JP5109573B2 - Control system, control method, and robot apparatus - Google Patents

Control system, control method, and robot apparatus Download PDF

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JP5109573B2
JP5109573B2 JP2007272099A JP2007272099A JP5109573B2 JP 5109573 B2 JP5109573 B2 JP 5109573B2 JP 2007272099 A JP2007272099 A JP 2007272099A JP 2007272099 A JP2007272099 A JP 2007272099A JP 5109573 B2 JP5109573 B2 JP 5109573B2
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force
actuator
link structure
joint
torque
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JP2009095959A (en
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憲一郎 長阪
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ソニー株式会社
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J13/00Controls for manipulators
    • B25J13/08Controls for manipulators by means of sensing devices, e.g. viewing or touching devices
    • B25J13/081Touching devices, e.g. pressure-sensitive
    • B25J13/084Tactile sensors

Description

  The present invention relates to a control system and control method for a link structure configured by connecting a plurality of rigid bodies, and a robot apparatus, and more particularly to sensing an unknown environment and applying an appropriate external force from the surrounding environment that changes every moment. In particular, the present invention relates to a control system and a control method for appropriately adjusting the generated force of an actuator so as to achieve a target work, and a robot apparatus.

  More particularly, the present invention relates to a control system and a control method for performing a service with interpersonal / objective interaction by operating not only the accuracy of position and posture but also dexterous force, and a robot apparatus. While properly using the external force with the action point as the action point, the dynamic model is solved exactly to determine the target force value of each joint actuator, and the force difficult to model within each joint is compensated to limit the action point. The present invention relates to a control system, a control method, and a robot apparatus that realize good force / tactile interaction.

  With the advent of a rapidly aging society, the ratio of the elderly to the working-age population that supports them is now 3.3 (1 person: 2005), and 1 person: 2.4 people in 2015. By 2025, one person is expected to be 2.1 people. In this way, elderly people whose specific gravity in the population composition is rapidly increasing are able to live in a healthy and lively manner without being in need of nursing care as much as possible. It is an urgent need to create a society where people can live their lives.

  With the advent of such an aging society, there is an increasing demand for mechatronic equipment for the purpose of assisting the mind and body of elderly people in elderly care facilities and households with elderly people. There is also a need for mental assistance that effectively incorporates robots into occupational therapy, as well as physical assistance such as walking aids and power assistance for the upper limbs.

  In the above-mentioned fields, mechatronic equipment must perform work while making physical contact with people and complex real environments flexibly and safely. In other words, unlike conventional industrial robots that perform fixed operations in a known environment, the mechatronic device senses an unknown environment and obtains an appropriate external force from the surrounding environment that changes from time to time. The generated force of the actuator must be appropriately adjusted so that the desired work (task) is achieved.

  As such an environment-adaptive robot control method, for example, control of measuring the surrounding environment shape using stereo vision using a plurality of cameras or a laser range finder, and correcting the position and posture of the robot so as to conform to it. Methods have been attempted in the past (see, for example, Non-Patent Documents 1 and 2). However, this control method has a problem that not only the accuracy of the camera is required, but also the amount of calculation when reproducing the shape of the surrounding environment based on the measurement result increases, so that the update rate is low. Moreover, since it is based on position control, it seems difficult to adapt to the environment reactively.

  Position control is basically called “hard control” because its purpose is to maintain the position. In order to flexibly respond to external forces and precisely control speed and acceleration, Not suitable. For example, a robot apparatus that performs tasks while performing physical interactions with various external environments has low affinity with position control.

On the other hand, in force control, although the control law and system configuration are complicated, it is considered ideally driven by a force control system. For example, a method has been proposed in which a force sensor is arranged on an end effector or a leg, and a surrounding object is manipulated while adapting to rough terrain while measuring the acting force from the environment (for example, non-patent literature). 3, see Patent Document 1 ). However, it is technically difficult to provide a force sensor so that the force acting on the airframe can be detected without omission, and as a result, it is considered that there is a problem that a part that is not allowed to contact the environment is generated. In other words, the point of action of the external force is limited in order to realize the force-tactile interaction by strictly solving the dynamic model.

  In order to grasp the state of contact with the environment, there are also studies in which contact sensors are distributed in the whole body (see, for example, Non-Patent Documents 4 to 6). There is not enough consideration from the viewpoint of dynamics and control, such as how much force should be applied. For this reason, even if the contact state with the environment can be detected, it cannot be said that the ability to achieve the target task under the contact state has been achieved.

  There has also been proposed a calculation torque method for determining a joint torque for generating a force designated at a predetermined site by solving a dynamic model strictly (see, for example, Non-Patent Document 7). Attributes (disturbances) that are difficult to model due to gear friction and the like are included, and if this main attribute is not handled properly, an error occurs and there is a problem of exciting vibration.

