a large electron mobility.

  Further, in the oxide, oxygen and metal ions are ionically bonded.

  Therefore, even in the amorphous state where there is no chemical bond directionality, the structure is random, and the bond direction is non-uniform, the electron mobility should be comparable to the electron mobility in the crystalline state. Is possible.

On the other hand, by substituting Zn, In, and Sn with an element having a small atomic number, the electron mobility is reduced. As a result, the electron mobility of the amorphous oxide according to the present invention is about 0.01 cm 2 / (V · second) to 20 cm 2 / (V · second).

In the case where a channel layer of a transistor is formed using the above oxide, in the transistor, a mixed crystal compound containing at least two of Al 2 O 3 , Y 2 O 3 , HfO 2 , or a compound thereof is used as a gate insulating film. It is preferable.

If there is a defect at the interface between the gate insulating thin film and the channel layer thin film, the electron mobility is lowered and the transistor characteristics are hysteresis. Further, the leakage current varies greatly depending on the type of the gate insulating film. For this purpose, it is necessary to select a gate insulating film suitable for the channel layer. If an Al 2 O 3 film is used, leakage current can be reduced. Further, the hysteresis can be reduced by using a Y 2 O 3 film. Furthermore, if a high dielectric constant HfO 2 film is used, the field effect mobility can be increased. In addition, by using a film made of a mixed crystal of these compounds, a TFT with small leakage current and hysteresis and high field effect mobility can be formed. In addition, since the gate insulating film formation process and the channel layer formation process can be performed at room temperature, both a staggered structure and an inverted staggered structure can be formed as the TFT structure.

The In 2 O 3 oxide film can be formed by a vapor phase method, and an amorphous film can be obtained by adding about 0.1 Pa of moisture to the atmosphere during film formation.

In addition, although it is difficult to obtain an amorphous film of ZnO and SnO 2 , an amorphous film can be obtained by adding In 2 O 3 to about 20 atomic% in the case of ZnO and about 90 atomic% in the case of SnO 2. Can be obtained. In particular, in order to obtain a Sn—In—O-based amorphous film, nitrogen gas may be introduced into the atmosphere at about 0.1 Pa.

  From the group II element M2 (M2 is Mg, Ca) having an atomic number smaller than Zn and the group 3 element M3 (M3 is B, Al, Ga, Y), Sn having an atomic number smaller than In Consists of at least one complex oxide of group 4 element M4 having a small atomic number (M4 is Si, Ge, Zr), group 5 element M5 (M5 is V, Nb, Ta) and Lu, W Can be added.

  Thereby, the amorphous film at room temperature can be further stabilized. Moreover, the composition range in which an amorphous film is obtained can be expanded.

  In particular, the addition of B, Si, and Ge, which has strong covalent bonding, is effective for stabilizing the amorphous phase, and the complex phase composed of ions having a large difference in ionic radius stabilizes the amorphous phase.

  For example, in the case of the In—Zn—O system, it is difficult to obtain an amorphous film that is stable at room temperature unless In is in a composition range of more than about 20 atomic%. With this composition range, a stable amorphous film can be obtained.

In film formation by a vapor phase method, an amorphous oxide film having an electron carrier concentration of less than 10 18 / cm 3 and more than 10 15 / cm 3 can be obtained by controlling the atmosphere.

  As a film formation method of the amorphous oxide, it is preferable to use a vapor phase method such as a pulse laser deposition method (PLD method), a sputtering method (SP method), or an electron beam evaporation method. Among the gas phase methods, the PLD method is suitable from the viewpoint of easily controlling the composition of the material system, and the SP method is suitable from the viewpoint of mass productivity. However, the film forming method is not limited to these methods.

(Formation of In-Zn-Ga-O-based amorphous oxide film by PLD method)
An In—Zn—Ga—O amorphous oxide film was deposited on a glass substrate (1737 manufactured by Corning) by a PLD method using a KrF excimer laser. At this time, a polycrystalline sintered body having a composition of InGaO 3 (ZnO) and InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 is used as a target.

  As the film forming apparatus, the apparatus described in FIG. 9 described above was used, and the film forming conditions were the same as in the case of using the apparatus.

  The substrate temperature is 25 ° C. With respect to the obtained film, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (thin film method, incident angle 0.5 degree) was performed on the film surface, and no clear diffraction peak was detected. In—Zn—Ga— produced from two types of targets All of the O-based films were shown to be amorphous films.

  Furthermore, the X-ray reflectivity measurement of the In—Zn—Ga—O-based amorphous oxide film on the glass substrate was performed and the pattern was analyzed. As a result, the mean square roughness (Rrms) of the thin film was about 0.5 nm. The film thickness was found to be about 120 nm.

As a result of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, the metal composition ratio of a film obtained using a polycrystalline sintered body having an InGaO 3 (ZnO) composition as a target was In: Ga: Zn = 1.1: 1.1: 0. .9. The metal composition ratio of the film obtained using the polycrystalline sintered body having the InGaO (ZnO) 4 composition as a target was In: Ga: Zn = 0.98: 1.02: 4.

The oxygen partial pressure of the atmosphere during film formation was changed, and the electron carrier concentration of the amorphous oxide film obtained using a polycrystalline sintered body having an InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 composition as a target was measured. The result is shown in FIG. By forming a film in an atmosphere having an oxygen partial pressure of over 4.2 Pa, the electron carrier concentration could be lowered to less than 10 18 / cm 3 . In this case, the temperature of the substrate is maintained at substantially room temperature without intentionally heating. When the oxygen partial pressure was less than 6.5 Pa, the surface of the obtained amorphous oxide film was flat.

When the oxygen partial pressure is 5 Pa, the electron carrier concentration of an amorphous oxide film obtained using a polycrystalline sintered body having an InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 composition as a target is 10 16 / cm 3 , and the electric conductivity is 10 −2. S / cm. The electron mobility was estimated to be about 5 cm 2 / V · sec. From the analysis of the light absorption spectrum, the band gap energy width of the fabricated amorphous oxide film was found to be about 3 eV.

Increasing the oxygen partial pressure further reduced the electron carrier concentration. As shown in FIG. 1, an In—Zn—Ga—O-based amorphous oxide film formed at a substrate temperature of 25 ° C. and an oxygen partial pressure of 6 Pa has an electron carrier concentration of 8 × 10 15 / cm 3 (electric conduction: about 8 × 10 −3 S / cm). The obtained film was estimated to have an electron mobility exceeding 1 cm 2 / (V · sec). However, in the PLD method, when the oxygen partial pressure is set to 6.5 Pa or more, the surface of the deposited film becomes uneven, making it difficult to use as a TFT channel layer.

Regarding the In—Zn—Ga—O amorphous oxide film formed with different oxygen partial pressures, targeting a polycrystalline sintered body having an InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 composition, the relationship between the electron carrier concentration and the electron mobility is as follows. Examined. The result is shown in FIG. It is shown that as the electron carrier concentration increases from 10 16 / cm 3 to 10 20 / cm 3 , the electron mobility increases from about 3 cm 2 / (V · sec) to about 11 cm 2 / (V · sec). It was done. Further, with regard InGaO 3 (ZnO) amorphous oxide film obtained as a target, a polycrystalline sintered body having a composition similar trend was observed.

