JP5043979B2 - MIMO system having multiple spatial multiplexing modes - Google Patents

MIMO system having multiple spatial multiplexing modes Download PDF

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JP5043979B2
JP5043979B2 JP2010098917A JP2010098917A JP5043979B2 JP 5043979 B2 JP5043979 B2 JP 5043979B2 JP 2010098917 A JP2010098917 A JP 2010098917A JP 2010098917 A JP2010098917 A JP 2010098917A JP 5043979 B2 JP5043979 B2 JP 5043979B2
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ジェイ.・ロドニー・ワルトン
ジョン・ダブリュ.・ケッチャム
スティーブン・ジェイ.・ハワード
マーク・ウォーレス
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クゥアルコム・インコーポレイテッドQualcomm Incorporated
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Description

  This patent application is assigned to this assignee and is specifically incorporated herein by reference, provisional application 60/421 entitled “MIMO WLAN System” filed on October 25, 2002. , 309 claim priority.

  The present invention relates generally to communication, and more specifically to a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system having multiple transmission modes.

A MIMO system uses multiple (N T ) transmit antennas and multiple (N R ) receive antennas for data transmission and is denoted as an (N T , N R ) system. The MIMO channel formed by N T transmit antennas and N R receive antennas may be decomposed into N S spatial channels, where N S ≦ min {N T , N R }. May be used is the N S spatial channels to transmit the N S independent data streams to achieve greater overall throughput. In general, in order to transmit and recover multiple data streams simultaneously, spatial processing may or may not be performed at the transmitter and is typically performed at the receiver.

  Conventional MIMO systems typically use a specific transmission scheme to transmit multiple data streams simultaneously. This transmission scheme may be selected based on trade-offs among various factors such as system requirements, the amount of feedback from the receiver to the transmitter, transmitter and receiver capabilities, and the like. The transmitter, receiver, and system are then designed to support and operate according to the selected transmission scheme. This transmission scheme usually has not only advantageous features but also disadvantageous features, which can affect the performance of the system.

  Therefore, there is a need for technology for a MIMO system that has the ability to achieve improved performance.

  A MIMO system that supports multiple spatial multiplexing modes for improved performance and greater flexibility is now described. Spatial multiplexing refers to the simultaneous transmission of multiple data streams via multiple spatial channels of a MIMO channel. The multiple spatial multiplexing modes may include: (1) a single user steered mode for transmitting multiple data streams on a spatial channel orthogonal to a single receiver; (2) multiple antennas Single user non- (non-) steered mode to transmit multiple data streams to a single receiver without spatial processing at the transmitter, (3) multiple reception with spatial processing at the transmitter (4) from multiple antennas (co-located or not equivalent) (several) that transmit multiple data streams to the machine simultaneously Multi-user non-steered mode for transmitting multiple data streams to receiver (s) with multiple antennas without spatial processing at the transmitter.

  A set of at least one user terminal is selected for data transmission on the downlink and / or uplink. One spatial multiplexing mode is selected from among a plurality of spatial multiplexing modes supported by the system for the set of user terminals. For a set of user terminals, multiple rates are also selected for multiple data streams that are to be transmitted over multiple spatial channels of the MIMO channel. The set of user terminals is scheduled for data transmission on the downlink and / or uplink at the selected rate and the selected spatial multiplexing mode. The multiple data streams are then processed (eg, encoded, interleaved, and modulated) according to the selected rate and further selected for multiplexing over multiple spatial channels. Are processed spatially according to the conversion mode.

1 illustrates a multiple access MIMO system. The structure of the frame and channel for the MIMO system is shown. 1 shows an access point and two user terminals in a MIMO system. Fig. 3 shows a transmit (TX) data processor at an access point. Fig. 3 shows a TX spatial processor and modulator at the access point. FIG. 2 shows a demodulator and receive (RX) spatial processor in a multi-antenna user terminal. Fig. 5 shows an RX data processor in a multi-antenna user terminal. Fig. 2 shows an RX spatial processor and an RX data processor implementing continuous interference cancellation (SIC) technology. Fig. 4 shows a transmission / reception chain at an access point and user terminal. 2 shows a closed loop rate control mechanism. 2 shows a scheduler for scheduling controllers and user terminals. Fig. 5 shows a process for scheduling user terminals for data transmission. The process for transmitting data in a downlink is shown. The process for receiving data in the uplink is shown.

  Various aspects and embodiments of the invention are described in further detail below.

  The word “typical” is used herein to mean “serving as an example, instance, or illustration”. Any embodiment described herein as "exemplary" is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other embodiments.

A MIMO system may utilize a single carrier or multiple carriers for data transmission. Multiple carriers may be provided by orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), other multi-carrier modulation techniques, or some other configuration. OFDM effectively partitions the overall system bandwidth into multiple (N F ) orthogonal subbands. The multiple (N F ) orthogonal subbands are also called tones, bins, carriers, and frequency channels. In OFDM, each subband is associated with a respective carrier that may be modulated with data. The following description is for a MIMO system that utilizes OFDM. However, the ideas described here are equally applicable to single carrier MIMO systems.

MIMO systems support multiple spatial multiplexing modes for improved performance and greater flexibility. Table 1 lists the supported spatial multiplexing modes and their short descriptions.

A MIMO system may support other and / or different spatial multiplexing modes, which are within the scope of the present invention.

  Each spatial multiplexing mode has different capabilities and requirements. A steered spatial multiplexing mode can usually achieve better performance, but as described below, enough channels to orthogonalize the spatial channel via decomposition or some other technique It can only be used when the transmitter has status information. The non-steered spatial multiplexing mode requires little information to transmit multiple data streams simultaneously, but the performance will not be as good as the steered spatial multiplexing mode. Depending on the available channel state information, transmitter and receiver capabilities, system requirements, and others, an appropriate spatial multiplexing mode to use may be selected. Each of these spatial multiplexing modes is described below.

1. Single user steered spatial multiplexing mode The frequency selective MIMO channels formed by N T transmit antennas and N R receive antennas each have N R × N T dimensions, k = 1. . . It may be characterized by a corresponding to N F N F frequency-domain channel response matrix H (k). The channel response matrix for each subband may be expressed as:

Here, i = 1. . . N R , j = 1. . . N T , and k = 1. . . An entry h i, j (k) corresponding to N F is a coupling (ie, complex gain) between the transmission antenna j and the reception antenna i of the subband k.

Channel response matrix H (k) for each subband "diagonalized" to obtain the N S eigenmodes for that subband good. This diagonalization may be achieved by performing either a singular value decomposition of the channel response matrix H (k) or an eigenvalue decomposition of the correlation matrix of H (k). When “ H ” indicates a conjugate transpose, the correlation matrix of H (k) is R (k) = H H (k) H (k).

The singular value decomposition of the channel response matrix H (k) for each subband may be expressed as:
H (k) = U (k) Σ (k) V H (k), Equation (2)
Where U (k) is a (N R × N R ) unitary matrix consisting of the left eigenvectors of H (k);
Σ (k) is a (N R × N T ) diagonal matrix consisting of singular values of H (k); and V (k) is a right eigenvector of H (k) (N T × N T ) Is a unitary matrix.

When I is the unit matrix, the unitary matrix M is characterized by the nature comprising M H M = I. The columns of the unitary matrix are orthogonal to each other.

The eigenvalue decomposition of the H (k) correlation matrix for each subband may be expressed as:
R (k) = H H (k) H (k) = V (k) Λ (k) V H (k) Equation (3)
Here, Λ (k) is a (N T × N T ) diagonal matrix composed of eigenvalues of R (k). As shown in equations (2) and (3), the column of V (k) is the right eigenvector of H (k) and at the same time the eigenvector of R (k).

  Singular value decomposition and eigenvalue decomposition are described in the book titled “Linear Algebra and Its Applications”, 2nd edition, Academic Press, 1980, Gilbert Strang. ). The single user steered spatial multiplexing mode may be implemented with either singular value decomposition or eigenvalue decomposition. For clarity, the following description uses singular value decomposition.

Right eigenvectors of H (k) is also called "steering (Steering)" vectors, may be used for spatial processing by a transmitter to transmit data on the N S eigenmodes of H (k). Left eigenvectors of H (k) may be used for spatial processing by a receiver in order to recover the data transmitted on the N S eigenmodes (the recover). Eigenmodes may be viewed as orthogonal spatial channels obtained through decomposition. The diagonal matrix Σ (k) contains non-negative real values along the diagonal, and zero otherwise. These diagonal entries are referred to as singular values of H (k), it represents the the N S channel gains for the eigenmodes of H (k). Singular value of H (k) {σ 1 (k) σ 2 (k). . . σ NS (k)} is, R eigenvalues of (k) {λ 1 (k ) λ 2 (k). . . It is also the square root of λ NS (k)}. Here, σ i (k) = √λ i (k). For each of the N F subbands to determine the the N S eigenmodes for that subband, the singular value decomposition may be performed independently on the channel response matrix H (k).

For each subband, the singular values in the matrix Σ (k) may be ordered from largest to smallest, and the eigenvectors in the matrices V (k) and U (k) are correspondingly May be lined up. "Wideband (wideband)" eigenmode arranged may be defined as the N F pairs (same,-order) eigenmodes of the same order of all subbands after (i.e., wideband eigenmode m includes all sub Including the band's eigenmode m). In general, well-subbands of all or fewer than N F is used for transmission, subbands that are not used are filled with signal values of zero. For simplicity, the following description assume that the N F all subbands are used for transmission.

Single-user steered spatial multiplexing mode (or simply "single-user steered mode") transmits N S data symbol streams on the N S eigenmodes of the MIMO channel. This requires spatial processing by both the transmitter and the receiver.

Spatial processing at the transmitter for each subband for single user steered mode may be expressed as:
x su−s (k) = V (k) s (k), Equation (4)
Here s (k) is associated with the N S non-zero entries for the N S data symbols are to be transmitted on the N S eigenmodes for the sub-band k (N T × 1 ) Vector; and
x vector of su-s (k) is accompanied by the N T entries for N T transmit symbols that are to be sent from the N T transmit antennas for the sub-band k (N T × 1) It is.

the N S entries of s (k) can be expressed the N S data symbol streams, if there are remaining entries of s (k), which are filled with zeros.

The received symbols obtained by the receiver for each subband may be expressed as follows:
r su−s (k) = H (k) × su−s (k) + n (k) = H (k) V (k) s (k) + n (k), equation (5)
Here r su-s (k) is associated with the N R entries for N R received symbols obtained via the N R receive antennas for the sub-band k (N R × 1) Vector; and
n (k) is a noise vector for subband k.

Spatial processing at the receiver to recover the data vector s (k) for each subband may be expressed as follows:

Here s ~ su-s (k) is a vector of with N S detected data symbols for subband k (N T × 1);
s ^ su-s (k) is a vector of involving the N S recovered data symbols for subband k (N T × 1); and
n su-s (k) is a vector of post-processed noise for subband k.

The vectors s 1 to su-s (k) are unnormalized estimates of the data vector s (k), and the vector s ^ su-s (k) is a normalized estimate of s (k). Multiplying by Σ −1 (k) in equation (6) causes (possibly different) gains of the N S spatial channels, normalizes the receiver spatial processing output, and as a result restores to the proper size The processed data symbols are provided to subsequent processing units.

For single user steered mode, the matrix of steering vectors F su-s (k) used by the transmitter for each subband may be expressed as:
F su−s (k) = V (k) Equation (7)
The spatial filter matrix used by the receiver for each subband may be expressed as:
M su−s (k) = U H (k) Equation (8)
In single user steered mode, the transmitter has k = 1. . . N F channel response matrix with respect to H (k), or may be used when it has the information of the channel state for one of the H matrix V of right eigenvectors of (k) (k). As will be explained below, the transmitter can estimate H (k) or V (k) for each subband based on the pilot transmitted by the receiver, or it can be received via a feedback channel. You may be provided with this information. The receiver can typically obtain H (k) or U H (k) for each subband based on the pilot transmitted by the transmitter. Post-treated distorted only by the noise n su-s (k) of the channel has been the N S data symbol streams s (k) is a single user in a proper spatial processing at both the transmitter and receiver Equation (6) shows that it may be obtained for the steered mode.