JP-A-5-305583 "A Modular Architecture for Humanoid Robot Navigation" (Proceedings of 2005 5th IEEEERAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, pp. 26-31) "Vision-based 2.5D terrain modeling for humanoid location" (In Int. Conf. On Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Taipei, Taiwan, 2003) "Force sensor" (Journal of the Robotics Society of Japan Vol 6, No. 9, pp 759-765, 1991) "Development and application of robot surface multi-value contact sensor" (Mechanical Society of Japan Robotics Mechatronics Lecture 98 Proceedings, 1CI1-2, 1998) "Development and application of flexible tactile sensor for robot using conductive gel" (Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference of the Robotics Society of Japan, 873-874, 1998) "Whole body-covered tactile sensor suit using conductive fabric" (Robot Society of Japan, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 80-86, 1998) "A prioritized multi-objective dynamic controller for robots in human environments" (In Proceeding of the IEEE IEEE / RSJ International Consonance 4)

  An object of the present invention is to provide an excellent control system and control method for a link structure configured by connecting a plurality of rigid bodies, and a robot apparatus.

  A further object of the present invention is to sense an unknown environment, obtain an appropriate external force from the surrounding environment that changes from moment to moment, and appropriately adjust the generated force of the actuator so that the target task is achieved. It is an object of the present invention to provide an excellent control system, control method, and robot apparatus that can be used.

  A further object of the present invention is to provide an excellent control system and control method capable of performing not only the accuracy of position and posture but also dexterous force operations and realizing services involving interpersonal / objective interaction, and It is to provide a robot apparatus.

  A further object of the present invention is to determine a target force value of each joint actuator by accurately solving a dynamic model while appropriately using an external force having a contact site as an action point, and to generate a force difficult to model in each joint. It is an object of the present invention to provide an excellent control system and control method, and a robot apparatus that can realize a good force / tactile interaction without limitation of an action point.

The present invention has been made in consideration of the above problems, and is configured to control a link structure that is driven by generating an actuator force in a joint actuator, in which a plurality of rigid links are connected via joints. A system,
A mechanical model composed of geometric parameters and dynamic parameters of the link structure;
Virtual external force calculation means for calculating a virtual force acting on the dynamic model of the link structure;
Contact part detection means for detecting a contact part between the link structure and the outside,
Using the contact information detected by the contact site detection means, and the real force conversion means for converting the virtual force calculated by the virtual external force calculation means into an actual force that can exist and the actuator force of the joint actuator. ,
In the control system, the actuator force generated by the real force conversion is generated in the joint actuator.

  However, “system” here refers to a logical collection of a plurality of devices (or functional modules that realize specific functions), and each device or functional module is in a single housing. It does not matter whether or not.

  Mechatronic equipment consisting of link structures such as robots is required to perform work in a flexible and safe physical contact with humans and complex real environments, and is an industrial robot that performs fixed operations in a known environment. Is different, sensing the unknown environment, obtaining an appropriate external force from the surrounding environment that changes from moment to moment, and appropriately adjusting the generated force of the actuator so that the desired task (task) is achieved Don't be. In addition, it is difficult to reactively adapt to the environment with a control method based on position control, and ideally it is desirable to drive with a force control system.

  However, it is technically difficult to deploy a force sensor so that the force acting on the aircraft can be detected without omission, and there are parts that are not allowed to contact the environment, so the dynamic model is solved exactly to realize force-tactile interaction For this, the point of action of the external force is limited.

  In addition, since the inside of the joint includes an attribute (disturbance) that is difficult to model due to gear friction or the like, if this main attribute is not handled properly, an error occurs and there is a problem of exciting vibration.

  On the other hand, the control system according to the present invention calculates a virtual force acting on the dynamic model of the link structure, and detects the contact sensor between the link structure and the outside world without leakage. The mechanical model is distributed over the entire surface, and by using the contact information detected by such contact site detection means, the virtual force is converted into a real force and an actuator force that can exist. Can be solved exactly to determine the target force value of all actuators.

  The control system according to the present invention further includes a torque sensor at the joint, and torque feedback control is performed so that the deviation between the calculated actuator force and the torque detected by the torque sensor is minimized. To compensate for forces that are difficult to model

  Therefore, according to the present invention, it is possible to realize a good force / tactile interaction without limitation of an action point.

  According to the present invention, an unknown environment is sensed, an appropriate external force is obtained from the surrounding environment that changes from moment to moment, and the generated force of the actuator is appropriately adjusted so that the target task is achieved. It is possible to provide an excellent control system and control method, and a robot apparatus.

  In addition, according to the present invention, the present invention provides an excellent control system and control method capable of performing not only the accuracy of position and posture but also dexterous force operations and realizing services involving interpersonal / objective interaction, In addition, a robot apparatus can be provided.

  According to the present invention, a contact site with the outside world is detected without omission using a contact sensor distributed in a distributed manner over the entire body surface of a link structure such as a robot, and an external force having the detected contact site as an action point is detected. With proper use, the dynamic model can be solved exactly to achieve the desired motion, and the target force value for all actuators can be determined. Furthermore, by compensating for a force that is difficult to model in each joint connecting the links with a torque sensor provided in the joint portion, it is possible to realize a good force / tactile interaction without limitation of the action point.