Even when a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film having a thickness of 200 μm was used instead of the glass substrate, the obtained In—Zn—Ga—O-based amorphous oxide film exhibited similar characteristics.
(Formation of In-Zn-Ga-Mg-O-based amorphous oxide film by PLD method)
Polycrystalline InGaO 3 (Zn 1-x Mg x O) 4 (0 <x ≦ 1) was used as a target, and InGaO 3 (Zn 1-x Mg x O) 4 (0 <x ≦ 1) A film was formed. As the film forming apparatus, the apparatus shown in FIG. 8 was used.

As a film formation substrate, a SiO 2 glass substrate (1737 manufactured by Corning) was prepared. As a pretreatment, the substrate was subjected to ultrasonic degreasing and washing with acetone, ethanol, and ultrapure water for 5 minutes each and then dried at 100 ° C. in air. As a target, an InGa (Zn 1-x Mg x O) 4 (x = 1-0) sintered body (size 20 mmΦ5 mmt) was used.

The target is starting material In 2 O 3 : Ga 2 O 3 : ZnO: MgO (each 4N reagent), wet mixing (solvent: ethanol), calcining (1000 ° C: 2h), dry grinding, main sintering (1550 (C: 2h).
The growth chamber reaching vacuum was 2 × 10 −6 (Pa), and the oxygen partial pressure during growth was 0.8 (Pa). The substrate temperature was room temperature (25 ° C.), and the distance between the target and the deposition target substrate was 30 (mm).

The power of the KrF excimer laser is 1.5 (mJ / cm 2 / pulse), the pulse width is 20 (nsec), the repetition frequency is 10 (Hz), and the irradiation spot diameter is 1 × 1 (mm square) ). The film formation rate was 7 (nm / min).

  The atmosphere is an oxygen partial pressure of 0.8 Pa, and the substrate temperature is 25 ° C. With respect to the obtained film, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (thin film method, incident angle 0.5 degree) was performed on the film surface, but no clear diffraction peak was detected, and the produced In—Zn—Ga—Mg—O-based film Was shown to be an amorphous film. The surface of the obtained film was flat.

  The electric conductivity, electron carrier concentration, and electron mobility x of an In—Zn—Ga—Mg—O-based amorphous oxide film formed in an atmosphere having an oxygen partial pressure of 0.8 Pa using targets with different x values. The value dependency was examined.

The result is shown in FIG. It was shown that when the x value exceeds 0.4, the electron carrier concentration can be made less than 10 18 / cm 3 in the amorphous oxide film formed by the PLD method in an atmosphere having an oxygen partial pressure of 0.8 Pa. Further, in the amorphous oxide film having an x value exceeding 0.4, the electron mobility was more than 1 cm 2 / V · second.

As shown in FIG. 4, when a target in which Zn is replaced with 80 atomic% Mg is used, the electron carrier concentration of the film obtained by the pulse laser deposition method is 10 16 / in an atmosphere with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.8 Pa. It can be less than cm 3 (the electrical resistance is about 10 −2 S / cm). The electron mobility of such a film is lower than that of the Mg-free film, but the degree is small, and the electron mobility at room temperature is about 5 cm 2 / (V · sec), which is one digit that of amorphous silicon. A large value is shown. When the film is formed under the same conditions, both the electrical conductivity and the electron mobility decrease with an increase in the Mg content. Therefore, the Mg content is preferably more than 20 atomic% and less than 85 atomic% ( x is 0.2 <x <0.85), and more preferably 0.5 <x <0.85.

Even when a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film having a thickness of 200 μm is used instead of the glass substrate, the obtained InGaO 3 (Zn 1-x Mg x O) 4 (0 <x ≦ 1) amorphous oxide film is Showed similar characteristics.
(In 2 O 3 amorphous oxide film deposition by PLD method)
An In 2 O 3 film was formed on a 200 μm thick PET film by using a PLD method using a KrF excimer laser and targeting an In 2 O 3 polycrystalline sintered body.

As the apparatus, the apparatus shown in FIG. 8 was used. A SiO 2 glass substrate (1737 manufactured by Corning) was prepared as a film formation substrate.

  As a pretreatment of this substrate, ultrasonic degreasing was performed for 5 minutes each with acetone, ethanol, and ultrapure water, and then dried at 100 ° C. in air.

As a target, an In 2 O 3 sintered body (size 20 mmΦ5 mmt) was used. This was prepared by calcining the starting material In 2 O 3 (4N reagent) through calcining (1000 ° C .: 2 h), dry grinding, and main sintering (1550 ° C .: 2 h).

The growth chamber reaching vacuum was 2 × 10 −6 (Pa), the oxygen partial pressure during growth was 5 (Pa), and the substrate temperature was room temperature.

  The oxygen partial pressure was 5 Pa, the water vapor partial pressure was 0.1 Pa, and 200 W was applied to the oxygen radical generator to generate oxygen radicals.

The distance between the target and the deposition substrate is 40 (mm), the power of the KrF excimer laser is 0.5 (mJ / cm 2 / pulse), the pulse width is 20 (nsec), the repetition frequency is 10 (Hz), The irradiation spot diameter was 1 × 1 (mm square). The film formation rate was 3 (nm / min).

  Regarding the obtained film, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (thin film method, incident angle 0.5 degree) was performed on the film surface, and no clear diffraction peak was detected, and the produced In-O film was an amorphous film. It has been shown. The film thickness was 80 nm.

The obtained In—O amorphous oxide film had an electron carrier concentration of 5 × 10 17 / cm 3 and an electron mobility of about 7 cm 2 / V · sec.
(Formation of In-Sn-O amorphous oxide film by PLD method)
By using a PLD method using a KrF excimer laser, an (In 0.9 Sn 0.1 ) O 3.1 polycrystalline sintered body is used as a target and an In—Sn—O-based oxide film is formed on a 200 μm-thick PET film. Was deposited.

In particular,
A SiO 2 glass substrate (1737 manufactured by Corning) was prepared as a film formation substrate.

  As the substrate pretreatment, ultrasonic degreasing was performed for 5 minutes each using acetone, ethanol, and ultrapure water. Then, it was dried in air at 100 ° C.

As a target, an In 2 O 3 —SnO 2 sintered body (size 20 mmΦ5 mmt) was prepared. As a starting material, In 2 O 3 -SnO 2 (4N reagent) is wet mixed (solvent: ethanol), calcined (1000 ° C: 2h), dry pulverized, and finally sintered (1550 ° C: 2h). can get.

  The substrate temperature is room temperature. The oxygen partial pressure was 5 (Pa), the nitrogen partial pressure was 0.1 (Pa), and 200 W was applied to the oxygen radical generator to generate oxygen radicals.

The distance between the target and the deposition substrate was 30 (mm), the power of the KrF excimer laser was 1.5 (mJ / cm 2 / pulse), and the pulse width was 20 (nsec). The repetition frequency was 10 (Hz), and the irradiation spot diameter was 1 × 1 (mm square). The film formation rate was 6 (nm / min).

  With respect to the obtained film, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (thin film method, incident angle 0.5 degree) was performed on the film surface, but no clear diffraction peak was detected, and the produced In—Sn—O film was an amorphous film. It was shown that there is.