For single user steered mode, the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SNR) may be expressed as:
γ su−s, m (k) = P m (k) λ m (k) / σ 2 , m = 1. . . N S , Equation (9)
Where P m (k) is the transmit power used for data symbols transmitted in subband k of wideband eigenmode m;
λ m (k) is the eigenvalue for subband k of broadband eigenmode m, which is the mth diagonal element of Λ (k); and γ su-s, m (k) SNR for band k.

2. Single-user non-steered spatial multiplexing mode Single-user non-steered spatial multiplexing mode (if the transmitter does not have sufficient channel state information or cannot support single-user steered for any reason ( Or simply, “single user non-steered mode”) may be used. The single-user non-steered mode transmits N S data symbol streams from N T transmit antennas without any spatial processing at the transmitter.

For single user non-steered mode, the matrix F ns (k) consisting of the steering vector used by the transmitter for each subband may be expressed as:
F ns (k) = I formula (10)
Spatial processing at the transmitter for each subband may be expressed as:
x ns (k) = s (k), equation (11)
Where x ns (k) is a transmission symbol vector for the single user non-steered mode. The “wideband” spatial channel for this mode may be defined as the spatial channel corresponding to a given transmit antenna (ie, the wideband spatial channel m for the single user non-steered mode is the transmit antenna m Including all subbands).

The received symbols obtained by the receiver for each subband may be expressed as follows:
r ns (k) = H ( k) x ns (k) + n (k) = H (k) s (k) + n (k) Equation (12)
Channel correlation matrix inversion (CCMI) technique (also commonly referred to as zero-forcing technique), Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) technique, Decision Feedback Equalizer (DFE), Successive interference cancellation The receiver can recover the data vector s (k) using various receiver processing techniques such as) (SIC) technique, etc.

A. CCMI spatial processing receivers can use CCMI techniques to identify data symbol streams. The CCMI receiver has k = 1. . . It utilizes a spatial filter having a response of M ccmi (k) with respect to N F. M ccmi (k) may be expressed as follows:
M ccm i (k) = [ H H (k) H (k)] −1 H H (k) = R −1 (k) H H (k) Equation (13)
Spatial processing by the CCMI receiver for single user non-steered mode may be expressed as follows:
s c cmmi (k) = M ccmi (k) r ns (k),
= R -1 (k) H H (k) (H (k) s (k) + n (k)), the formula (14)
= S (k) + n ccmi (k),
Here s ^ ccmi (k) is a vector of which with the N S recovered data symbols for subband k (N T × 1); and
n ccmi (k) = M ccmi (k) n (k) is a sub CCMI filter for the band k is applied (CCMI filtered) noise.

The CCMI filtered noise auto-covariance φ ccm i (k) for each subband may be expressed as:
φ ccm i (k) = E [ n ccm i (k) n H ccm i (k)],
= M ccm i (k) φ nn (k) M H ccm i (k), equation (15)
= Σ 2 R −1 (k),
Here, E [x] is an expected value of x. The last equation of equation (15) shows that noise n (k) is zero mean, variance σ 2 , autocovariance matrix φ nn (k) = E [ n (k) n H (k)] = σ 2 I Is an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). In this case, the SNR for the CCMI receiver may be expressed as:
γ ccm i, m = P m (k) / (r mm (k) σ 2 ), m = 1. . . N S , Equation (16)
Where P m (k) is the transmit power used for data symbols transmitted in subband k of wideband spatial channel m;
r mm (k) is the m-th diagonal element of R (k) for subband k; and γ ccm i, m is the SNR for subband k of wideband spatial channel m.

According to the configuration of R (k), the CCMI technique may amplify the noise.

B. The MMSE spatial processing receiver can use MMSE technology to maximize the SNR of the recovered data symbol stream by suppressing crosstalk between the data symbol streams. The MMSE receiver has k = 1. . . A spatial filter having a response of M mmse (k) to N F is used. The response is derived such that the mean square error between the data vector estimated from the spatial filter and the data vector s (k) is minimized. This MMSE criterion may be expressed as follows:

The solution to the optimization problem shown in equation (17) may be obtained in various ways. In one exemplary method, the MMSE spatial filter matrix M mmse (k) for each subband may be expressed as:
M mmse (k) = H H (k) [ H (k) H H (k) + φ nn (k)] −1 ,
= H H (k) [ H (k) H H (k) + σ 2 I ] −1 . Formula (18)
The second equation in equation (18) assumes that the noise vector n (k) is an AWGN with mean zero and variance σ 2 .

Spatial processing by the MMSE receiver for single user non-steered mode consists of two steps. As follows, in the first step, in order to obtain a vector s ~ mmse (k) for N S detected symbol streams, MMSE receiver for the N R received symbol streams multiplying the vector r ns of the (k) in the MMSE spatial filter matrix M mmse (k):
s ~ mmse (k) = M mmse (k) r ns (k),
= M mmse (k) ( H (k) s (k) + n (k)), equation (19)
= Q (k) s (k) + n mmse (k),
Here, n mmse (k) = M mmse (k) n (k) is the noise filtered by MMSE, and Q (k) = M mmse (k) H (k). The N S detected symbol streams are unnormalized estimates of the N S data symbol streams.

As follows, in the second step, N S number of recovered to obtain the vector s ^ mmse (k) for the data symbol stream, MMSE receiver scaling matrix vector s ~ mmse (k) Multiply by D mmse −1 (k):
s ^ mmse (k) = D mmse −1 (k) s to mmse (k), equation (20)
Here, D mmse (k) is a diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements are diagonal elements of Q (k). That is, D mmse (k) = diag [ Q (k)]. The N S recovered data symbol stream is an estimate of the normalized of the N S data symbol streams.

Using the inverse identity of the matrix, the matrix Q (k) can be rewritten as follows:
Q (k) = H H (k) φ nn −1 (k) H (k) [ H H (k) φ nn −1 (k) H (k) + I ] −1 ,
= H H (k) H (k) [ H H (k) H (k) + σ 2 I ] −1 . Formula (21)
The second equality in equation (21) assumes that the noise is the variance sigma 2 AWGN zero mean.

The SNR for an MMSE receiver may be expressed as:
γ mmse, m (k) = q mm (k) P m (k) / (1−q mm (k)), m = 1. . . N S, formula (22)
Where q mm (k) is the mth diagonal component of Q (k) for subband k; and γ mmse, m (k) is the SNR for subband k of wideband spatial channel m.

C. Successive interference cancellation receiver processing receiver can process the N R received symbol streams using the SIC technique to recover the N S data symbol streams. For SIC technique, the receiver performs the spatial processing at the first N R received symbol streams (e.g., using CCMI, MMSE, or some other technique), one recovered data symbol Get the stream. The receiver further processes (eg, demodulates, deinterleaves, and decodes) the recovered data symbol stream to obtain a decoded data stream. The receiver then estimates the interference that this stream causes on the other N S −1 data symbol streams and estimates from the N R received symbol streams to obtain N R modified symbol streams. To remove the interference. The receiver then repeats the same process with the NR modified symbol streams to recover another data symbol stream.

For SIC receivers, l = 1. . . A N S input to stage l (i.e., received, or has been modified) symbol streams may be expressed as follows:
r sic l (k) = H l (k) x ns l (k) + n (k) = H l (k) s l (k) + n (k), equation (23)
Where r sic l (k) is a vector of N R modified symbols for stage l subband k, and for the first stage, r sic 1 (k) = r ns (k) Yes;
s l (k) is a vector of (N T −l + 1) data symbols not yet recovered for subband k of stage l; and
H l (k) is an N R × (N T −l + 1) reduced channel response matrix for stage l subband k.

Equation (23) assumes that the data symbol stream recovered in the previous stage of (l-1) is removed. The dimension of the channel response matrix H (k) is continuously reduced by one column at each stage each time one data symbol stream is restored and removed. At stage l, the reduced channel response matrix H l (k) corresponds to (l−1) data symbol streams that were previously reconstructed in the original matrix H (k). Is obtained by removing the column. That is, H l (k) = [ h jl (k) h jl + 1 (k). . . h jNT (k)], where h jn (k) is an N R × 1 vector for the channel response between transmit antenna j n and N R receive antennas. At stage l, the (l−1) data symbol streams recovered at the previous stage are {j 1 j 2 . . . j l−1 } and (N T −l + 1) data symbol streams that have not yet been recovered are {j l j l + 1 . . . An index of j NT } is given.

At stage l, a reduced channel response matrix (instead of the original matrix H (k)) using the CCMI technique shown in equation (13), the MMSE technique shown in equation (18), or some other technique. Based on H l (k), k = 1. . . For N F , the SIC receiver derives the spatial filter matrix M sic l (k). The matrix M sic l (k) has dimensions of (N T −l + 1) × N R. Since H l (k) is different for each stage, the spatial filter matrix M sic l (k) is also different for each stage.

As shown below, in order to obtain the vectors s ˜ sic l (k) for (N T −l + 1) detected symbol streams, the SIC receiver is responsible for N R modified symbol streams. Multiply the vector r sic l (k) by the spatial filter matrix M sic l (k):
s ~ sic l (k) = M sic l (k) r sic l (k),
= M sic l (k) ( H l (k) s l (k) + n l (k)), equation (24)
= Q sic l (k) s l (k) + n sic l (k),
Where n sic l (k) = M sic l (k) n l (k) is the filtered noise for subband k of stage l and n l (k) is reduced by n (k) Q sic l (k) = M sic l (k) H l (k). The SIC receiver then selects one of the detected symbol streams for recovery. Since only one data symbol stream is recovered at each stage, the SIC receiver simply has one (1 × N R ) spatial filter so that the data symbol stream {s jl } is recovered at stage l. The row vector m jl l (k) can be derived. The row vector m jl l (k) is one row of the matrix M sic l (k). In this case, the spatial processing at stage l for restoring the data symbol stream {s jl } may be expressed as follows:
s ~ jl (k) = m jl l (k) r sic l (k) = q jl l (k) s l (k) + m jl l (k) n (k), equation (25)
Here, q jl l (k) is a row of Q sic l (k) corresponding to the data symbol stream {s jl }.

In any case, the receiver adjusts the detected symbol stream {s ~ jl } to obtain a recovered data symbol stream {s ^ jl } and obtains a decoded data stream {d ^ jl }. Are further processed (eg demodulated, deinterleaved, and decoded). The receiver also forms an estimate of the interference that this stream will cause on other data symbol streams that have not yet been recovered. To estimate the interference, the receiver re-encodes, interleaves, and symbol maps and “remodulates” the decoded data stream {d ^ jl } in the same manner as performed at the transmitter. A stream of symbols {s jl } is obtained. {S jl } is just an estimate of the recovered data symbol stream. To obtain N R interference components i jl (k) caused by this stream for stream {s jl }, the receiver then converts the remodulated symbol stream into the channel response vector h jl (k). convolved with each of the N R elements in the. And the N R interference components are subtracted from the N R modified symbol streams r sic l (k) in stage l, the N R modified symbol streams r sic l + 1 at the next stage l + 1 ( k). That is, r sic l + 1 (k) = r sic l (k) −i jl (k). The modified symbol stream r sic l + 1 (k) represents the stream that was being received if the data symbol stream {s jl } was not transmitted (ie, interference cancellation was effectively performed).

SIC receiver processes the N R received symbol streams in successive stages of N S. In each stage, SIC receiver, either the N R modified symbol streams from the N R received symbol streams or the previous stage to obtain a (1) one recovered data symbol stream (2) decode this recovered data symbol stream to obtain a corresponding decoded data stream, (3) estimate and remove interference due to this stream, And (4) obtain NR modified symbol streams for the next stage. If the interference due to each data stream can be accurately estimated and eliminated, then the subsequently recovered data stream will experience less interference and achieve a higher SNR.