  Other objects, features, and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from more detailed description based on embodiments of the present invention described later and the accompanying drawings.

  Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.

  The present invention relates to a control system for a link structure configured by connecting a plurality of rigid bodies. An example of the link structure here is a humanoid robot.

  FIG. 1 shows an external configuration of a humanoid robot to which the present invention can be applied. In the illustrated humanoid robot, the upper body is connected to the pelvis through two legs as a moving means and a hip joint. The head is connected to the upper body through two limbs and a neck joint.

  The left and right legs have a total of 6 degrees of freedom, 3 degrees of freedom for the hip joint, 1 degree of freedom for the knee joint, and 2 degrees of freedom for the ankle joint. Each of the left and right arms has a total of 6 degrees of freedom, ie, a shoulder joint with 3 degrees of freedom, an elbow joint with 1 degree of freedom, and a wrist joint with 2 degrees of freedom. Both the neck joint and the waist joint have three degrees of freedom around the X, Y, and Z axes.

  The actuator that drives each joint shaft includes, for example, a DC brushless motor, a speed reducer, and a position sensor that detects the rotational position of the output shaft of the speed reducer. These joint drive actuators are connected to a host computer that comprehensively controls the operation of the entire humanoid robot, and the position control target value is given from the host computer, and the current joint angle and joint angular velocity are indicated by the host computer. Can be sent to.

  A tactile sensor group t1, t2,..., T17 is attached to each part of the surface of the humanoid robot shown in FIG. FIG. 2 shows the configuration of one tactile sensor group. As shown in the figure, one tactile sensor group t is configured by arranging a plurality of tactile sensors CS capable of independently detecting a contact state in an array shape. Depending on whether the tactile sensor CS is in contact, a detailed contact position can be specified.

FIG. 3 schematically shows the configuration of the touch sensor CS. The tactile sensor CS has a structure in which a gap S is sandwiched between two electrode plates P1 and P2. A potential Vcc is applied to one electrode plate P1, and the other electrode plate P2 is grounded. Then, one of the electrode plates P1 can be input to the microcomputer via a parallel interface (PIO) to determine whether or not an external force is acting on the contact state between the electrode plates, that is, the touch sensor CS.

  For each tactile sensor group t, one microcomputer is arranged in the vicinity thereof, detection signals of all tactile sensors CS constituting the tactile sensor group are input, and the on / off states of these are collected, It is assumed that the presence / absence of contact with the outside world and the contact position in the part are transmitted to the host computer.

  Further, as shown in FIG. 1, a triaxial acceleration sensor a1 and a triaxial angular velocity sensor (gyro) g1 are mounted on the pelvis of the humanoid robot. In the vicinity thereof, a microcomputer for measuring these sensor values is provided, and the measurement result is transmitted to the host computer.

  Further, a torque sensor as shown in FIG. 4 is arranged between the output shaft of the actuator / motor and the frame at the joint portion of the humanoid robot, thereby generating torque around the joint axis. Can be measured. The illustrated torque sensor has a rare strain structure, and can be configured by a method of measuring the minute deformation amount with a strain gauge. Torque measurement results are collected by a microcomputer installed in the actuator and then transmitted to the host computer.

  FIG. 5 shows a configuration example of the connection topology in the humanoid robot shown in FIG.

  The humanoid robot has three-axis hip joint actuators a1, a2, and a3 and three-axis neck joint actuators a16, a17, and a18 on the body, and these are serially connected to a host computer. Further, torque sensors tq16, tq17, and tq18 shown in FIG. 4 are arranged between the output shafts of the actuators and motors a16, a17, and a18 and the frame. Each joint actuator receives the position control target value via a serial cable and transmits the current output torque, joint angle, and joint angular velocity to the host computer.

  Further, the humanoid robot has triaxial shoulder joint actuators a4, a5, a6, a monoaxial elbow joint actuator a7, and biaxial wrist joint actuators a8, a9 on the left arm portion, and each actuator motor a4, Torque sensors tq4, tq5, tq6, tq7, tq8, and tq9 shown in FIG. 4 are arranged between the output shafts of a5, a6, a7, a8, and a9 and the frame. Serial connection. Similarly, the right arm portion of the humanoid robot has triaxial shoulder joint actuators a10, a11, a12, a monoaxial elbow joint actuator a13, and biaxial wrist joint actuators a14, a15, and each actuator / motor. Torque sensors tq10, tq11, tq12, tq13, tq14, and tq15 shown in FIG. 4 are arranged between the output shafts of a10, a11, a12, a13, a14, and a15 and the frame, and these are arranged on the host computer. For serial connection.