The obtained In—Sn—O amorphous oxide film had an electron carrier concentration of 8 × 10 17 / cm 3 and an electron mobility of about 5 cm 2 / V · sec. The film thickness was 100 nm.
(Formation of In-Ga-O amorphous oxide film by PLD method)
A SiO 2 glass substrate (1737 manufactured by Corning) was prepared as a film formation substrate.

  As a pretreatment of the substrate, ultrasonic degreasing cleaning was performed for 5 minutes each using acetone, ethanol, and ultrapure water, and then dried at 100 ° C. in air.

As a target, an (In 2 O 3 ) 1-x- (Ga 2 O 3 ) x (X = 0-1) sintered body (size 20 mmΦ5 mmt) was prepared. For example, when x = 0.1, the target is an (In 0.9 Ga 0.1 ) 2 O 3 polycrystalline sintered body.

This consists of starting material: In 2 O 3 -Ga 2 O 2 (4N reagent), wet mixing (solvent: ethanol), calcining (1000 ° C: 2h), dry grinding, main sintering (1550 ° C: 2h) It is obtained through

The growth chamber reaching vacuum was 2 × 10 −6 (Pa), and the oxygen partial pressure during growth was 1 (Pa).

The substrate temperature was room temperature, the distance between the target and the deposition target substrate was 30 (mm), and the power of the KrF excimer laser was 1.5 (mJ / cm 2 / pulse). The pulse width was 20 (nsec), the repetition frequency was 10 (Hz), and the irradiation spot diameter was 1 × 1 (mm square). The film formation rate was 6 (nm / min).

  The substrate temperature is 25 ° C. The oxygen partial pressure was 1 Pa. Regarding the obtained film, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (thin film method, incident angle 0.5 degree) was performed on the film surface, but no clear diffraction peak was detected, and the produced In—Ga—O film was an amorphous film. It was shown that there is. The film thickness was 120 nm.

The obtained In—Ga—O amorphous oxide film had an electron carrier concentration of 8 × 10 16 / cm 3 and an electron mobility of about 1 cm 2 / V · sec.
(Production of TFT element using In—Zn—Ga—O amorphous oxide film (glass substrate))
Fabrication of TFT Element A top gate TFT element shown in FIG. 5 was fabricated.

First, on a glass substrate (1), a polycrystalline sintered body having an InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 composition is used as a target, and the above-described PLD apparatus is used under the condition of an oxygen partial pressure of 5 Pa. An O-based amorphous oxide film was prepared. An In-Ga-Zn-O-based amorphous film having a thickness of 120 nm used as the channel layer (2) was formed.

  Further, an In—Ga—Zn—O-based amorphous film and a gold film having a high electric conductivity were stacked by 30 nm by the PLD method with an oxygen partial pressure in the chamber of less than 1 Pa. And the drain terminal (5) and the source terminal (6) were formed by the photolithographic method and the lift-off method.

Finally, a Y 2 O 3 film used as the gate insulating film (3) is formed by electron beam evaporation (thickness: 90 nm, relative dielectric constant: about 15, leakage current density: 10 -3 A when 0.5 MV / cm is applied) / cm 2 ), and a gold film was formed thereon. And the gate terminal (4) was formed by the photolithographic method and the lift-off method. The channel length was 50 μm and the channel width was 200 μm.

FIG. 6 shows the current-voltage characteristics of the TFT element measured at room temperature. As the drain voltage V DS increases, the drain current I DS increases, indicating that the channel is n-type conductive.

This is consistent with the fact that the amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O amorphous oxide film is an n-type conductor. I DS shows the behavior of a typical semiconductor transistor that saturates (pinch off) at about V DS = 6 V. When the gain characteristic was examined, the threshold value of the gate voltage V GS when V DS = 4 V was applied was about −0.5 V.

When V G = 10 V, a current of I DS = 1.0 × 10 −5 A flowed. This corresponds to the fact that carriers can be induced in the insulator In-Ga-Zn-O amorphous oxide film by the gate bias.

The on / off ratio of the transistor was more than 10 3 . When the field effect mobility was calculated from the output characteristics, a field effect mobility of about 7 cm 2 (Vs) −1 was obtained in the saturation region. A similar measurement was performed by irradiating the fabricated device with visible light, but no change in transistor characteristics was observed.

In addition, it can apply as a channel layer of TFT by making the electron carrier density | concentration of an amorphous oxide less than 10 < 18 > / cm < 3 >. The electron carrier concentration is more preferably 10 17 / cm 3 or less, and even more preferably 10 16 / cm 3 or less.
(Production of TFT element using In-Zn-Ga-O-based amorphous oxide film (amorphous substrate))
The top gate type TFT element shown in FIG. 5 was produced. First, an In—Zn—Ga—O-based amorphous oxide film having a thickness of 120 nm used as a channel layer (2) on an polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film (1) by an PLD method in an atmosphere having an oxygen partial pressure of 5 Pa. Formed. At this time, a polycrystalline sintered body having an InGaO 3 (ZnO) composition was used as a target.

Further, an In—Zn—Ga—O-based amorphous oxide film and a gold film having a high electric conductivity were stacked by 30 nm by a PLD method with an oxygen partial pressure in the chamber of less than 1 Pa. And the drain terminal (5) and the source terminal (6) were formed by the photolithographic method and the lift-off method. Finally, a gate insulating film (3) was formed by an electron beam evaporation method, gold was formed thereon, and a gate terminal (4) was formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method. The channel length was 50 μm and the channel width was 200 μm. Three types of TFTs having the above-described structures using Y 2 O 3 (thickness: 140 nm), Al 2 O 3 (thickness: 130 μm) and HfO 2 (thickness: 140 μm) as gate insulating films were prepared. .

Characteristic Evaluation of TFT Element The current-voltage characteristic measured at room temperature of the TFT formed on the PET film was the same as that shown in FIG. That is, as the drain voltage V DS increases, the drain current I DS increases, indicating that the channel has n-type conduction. This is consistent with the fact that the amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O-based amorphous oxide film is an n-type conductor. I DS shows the behavior of a typical transistor that saturates (pinch off) at around V DS = 6 V. Further, when V g = 0, a current of I DS = 2.0 × 10 −5 A flowed when I ds = 10 −8 A and Vg = 10 V. This corresponds to the fact that electron carriers can be induced in the In-Ga-Zn-O amorphous oxide film of the insulator by the gate bias.

The on / off ratio of the transistor was more than 10 3 . When the field effect mobility was calculated from the output characteristics, a field effect mobility of about 7 cm 2 (Vs) −1 was obtained in the saturation region.

  The device prepared on the PET film was bent with a curvature radius of 30 mm, and the same transistor characteristics were measured, but no change was observed in the transistor characteristics. Further, the same measurement was performed by irradiating visible light, but no change in transistor characteristics was observed.

The TFT using the Al 2 O 3 film as the gate insulating film also showed transistor characteristics similar to those shown in FIG. 6, but when V g = 0, I ds = 10 −8 A, Vg = 10 V Occasionally, a current of I DS = 5.0 × 10 −6 A flowed. On-off ratio of the transistor was 10 greater than 2. When the field effect mobility was calculated from the output characteristics, a field effect mobility of about 2 cm 2 (Vs) −1 was obtained in the saturation region.