For SIC technology, the SNR of each recovered data symbol stream is (1) the spatial processing technology (eg, CCMI or MMSE) used at each stage, (2) the specific stage at which the data symbol stream is recovered, And (3) depending on the amount of interference caused by the data symbol stream recovered at a later stage. The SNR of a SIC receiver with CCMI may be expressed as:
γ sic−ccm i, m (k) = P m (k) / (r mm l (k) σ 2 ), m = 1. . . N S, formula (26)
Where r mm l (k) is the m-th diagonal element of [ R l (k)] −1 for subband k, and R l (k) = [ H l (k)] H H l (k ).

The SNR of a SIC receiver with MMSE may be expressed as:
γ sic-mmse, m (k) = q mm l (k) P m (k) / (1−q mm l (k)), m = 1. . . N S, formula (27)
Here q mm l (k) is the m-th diagonal element of Q sic l (k) for subband k, Q sic l (k) but is derived as shown in equation (21), based on Is based on a reduced channel response matrix H l (k) instead of the matrix H (k).

  In general, the SNR improves gradually for the data symbol stream recovered at a later stage. This is because the interference is removed from the data symbol stream restored in the previous stage. This then allows a higher rate to be used for the data symbol stream to be recovered later.

3. Multiple User Steered Spatial Multiplexing Mode Multiple User Steered Spatial Multiplexing Mode (or simply “Multiple User Steered Mode”) can be multiple from a single transmitter based on the receiver's “signatures”. Supports simultaneous data transmission to other receivers. The spatial signature for the receiver is given by the channel response vector (for each subband) between the NT transmit antennas and each receiver antenna of the receiver. As explained below, the transmitter may obtain a spatial signature for the receiver. The transmitter may then (1) select a set of receivers for simultaneous data transmission, and (2) the selected receiver so that the receiver is sufficiently suppressed in the transmission stream crosstalk. A steering vector for the data symbol stream that is to be transmitted to may be derived.

  The steering vector for the multi-user steered mode may be derived in various ways. Two representative schemes are described below. For simplicity, the following description is for one subband and assumes that each receiver is equipped with one antenna.

In the channel inversion scheme, the transmitter uses channel inversion to obtain steering vectors for multiple receivers. The transmitter first selects NT single-antenna receivers for simultaneous transmission. The transmitter obtains a 1 × N T channel response row vector h i (k) for each selected receiver and N T N row vectors for N T receivers. Form a T × N T channel response matrix H mu-s (k). The transmitter, as follows, the N T selected consisting the N T steering vectors for the receiver matrix F mu-s (k) using the channel inversion to obtain:
F mu−s (k) = H mu−s −1 (k) Equation (28)
Spatial processing at the transmitter for each subband in multi-user steered mode may be expressed as:
x mu−s (k) = F mu−s (k) s (k) Equation (29)
Here, x mu-s (k) is a transmission symbol vector for the multi-user steered mode.

The received symbols at the NT selected receivers for each subband may be expressed as follows:
r mu−s (k) = H mu−s (k) × mu−s (k) + n (k),
= H mu-s (k) F mu-s (k) s (k) + n (k), equation (30)
= S (k) + i (k) ++ n (k),
Where r mu-s (k) is the (N T × 1) received symbol vector for subband k at N T selected receivers, and i (k) is the F at the transmitter Represents interference of interference due to incomplete estimation of mu-s (k). Each of the selected receivers will get only one entry of the vector r mu-s (k) for each receive antenna. If spatial processing at the transmitter is enabled, the power of i (k) is small, and each recovered data symbol stream is transmitted to other receivers (N T −1) other data. Only a small amount of interference from the symbol stream is experienced.

  As will be described below, the transmitter can also transmit a steered pilot to each of the selected receivers. Each receiver then processes its steered pilot to estimate the channel gain and phase, and from its single antenna with channel gain and phase estimates to obtain recovered data symbols. It will demodulate the received symbols coherently.

The SNR achieved for the multi-user steered mode is a function of the autocovariance of the channel response matrix H mu-s (k). By selecting a “compatible” user terminal, a higher SNR can be achieved. Different sets and / or combinations of user terminals may be evaluated and the set / combination with the highest SNR may be selected for data transmission.

Channel inversion methods are attractive in their simplicity, but generally do not provide good performance. This is because conditioning the data symbol stream with the inverse of the channel response in equation (29) forces the transmitter to allocate most of its power to the worst eigenmode of the MIMO channel. Also, for some channels, especially those with a large correlation between the elements of H mu-s (k), the channel response matrix is smaller than the maximum rank and the inverse matrix cannot be calculated. .

In subsequent method, the transmitter pre-coding the N T data symbol streams that are to be sent to the N T selected receivers (precodes), so that these data symbol streams receiver And hardly experience any interference. The transmitter can form a channel response matrix H mu (k) for the N T selected receivers. The transmitter then performs QR factorization on H mu (k) such that H mu (k) = F tri (k) Q mu (k). Here, F tri (k) is a lower left triangular matrix, and Q mu (k) is a unitary matrix.

The transmitter transmits the data symbol vector s (k) = [s 1 (k) s 2 (k). . . s NT (k)] T , a pre-encoded symbol vector a (k) = [a 1 (k) a 2 (k). . . a NT (k)] Get T :

Where M is the number of levels separated by unit intervals in the in-phase or quadrature dimension of the square constellation of the QAM signal; and f li (k) is the i row j of F tri (k) A column element.

The modulo (mod) operation adds a sufficient integer multiple of M to the variable so that the result satisfies a l (k) ε [−M / 2, M / 2). After this pre-encoding operation, the symbol vector a (k) pre-encoded to generate the transmitted symbol vector x mu-pc (k) = Q mu H (k) a (k) is unitary steering matrix By processing with Q mu (k), the transmitted symbols are calculated.

The received symbol vector for the precoding scheme can be expressed as follows:
r mu−pc (k) = H mu (k) Q mu H (k) a (k) + n (k) = F tri (k) a (k) + n (k) Equation (32)
F tri (k) a (k) mod (M / 2) = s (k) can be shown. Therefore, the data symbol vector can be estimated as mu-pc (k) = r mu-pc (k) mod (M / 2). Each of the N T selected receivers obtains only one of the NT elements of r mu-pc (k) and mod (M / 2) operations on its received symbols Can be used to estimate the data symbols transmitted to it.

In the multi-user steered mode, the transmitter can also transmit multiple data symbol streams to a multi-antenna receiver. The channel response matrix H mu (k) will then contain one row vector for each receive antenna of the multi-antenna receiver.

  Multi-user steered mode also supports data transmission from multiple multi-antenna transmitters to a single receiver. Each multi-antenna transmitter performs spatial processing on its data symbol stream and directs the stream towards the receiver. Each transmitter also transmits a steered pilot to the receiver. To the receiver, each transmitter looks like a single transmission. The receiver performs spatial processing (eg, CCMI, MMSE, etc.) to recover the steered data symbol stream from all transmitters.

4). Multi-user non-steered spatial multiplexing mode The multi-user non-steered spatial multiplexing mode (or simply “multi-user non-steered mode”) is (1) a single transmitter to multiple receivers (eg, downlink (2) Supports simultaneous transmission of data (eg, for the uplink) to multiple receivers to a single receiver.

In the case of unsteered transmission from a single transmitter to multiple receivers, the transmitter transmits one data symbol stream from each transmit antenna to a single receiver. One or more data symbol streams may be transmitted to each recipient receiver. Each recipient receiver is equipped with at least NT receive antennas and can perform spatial processing to separate and recover its data symbol stream (s). Each receiver wishing to transmit data estimates the SNR for each of the N T transmit antennas and sends the estimated T SNR to the transmitter. The transmitter selects a set of receivers for data transmission based on SNR estimates from all receivers that wish to transmit data (eg, to maximize overall throughput).

  For unsteered transmissions from multiple transmitters to a single receiver, the transmitters transmit data symbol streams from their antennas (ie, without spatial processing) so that these streams are approximately at the receiver. Arrives time-aligned. The receiver can estimate the channel response matrix for all transmitters as if they were a single transmitter. The receiver may receive multiple data symbols transmitted by these multiple transmitters using any of the techniques described above for single user non-steered mode (eg, CCMI, MMSE, and SIC techniques). You can restore the stream.

5. Spatial processing table 2 summarizes the spatial processing at the transmitter and receiver for the four spatial multiplexing modes described above. In the non-steered mode, receiver processing techniques other than CCMI and MMSE may be used. The last column in Table 2 indicates whether SIC technology may be used at the receiver.

For simplicity, spatial processing for multiple user steered mode from multiple transmitters to a single receiver and multiple user non-steered mode from single transmitter to multiple receivers is shown in Table 2. Not.

  In the following description, the wideband spatial channel may correspond to: (1) wideband eigenmode in steered spatial multiplexing mode, (2) transmit antenna in non-steered spatial multiplexing mode, or (3) 1 A combination of one or more spatial channels in one or more subbands. The wideband spatial channel can be used to transmit one independent data stream.

6). MIMO System FIG. 1 shows a multiple access MIMO system 100 with multiple access points (APs) 110 that provide communication for multiple user terminals (UTs) 120. For simplicity, only two access points 110a and 110b are shown in FIG. In general, an access point is a fixed station that communicates with user terminals and may be referred to as a base station or some other terminology. A user terminal may be fixed or mobile and may be referred to as a mobile station, a wireless device, or some other terminology. System controller 130 connects to access point 110 and provides coordination and control for access point 110.

  MIMO system 100 may be a time division duplex (TDD) system or a frequency division duplex (FDD) system. The downlink and uplink share (1) the same frequency band in the case of a TDD system, and (2) use different frequency bands in the case of an FDD system. In the following description, it is assumed that MIMO system 100 is a TDD system.

  The MIMO system 100 utilizes a set of transport channels to transmit different types of data. The transport channel may be implemented in various ways.

  FIG. 2 shows an exemplary frame and channel configuration 200 that may be used for MIMO system 100. Data transmission occurs in TDD frames. Each TDD frame is divided into a downlink phase and an uplink phase over a predetermined time interval (for example, 2 msec). Each phase is further divided into multiple portions 210, 220, 230, 240, and 250 for multiple transport channels.

  In the downlink phase, the broadcast channel (BCH) carries a beacon pilot 214, a MIMO pilot 216, and a BCH message 218. The beacon pilot is used for timing and frequency acquisition. The MIMO pilot is used for channel estimation. The BCH message carries system parameters for the user terminal. The forward control channel (FCCH) carries scheduling information for downlink and uplink resource allocation and carries other signaling for user terminals. The forward channel (FCH) carries an FCH protocol data unit (PDU) in the downlink. The FCH PDU 232a includes a pilot 234a and a data packet 236a, and the FCH PDU 232b includes only a data packet 236b. In the uplink phase, the reverse channel (RCH) carries RCH PDUs in the uplink. RCH PDU 242a includes only data packet 246a, and RCH PDU 242b includes pilot 244b and data packet 246b. The random access channel (RACH) is used by user terminals to gain access to the system and send short messages on the uplink. The RCH PDU 252 sent on the RACH includes a pilot 254 and a message 256.

FIG. 3 shows a block diagram of an access point 110x and two user terminals 120x and 120y of the MIMO system 100. The access point 110x is one of the access points in FIG. 1, and includes a plurality (N ap ) of antennas 324a to 324ap. The user terminal 120x includes a single antenna 352x, and the user terminal 120y includes a plurality (N ut ) of antennas 352a to 352ut.