The humanoid robot has triaxial hip joint actuators a19, a20, a21, a monoaxial knee joint actuator a22, and biaxial ankle joint actuators a23, a24 on the left leg, and each actuator / motor a19. , A20, a21, a22, a23, a24 Torque sensors tq19, tq20, tq21 tq22, tq23, tq24 shown in FIG. 4 are arranged between the output shaft and the frame, and these are serially connected to the host computer. Has been. Similarly, the right leg, crotch triaxial joint actuators a25, a26, a27,1 axis of the elbow joint actuator a28, and with having the ankle joint actuators a29, a30 biaxial, the actuator motor a25, a26 Torque sensors tq25, tq26, tq27, tq28, tq29, tq30 shown in Fig. 4 are arranged between the output shaft of a, a27, a28, a29, a30 and the frame, and these are connected serially to the host computer. Has been.

  The actuators a1 to a30 used in each joint are composed of, for example, a DC brushless motor, a speed reducer, and a position sensor that detects the rotational position of the output shaft of the speed reducer, and rotate according to a position control target value given from the outside. While driving, the current output torque, joint angle, and joint angular velocity are output. This type of joint actuator is described in, for example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2004-181613 already assigned to the present applicant.

  A right foot tactile sensor group t1, a right shin tactile sensor group t2, and a right thigh tactile sensor group t3 are disposed on the right leg of the humanoid robot, and these are serially connected to the host computer. . Each tactile sensor group t1 to t3 is equipped with a microcomputer (described above), and collects the on / off states of the tactile sensor CS in each tactile sensor group and transmits them to the host computer through a serial cable. . Similarly, a left foot tactile sensor group t9, a left shin tactile sensor group t10, and a left thigh tactile sensor group t11 are disposed on the left leg, and the on / off state of the tactile sensor CS in each tactile sensor group is provided. Are collected by an internal microcomputer and transmitted to a host computer through a serial cable.

  Further, a right wrist tactile sensor group t4, a right forearm tactile sensor group t5, and a right upper arm tactile sensor group t6 are disposed on the right arm of the humanoid robot, and the tactile sensor CS in each tactile sensor group is turned on / off. The status is collected by an internal microcomputer and sent to the host computer via a serial cable. Similarly, a left wrist tactile sensor group t12, a left forearm tactile sensor group t13, and a left upper arm tactile sensor group t14 are arranged on the left arm, and the on / off state of the tactile sensor CS in each tactile sensor group is internally set. Are collected by a microcomputer and sent to a host computer through a serial cable.

  Also, torso tactile sensor groups t7 and t15 are attached to the left and right sides of the torso of the humanoid robot, and the on / off states of the tactile sensors CS in each tactile sensor group are collected by an internal microcomputer. To the host computer through a serial cable.

  Furthermore, head tactile sensor groups t8 and t16 are attached to the left and right of the head of the humanoid robot, and the on / off states of the tactile sensor CS in each tactile sensor group are collected by an internal microcomputer. To the host computer through a serial cable.

  In the following, it is considered that when a contact point of force from the outside world can be detected by the contact sensors t1 to t17, a robot control system for achieving a desired operation is set as the point of action. .

  FIG. 6 shows a joint freedom model of the humanoid robot shown in FIG. As can be seen from the figure, a biped walking mobile robot can be expressed as an open link tree structure with the pelvis B as a base.

In the case of a mobile robot, the robot can move freely in the world space and change its posture. Therefore, Euler angles α = (α, β, γ) T of the pelvis B and its position p 0 (p 0x , p 0y , p 0z ) T are introduced as state variables for representing the state of the entire robot.

Then, the generalized variable q representing the posture of the entire robot is a vector θ in which all joint values as the current state of the actuator are arranged, and a vector in which the base posture α and the position p 0 as the robot motion state are arranged, It can be expressed in the form of the following formula (1).

  An important concept in the robot control of the force control system is a concept called “operational space”. The operation space is a space for describing the relationship between the force acting on the robot and the generated acceleration. When the robot joint angle is controlled by force rather than position control, an operation space is indispensable when the contact between the robot and the environment is used as a constraint condition. Examples of the constraint condition mentioned here include a constraint condition with respect to self-interference of the robot, a constraint condition of the joint movable angle, and an event such as “the hand fits an object” or “the left and right eyes become horizontal”.

  In a link structure in which rigid links are linked via joints, when the relation between the generalized variable q and the time differential value is related to the form shown in the following equation (2) using Jacobian J, the physical quantity x is manipulated. A space can be defined.

  A Cartesian coordinate system for performing tasks, such as the hand position and orientation at the tip of the manipulator, is an example of the operation space. For the basic concept of the operation space, see, for example, “A unified applied to motion and force control of robot-manipulators” (The operational space of R & D 3). 1987).

  In general, it is known that the equation of motion of the entire link structure can be expressed in the form shown in the following equation (3).

  Here, τ is a generalized force corresponding to the generalized variable q, b is a gravity / Coriolis force, and f is an external force acting on the operation space. The above equation (3) is transformed into the following equation (4).