The TFT using the HfO 2 film as the gate insulating film also showed similar transistor characteristics to those shown in FIG. 6, but when V g = 0, I ds = 10 −8 A, and Vg = 10 V, A current of I DS = 1.0 × 10 −6 A flowed. On-off ratio of the transistor was 10 greater than 2. Further, when the field effect mobility was calculated from the output characteristics, a field effect mobility of about 10 cm 2 (Vs) −1 was obtained in the saturation region.
(Creation of TFT element using In 2 O 3 amorphous oxide film by PLD method)
The top gate type TFT element shown in FIG. 5 was produced. First, an 80 nm thick In 2 O 3 amorphous oxide film used as a channel layer (2) was formed on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film (1) by a PLD method.

Further, an In 2 O 3 amorphous oxide film and a gold film having a high electric conductivity are formed by PLD method by setting the oxygen partial pressure in the chamber to less than 1 Pa and further applying zero voltage to the oxygen radical generator. Each was laminated with 30 nm. And the drain terminal (5) and the source terminal (6) were formed by the photolithographic method and the lift-off method. Finally, a Y 2 O 3 film used as the gate insulating film (3) was formed by electron beam evaporation, and gold was formed thereon. And the gate terminal (4) was formed by the photolithographic method and the lift-off method.

Characteristic Evaluation of TFT Element A current-voltage characteristic measured at room temperature of a TFT formed on a PET film was measured. As the drain voltage V DS increases, the drain current I DS increases, which indicates that the channel is an n-type semiconductor. This is consistent with the fact that the In—O amorphous oxide film is an n-type conductor. I DS shows the behavior of a typical transistor that saturates (pinch off) at about V DS = 5 V. In addition, when V g = 0V, a current of 2 × 10 −8 A flows, and when V G = 10 V, a current of I DS = 2.0 × 10 −6 A flows. This corresponds to the fact that electron carriers can be induced in the In-O amorphous oxide film of the insulator by the gate bias.

On-off ratio of the transistor was about 10 2. Further, when the field effect mobility was calculated from the output characteristics, a field effect mobility of about 10 cm 2 (Vs) −1 was obtained in the saturation region. The TFT element formed on the glass substrate also showed similar characteristics.

The device prepared on the PET film was bent with a radius of curvature of 30 mm and the same transistor characteristics were measured, but no change was observed in the transistor characteristics.
(Preparation of TFT element using In-Sn-O amorphous oxide film by PLD method)
The top gate type TFT element shown in FIG. 5 was produced. First, an In—Sn—O amorphous oxide film having a thickness of 100 nm used as a channel layer (2) was formed on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film (1) by a PLD method. Further, an In-Sn-O amorphous oxide film having a high electrical conductivity and a PLD method are used by setting the partial pressure of oxygen in the chamber to less than 1 Pa, further reducing the voltage applied to the oxygen radical generator to zero. Each gold film was laminated to 30 nm. And the drain terminal (5) and the source terminal (6) were formed by the photolithographic method and the lift-off method. Finally, a Y 2 O 3 film used as a gate insulating film (3) is formed by an electron beam evaporation method, gold is formed thereon, and a gate terminal (4) is formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method. did.

Characteristic Evaluation of TFT Element A current-voltage characteristic measured at room temperature of a TFT formed on a PET film was measured. As the drain voltage V DS increases, the drain current I DS increases, which indicates that the channel is an n-type semiconductor. This is consistent with the fact that the In—Sn—O-based amorphous oxide film is an n-type conductor. I DS shows the behavior of a typical transistor that saturates (pinch off) at about V DS = 6 V. Further, when V g = 0V, a current of 5 × 10 −8 A flows, and when V G = 10 V, a current of I DS = 5.0 × 10 −5 A flows. This corresponds to the fact that electron carriers could be induced in the insulator In—Sn—O amorphous oxide film by the gate bias.

The on / off ratio of the transistor was about 10 3 . Further, when the field effect mobility was calculated from the output characteristics, a field effect mobility of about 5 cm 2 (Vs) −1 was obtained in the saturation region. The TFT element formed on the glass substrate also showed similar characteristics.

The device prepared on the PET film was bent with a radius of curvature of 30 mm and the same transistor characteristics were measured, but no change was observed in the transistor characteristics.
(Preparation of TFT element using In-Ga-O amorphous oxide film by PLD method)
The top gate type TFT element shown in FIG. 5 was produced. First, an In—Ga—O-based amorphous oxide film having a thickness of 120 nm used as the channel layer (2) was formed on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film (1) by the film forming method shown in Example 6. . Further, an In—Ga—O amorphous oxide film having a high electrical conductivity is formed by the PLD method by setting the oxygen partial pressure in the chamber to less than 1 Pa and further applying zero voltage to the oxygen radical generator. And 30 nm thick gold films. And the drain terminal (5) and the source terminal (6) were formed by the photolithographic method and the lift-off method. Finally, a Y 2 O 3 film used as a gate insulating film (3) is formed by an electron beam evaporation method, gold is formed thereon, and a gate terminal (4) is formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method. did.

Characteristic Evaluation of TFT Element A current-voltage characteristic measured at room temperature of a TFT formed on a PET film was measured. As the drain voltage V DS increases, the drain current I DS increases, which indicates that the channel is an n-type semiconductor. This is consistent with the fact that the In—Ga—O amorphous oxide film is an n-type conductor. I DS shows the behavior of a typical transistor that saturates (pinch off) at about V DS = 6 V. Further, when V g = 0V, a current of 1 × 10 −8 A flows, and when V G = 10 V, a current of I DS = 1.0 × 10 −6 A flows. This corresponds to the fact that electron carriers could be induced in the insulator In-Ga-O amorphous oxide film by the gate bias.

On-off ratio of the transistor was about 10 2. Further, when the field effect mobility was calculated from the output characteristics, a field effect mobility of about 0.8 cm 2 (Vs) −1 was obtained in the saturation region. The TFT element formed on the glass substrate also showed similar characteristics.

  The device prepared on the PET film was bent with a radius of curvature of 30 mm and the same transistor characteristics were measured, but no change was observed in the transistor characteristics.

In addition, it can apply as a channel layer of TFT by making the electron carrier density | concentration of an amorphous oxide less than 10 < 18 > / cm < 3 >. The electron carrier concentration is more preferably 10 17 / cm 3 or less, and even more preferably 10 16 / cm 3 or less.

  Hereinafter, the In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide will be mainly described, but the first to third aspects of the present invention are not limited to the following examples.

First, an embodiment relating to the first present invention (from pre-deposition processing to post-processing) will be described.
(Example 1-1)
First, a PET substrate is placed in a chamber of a UV / O 3 surface treatment apparatus, and the substrate surface is irradiated with ultraviolet rays. The chamber of this device is a device that performs film formation in an oxygen-containing atmosphere under atmospheric pressure. Ozone is generated in the chamber by ultraviolet irradiation, pollutants on the substrate surface are removed by ozone and ultraviolet rays, and a clean surface is formed. Can be obtained.