On the downlink, at the access point 110x, the TX data processor 310 receives traffic data for one or more user terminals from the data source 308, control data from the controller 330, and / or other data from the scheduler 334. . Various types of data may be transmitted on different transport channels. TX data processor 310 processes the type of data that vary based on one or more coding and modulation schemes to obtain the N S streams of data symbols (e.g., encodes, interleaves, and Symbol mapping). As used herein, “data symbol” refers to a data modulation symbol and “pilot symbol” refers to a pilot modulation symbol. TX spatial processor 320 receives the N S data symbol streams from TX data processor 310, k = 1 to the data symbols. . . Performs spatial processing with matrix against N F F ap (k), multiplexes in pilot symbols and provides N ap number of streams of transmit symbols for N ap antennas. The matrix F ap (k) is derived according to the spatial multiplexing mode selected for use. Processing by the TX data processor 310 and the TX spatial processor 320 is described below.

Each modulator (MOD) 322 receives and processes a respective transmit symbol stream to obtain a stream of OFDM symbols, and further adjusts (eg, amplifies) the OFDM symbol stream to generate a downlink signal. , Filter and frequency upconverts). N ap modulators 322a through 322ap provide N ap downlink signals for transmission from N ap antennas 324a through 324ap to the user terminals, respectively.

At each user terminal 120, one or more antennas 352 receive N ap downlink signals, and each antenna provides a received signal to a respective demodulator (DEMOD) 354. Each demodulator 354 performs processing complementary to that performed by modulator 322 and provides a stream of received symbols. For a single antenna user terminal 120x, RX spatial processor 360x performs coherent demodulation of the received symbol stream from a single demodulator 354x and provides one stream of recovered data symbols. In the case of the multi-antenna user terminal 120y, the RX spatial processor 360y is configured such that k = 1. . . Performs spatial processing on N ut received symbol streams from N ut demodulators 354 with spatial filter matrices M ut (k) with respect to N F, the recovered data symbol N ut number of streams I will provide a. In either case, each recovered data symbol stream {s ^ m} is an estimate of an access point 110x by data symbol stream sent to the user terminal 120 {s m}. RX data processor 370 receives the recovered data symbols and demultiplexes them into the appropriate transport channels (demultiplexes). The recovered data symbols for each transport channel are then processed (eg, demapped, deinterleaved, and decoded) to obtain decoded data for that transport channel. The decoded data for each transport channel may include recovered traffic data, control data, and the like, which are data sinks 372 for storage and / or for further processing. May be provided to the controller 380.

At each user terminal 120, a channel estimator 378 estimates the downlink channel response and provides a channel estimate. Channel estimates may include channel gain estimates, SNR estimates, etc. A controller 380 receives the channel estimates, derives vectors and / or coefficients used for spatial processing in the transmit and receive paths, and determines an appropriate rate for each data symbol stream in the downlink. For example, the controller 380y for the multi-antenna user terminal 120y has k = 1. . . Based on the downlink channel response matrix H dn (k) for N F , a matrix F ut (k) composed of a spatial filter matrix M ut (k) for the downlink and a steering vector for the uplink is obtained. It may be derived. Controller 380 may also receive the status of each packet / frame received on the downlink and may collect feedback information for access point 110x. The feedback information and uplink data are processed by TX data processor 390, spatially processed by TX spatial processor 392 (if present at user terminal 120), multiplexed with pilot symbols, and one or more Conditioned by modulator 354 and transmitted to access point 110x via one or more antennas 352.

  At access point 110x, the transmitted uplink signal is received by antenna 324, demodulated by demodulator 322, and in a manner complementary to that performed at user terminal 120 by RX spatial processor 340 and RX data processor 342. Is processed. The restored feedback information is provided to the controller 330 and the scheduler 334. The scheduler 334 may use feedback information to perform a plurality of functions such as: (1) scheduling a set of user terminals for uplink and downlink data transmission; (2) Allocate available downlink and uplink resources to scheduled terminals.

  Controllers 330 and 380 control the operation of various processing units at access point 110x and user terminal 120, respectively. For example, the controller 380 may determine the highest rate supported by the spatial channel on the downlink for the user terminal 120. Controller 330 may select a rate, payload size, and OFDM symbol size for each spatial channel of each scheduled user terminal.

  The processing at the access point 110x for the uplink and the user terminals 120x and 120y may be the same as or different from the processing for the downlink. For clarity, the downlink processing is described in detail below.

FIG. 4 shows a block diagram of an embodiment of TX data processor 310 at access point 110x. In this embodiments, TX data processor 310, for each of the N S data streams, comprising one set of encoder 412, channel interleaver (interleaver) 414 and symbol mapping unit 416,. m = 1. . . In N S, for each data stream {d m}, the encoder 412 receives and encodes the data stream based on a selected coding scheme for that stream and provides code bits. Coding schemes may include CRC, convolution, turbo, low density parity check (LDPC), block, and other coding, or combinations thereof. The channel interleaver 414 interleaves (ie, reorders) the code bits based on an interleaving scheme. A symbol mapping unit 416 maps the interleaved bits based on the modulation scheme selected for the stream and provides a stream of data symbols {s m }. Unit 416 groups each of the B interleaved bit sets to form a B-bit binary value when B ≧ 1, and further selects the B-bit binary value as a selected modulation scheme ( for example, a M = 2 B, QPSK, maps to a particular data symbol on the basis of M-PSK, or M-QAM). Coding and modulation for each data stream is performed according to the coding and modulation controls provided by controller 330.

FIG. 5 shows a block diagram of an embodiment of TX spatial processor 320 and modulators 322a through 322ap at access point 110x. For this embodiment, TX spatial processor 320, N S number of the demultiplexer (demultiplexers) (Demux) 510a from 510s, N F-number of 520f from TX subband spatial processor 520a and N ap number of multiplexing, Units (Mux) 530a to 530ap. Each demultiplexer 510 receives a respective data symbol stream {s m} from TX spatial processor 320, demultiplexes the stream into the N F data symbol substreams against the N F subbands, and it provides to 520f for the N F substreams from the N F spatial processors 520a. Each spatial processor 520 receives the N S data symbol substreams from 510s from the N S demultiplexers 510a for that subband, performs transmitter spatial processing on these substreams, and N It provides N ap transmit symbol substreams with respect ap number of access point antennas. Each spatial processor 520 multiplies the data vector s dn (k) by the matrix F ap (k) to obtain the transmission vector x dn (k). The matrix F ap (k) is (1) a matrix V dn (k) consisting of the right eigenvector of H dn (k) in the case of the single user steered mode, and (2) a matrix in the case of the multiple user steered mode. Equal to F mu (k) or (3) Unit matrix I for single user non-steered mode.

Each multiplexer 530 receives N F spatial processors 520a through 520f through N F transmit symbol substreams for its transmit antenna, multiplexes these substreams and pilot symbols, and for that transmit antenna Provides the transmitted symbol stream {x j }. The pilot symbols may be multiplexed in frequency (ie, in some subbands), in time (ie, in some symbol periods), and / or in code space (ie, with orthogonal codes). . N ap multiplexers 530a through 530ap have j = 1... For N ap antennas 324a through 324ap. . . For N ap , N ap transmission symbol streams {x j } are provided.

For the embodiment shown in FIG. 5, each demodulator 322 includes a fast inverse Fourier transform (IFFT) unit 542, a cyclic prefix generator 544, and a TX RF unit 546. IFFT unit 542 and cyclic prefix generator 544 form an OFDM modulator. Each modulator 322 receives a respective transmit symbol stream from TX spatial processor 320 {x j}, to group the respective set of the N F transmit symbols for the N F subbands. IFFT unit 542, each set of the N F transmit symbols to convert the time into the region using the inverse fast Fourier transform of the N F point and provides a corresponding transformed symbol that contains the N F chips. The cyclic prefix generator 544 repeats a portion of each transformed symbol to obtain a corresponding OFDM symbol that includes N F + N CP chips. The repeated portion (ie, cyclic prefix) ensures that the OFDM symbol retains its orthogonality in the presence of multipath delay spread caused by frequency selective fading. TX RF unit 546 receives and adjusts the OFDM symbol stream from generator 544 and generates a downlink modulated signal. N ap downlink modulated signals are transmitted from N ap antennas 324a to 324ap, respectively.

FIG. 6 shows a block diagram of an embodiment of demodulators 354a-354ut and RX spatial processor 360y for multi-antenna user terminal 120y. N ut antennas 352a to 352ut at user terminal 120y receive N ap modulated signals transmitted by access point 110x and N ut received signals to N ut demodulators 354a to 354ut. Provide to each. Each demodulator 354 includes an RX RF unit 612, a cyclic prefix removal unit 614, and a fast Fourier transform (FFT) unit 616. Units 614 and 616 form an OFDM demodulator. Within each demodulator 354, an RX RF unit 612 receives, modulates, digitizes each received signal, and provides a stream of chips. Cyclic prefix removal unit 614 removes the cyclic prefix in each of the received OFDM symbols to obtain a received transformed symbol. Then FFT unit 616, a respective received transformed symbol transformed into the frequency domain by fast Fourier transform of the N F points to obtain the N F received symbols for the N F subbands . The FFT unit 616 provides a stream of received symbols to the RX spatial processor 360y and provides received pilot symbols to the channel estimator 378y.

For the embodiment shown in FIG. 6, RX spatial processor 360y includes, N for N ut number of demultiplexer 630ut from 630a, N F subbands for N ut antennas at user terminal 120y F-number of RX subband spatial processor 640a 640 f and the N F prepared from (scaling) 642f from unit 642a, comprises the N S 650s from multiplexer 650a for the N S data streams. RX spatial processor 360y receives demodulator 354a through 354ut, i = 1. . . Obtain N ut received symbol streams {r i} for N ut. Each demodulator 630 may receive respective received symbol stream {r i}, demultiplexes and its stream to the N F received symbol substreams for the N F subbands, and provides that the N F substreams from the N F spatial processors 640a to 640 f. Each spatial processor 640 obtains N ut received symbol substreams for its subbands from N ut demultiplexers 630a through 630ut and performs receiver spatial processing on these substreams. provides N S detected symbol substreams for its subband. Each spatial processor 640 multiplies a matrix M ut to receive in order to obtain a detected symbol vector s ~ dn (k) vector r dn (k) (k) . Matrix M ut (k) are, (1) For a single-user steered mode, consists of left eigenvectors of H dn (k) matrix U dn H (k), or, (2) a single-user non-steered for mode, the matrix M ccmi (k), M mmse (k) or some other matrix, equal to.

Each adjusting unit 642 receives N S detected symbol substreams for its subband, adjust these substreams, the N S recovered data symbol substreams for its subband I will provide a. Each adjusting unit 642 provides the adjustment of the detected symbol vector s ~ signals dn (k) is performed in the diagonal matrix D ut -1 (k), the recovered data symbol vector s ^ dn (k) To do. Each multiplexer 650 receives and multiplexes the from the N F adjustment units 642a to 642f for that data stream the N F recovered data symbol substreams to provide recovered data symbols streams . The N S 650s from multiplexer 650a is, m = 1. . . Providing the N S recovered data symbol stream {s ^ m} against N S.

FIG. 7 shows a block diagram of an embodiment of RX data processor 370y at user terminal 120y. RX data processor 370y includes for each of the N S data streams, symbol demapping unit 712, channel deinterleaver 714, and one set of the decoder 716. m = 1. . . For each recovered data symbol streams N S {s ^ m}, symbol demapping unit 712 demodulates in accordance with the modulation scheme used the recovered data symbols for that stream, the demodulated data provide. Channel deinterleaver 714 deinterleaves the demodulated data in a manner complementary to the interleaving performed on the stream by access point 110x. Decoder 716 then decodes the deinterleaved data in a manner complementary to the encoding performed by access point 110x for that stream. For example, a turbo decoder or Viterbi decoder may be used for decoder 716 if turbo or convolutional coding is performed at access point 110x, respectively. A decoder 716 provides a decoded packet for each received data packet. Decoder 716 further checks each decoded packet to determine whether the packet was decoded correctly or in error, and provides the status of the decoded packet. Demodulation and decoding for each recovered data symbol stream is performed according to the modulation and decoding controls provided by controller 380y.