Here, Λ −1 is called an operation space inertia inverse matrix, and is expressed by the following equation (5). However, H is an inertia matrix with respect to the joint space of the whole structure.

  Further, c in the third term on the right side of the above equation (4) corresponds to the operation space bias acceleration (that is, the acceleration that acts on the operation space when no external force is applied), and is represented by the following equation (6). .

  The operation space, that is, the relationship between acceleration and force is given by the operation space inertia inverse matrix. The operation space inertia inverse matrix is an important physical quantity that can be applied to many fields such as force control, dynamic simulation, computer animation, posture editing, and external force estimation. For example, by adding constraint conditions considering dynamics, the joint acceleration is calculated, or the dynamic constraint formulated using the inverse operation space inertia matrix that expresses the relationship between the force acting on the link and the resulting acceleration. There has been proposed a motion generation method for generating a motion of a humanoid joint by solving a condition and a kinematic constraint condition simultaneously (see, for example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2003-231077). )

  In the calculation as defined in the above equation (5), the inertia matrix H with respect to the joint space of the entire structure is interposed, so that calculation waste occurs. Therefore, there is a problem that it is not suitable for real-time processing. On the other hand, by applying forward dynamics calculation to obtain generalized acceleration (joint acceleration) from the generalized force (joint force) of the link structure, the operation space inertia inverse matrix is calculated at high speed and the calculation load is reduced. Can be achieved. For a high-speed calculation method of the operation space inertia inverse matrix and the bias acceleration, see, for example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2007-108955 already assigned to the present applicant.

  The motion request regarding the position, velocity, and acceleration is given as the acceleration on the left side of Equation (4). The force f to be applied to the operation space in order to realize this can be obtained by solving the linear complementarity problem as shown in the following equations (7) and (8).

Assuming that there is a request for generating a known force f k in the operation space J k as a motion request related to the force, the generalized force required as a whole in addition to the motion request related to the position, velocity, and acceleration described above. τ v is expressed as the following formula (9).

Here, f v is a concatenated vector of f and f k , and J v is a Jacobian representing an operation space of f v in which J and J k are vertically arranged.

f v is a virtual force including a force that does not exist. Actually, as shown in the following equation (10), the virtual force f v is realized by cooperatively using the external force fe obtained from the environment and the torque τ a of the actuator of the joint.

Here, J e and J a are Jacobians corresponding to the operation space in which f e and τ a act.

There are not always f e and τ a that satisfy equation (10). So, consider the correction amount Δf v in the above equation virtual force f v.

  The above equation (11) can be obtained by solving problems such as the following equations (12) and (13).

Here, e is a value obtained by subtracting the right side from the left side of the above equation (11), and gives an error of the above equation (11). Y is a connected vector of τ a , f e , and Δf v . Therefore, the first term of the above equation (12) is the condition for minimizing the error in establishing the equation of the above equation (11), and the second term of the above equation (12) is the virtual force correction amount Δf v , it represents a condition for minimization of actual force f e and tau a. Q 1 and Q 2 are positive definite symmetric matrices representing the minimization weights between them. The inequality constraint formula (13) gives the vertical reaction force, the friction condition, the upper limit / lower limit of the joint generation force, and the like.

  When the above formulas (12) and (13) are arranged, they are formulated as secondary planning problems as shown in the following formulas (14) and (15).

By using the quadratic programming problem, the above equations (14) and (15) can be solved for y, and thus τ a , f e , and Δf v . The torque τa of the joint actuator obtained by solving this may be applied to the robot.

Unless the operation space J e corresponding to the external force f e obtained from the environment is appropriately selected, the solutions of the conversion equations (14) and (15) for obtaining the real force from the virtual force are not valid. That is, the operation space J e must be set with respect to a part / direction in which an external force is actually obtained.

In general, a part that is actually in contact with the outside world can be regarded as a point where an external force can be supplied from the environment. For this reason, Je is set at the contact portion with the outside world obtained from the contact sensor. The direction of the operation space may be set to a total of three directions including a vertical reaction force direction (one-dimensional) and a friction force direction (two-dimensional). That is, as shown in FIG. 7, when the contact sensor CS is turned on, the vertical reaction force direction (f N ) and the frictional force direction (f Fx , f Fy ) at the CS placement site are determined and operated respectively. Define a space. The direction of the vertical reaction force is satisfactorily approximated by the normal vector of the robot shape at the arrangement site of the contact sensor CS. What is necessary is just to calculate arbitrary two directions orthogonal to it as a frictional force direction. That is, the actual external force is set in the normal vector direction and the tangent vector direction of the robot shape at the contact site.

  In general, a part of a known inverse kinematic calculation may be used for calculating the Jacobian. The operation for obtaining the left side from the right side of the above equation (3) is generally known as inverse dynamics operation and can be expressed as the following equation (16).