On a surface-treated substrate using this method, a polycrystalline sintered body having an InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 composition is targeted by In-Ga-Zn- by a pulse laser deposition method using a KrF excimer laser. Deposit an O-based amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film. The film forming conditions are set as appropriate within the range described above.

  Thereafter, the top gate type MISFET element shown in FIG. 5 is fabricated. Specifically, it is performed as follows.

First, a 120-nm-thick semi-insulating amorphous InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film to be used as the channel layer (2) is formed on the glass substrate (1) by the above-described method for producing an amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O thin film. .

On top of that, InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 and a gold film having a large electrical conductivity are stacked by 30 nm by pulse laser deposition, respectively, and a drain terminal (5) and a source terminal (6) are formed by photolithography and lift-off. Form. Finally, a Y 2 O 3 film to be used as the gate insulating film (3) is formed by electron beam evaporation (thickness: 90 nm, relative dielectric constant: about 15), and gold is formed thereon. A gate terminal (4) is formed by a lift-off method. Thus, a field effect transistor is obtained.
(Example 1-2)
First, a glass substrate (Corning 1737) is placed in a chamber of a parallel plate atmospheric pressure plasma apparatus, and the substrate surface is irradiated with low energy plasma.

  This apparatus can remove contaminants on the substrate surface by irradiating the substrate surface with low energy plasma and change the state of the substrate outermost surface.

On a surface-treated substrate using this method, a polycrystalline sintered body having an InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 composition is targeted by In-Ga-Zn- by a pulse laser deposition method using a KrF excimer laser. Deposit an O-based amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film.

  When a peel test of the obtained amorphous oxide film is performed, it can be confirmed that the adhesion between the substrate and the amorphous oxide film is very good.

Using the amorphous oxide thus obtained, a transistor as shown in Example 1 can be manufactured, for example.
(Example 1-3)
First, a glass substrate (Corning 1737) is immersed in a 5% hydrogen peroxide and 5% ammonia aqueous solution (APM) and subjected to ultrasonic cleaning for 5 minutes.

  After removing the substrate from the APM, it is immersed in pure water and subjected to ultrasonic cleaning for 5 minutes. Thereafter, the substrate is immersed in a 5% hydrogen peroxide and 5% hydrogen chloride aqueous solution (HPM) and subjected to ultrasonic cleaning for 5 minutes.

  Instead of HPM, an aqueous hydrogen fluoride solution or a mixed aqueous solution of hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen peroxide may be used. After removing the substrate from the HPM, the substrate is immersed in pure water and subjected to ultrasonic cleaning for 5 minutes. Thereafter, the substrate is dried with dry nitrogen.

  By the above cleaning process, contaminants on the substrate can be removed and a clean substrate surface can be obtained.

  The above-described In-Ga-Zn-O-based amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film is deposited on a substrate that has been surface-treated using this method.

When a peel test of the amorphous oxide film is performed, it can be confirmed that the adhesion between the substrate and the amorphous oxide film is very good.
(Example 1-4)
First, a siloxane-based condensate liquid is thinly applied on a PET substrate by spin coating.

  The substrate thus obtained is sufficiently dried at room temperature and under low humidity conditions.

  Alternatively, a PET substrate or PET film product that has been hard-coated in advance can also be used.

For example, an In-Ga-Zn-O-based amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film is deposited on a substrate that has been surface-treated using the above method. A transistor can be formed using the thin film thus obtained.
(Example 1-5)
In-Ga-Zn-O-based amorphous oxidation on a glass substrate (Corning 1737) using a polycrystalline sintered body with InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 composition as a target by pulsed laser deposition using a KrF excimer laser A physical semiconductor thin film is deposited.

An ozone generator is attached to the chamber, and film formation is performed while ozone-containing oxygen gas is introduced into the chamber instead of normal O 2 gas.

  The oxygen partial pressure in the chamber including ozone is, for example, 6 Pa, and the substrate temperature is 25 ° C. An FET is manufactured using the thin film thus obtained.

  Specifically, the top gate type MISFET element shown in FIG. 5 is manufactured.

First, a 120-nm-thick semi-insulating amorphous InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film to be used as the channel layer (2) is formed on the glass substrate (1) by the above-described method for producing an amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O thin film. .

Further, an InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film and a gold film having a large electric conductivity were stacked in a thickness of 30 nm by a pulse laser deposition method with an oxygen partial pressure in the chamber of less than 1 Pa. Then, the drain terminal (5) and the source terminal (6) are formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method.

Finally, a Y 2 O 3 film used as the gate insulating film (3) is formed by electron beam evaporation (thickness: 90 nm, relative dielectric constant: about 15, leakage current density: 10 -3 A when 0.5 MV / cm is applied) / cm 2 ).

An ozone generator is also attached to the electron beam evaporation system, and film formation is performed while introducing ozone + O 2 gas.

  A gold film is formed thereon, and a gate terminal (4) is formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method.

As described above, the insulating characteristics can be improved by using ozone even when the gate insulating film is formed.
(Example 1-6)
In-Ga-Zn-O-based amorphous oxidation on a glass substrate (Corning 1737) using a polycrystalline sintered body with InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 composition as a target by pulsed laser deposition using a KrF excimer laser A physical semiconductor thin film is deposited.

In addition to the normal O 2 gas line, an N 2 O gas line is attached to the chamber, and film formation is performed while introducing O 2 gas and N 2 O gas into the same flow rate chamber.

Instead of N 2 O, NO 2 or NO can also be used.

The O 2 + N 2 O pressure in the chamber is about 6 Pa, and the substrate temperature is 25 ° C.

  Using this apparatus, an amorphous oxide is deposited on the substrate, and the top gate type MISFET element shown in FIG. 5 is manufactured.

First, a 120-nm-thick semi-insulating amorphous InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film to be used as the channel layer (2) is formed on the glass substrate (1) by the above-described method for producing an amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O thin film. . Further, an InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film and a gold film having a large electric conductivity were stacked in a thickness of 30 nm by a pulse laser deposition method with an oxygen partial pressure in the chamber of less than 1 Pa. Then, the drain terminal (5) and the source terminal (6) are formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method.

Finally, a Y 2 O 3 film used as the gate insulating film (3) is formed by electron beam evaporation (thickness: 90 nm, relative dielectric constant: about 15, leakage current density: 10 -3 A when 0.5 MV / cm is applied) / cm 2 ).

An N 2 O line is also attached to the electron beam evaporation system, and film formation is performed while introducing N 2 O + O 2 gas. A gold film is formed thereon, and a gate terminal (4) is formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method.

As described above, the insulating characteristics can be improved by using ozone even when the gate insulating film is formed.
(Example 1-7)
In-Ga-Zn-O-based amorphous oxidation on a glass substrate (Corning 1737) using a polycrystalline sintered body with InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 composition as a target by pulsed laser deposition using a KrF excimer laser A physical semiconductor thin film is deposited.

A radical generator is installed in the chamber, and oxygen radicals are introduced into the substrate by passing O 2 gas through the radical generator.

  The oxygen partial pressure in the chamber is 6 Pa, and the substrate temperature is 25 ° C.

  An FET using the thin film is manufactured. The top gate type MISFET element shown in FIG. 5 is manufactured.

First, a 120-nm-thick semi-insulating amorphous InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film to be used as the channel layer (2) is formed on the glass substrate (1) by the above-described method for producing an amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O thin film. .