FIG. 8 shows a block diagram of an RX spatial processor 360z and an RX data processor 370z that perform SIC technology. RX spatial processor 360z and RX data processor 370z is, the N S successive against the N S data symbol streams (i.e., are cascaded (cascaded)) to realize the receiver processing stages. Respectively, from stage 1 of N S -1 includes a spatial processor 810, an interference canceller (canceller) 820, RX data stream processor 830 and TX data stream processor 840,. The last stage comprises only a spatial processor 810s and an RX data stream processor 830s. As shown in FIG. 7, each RX data stream processor 830 includes a symbol inverse mapping unit 712, a channel deinterleaver 714, and a decoder 716. As shown in FIG. 4, each TX data stream processor 840 includes an encoder 412, a channel interleaver 414, and a symbol mapping unit 416.

At stage 1, the spatial processor 810a performs receiver spatial processing on the N ut received symbol streams and provides one recovered data symbol stream {s ^ j1 }. Here, the subscript j 1 indicates the antenna of the access point used for transmitting the data symbol stream {s j1 }. RX data stream processor 830a demodulates the recovered data symbol stream {s ^ j1}, deinterleaves, and decodes and provides a corresponding decoded data stream {d ^ j1}. TX data stream processor 840a encodes, interleaves, modulates, and remodulates the decoded data stream {d ^ j1 } in the same manner as performed by access point 110x for that stream. Provide a stream {s - j1 }. Interference canceller 820a performs spatial processing on the re-modulated symbol stream {s j1 } in the same manner (if any) performed by access point 110x, and on data symbol stream {s j1 }. The results are further processed with a channel response matrix H dn (k) to obtain the resulting N ut interference components. N ut number of interference components get subtracted from N ut received symbol streams N ut modified symbol streams. N ut modified symbol streams are provided to stage 2.

Each of stages 2 through N S -1 performs the same processing as stage 1 despite N ut modified symbol streams from the previous stage instead of N ut received symbol streams To do. The last stage performs spatial processing and decoding on the N ut modified symbol streams from stage N S −1 and does not perform interference estimation and cancellation.

Each of the spatial processors 810a through 810s may perform CCMI, MMSE, or some other receiver processing technique. Each spatial processor 810 multiplies an input (received or modified) symbol vector r dn l (k) by a matrix M ut l (k) to obtain a detected symbol vector s to dn l (k). Selecting and adjusting one of the detected symbol streams and providing the adjusted symbol stream as a recovered data symbol stream for that stage. The matrix M ut l (k) is derived based on the reduced channel response matrix H dn l (k) for that stage.

  The processing units at the access point 110x for the uplink and the user terminal 120y may be implemented as described above for the downlink. TX data processor 390y and TX spatial processor 392y may be implemented with TX data processor 310 in FIG. 4 and TX spatial processor 320 in FIG. 5, respectively. RX spatial processor 340 may be implemented with RX spatial processor 360y or 360z, and RX data processor 342 may be implemented with data processor 370y or 370z.

  For a single antenna user terminal 120x, the RX spatial processor 360x performs coherent demodulation of one received symbol stream with channel estimates to obtain one recovered data symbol stream.

A. Channel estimation The downlink and uplink channel responses may be estimated in various ways, such as using MIMO pilots or steered pilots. For TDD MIMO systems, several techniques may be used to simplify channel estimation.

For the downlink, the access point 110 x can transmit a MIMO pilot to the user terminal 120. A MIMO pilot consists of N ap pilot transmissions from N ap access point antennas, where the pilot transmissions from each antenna are “covered” with different orthogonal sequences (eg, Walsh sequences). Covering is where a given modulation symbol (or set of L modulation symbols of the same value) that is to be transmitted is L chips to obtain L covered symbols. This is a process multiplied by all L chips of the orthogonal sequence. L covered symbols are then transmitted. Covering achieves orthogonality between the N ap pilot transmissions sent from the antennas of the N ap access points and allows the user terminal to distinguish the pilot transmissions from each antenna.

In each user terminal 120, is used by the access point 110x to obtain an estimate of the complex channel gains between each antenna of the antenna i and the N ap access point user terminal to N ap antennas For each user terminal antenna i with the same N ap orthogonal sequences, the channel estimator 378 “decovers” the received pilot symbols. The uncovering is complementary to the covering and the (pilot) symbols received on the L chips of the L-chip orthogonal sequence are multiplied to obtain L uncovered symbols. Process. The L uncovered symbols are then accumulated to obtain an estimate of the transmitted (pilot) symbols. Channel estimator 378 performs the same pilot processing for each subband used for pilot transmission. If the pilot symbols are transmitted only in a subset of the N F subbands, then channel estimator 378 may then subchannel with pilot transmission to obtain a channel response estimate for the subband without pilot transmission. Interpolation can be performed with channel response estimation for. For a single antenna user terminal 120x, the channel estimator 378x is configured for k = 1. . . Against N F, it provides a channel response vector of the estimated downlink h ^ dn (k). For multi-antenna user terminal 120y, channel estimator 378y performs the same pilot processing for all N ut antennas 352a to 352ut, k = 1. . . Providing N channel response matrix downlink estimated for F H ^ dn (k). Each user terminal 120 can also estimate the noise variance for the downlink based on the received pilot symbols, and provides the downlink noise estimate σ ^ dn 2 .

For uplink, a user terminal 120y for multi-antenna can transmit MIMO pilots access point 110x may be used to estimate the channel response H ^ up (k) for the uplink for the user terminal 120y. A single antenna user terminal 120x can transmit a pilot from that single antenna. A plurality of single-antenna user terminals 120 can simultaneously transmit orthogonal pilots in the uplink. In the uplink, orthogonality may be achieved in time and / or frequency. By allowing each user terminal to cover its uplink pilot with a different orthogonal sequence assigned to that user terminal, time orthogonality is obtained. Frequency orthogonality is obtained by having each user terminal transmit its uplink pilot on a different set of subbands. Simultaneous transmission of uplink pilots from multiple user terminals should be approximately time aligned at access point 120x (eg, time aligned in a cyclic prefix).

  For TDD MIMO systems, there is usually a high degree of correlation between the channel response for the downlink and uplink. This is because these links share the same frequency band. However, the response of the transmission / reception chain at the access point is usually not the same as the response of the transmission / reception chain at the user terminal. If the difference is measured and compensated through calibration, it may be assumed that the overall channel response of the downlink and uplink is reciprocal (ie, transpose).

FIG. 9 shows a transmission / reception chain at the access point 110x and the user terminal 120y. At the access point 110x, the transmission path is modeled by an N ap × N ap matrix T ap (k), and the reception path is modeled by an N ap × N ap matrix R ap (k). In the user terminal 120y, the reception path is modeled by a N ut × N ut matrix R ut (k), and the transmission path is modeled by a N ut × N ut matrix T ut (k). The received symbol vectors for the downlink and uplink for each subband may be expressed as follows:
r dn (k) = R ut (k) H (k) T ap (k) x dn (k), and equation (33)
r up (k) = R ap (k) H T (k) T ut (k) x up (k),
Here, “ T ” indicates transposition. Equation (34) assumes that the downlink and uplink are transposed with respect to each other. The “valid” downlink and uplink channel responses H edn (k) and H eup (k) for each subband include the transmit and receive chain responses and may be expressed as:
H edn (k) = R ut (k) H (k) T ap (k) and H eup (k) = R ap (k) H T (k) T ut (k). Equation (34)
If the downlink and uplink transmission / reception chain responses are not equal to each other, the effective downlink and uplink channel responses are not mutually exclusive (ie, H edn (k) ≠ H eup T (k)).

Access point 110x and user terminal 120y may perform adjustments to obtain correction matrices K ap (k) and K ut (k) for each subband. K ap (k) and K ut (k) may be expressed as follows:
K ap (k) = T ap −1 (k) R ap (k) and K ut (k) = T ut −1 (k) R ut (k). Equation (35)
The correction matrix may be obtained by transmitting a MIMO pilot on both the downlink and uplink and deriving the correction matrix using MMSE criteria or some other technique. As shown in FIG. 9, the correction matrices K ap (k) and K ut (k) are applied at the access point 110x and the user terminal 120y, respectively. The “calibrated” downlink and uplink channel responses, H cdn (k) and H cup (k) are reciprocal to each other and may be expressed as:
H cup (k) = H up (k) K ut (k) = ( H dn (k) K ap (k)) T = H cdn T (k). Formula (36)
The singular value decomposition of the adjusted uplink and downlink channel response matrices H cup (k) and H cdn (k) for each subband may be expressed as follows:
H cup (k) = U ap (k) Σ (k) V ut H (k), and equation (37)
H cdn (k) = V ut * (k) Σ (k) U ap H (k).
As shown in equation set (37), matrices V ut * (k) and U ap * (k) consisting of the left and right eigenvectors of H cdn (k) are the right and left eigenvectors of H cup (k). Is a complex conjugate of the matrix V ut (k) and U ap (k). The matrix U ap (k) can be used by the access point 110x for both transmission and reception spatial processing. The matrix V ut (k) can be used by the user terminal 120y for both transmission and reception spatial processing.

Due to the reciprocal nature of the MIMO channel for TDD MIMO systems, only singular value decomposition is performed by either user terminal 120y or access point 110x after adjustments are performed to compensate for differences in the transmit / receive chain. It is necessary to If executed by user terminal 120y, k = 1. . . Matrix for N F V ut (k) are used for spatial processing at the user terminal, k = 1. . . Matrix for N F U ap (k) has a direct form (e.g., by sending entries of the matrices U ap (k)) or an indirect form (e.g., via a steered pilot) in either It may be provided to the access point. Actually, the user terminal 120y can only obtain H cdn (k) that is an estimate of H cdn (k), and V ^ that is an estimate of each of V ut (k), Σ (k), and U ap (k). Only ut (k), Σ ^ (k), U ^ ap (k) can be derived. For simplicity, the description here assumes error-free channel estimation.

The uplink steered pilot sent by user terminal 120y may be expressed as follows:
x up, m (k) = K ut (k) v ut, m (k) p (k), equation (38)
Here, v up, m (k) is the m-th column of V ut (k), and p (k) is a pilot symbol. The uplink steered pilot received at access point 110x may be expressed as follows:
r up, m (k) = u ap, m (k) σ m p (k) + n up (k). Formula (39)
Equation (40) indicates that the access point 110x can obtain the matrix U ap (k) one vector at a time based on uplink steered pilot from the user terminal 120y.

  Complementary processing may be executed in which user terminal 120y transmits a MIMO pilot on the uplink, and access point 110x performs singular value decomposition and transmits a steered pilot on the downlink. Channel estimation for the downlink and uplink may be performed in other ways.

At each user terminal 120, the channel estimator 378 can estimate the downlink channel response (eg, based on a MIMO pilot or a steered pilot sent by the access point 110x) and sends a downlink channel response to the controller 380. An estimate can be provided. For a single antenna user terminal 120x, the controller 380x can derive a complex channel gain used for coherent demodulation. For the multi-antenna user terminal 120y, the controller 380y determines the matrix M ut (k) used for reception spatial processing and the matrix F ut used for transmission spatial processing based on the downlink channel estimate. (K) can be derived. At access point 110x, channel estimator 378 may estimate an uplink channel response (eg, based on a steered pilot or MIMO pilot sent by user terminal 120) and may provide controller 380 with an uplink channel estimate. A value can be provided. Based on the uplink channel estimate, the controller 380 can derive a matrix F ap (k) used for transmission spatial processing and a matrix M ap (k) used for reception spatial processing.