  Here, g represents gravitational acceleration. For the construction method of inverse dynamics calculation extended to a form that can be applied to a link chain with a branch that floats in the air, such as a humanoid robot, see Nagasaka Kenichiro, See "Generation of whole body movement" (Doctoral dissertation, Department of Information Engineering, University of Tokyo, December 1999, Section 4.2.2).

  If you look closely at the right side of the above equation (3), you can calculate the Jacobian as in the following equation (17).

Here, e i represents the unit vector of the i-th element 1. In the case of the above J e , in the state where the unit force is applied to the vertical reaction force direction (f N ) and the friction force direction (f Fx , f Fy ) in all the contact sensor CS arrangement parts, By executing 17), each line of the operation space J e can be obtained.

The torque τ a of the joint actuator obtained by solving the above equations (14) and (15) needs to be realized with high accuracy. The torque of the actuator is approximately proportional to the current value, and the torque can be manipulated by controlling the current value. However, in an actual motor drive system, there are frictions that are difficult to model, and a desired torque cannot be achieved simply by sending an open loop current command.

  Therefore, in the present embodiment, torque information acting on the joint is detected by a torque sensor (see FIG. 4) disposed in the joint and fed back to the current command. As a result, even if friction that is difficult to model as described above is included in the motor drive system, it is possible to accurately follow the desired torque. For example, good torque tracking can be performed using a known disturbance observer or the like.

  As described above, in the present embodiment, the contact portion with the outside world is detected without omission using the contact sensor distributed in a distributed manner over the entire body surface of the humanoid robot, and the detected contact portion is defined as the action point. While properly using the external force to be used, the dynamic model is strictly solved so that the desired motion is achieved, and the target force value of all actuators is determined. Furthermore, by compensating for a force that is difficult to model in each joint connecting the links with a torque sensor provided in the joint portion, it is possible to realize a good force / tactile interaction without limitation of the action point.

  FIG. 8 is a functional block diagram of the control system 10 that realizes such a robot control method.

  The dynamic model 11 holds geometric parameters and dynamic parameters of a rigid link of a robot to be controlled. Data that changes every moment depending on the current state of the robot, such as the joint angle, is also included in the data held by the dynamic model 11.

The target value setting unit 12 sets target values related to position, velocity, acceleration, posture, angular velocity, angular acceleration, force, moment, and the like imposed on each part, joint, and momentum of the robot. For example, for position, velocity, acceleration, posture, angular velocity, and angular acceleration, a target value is set as the value on the left side of the above equation (4). The known force f k is stored separately.

The virtual external force calculation unit 13 obtains a virtual external force necessary for realizing the target value set by the target value setting unit 12. Specifically, for an unknown virtual external force, a force f satisfying the above equations (7) and (8) is obtained by the linear complementarity problem solver 13-2. The coefficient matrix Λ −1 and the bias vector c in the above equation (7) are calculated in the operation space physical quantity calculation unit 13-1 by high-speed calculation of the operation space physical quantity that has already been reported (for example, see Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2007-108955). )). The information of the dynamic model is used for calculation of the operation space physical quantity. When the known virtual external force f k is further added, the virtual external force required as a whole is obtained by Expression (9).

  The contact part detection means 14 is composed of a tactile sensor group attached to the surface over the whole body of the robot (see FIG. 1), and detects a part where the robot is in contact with the outside world. As the contact part information, the rigid body link ID that is in contact with the outside world and the contact position coordinates viewed from the rigid body link are output.

The real force conversion unit 15 obtains the virtual external force τ v = J T v f v obtained by the virtual external force calculation unit 13 from the real force, that is, the environment so as to satisfy the above equation (11). The external force f e and the torque τ a of the joint actuator are converted. The output result of the contact site detection means 14 is used for the action point and direction of the external force obtained from the environment. A vertical reaction force and a frictional force, which are actual external forces, are respectively set in the normal vector direction and the tangential vector direction of the robot surface shape at the contact site detected by the contact site detection means 14 (described above). The conversion process from the virtual external force to the real force is achieved by solving the above equations (14) and (15) by the secondary programming problem solver 15-1. The real force conversion unit 15 outputs the torque τ a of the actuator among them.

  The torque detection means 16 is a torque sensor (see FIG. 4) attached to the joints, and measures and outputs the actual torque acting on each joint.

  The torque / feedback control unit 17 detects the deviation between the torque detected by the torque detection unit 16 and the command torque, and feeds it back to the current target value. Thereby, disturbances such as friction and inertia included in the motor drive system are suppressed, and the actuator target torque is accurately realized in each joint.

  FIG. 9 shows a processing procedure for calculating the target torque of the actuator by the virtual external force calculation unit 13 and the actual force conversion unit 15 in the form of a flowchart.

  When the target value is set by the target value setting unit 12 (step S1), the joint angle / angular velocity, the posture / angular velocity of the pelvis part, etc. are detected, and the state of the dynamic model 11 is updated to match the current movement state of the robot. (Step S2).