Further, an InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film and a gold film having a large electric conductivity were stacked in a thickness of 30 nm by a pulse laser deposition method with an oxygen partial pressure in the chamber of less than 1 Pa. Then, the drain terminal (5) and the source terminal (6) are formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method.

Finally, a Y 2 O 3 film used as the gate insulating film (3) is formed by electron beam evaporation (thickness: 90 nm, relative dielectric constant: about 15, leakage current density: 10 -3 A when 0.5 MV / cm is applied) / cm 2 ).

  Similarly, a radical generator is installed in the electron beam evaporation apparatus, and film formation is performed while introducing oxygen radicals. A gold film is formed thereon, and a gate terminal (4) is formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method.

Thus, an FET having a very good insulating property of the gate insulating film is realized.
(Example 1-8)
In-Ga-Zn-O-based amorphous oxidation on a glass substrate (Corning 1737) using a polycrystalline sintered body with InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 composition as a target by pulsed laser deposition using a KrF excimer laser A physical semiconductor thin film is deposited.

An ECR plasma generator is installed in the chamber, and oxygen plasma is introduced into the substrate by passing O 2 gas through the ECR plasma generator.

  The plasma generator may be an RF plasma generator or a DC plasma generator. The oxygen partial pressure in the chamber is 6 Pa, and the substrate temperature is 25 ° C.

  Using the thin film thus obtained, the top gate type MISFET element shown in FIG. 5 is manufactured.

First, a 120-nm-thick semi-insulating amorphous InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film to be used as the channel layer (2) is formed on the glass substrate (1) by the above-described method for producing an amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O thin film. .

Further, an InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film and a gold film having a large electric conductivity were stacked in a thickness of 30 nm by a pulse laser deposition method with an oxygen partial pressure in the chamber of less than 1 Pa. Then, the drain terminal (5) and the source terminal (6) are formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method.

Finally, a Y 2 O 3 film used as the gate insulating film (3) is formed by electron beam evaporation (thickness: 90 nm, relative dielectric constant: about 15, leakage current density: 10 -3 A when 0.5 MV / cm is applied) / cm 2 ). Similarly, an ECR plasma generator is installed in the electron beam evaporation apparatus, and film formation is performed while introducing oxygen plasma. A gold film is formed thereon, and a gate terminal (4) is formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method.

Thus, an FET having a very good insulating property of the gate insulating film is realized.
(Example 1-9)
In-Ga-Zn-O-based amorphous oxidation on a glass substrate (Corning 1737) using a polycrystalline sintered body with InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 composition as a target by pulsed laser deposition using a KrF excimer laser A physical semiconductor thin film is deposited.

  The oxygen partial pressure in the chamber is 6 Pa, and the substrate temperature is 25 ° C.

  The substrate after thin film deposition is heat-treated in the atmosphere at 150 ° C. for 2 hours using an electric furnace.

  Using the thin film thus obtained, the top gate type MISFET element shown in FIG. 5 is manufactured.

First, a 120-nm-thick semi-insulating amorphous InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film to be used as the channel layer (2) is formed on the glass substrate (1) by the above-described method for producing an amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O thin film. .

Further, an InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film and a gold film having a large electric conductivity were stacked in a thickness of 30 nm by a pulse laser deposition method with an oxygen partial pressure in the chamber of less than 1 Pa. Then, the drain terminal (5) and the source terminal (6) are formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method.
Finally, a Y 2 O 3 film used as the gate insulating film (3) is formed by electron beam evaporation (thickness: 90 nm, relative dielectric constant: about 15, leakage current density: 10 -3 A when 0.5 MV / cm is applied) / cm 2 ). After the Y 2 O 3 film is deposited, heat treatment is performed in an electric furnace at 150 ° C for 2 hours in the atmosphere. A gold film is formed thereon, and a gate terminal (4) is formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method.

  Thus, an FET having a very good insulating property of the gate insulating film is realized.

In Example 1-9, the heat treatment after deposition of the amorphous oxide film and after deposition of the Y 2 O 3 film can be performed in an ozone atmosphere by attaching an ozone generator to the electric furnace.

Further, in this embodiment 1-9, after the amorphous oxide film is deposited, and a Y 2 O 3 film deposition heat treatment after, by placing the N 2 O gas line and oxygen gas line into an electric furnace, N 2 O It can also be performed in a + O 2 atmosphere.

In Example 1-9, the heat treatment after deposition of the amorphous oxide film and after deposition of the Y 2 O 3 film can also be performed in an atmosphere of substantially saturated steam pressure in a steam oxidation electric furnace.

In Example 1-9, the heat treatment after the deposition of the amorphous oxide film and the deposition of the Y 2 O 3 film can be performed by heating the substrate to 200 ° C. using a substrate heating heater. At this time, heat treatment is performed while oxygen radicals are generated from a radical generator installed in the film forming chamber and introduced into the chamber.

In Example 1-9, the heat treatment after deposition of the amorphous oxide film and after deposition of the Y 2 O 3 film is performed by generating oxygen plasma from the ECR plasma generator installed in the film formation chamber. You can also. The oxygen plasma generator may be an RF plasma generator or a DC plasma generator. For example, the substrate is held for 2 hours while being irradiated with oxygen plasma.

When the oxygen substrate is irradiated with plasma, the substrate can be heated to 200 ° C. by a substrate heating heater.
(Example 1-10)
In-Ga-Zn-O-based amorphous oxidation on a glass substrate (Corning 1737) using a polycrystalline sintered body with InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 composition as a target by pulsed laser deposition using a KrF excimer laser A physical semiconductor thin film is deposited. The oxygen partial pressure in the chamber is 6 Pa, and the substrate temperature is 25 ° C. Using the thin film thus obtained, the top gate type MISFET element shown in FIG. 5 is manufactured.

First, a 120-nm-thick semi-insulating amorphous InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film to be used as the channel layer (2) is formed on the glass substrate (1) by the above-described method for producing an amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O thin film. .

Further thereon, a metal mask having an opening in the shape of the drain terminal (5) and the source terminal (6) was placed in close contact with the surface of the previously deposited InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film. It is placed in a chamber, and the partial pressure of oxygen in the chamber is set to less than 1 Pa, and InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 and a gold film having a large electrical conductivity are stacked by 30 nm by pulse laser deposition. Then, the drain terminal (5) and the source terminal (6) were formed by removing the metal mask. Finally, a Y 2 O 3 film used as a gate insulating film (3) is formed by electron beam evaporation (thickness: 90 nm, relative dielectric constant: about 15, leakage current density: 10 −3 when 0.5 MV / cm is applied) A / cm 2 ). At this time, the Y 2 O 3 film is formed so as to be deposited between the source terminal (5) and the drain terminal (6), that is, on the channel using a metal mask. Further, a gold film is formed thereon. Thereafter, the metal mask is removed to form the gate terminal (4). By using a metal mask, a TFT element can be formed without going through a lithography process.
(Example 1-11)
In-Ga-Zn-O-based amorphous oxidation on a glass substrate (Corning 1737) using a polycrystalline sintered body with InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 composition as a target by pulsed laser deposition using a KrF excimer laser A physical semiconductor thin film is deposited.