FIG. 9 shows spatial processing at the access point 110x and the user terminal 120y for downlink and uplink for one subband k. For the downlink, the data vector s dn (k) is first multiplied by the matrix F ap (k) by the unit 910 in the TX spatial processor 320 at the access point 110 x and further corrected by the unit 912 by the correction matrix K ap (k). ) To obtain a transmission vector x dn (k). The vector x dn (k) is processed by the transmit chain 914 in the demodulator 322 and transmitted over the MIMO channel to the user terminal 120y. Units 910 and 912 perform transmit spatial processing for the downlink and may be implemented in the TX subband spatial processor 520 of FIG.

In the user terminal 120y, the downlink signal is processed by the reception chain 954 in the demodulator 354 to obtain a reception vector r dn (k). Within RX spatial processor 360y, the received vector r dn (k) is first multiplied by a matrix M ut (k) by unit 956 and further adjusted by an inverse diagonal matrix D ut −1 (k) by unit 958. Get the vector s ^ dn (k). s dn (k) is an estimate of the data vector s dn (k). Units 956 and 958 perform receive spatial processing for the downlink and may be implemented in the RX subband spatial processor 640 of FIG.

For the uplink, in the TX spatial processor 392y at the user terminal 120y, the data vector s up (k) is first multiplied by the matrix F ut (k) by the unit 960 and further corrected by the unit 962 by the correction matrix K ut ( k) to obtain a transmission vector x up (k). Vector x up (k) is processed by transmit chain 964 in modulator 354 and transmitted over MIMO channel to access point 110x. Units 960 and 962 perform transmit spatial processing for the uplink.

At access point 110x, the uplink signal is processed by receive chain 924 in demodulator 322 to obtain a receive vector r up (k). Within RX spatial processor 340, the received vector r up (k) is first multiplied by matrix M ap (k) by unit 926 and further adjusted by unit 928 with the anti-diagonal matrix D ap −1 (k). Get the vector s ^ up (k). s ^ up (k) is an estimate of the data vector s up (k). Units 926 and 928 perform reception spatial processing for the uplink.

B. Spatial Processing Table 3 for TDD MIMO systems is representative of those performed by access points and user terminals for data transmission on the downlink and uplink for various spatial multiplexing modes in TDD MIMO systems. Summarize pilot transmission and spatial processing. In single user steered mode, the access point transmits a MIMO pilot to allow the user terminal to estimate the downlink channel response. The user terminal transmits a steered pilot to allow the access point to estimate the uplink channel response. The access point performs transmission and reception spatial processing with U ap (k). The user terminal performs transmission and reception spatial processing with V ut (k).

In the case of single user non-steered mode, for downlink data transmission, the access point transmits a MIMO pilot from all antennas and transmits a data symbol stream from each antenna. The user terminal estimates the downlink channel response using the MIMO pilot, and performs receiver spatial processing using the downlink channel estimation value. Complementary processing occurs for uplink data transmission.

  For multi-user steered mode, for downlink data transmission to single-antenna and / or multi-antenna user terminals, the user terminal enables the access point to estimate the downlink channel response Transmit pilots orthogonal to each other in uplink. Single antenna user terminals transmit unsteered pilots, and multi-antenna user terminals transmit steered pilots. The access point derives a downlink steering vector based on the orthogonal uplink pilots and uses the steering vector to transmit the steered pilot and steered data symbol stream to the selected user terminal. Each user terminal uses a steered pilot to receive a steered data symbol stream sent to the user terminal. In the case of uplink data transmission from a multi-antenna user terminal, the access point transmits a MIMO pilot. Each multi-antenna user terminal transmits a steered pilot and a steered data symbol stream on the uplink. The access point performs receiver spatial processing (eg, CCMI, MMSE, etc.) to recover the data symbol stream.

  In the case of the multi-user non-steered mode, the access point transmits a MIMO pilot in the downlink for downlink data transmission to a user terminal having multiple antennas. Each user terminal determines the rate it can receive from each access point antenna and sends it back. The access point selects a set of user terminals and transmits a data symbol stream to the selected user terminal from the access point antenna. Each multi-antenna user terminal performs receiver spatial processing (eg, CCMI, MMSE, etc.) to recover its data symbol stream. In the case of uplink data transmission from a single-antenna and / or multiple-antenna user terminal, the user terminal transmits pilots that are orthogonal (not steered) in the uplink. The access point estimates the uplink channel response based on the uplink pilot and selects a set of compatible user terminals. Each selected user terminal transmits a data symbol stream from the antenna of the user terminal. The access point performs receiver spatial processing (eg, CCMI, MMSE, etc.) to recover the data symbol stream.

C. Each data stream for rate selective downlink and uplink is transmitted on wideband spatial channel m using one of the spatial multiplexing modes. Each data stream is also transmitted at a rate, which is selected to achieve a target level of performance (eg, 1 percent packet error rate (PER)) for that stream. The rate for each data stream can be determined based on the SNR achieved at the receiver for that stream (ie, the received SNR). As explained above, its SNR here depends on the spatial processing performed at the transmitter and receiver.

In an exemplary rate selection scheme, the rate for the wideband spatial channel m is determined and, as explained above, the SNR estimate γ m (k, in dB) for each subband k of the wideband spatial channel. ) Is obtained first. The average SNR, γ avg , is then calculated for the wideband spatial channel m as follows:

The variance σ γm 2 of the SNR estimate is also calculated as follows:

The SNR back-off coefficient (factor), γ bo, m, is determined based on the average SNR and SNR variance function F (γ avg, m , σ γm 2 ). For example, the function F (γ avg, m , σ γm 2 ) = K b · σ γm 2 may be used, where K b is the interleaving used for the data stream, the packet size, and / or Or an adjustment factor that may be selected based on one or more features of the MIMO system, such as an encoding scheme. The SNR back-off factor compensates for SNR variations in the wideband spatial channel. The operating SNR, γ op, m for the wideband spatial channel m is then calculated as follows:
γ op, m = γ avg, mbo, m . Formula (42)
The rate for the data stream is then determined based on the operating SNR. For example, a look-up table (LUT) may hold a set of rates supported by a MIMO system and their requested SNR. The required SNR for each rate may be determined by computer simulation, empirical measurements, etc., and may be based on the process of the AWGN channel. The highest rate in the look-up table with the requested SNR equal to or lower than the operating SNR is selected as the rate for the data stream sent on wideband spatial channel m.

  Various other rate selection schemes may also be used.

D. Closed Loop Rate Control Closed loop rate control may be used for each of the data streams transmitted on multiple wideband spatial channels. Closed loop rate control may be achieved in one or more loops.

  FIG. 10 shows a block diagram of an embodiment of a closed loop rate control mechanism 1000. The closed loop rate control mechanism 1000 includes an inner loop 1010 that operates with an outer loop 1020. Inner loop 1010 estimates channel conditions and determines the rates supported by each wideband spatial channel. The outer loop 1020 estimates the quality of the data transmission received on each wideband spatial channel and adjusts the operation of the inner loop accordingly. For simplicity, the operation of loops 1010 and 1020 for one downlink wideband spatial channel m is shown in FIG. 10 and described below.

  For inner loop 1010, channel estimator 378 at user terminal 120 estimates wideband spatial channel m and provides channel estimates (eg, channel gain estimates and noise variance estimates). A rate selector 1030 in the controller 380 determines the rate supported by the broadband spatial channel m based on: (1) the channel estimate from the channel estimator 378, and (2) the broadband space from the quality estimator 1032. A look-up table (LUT) 1036 consisting of SNR backoff factors and / or rate adjustments for channel m, and (3) rates supported by the MIMO system and their required SNR. The supported rate for broadband spatial channel m is sent by controller 380 to access point 110. At access point 110, controller 330 receives the supported rate for broadband spatial channel m and determines the data rate, coding, and modulation control for the data stream that is to be sent on this spatial channel. The data stream is then processed by TX data processor 310 according to these controls, spatially processed by TX spatial processor 320, multiplexed with pilot symbols, modulated by modulator 322, and transmitted to user terminal 120. The

  Outer loop 1020 estimates the quality of the decoded data stream received on wideband spatial channel m and adjusts the operation of inner loop 1010. Symbols received for wideband spatial channel m are spatially processed by RX spatial processor 360 and further processed by RX data processor 370. RX data processor 370 provides the quality estimator 1032 with the status and / or decoder metrics for each packet received on wideband spatial channel m. Outer loop 1020 may provide different types of information (eg, SNR backoff factor, rate adjustment, etc.) used to control the operation of inner loop 1010.

  Thus, the closed loop rate control described above may be performed independently for each of the downlink and uplink wideband spatial channels. Each of the downlink and uplink broadband spatial channels includes (1) a broadband eigenmode in the case of a single user steered mode, and (2) a transmit antenna in the case of a non-steered mode of a single user or multiple users. , Can correspond to.

E. User Terminal Scheduling FIG. 11 shows a block diagram of an embodiment of controller 330 and scheduler 334 for scheduling user terminals for downlink and uplink data transmission. Within the controller 330, the request processor 1110 receives access requests transmitted by the user terminal 120 on the RACH, and in some cases receives access requests from other sources. These access requests are for data transmission on the downlink and / or uplink. Request processor 1110 processes received access requests and provides identities (IDs) and status of all requesting user terminals. The status for the user terminal may indicate the number of antennas available at the terminal, whether the terminal is adjusted, and so on.

  As described above, the rate selector 1120 receives the channel estimate from the channel estimator 328 and determines the rate supported by the downlink and / or uplink wideband spatial channel for the requesting user terminal. decide. For the downlink, as explained above, each user terminal 120 can determine the rate supported by each of its wideband spatial channels. The supported rate is the maximum rate that may be used for data transmission on the wideband spatial channel to achieve the target level of performance. Each user terminal 120 may send supported rates for all of its downlink wideband spatial channels to the access point 110, eg, via the RACH. Alternatively, if (1) the downlink and uplink are contradictory, and (2) the access point 110 is provided with noise variance or noise floor at the user terminal 120, the access point 110 The supported rates for a wideband spatial channel can be determined. For the uplink, the access point 110 can determine the supported rate for each broadband spatial channel for each requesting user terminal 120.

  User selector 1140 selects a different set of one or more user terminals from all requesting user terminals for possible data transmission on the downlink and / or uplink. The user terminal may be selected based on various criteria such as system requirements, user terminal capabilities and supported rates, user priority, amount of data transmitted, etc. For multi-user spatial multiplexing mode, the user terminals for each set may be selected based on their channel response vectors.

  Mode selector 1130 selects a particular spatial multiplexing mode to use for each set of user terminals based on the operating state and capabilities of the user terminals in the set and possibly other factors. For example, the single user steered mode may be used for “calibrated” multi-antenna user terminals that have performed the adjustment, so that the channel response for one link (eg, downlink) is the other Can be estimated based on pilots (eg, steered) received over other links (eg, uplink). The single user unsteered mode may be used for “uncalibrated” multi-antenna user terminals that are not performing adjustments or cannot support the single user steered mode for any reason. The multi-user steered mode may be used for downlink transmission to a plurality of user terminals. Each of the plurality of user terminals is provided with one or more antennas. The multi-user non-steered mode may be used for uplink transmission by a plurality of user terminals.

  The scheduler 334 receives the set of user terminals from the user selector 1140, receives the spatial multiplexing mode selected for each set of user terminals from the mode selector 1130, and receives from the rate selector 1120 each of the user terminals. Receive the rate selected for the set. The scheduler 334 schedules user terminals for data transmission on the downlink and / or uplink. For each TDD frame, scheduler 334 selects one or more sets of user terminals for data transmission on the downlink and one or more of user terminals for data transmission on the uplink. Select a set. Each set includes one or more user terminals and is simultaneously scheduled for data transmission within a specified transmission interval in the TDD frame.