  Next, the virtual external force calculation unit 13 calculates an operation space physical quantity (step S3), and the virtual external force calculation unit 13 solves the linear complementarity problem and calculates an unknown virtual external force (step). S4).

  Next, the virtual external force calculation unit 13 calculates the sum of the virtual external forces by the above equation (9) (step S5).

  Next, when the contact site is detected by the contact site detection means 14 (step S6), the real force conversion unit 15 solves the secondary planning problem and converts the virtual external force into the real force (step S7).

  Then, during the actual force, the generated actuator is extracted and set as the actuator target torque (step S8).

  The above processing is executed at a predetermined cycle (for example, 1 millisecond).

  FIG. 10 is a flowchart showing a processing procedure executed by the torque / feedback control unit 17 for reducing the deviation between the actuator force output by the actual force converting unit 15 and the torque detected by the torque detecting means 16. ing.

  When the torque detector 16 measures the torque applied to the joint (step S11), the torque / feedback controller 17 calculates a deviation from the actuator target torque output by the actual force converter 15 (step S12).

  Then, the torque / feedback control unit 17 calculates a target current value to the actuator / motor based on the calculated torque deviation (step S13), and performs current control (step S14).

  In this way, it is possible to achieve good force-tactile interaction with no limitation of the point of action by compensating for difficult modeling forces in the joints connecting the links with the torque sensor arranged at the joints. Can do.

  The torque / feedback control unit 17 performs the processing procedure shown in FIG. 10 independently of the processing by the virtual external force calculation unit 13 and the real force conversion unit 15 shown in FIG. Second).

  FIG. 11 shows a state in which a humanoid robot is controlled using the control system 10 described so far. In the illustrated example, the purpose of exercise is imposed to keep the translational momentum at zero.

  When the robot is placed on the ground in a handstand state, the contact part detection means 14 detects the contact point of the head and hand, and the actual force conversion unit 15 makes full use of the floor reaction force obtained from the contact point and the joint force of the whole body. Thus, the purpose of translational momentum = 0 (immovable center of gravity) is autonomously achieved. As a result, the handstand can be maintained without falling down.

  In the control system according to the present embodiment, since force control is performed, the control system has passivity corresponding to the degree of freedom of redundancy and can flexibly contact the outside world. In the example shown in FIG. 11, after touching the floor, the tip of the right foot is pushed forward. In response to this, the robot's right foot moves passively forward, but as a result of mechanics calculations, the whole body moves in a coordinated manner, such as moving the left foot backwards. Is maintained. That is, it can be seen that it has passivity within a range that does not invade the purpose of immobilizing the center of gravity.

  FIG. 12 shows an example in which the motion purpose of translational momentum = 0 (gravity of center of gravity) is given in the other grounding state as in FIG. The left side of the figure shows the case where the robot is placed on the floor in a four-sided state and contact points are generated at the tips of both feet and hands. The center of the figure shows a case where the robot is placed on the floor in the sitting position and contact points are generated on the buttocks, legs, and feet. The right side of the figure shows a case where the robot is placed on the floor in a bridge posture and contact points are generated at the tips of one foot and both hands.

  The robot is in a weak state until it is placed on the floor, but the posture shown in the figure is maintained by using the floor reaction force and the joint force of the whole body so as to achieve the purpose of the center of gravity immobilization simultaneously with the ground contact. Further, even after the robot comes into contact with the floor surface, it is the same as the example shown in FIG.

  In the above examples, the control system is the same, and no implementation specific to the point of action is included. It can be seen that this control system can achieve various and flexible force-tactile interactions with the outside world, with any point of the aircraft as the action point.

  The present invention has been described in detail above with reference to specific embodiments. However, it is obvious that those skilled in the art can make modifications and substitutions of the embodiment without departing from the gist of the present invention.

  In the present specification, the embodiment in which the present invention is applied to a bipedal legged mobile robot has been mainly described, but the gist of the present invention is not limited to this.

  In short, the present invention has been disclosed in the form of exemplification, and the description of the present specification should not be interpreted in a limited manner. In order to determine the gist of the present invention, the claims should be taken into consideration.