  The oxygen partial pressure in the chamber is 6 Pa, and the substrate temperature is 25 ° C.

  Using the thin film thus obtained, the top gate type MISFET element shown in FIG. 5 is manufactured.

First, a 120-nm-thick semi-insulating amorphous InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film to be used as the channel layer (2) is formed on the glass substrate (1) by the above-described method for producing an amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O thin film. .

The oxygen partial pressure in the chamber was set to less than 1 Pa, a gold film was deposited with a thickness of 30 nm by pulse laser deposition, and the drain terminal (5) and source terminal (6) were obtained by photolithography and wet etching using KI + I 2 aqueous solution. Form.

Finally, a Y 2 O 3 film used as the gate insulating film (3) is formed by electron beam evaporation (thickness: 90 nm, relative dielectric constant: about 15, leakage current density: 10 −3 when 0.5 MV / cm is applied) A / cm 2 ), and deposit gold on it. Then, the gate terminal (4) is formed by photolithography and plasma dry etching using CF 4 + Ar gas.

  In this manner, a TFT with small variations between TFT elements formed on the substrate can be manufactured.

Next, examples relating to the second aspect of the present invention (film formation method) will be described.
(Example 2-1)
An In-Ga-Zn mixture or alloy is placed in a vapor deposition apparatus using a tungsten boat as a resistance heating evaporation source.

  Then, by heating and evaporating in an oxygen atmosphere, an In—Ga—Zn—O-based amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film is deposited on a glass substrate (1737 manufactured by Corning) disposed opposite to the heating evaporation source. The oxygen partial pressure in the chamber is about 0.1 Pa, and the substrate temperature is 25 ° C.

  The composition of the In—Ga—Zn mixture or alloy placed in the tungsten boat is adjusted so that the composition of the film deposited on the glass substrate by vapor deposition becomes a desired one.

  The resistance heating evaporation source may be a filament or a basket instead of a boat, and the material may be molybdenum or tantalum.

  Thus, an amorphous oxide thin film is formed on the substrate.

Then, a transistor as illustrated in FIG. 5 is manufactured using the film.
(Example 2-2)
Film formation is performed using a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) apparatus having three Knudsen cells and a gas inlet.

  In, Ga, and Zn simple metals are placed in each Knudsen cell, and the Knudsen cell heater is heated.

  Thereby, In, Ga, and Zn are evaporated, and oxygen gas is simultaneously introduced from the gas inlet. Then, an In—Ga—Zn—O-based amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film is deposited on a glass substrate (1737 manufactured by Corning) arranged in a direction in which the Knudsen cell and the gas inlet are directed.

  The chamber pressure is 0.005 Pa and the substrate temperature is 25 ° C.

  The heating temperature of the Knudsen cell is adjusted so that the composition of the film deposited on the glass substrate becomes a desired one.

  The oxygen gas introduced from the gas inlet may be a normal O2 molecular gas, but ozone gas can also be used.

Also, oxygen radicals can be introduced.
Using the thin film obtained by the above method, the top gate type MISFET element shown in FIG. 5 is produced.

First, a 120-nm-thick semi-insulating amorphous InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film to be used as the channel layer (2) is formed on the glass substrate (1) by the above-described method for producing an amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O thin film. .

Furthermore, while maintaining the pressure in the chamber at 0.005 Pa, the amount of oxygen gas introduced is reduced to about one half of that at the time of forming the thin film, and InGaO 3 (ZnO) having a high electrical conductivity by the thin film forming method. 4 is formed to 30 nm. On top of this, a 30 nm gold film is deposited by resistance heating vapor deposition using a tungsten boat, and a drain terminal (5) and a source terminal (6) are formed by photolithography and lift-off.

Finally, a Y 2 O 3 film used as the gate insulating film (3) is formed by electron beam evaporation (thickness: 90 nm, relative dielectric constant: about 15, leakage current density: 10 -3 A when 0.5 MV / cm is applied) / cm 2 ), a gold film was formed thereon, and a gate terminal (4) was formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method.

Thus, the FET shown in FIG. 5 is obtained.
(Example 2-3)
Using an electron beam evaporation method, the In 2 O 3 -Ga 2 O 3 -ZnO oxide sintered body is used as a target, while oxygen gas is radiated and introduced toward the substrate, and the In- on a glass substrate (Corning 1737). A Ga-Zn-O amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film is deposited.

  The pressure in the chamber is 0.01 Pa and the substrate temperature is 25 ° C.

The composition of the In 2 O 3 —Ga 2 O 3 —ZnO oxide sintered body is adjusted so that the composition of the film deposited on the glass substrate becomes a desired one.

Using the amorphous oxide thin film thus obtained, an FET can be fabricated by the method shown in Example 2-2.
(Example 2-4)
An In-Ga-Zn-O amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film is deposited on a substrate (Corning 1737) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). At this time, the source gases are trimethylgallium (TMG), trimethylindium (TMI), dimethylzinc (DMZ), and oxygen. The pressure in the chamber is 1 Pa and the substrate temperature is 200 ° C.

  The raw material gas flow rate is adjusted so that the composition of the film deposited on the glass substrate becomes a desired one.

  Instead of TMG, triethylgallium (TEG), triisobutylgallium (TIBG) or gallium alkoxide can be used.

  Further, triethylindium (TEI) or indium alkoxide can be used instead of TMI. Further, triethylzinc (TEZ) or zinc alkoxide can be used instead of DMZ.

The oxygen gas may be a normal O 2 molecular gas, but ozone gas may also be used. Further, oxygen radicals may be introduced into the chamber.

An oxidizing gas such as NO 2 and N 2 O can also be used.

Using the amorphous oxide thin film thus obtained, an FET can be fabricated by the method shown in Example 2-2.
(Example 2-5)
In Example 2-4, when an amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin film is formed by CVD, plasma is generated in the chamber to form a film with less residual organic matter at a lower substrate heating temperature. I can do it.

Specifically, plasma is introduced into the chamber using an ECR plasma generator, and using the same source gas as in Example 2-4, the pressure in the chamber is 0.1 Pa, the substrate temperature is 100 ° C., and In-Ga—Zn. -O system amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film is deposited.
(Example 2-6)
In Example 2-4, when the amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin film is formed by the CVD method, immediately after the source gas is introduced into the chamber and before reaching the substrate, the source gas reaches 1000 ° C or higher. Pass through the heated tungsten mesh to reach the substrate.

  Thereby, since the source gas is decomposed by the tungsten catalyst, a film with little residual organic matter can be formed at a lower substrate heating temperature.

  Platinum, molybdenum, tantalum, or the like can be used instead of the tungsten mesh.

For example, a tungsten mesh heated at 1500 ° C. is introduced into the chamber, and the same source gas as in Example 2-4 is used, and the pressure in the chamber is 1 Pa and the substrate temperature is 100 ° C. In-Ga—Zn—O amorphous oxide A semiconductor thin film is deposited.
(Example 2-7)
The film is formed by a line beam pulse laser deposition method using a 100 mm wide laser line beam generated by adding a line optical system to a KrF excimer laser.

A polycrystalline sintered body having a width of 100 mm and having a composition of InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 is used as a target.