  The scheduler 334 forms an information element (IE) for each user terminal scheduled for data transmission on the downlink and / or uplink. Each information element includes: (1) Spatial multiplexing mode used for data transmission, (2) Rate to use for data stream transmitted on each broadband spatial channel, (3) Data Start and duration of transmission, (4) or other information (eg, the type of pilot being transmitted with the data transmission). The scheduler 334 sends information elements for all scheduled user terminals via the FCCH. Each user terminal processes the FCCH to recover its information elements, and then receives downlink transmissions and / or sends uplink transmissions according to the received scheduling information.

  FIG. 11 shows an embodiment of user terminal scheduling for data transmission when multiple spatial multiplexing modes are supported. Scheduling may be performed in other ways, and this is within the scope of the present invention.

  FIG. 12 shows a flowchart of a process 1200 for scheduling user terminals for data transmission within MIMO system 100. A set of at least one user terminal is selected for data transmission on the downlink and / or uplink (block 1212). A spatial multiplexing mode is selected for the set of user terminals from among a plurality of spatial multiplexing modes supported by the system (block 1214). Multiple rates are also selected for multiple data streams to be transmitted over multiple spatial channels for a set of user terminals (block 1216). The set of user terminals is scheduled for data transmission on the downlink and / or uplink at the selected rate and the selected spatial multiplexing mode (block 1218).

  FIG. 13 shows a flowchart of a process 1300 for transmitting data on the downlink of MIMO system 100. Process 1300 may be performed by access point 110x. The first plurality of data streams are encoded and modulated according to the first plurality of rates to obtain a first plurality of data symbol streams (block 1312). For single user steered mode, the first plurality of data symbol streams are spatially processed with the first plurality of steering vectors and from the plurality of antennas at the first transmission interval to the first user terminal. A first plurality of transmit symbol streams for transmission of is obtained (block 1314). A first plurality of steering vectors is derived such that the first plurality of data streams are transmitted to the first user terminal on orthogonal spatial channels. The second plurality of data streams is encoded and modulated according to the second plurality of rates to obtain a second plurality of data symbol streams (block 1316). For single user non-steered mode, the second plurality of data symbol streams is a second plurality of transmission symbol streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to a second user terminal at a second transmission interval. (Block 1318). The third plurality of data streams is encoded and modulated to obtain a third plurality of data symbol streams (block 1320). In the multi-user steered mode, the third plurality of data symbol streams are spatially processed with the second plurality of steering vectors and transmitted from the plurality of antennas to the plurality of user terminals at a third transmission interval. A third plurality of transmit symbol streams for is obtained (block 1322). A second plurality of steering vectors is derived such that the third plurality of data symbol streams are received with reduced interference at a plurality of user terminals.

  FIG. 14 shows a flowchart of a process 1400 for receiving data on the uplink in MIMO system 100. Process 1400 may be performed by access point 110x. Receiver spatial processing is performed on the first plurality of received symbol streams according to a first spatial multiplexing mode (eg, single user steered mode) to obtain a first plurality of recovered data symbol streams. (Block 1412). The first plurality of recovered data symbol streams are demodulated and decoded according to the first plurality of rates to obtain a first plurality of decoded data streams (block 1414). Receiver spatial processing is performed on the second plurality of received symbol streams according to a second spatial multiplexing mode (eg, non-steered mode) to obtain a second plurality of recovered data symbol streams (block 1416). The second plurality of recovered data symbol streams is demodulated and decoded according to the second plurality of rates to obtain a second plurality of decoded data streams (block 1418). The second plurality of decoded data streams is an estimate of the data stream transmitted by one or more user terminals.

  Each user terminal performs corresponding processing to transmit data on one or more uplink broadband spatial channels and to receive data on one or more downlink broadband spatial channels.

  As described herein, data transmission with multiple spatial multiplexing modes may be achieved by various means. For example, the processing may be realized by hardware, software, or a combination thereof. When implemented in hardware, the processing unit used to perform the data processing, spatial processing, and scheduling at the access point may be one or more application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), digital signal processors ( (DSP), digital signal processor (DSPD), programmable logic device (PLD), field programmable gate array (FPGA), processor, controller, microcontroller, microprocessor, perform the functions described herein, or combinations thereof It may be realized in other electronic units, designed to do so. The processing unit at the user terminal may be implemented on one or more ASICs, DSPs, etc.

  When implemented in software, processing for data transmission with multiple spatial multiplexing modes at the access point and user terminal may be implemented in modules (eg, procedures, functions, etc.). The module performs the functions described herein. Software codes may be maintained in a memory unit (eg, memory unit 332 or 382 in FIG. 3) and may be executed by a processor (eg, controller 330 or 380). The memory unit may be implemented in the processor or outside the processor.

  Headings are included here for reference and to help locate specific sections. These headings are not intended to limit the scope of the concepts described herein, and these concepts may have applicability in other sections throughout the specification.