FIG. 1 is a diagram showing an external configuration of a humanoid robot to which the present invention can be applied. FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating the configuration of the tactile sensor group. FIG. 3 is a diagram schematically illustrating the configuration of the tactile sensor CS. FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating a configuration example of a torque sensor having a rare distortion structure. FIG. 5 is a diagram showing a configuration example of a connection topology in the robot apparatus shown in FIG. FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating a joint degree of freedom model of the humanoid robot illustrated in FIG. 1. FIG. 7 shows how the vertical reaction force direction (f N ) and the frictional force direction (f Fx , f Fy ) are determined at the CS placement site when the contact sensor CS is turned on, and the operation space is defined for each. FIG. FIG. 8 is a functional block diagram of the control system according to the present invention. FIG. 9 is a flowchart showing a processing procedure for calculating the target torque of the actuator by the virtual external force calculation unit 13 and the actual force conversion unit 15. FIG. 10 is a flowchart showing a processing procedure for reducing the deviation between the actuator force output from the actual force conversion unit 15 and the torque detected by the torque detection means 16. FIG. 11 is a diagram illustrating a state in which a humanoid robot is controlled using the control system 10 according to the present invention. FIG. 12 is a diagram showing a state in which a humanoid robot is controlled using the control system 10 according to the present invention.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 ... Control system 11 ... Dynamic model 12 ... Target setting part 13 ... Virtual external force calculation part 13-1 ... Operation space physical quantity calculation part 13-2 ... Linear complementarity problem solver 14 ... Contact site | part detection means 15 ... Real force conversion Unit 15-1 ... Secondary planning problem solver 16 ... Torque detection means 17 ... Torque feedback control unit

Claims (12)

  1. A control system configured to connect a plurality of rigid links through joints and control a link structure that is driven by generating an actuator force in a joint actuator,
    A mechanical model composed of geometric parameters and dynamic parameters of the link structure;
    A target value setting unit for setting a target value imposed on the link structure;
    Virtual external force calculation means for calculating a virtual force acting on the dynamic model when the link structure realizes the target value set by the target value setting unit;
    Contact part information detecting means for detecting contact part information between the link structure and the outside world;
    Using the contact part information detected by the contact part information detection unit as a constraint condition, a real force that converts the virtual force calculated by the virtual external force calculation unit into a real force that can actually exist and an actuator force of the joint actuator Conversion means,
    A control system characterized by causing the joint actuator to generate an actuator force output by the real force converting means.
  2. The contact part information detection means comprises contact sensors arranged in a distributed manner over the entire body surface of the link structure in order to detect the contact part between the link structure and the outside without leakage.
    The control system according to claim 1.
  3. A torque detecting means for detecting torque generated in the joint;
    Control so that the deviation between the actuator force output by the real force converting means and the torque detected by the torque detecting means is reduced;
    The control system according to claim 1.
  4. The real force converting means sets an external force that can exist in the normal vector direction of the link structure shape in the contact part detected by the contact part information detecting means.
    The control system according to claim 1.
  5. The real force conversion means sets an external force that can exist in the tangential vector direction of the link structure shape in the contact part detected by the contact part information detection means,
    The control system according to claim 1.
  6. The contact part information is an action point and direction of an external force.
    The control system according to claim 1.
  7. The real force conversion means calculates the actuator force by solving an optimization problem between the virtual force and the real force that can exist under the constraint condition.
    The control system according to claim 1.
  8. A control method for controlling a link structure configured by connecting a plurality of rigid links via a joint and generating an actuator force in a joint actuator,
    Maintaining a mechanical model comprising geometric parameters as well as dynamic parameters of the link structure;
    A target value setting step for setting a target value imposed on the link structure;
    A virtual external force calculating step of calculating a virtual force acting on the dynamic model when the link structure realizes the target value set by the target value setting unit;
    A contact site information detecting step for detecting contact site information between the link structure and the outside;
    Using the contact part information detected by the contact part information detection step as a constraint condition, the virtual force calculated by the virtual external force calculation step is converted into a real force that can exist and an actuator force of the joint actuator. A force conversion step,
    A control method characterized by causing the joint actuator to generate the actuator force obtained in the real force conversion step.
  9. A torque detection step of detecting torque generated in the joint;
    Control so that the deviation between the actuator force output by the real force conversion step and the torque detected by the torque detection step is reduced.
    The control method according to claim 8.
  10. In the real force conversion step, an external force that can exist in the normal vector direction of the link structure shape in the contact site detected by the contact site information detection step is set.
    The control method according to claim 8.
  11. In the real force conversion step, an external force that can exist in the tangential vector direction of the link structure shape in the contact site detected by the contact site information detection step is set.
    The control method according to claim 8.
  12. A robot apparatus comprising a link structure formed by connecting a plurality of rigid links,
    A joint actuator that drives the joint connecting the links;
    Torque detecting means for detecting torque generated in the joint;
    A mechanical model composed of geometric parameters and dynamic parameters of the link structure;
    A target value setting unit for setting a target value imposed on the link structure;
    Virtual external force calculation means for calculating a virtual force acting on the dynamic model when the link structure realizes the target value set by the target value setting unit;
    Contact part information detecting means for detecting contact part information between the link structure and the outside world;
    Using the contact part information detected by the contact part information detection unit as a constraint condition, a real force that converts the virtual force calculated by the virtual external force calculation unit into a real force that can actually exist and an actuator force of the joint actuator Conversion means;
    Actuator driving means for causing the joint actuator to generate an actuator force output by the real force converting means;
    Torque compensation control means for controlling the actuator force output from the real force conversion means and the torque detected by the torque detection means to be reduced; and
    A robot apparatus comprising:
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