  An amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film is deposited on a 100 mm × 100 mm glass substrate while moving the substrate in a direction perpendicular to the beam line so that a growing film is uniformly deposited in the surface of the substrate.

  The oxygen partial pressure in the chamber is 6 Pa, and the substrate temperature is 25 ° C.

  Using the amorphous oxide thin film thus obtained, the top gate type MISFET element shown in FIG. 5 is fabricated.

First, a 120-nm-thick semi-insulating amorphous InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film to be used as the channel layer (2) is formed on the glass substrate (1) by the above-described method for producing an amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O thin film. .

Further, an InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film and a gold film having a high electric conductivity are respectively stacked by 30 nm by a line beam pulse laser deposition method with an oxygen partial pressure in the chamber of less than 1 Pa. Then, the drain terminal (5) and the source terminal (6) are formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method.

Finally, a Y 2 O 3 film used as the gate insulating film (3) is formed by a line beam pulse laser deposition method (thickness: 90 nm, relative dielectric constant: about 15, leakage current density: 10 when 0.5 MV / cm is applied) -3 A / cm 2 ), and deposit gold on it. Then, the gate terminal (4) is formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method. Thus, the FET shown in FIG. 5 is formed.
(Example 2-8)
A case where an amorphous oxide film is formed by an electrodeposition method will be described.

  Using an aqueous solution containing indium nitrate, gallium nitrate, zinc nitrate, and dimethylamine borane (DMAB) as a raw material, an In-Ga-Zn-O amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film is deposited on a substrate (Corning 1737).

  First, after electroless deposition, electrodeposition is performed by applying an electric field using an external power source in an aqueous solution not containing dimethylamine borane (DMAB).

  The temperature of the aqueous solution is 60 ° C. (no electric field) to 85 ° C. (electrodeposition).

  The aqueous solution as the raw material is adjusted so that the composition of the film deposited on the glass substrate becomes a desired one.

  By the method shown in Example 2-4 and the like, an FET using an amorphous oxide thin film manufactured by an electrodeposition method is realized.

Next, examples relating to the third aspect of the present invention (film formation temperature) will be described.
(Example 3-1)
In-Ga-Zn-O-based amorphous oxidation on a glass substrate (Corning 1737) using a polycrystalline sintered body with InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 composition as a target by pulsed laser deposition using a KrF excimer laser A physical semiconductor thin film is deposited.

  The oxygen partial pressure in the chamber is 6 Pa, and the substrate temperature is 70 ° C.

  Using the amorphous oxide thin film thus obtained, the top gate type MISFET element shown in FIG. 5 is fabricated.

First, a 120-nm-thick semi-insulating amorphous InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film to be used as the channel layer (2) is formed on the glass substrate (1) by the above-described method for producing an amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O thin film. .

Further, an InGaO 3 (ZnO) 4 film and a gold film having a high electric conductivity are laminated to 30 nm by a pulse laser deposition method with an oxygen partial pressure in the chamber of less than 1 Pa. Then, the drain terminal (5) and the source terminal (6) are formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method.

Finally, a Y 2 O 3 film used as the gate insulating film (3) is formed by electron beam evaporation (thickness: 90 nm, relative dielectric constant: about 15, leakage current density: 10 -3 A when 0.5 MV / cm is applied) / cm 2 ), and deposit gold on it. Then, the gate terminal (4) is formed by a photolithography method and a lift-off method.

  Thus, the FET shown in FIG. 5 is obtained.

Furthermore, the substrate temperature when depositing the In—Ga—Zn—O-based amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film can be set to 120 ° C., for example.
(Example 3-2)
A transparent polycarbonate (PC) substrate is used as the substrate.

  Although a substrate having a thickness of 0.3 mm is used here, a resin film of about 10 μm to 100 μm can also be used. Alternatively, a resin substrate or a resin film whose surface is coated with a silicon oxide film, a silicon oxynitride film, or the like can be used.

The In-Ga-Zn-O-based amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film is formed by a sputter deposition method in an argon gas atmosphere having an oxygen partial pressure of more than 3 × 10 −1 Pa, preferably more than 5 × 10 −1 Pa. And the substrate temperature at the time of film-forming shall be 120 degreeC. By forming the film in such a heated state, for example, the stability of the element when operated in a constant temperature room at 60 ° C. can be improved.

Note that if the substrate temperature during film formation is equal to or higher than the thermal deformation temperature (150 ° C.) of the PC substrate, variations in TFT element characteristics (gate voltage V GS threshold, IDS, etc.) increase.

  Using the amorphous oxide according to the present invention for the channel layer, a transistor, in particular, a normally-off type FET is realized.

  This transistor can be used as a switching element of a liquid crystal display (LCD) or an organic EL display.

  In addition, since the amorphous oxide can be formed on a flexible substrate such as a plastic film, the present invention is widely applied to flexible displays, IC cards, ID tags, and the like.

It is a graph which shows the relationship between the electron carrier density | concentration of the In-Ga-Zn-O type | system | group amorphous film formed into a film by the pulse laser vapor deposition method, and the oxygen partial pressure during film-forming. It is a graph which shows the relationship between the electrical conductivity of the In-Ga-Zn-O type | system | group amorphous film formed into a film by the sputtering method using argon gas, and the oxygen partial pressure during film-forming. It is a graph which shows the relationship between the number of electron carriers and the electron mobility of the In-Ga-Zn-O type amorphous film formed by the pulse laser deposition method. Is a graph showing the electric conductivity, carrier concentration, the change in electron mobility with respect to the value of x of InGaO 3 was deposited by pulsed laser deposition method in an atmosphere of an oxygen partial pressure of 0.8Pa (Zn 1-x Mg x O) . It is a schematic diagram which shows a top gate type MISFET element structure. It is a graph which shows the current-voltage characteristic of a top gate type MISFET element. It is a conceptual diagram for demonstrating 3rd this invention. It is a schematic diagram of the apparatus for performing film-forming by PLD method. It is a schematic diagram of the apparatus for performing film-forming by a sputtering method.

Explanation of symbols

1 substrate 2 channel layer 3 gate insulating film 4 gate terminal 5 drain terminal 6 source terminal

Claims (1)

  1. A method of manufacturing a field effect transistor, comprising: a first step of preparing a substrate; and a second step of forming an active layer including an amorphous oxide on the substrate. The oxides are In-Zn-Ga-O-based oxide, In-Zn-Ga-Mg-O-based oxide, In-Zn-O-based oxide, In-Sn-O-based oxide, In-O-based oxide. It is one of an oxide, an In—Ga—O-based oxide, and a Sn—In—Zn—O-based oxide, and before the second step, the substrate surface is irradiated with ultraviolet rays in an ozone atmosphere. The electric field effect produced while performing at least one of a step of irradiating, a step of irradiating the substrate surface with plasma, and a step of cleaning the substrate surface with a chemical solution containing hydrogen peroxide. In the type transistor, the amorphous oxide has an electron carrier concentration of 1 0 15 / cm 3 or more and less than 10 18 / cm 3 , the current between the source and drain terminals when no gate voltage is applied is less than 10 microamperes, and the field effect mobility is 2 cm 2 / (V · sec. ) A method of manufacturing a field-effect transistor characterized by being super.
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