The previous description of the disclosed embodiments is provided to enable any person skilled in the art to make or use the present invention. Various modifications to these embodiments will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and the generic principles defined herein may be applied to other embodiments without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, the present invention is not intended to be limited to the embodiments shown herein but is to be accorded the widest scope consistent with the principles and novel features disclosed herein. In addition, the same description as the supplementary note at the time of application of this application is appended below.
[Appendix 1]
A method for transmitting data in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system for wireless multiple access, the method comprising:
Selecting at least one user terminal for data transmission;
Selecting a spatial multiplexing mode from among a plurality of spatial multiplexing modes supported by the system for use in the at least one user terminal;
Selecting a plurality of rates for a plurality of data streams to be transmitted over a plurality of spatial channels of a MIMO channel for the at least one user terminal; and
Scheduling the at least one user terminal for data transmission in a plurality of selected rates and a selected spatial multiplexing mode;
[Appendix 2]
The method of claim 1, wherein one user terminal is selected for data transmission and the selected spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode.
[Appendix 3]
The method of claim 2, further comprising spatially processing the plurality of data streams having the plurality of steering vectors to transmit the plurality of data streams on orthogonal channels to one user terminal.
[Appendix 4]
The method of claim 1, wherein one user terminal is selected for data transmission and the selected spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode.
[Appendix 5]
The method of claim 4, further comprising providing multiple data streams for transmission from multiple antennas to one user terminal.
[Appendix 6]
The method according to supplementary note 1, wherein a plurality of user terminals are selected for data transmission, and the selected spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode.
[Appendix 7]
The method of claim 6, further comprising spatially processing the plurality of data streams having the plurality of steering vectors to steer the plurality of data streams to the plurality of user terminals.
[Appendix 8]
Performing receiver spatial processing on a plurality of received symbol streams to obtain estimates of a plurality of data streams transmitted by a plurality of user terminals, each data stream for steering a data stream The method of claim 6, further comprising: performing receiver spatial processing that is processed with each steering vector.
[Appendix 9]
The method of claim 1, wherein a plurality of user terminals are selected for data transmission, and the selected spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode.
[Appendix 10]
The method of appendix 9, further comprising performing receiver spatial processing on the plurality of received symbol streams to obtain estimates of the plurality of data streams transmitted by the plurality of user terminals.
[Appendix 11]
The method of appendix 9, further comprising providing a plurality of data streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to a plurality of user terminals each having a plurality of antennas.
[Appendix 12]
The method of claim 1 wherein the MIMO system is a time division duplex (TDD) system.
[Appendix 13]
The method of claim 12, wherein the selected spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode if at least one user terminal is adjusted and the downlink channel response is opposite to the uplink channel response.
[Appendix 14]
The selected spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode if the at least one user terminal is not coordinated and the downlink channel response is not opposite to the uplink channel response. Method.
[Appendix 15]
Selecting multiple rates
Estimating the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SNR) of multiple spatial channels; and
The method of claim 1, comprising selecting a plurality of rates based on an estimated SNR of a plurality of spatial channels.
[Appendix 16]
An apparatus in a wireless multiple access multiple input multiple output (MIMO) communication system comprising:
A terminal selector operable to select at least one user terminal for data transmission;
A mode selector operable to select a spatial multiplexing mode from among a plurality of spatial multiplexing modes supported by the system for use in the at least one user terminal;
A rate selector operable to select a plurality of rates for a plurality of data streams to be transmitted over a plurality of spatial channels of a MIMO channel for the at least one user terminal; and
A scheduler that operates to schedule the at least one user terminal for data transmission in a plurality of selected rates and a selected spatial multiplexing mode.
[Appendix 17]
A transmission space that operates to spatially process a plurality of data streams according to a selected spatial multiplexing mode to obtain a plurality of transmission symbol streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to the at least one user terminal. Item 17. The apparatus according to item 16, further comprising a processor.
[Appendix 18]
A receiving spatial processor that operates to spatially process a plurality of received symbol streams according to a selected spatial multiplexing mode to obtain an estimate of a plurality of data streams transmitted by the at least one user terminal The apparatus according to appendix 16, further comprising:
[Appendix 19]
An apparatus in a wireless multiple access multiple input multiple output (MIMO) communication system comprising:
Means for selecting at least one user terminal for data transmission;
Means for selecting a spatial multiplexing mode from among a plurality of spatial multiplexing modes supported by the system for use in the at least one user terminal;
Means for selecting a plurality of rates for a plurality of data streams to be transmitted over a plurality of spatial channels of a MIMO channel for the at least one user terminal; and
Means for scheduling the at least one user terminal for data transmission in a plurality of selected rates and a selected spatial multiplexing mode.
[Appendix 20]
Means for spatially processing the plurality of data streams according to the selected spatial multiplexing mode to obtain a plurality of transmission symbol streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to the at least one user terminal. The apparatus according to appendix 19.
[Appendix 21]
Means for spatially processing a plurality of received symbol streams according to a selected spatial multiplexing mode to obtain an estimate of a plurality of data streams transmitted by the at least one user terminal. The apparatus according to appendix 19.
[Appendix 22]
A method for transmitting data in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system for wireless multiple access, the method comprising:
Selecting a first user terminal for data transmission at a first transmission interval;
Selecting a first spatial multiplexing mode for use with a first user terminal;
Selecting a second user terminal for data transmission at a second transmission interval;
Selecting a second spatial multiplexing mode for use with a second user terminal;
Scheduling a first user terminal for data transmission at a first transmission interval according to a first spatial multiplexing mode;
Scheduling a second user terminal for data transmission at a second transmission interval in a second spatial multiplexing mode;
[Appendix 23]
23. The method according to appendix 22, wherein the first spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode and the second spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode.
[Appendix 24]
Spatially processing the first plurality of data streams with a plurality of steering vectors to transmit to the first user terminal the first plurality of data streams on a spatial channel orthogonal to the MIMO channel;
24. The method of appendix 23, further comprising providing a second plurality of data streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to a second user terminal.
[Appendix 25]
Performing receiver spatial processing on the first plurality of received symbol streams with a plurality of eigenvectors to obtain an estimate of the first plurality of data streams transmitted by the first user terminal;
Performing receiver spatial processing on the second plurality of received symbol streams according to a spatial filter to obtain an estimate of the second plurality of data streams transmitted by the second user terminal. The method according to appendix 23.
[Appendix 26]
Selecting, for a first user terminal, a first plurality of rates for a first plurality of data streams to be transmitted via a first plurality of spatial channels of a first MIMO channel; And
Selecting a second plurality of rates for a second plurality of data streams to be transmitted via a second plurality of spatial channels of a second MIMO channel to a second user terminal; And further comprising
24. The method of clause 23, wherein the first user terminal is further scheduled at a first plurality of rates and the second user terminal is scheduled at a second plurality of rates.
[Appendix 27]
An apparatus in a wireless multiple access multiple input multiple output (MIMO) communication system comprising:
A user operating to select a first user terminal for data transmission at a first transmission interval and operating to select a second user terminal for data transmission at a second transmission interval Selector;
A mode that operates to select a first spatial multiplexing mode for use in a first user terminal and that operates to select a second spatial multiplexing mode for use in a second user terminal Selector;
Operates to schedule the first user terminal for data transmission at the first transmission interval in the first spatial multiplexing mode, and transmits data at the second transmission interval in the second spatial multiplexing mode A scheduler that operates to schedule a second user terminal for
[Appendix 28]
28. The apparatus according to appendix 27, wherein the first spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode, and the second spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode.
[Appendix 29]
Acting to spatially process the first plurality of data streams with a plurality of steering vectors to transmit to the first user terminal the first plurality of data streams on a spatial channel orthogonal to the MIMO channel And
29. The apparatus of clause 28, further comprising a transmit spatial processor operable to provide a second plurality of data streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to a second user terminal.
[Appendix 30]
Operate to perform receiver spatial processing on the first plurality of received symbol streams with the plurality of eigenvectors to obtain an estimate of the first plurality of data streams transmitted by the first user terminal. ,
A reception that operates to perform receiver spatial processing on the second plurality of received symbol streams in accordance with a spatial filter to obtain an estimate of the second plurality of data streams transmitted by the second user terminal. 29. The apparatus according to appendix 28, further comprising a spatial processor.
[Appendix 31]
An apparatus in a wireless multiple access multiple input multiple output (MIMO) communication system comprising:
Means for selecting a first user terminal for data transmission at a first transmission interval;
Means for selecting a first spatial multiplexing mode for use with a first user terminal; means for selecting a second user terminal for data transmission at a second transmission interval;
Means for selecting a second spatial multiplexing mode for use in a second user terminal; a first user terminal for data transmission in a first transmission interval according to the first spatial multiplexing mode; Means for scheduling;
Means for scheduling a second user terminal for data transmission at a second transmission interval in a second spatial multiplexing mode.
[Appendix 32]
32. The apparatus according to supplementary note 31, wherein the first spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode, and the second spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode.
[Appendix 33]
Means for spatially processing the first plurality of data streams with a plurality of steering vectors to transmit to the first user terminal the first plurality of data streams on a spatial channel orthogonal to the MIMO channel When,
The apparatus of claim 32, further comprising means for providing a second plurality of data streams for transmission from the plurality of antennas to the second user terminal.
[Appendix 34]
Means for performing receiver spatial processing on the first plurality of received symbol streams with a plurality of eigenvectors to obtain an estimate of the first plurality of data streams transmitted by the first user terminal; ,
Means for performing receiver spatial processing on the second plurality of received symbol streams according to a spatial filter to obtain an estimate of the second plurality of data streams transmitted by the second user terminal; Item 33. The device according to Item 32.
[Appendix 35]
A method for transmitting data in a wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system, comprising:
Encoding and modulating the first plurality of data streams to obtain the first plurality of data symbol streams;
A first plurality of data symbol streams with a first plurality of steering vectors to obtain a first plurality of transmission symbol streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to a first user terminal at a first transmission interval; Processing spatially;
Encoding and modulating the second plurality of data streams to obtain a second plurality of data symbol streams; and
Providing a second plurality of data symbol streams as a second plurality of transmission symbol streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to a second user terminal at a second transmission interval.
[Appendix 36]
Additional remarks further comprising deriving the first plurality of steering vectors such that the first plurality of data streams are transmitted on the plurality of orthogonal spatial channels of the first MIMO channel to the first user terminal. 35. The method according to 35.
[Appendix 37]
Encoding and modulating the third plurality of data streams to obtain a third plurality of data symbol streams;
A third plurality of data symbol streams with a second plurality of steering vectors to obtain a third plurality of transmission symbol streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to a plurality of user terminals at a third transmission interval. 36. The method of appendix 35, further comprising spatially processing.
[Appendix 38]
38. The method of clause 37, further comprising deriving a second plurality of steering vectors such that the third plurality of data streams are received at the plurality of user terminals with reduced interference.
[Appendix 39]
An apparatus in a wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system comprising:
Operable to encode and modulate the first plurality of data streams to obtain a first plurality of data symbol streams;
A transmit data processor that operates to encode and modulate the second plurality of data streams to obtain a second plurality of data symbol streams; and
A first plurality of data symbol streams with a first plurality of steering vectors to obtain a first plurality of transmission symbol streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to a first user terminal at a first transmission interval; Work spatially,
A transmission spatial processor that operates to provide a second plurality of data symbol streams as a second plurality of transmission symbol streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to a second user terminal at a second transmission interval.
[Appendix 40]
A method for receiving data in a wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system, comprising:
Performing receiver spatial processing on the first plurality of received symbol streams according to a first spatial multiplexing mode to obtain a first plurality of recovered data symbol streams;
Demodulating and decoding the first plurality of recovered data symbol streams according to the first plurality of rates to obtain a first plurality of decoded data streams;
Performing receiver spatial processing on the second plurality of received symbol streams according to a second spatial multiplexing mode to obtain a second plurality of recovered data symbol streams; and
Demodulating and decoding the second plurality of recovered data symbol streams according to the second plurality of rates to obtain a second plurality of decoded data streams.
[Appendix 41]
The first spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode, where a first plurality of received symbol streams are spatially processed with a plurality of eigenvectors for a plurality of spatial channels of a MIMO channel for a user terminal. The method according to appendix 40.
[Appendix 42]
41. The method of appendix 40, wherein the second spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode.
[Appendix 43]
44. The method of clause 42, wherein the second plurality of decoded data streams is an estimate of the plurality of data streams transmitted by a single user terminal.
[Appendix 44]
44. The method of clause 42, wherein the second plurality of decoded data streams is an estimate of a plurality of data streams transmitted simultaneously by a plurality of user terminals.
[Appendix 45]
44. The method of clause 42, wherein the second plurality of received symbol streams are spatially processed based on a channel correlation matrix inversion (CCMI) technique.
[Appendix 46]
44. The method of clause 42, wherein the second plurality of received symbol streams is spatially processed based on a minimum mean square error (MMSE) technique.
[Appendix 47]
44. The method of clause 42, wherein the second plurality of received symbol streams is spatially processed based on successive interference cancellation (SIC) techniques.
[Appendix 48]
An apparatus in a wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system comprising:
Operative to perform receiver spatial processing on the first plurality of received symbol streams according to a first spatial multiplexing mode to obtain a first plurality of recovered data symbol streams;
A receive spatial processor operative to perform receiver spatial processing on the second plurality of received symbol streams according to a second spatial multiplexing mode to obtain a second plurality of recovered data symbol streams; and
Operable to demodulate and decode the first plurality of recovered data symbol streams in accordance with the first plurality of rates to obtain a first plurality of decoded data streams;
A received data processor that operates to demodulate and decode the second plurality of recovered data symbol streams according to the second plurality of rates to obtain a second plurality of decoded data streams.
[Appendix 49]
A method for transmitting data in a wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system, comprising:
Receiving information indicating a spatial multiplexing mode and a plurality of rates used for data transmission, wherein the spatial multiplexing mode is selected from a plurality of spatial multiplexing modes supported by the system; Receiving each of the rates selected from a set of rates supported by the system;
Encoding and modulating multiple data streams according to multiple rates to obtain multiple data symbol streams; and
Spatially processing a plurality of data symbol streams according to a spatial multiplexing mode to obtain a plurality of transmission symbol streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas;
[Appendix 50]
Spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode, where multiple data symbol streams are spatially processed with multiple steering vectors to transmit multiple data symbol streams on multiple orthogonal spatial channels of a MIMO channel. Item 49. The method according to item 49.
[Appendix 51]
51. The method of appendix 50, further comprising transmitting a steered pilot on each of a plurality of orthogonal spatial channels.
[Appendix 52]
50. The method of appendix 49, wherein the spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode and the plurality of data symbol streams are provided as a plurality of transmission symbol streams.
[Appendix 53]
50. The method of appendix 49, further comprising performing an adjustment such that the uplink channel response is in conflict with the downlink channel response.
[Appendix 54]
An apparatus in a wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system comprising:
A controller that operates to receive information indicating a spatial multiplexing mode and a plurality of rates used for data transmission, and the spatial multiplexing mode is selected from a plurality of spatial multiplexing modes supported by the system. A controller, wherein each of the plurality of rates is selected from a set of rates supported by the system;
A transmit data processor that operates to encode and modulate a plurality of data streams according to a plurality of rates to obtain a plurality of data symbol streams; and
A transmit spatial processor that operates to spatially process a plurality of data symbol streams in accordance with a spatial multiplexing mode to obtain a plurality of transmit symbol streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas.
[Appendix 55]
A method for receiving data in a wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system, comprising:
Receiving information indicating a spatial multiplexing mode and at least one rate to use for data transmission, wherein the spatial multiplexing mode is selected from a plurality of spatial multiplexing modes supported by the system; Receiving each of the rates selected from a set of rates supported by the system;
Spatially processing at least one received symbol stream according to a spatial multiplexing mode to obtain at least one recovered data symbol stream; and
Demodulating and decoding at least one recovered data symbol stream according to at least one rate to obtain at least one decoded data stream.
[Appendix 56]
Spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode in which multiple received symbol streams are spatially processed with multiple eigenvectors for multiple spatial channels of a MIMO channel to obtain multiple recovered data symbol streams. The method according to appendix 55.
[Appendix 57]
56. The method of appendix 55, wherein the spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode.
[Appendix 58]
To obtain multiple recovered data symbol streams, multiple received symbol streams based on channel correlation matrix inversion (CCMI), minimum mean square error (MMSE), or continuous interference cancellation (SIC) techniques are used. 58. The method of appendix 57, wherein the method is spatially processed.
[Appendix 59]
58. The method of clause 57, wherein one received symbol stream is processed with an estimate of channel gain to obtain one recovered data symbol stream.
[Appendix 60]
An apparatus in a wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system comprising:
A controller that operates to receive information indicating a spatial multiplexing mode and at least one rate to use for data transmission, the spatial multiplexing mode from among a plurality of spatial multiplexing modes supported by the system A controller, wherein each of the at least one rate is selected from a set of rates supported by the system;
A receive spatial processor that operates to spatially process at least one received symbol stream in accordance with a spatial multiplexing mode to obtain at least one recovered data symbol stream; and
A received data processor that operates to demodulate and decode at least one recovered data symbol stream according to at least one rate to obtain at least one decoded data stream.

Claims (60)

  1. A method for transmitting data in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system for wireless multiple access, the method comprising:
    Selecting at least one user terminal for data transmission;
    Selecting a spatial multiplexing mode from among a plurality of spatial multiplexing modes supported by the system for use in the at least one user terminal;
    Selecting a plurality of rates for a plurality of data streams to be transmitted over a plurality of spatial channels of a MIMO channel for the at least one user terminal; and a plurality of selected rates and selections Scheduling said at least one user terminal for data transmission in a given spatial multiplexing mode
    Here, selecting the spatial multiplexing mode selects a steering vector matrix used for spatial processing of transmission data symbols in a transmitter according to the spatial multiplexing mode, and selects according to the spatial multiplexing mode. This is accomplished by selecting a spatial filter matrix that is used to spatially process the received data symbols at the receiver.
  2.   The method of claim 1, wherein one user terminal is selected for data transmission, and the selected spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode.
  3.   3. The method of claim 2, further comprising spatially processing the plurality of data streams having the plurality of steering vectors to transmit the plurality of data streams on orthogonal spatial channels to one user terminal.
  4.   The method of claim 1, wherein one user terminal is selected for data transmission and the selected spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode.
  5.   The method of claim 4, further comprising providing multiple data streams for transmission from multiple antennas to one user terminal.
  6.   The method according to claim 1, wherein a plurality of user terminals are selected for data transmission, and the selected spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode.
  7.   The method of claim 6, further comprising spatially processing the plurality of data streams having the plurality of steering vectors to steer the plurality of data streams to the plurality of user terminals.
  8.   Performing receiver spatial processing on a plurality of received symbol streams to obtain estimates of a plurality of data streams transmitted by a plurality of user terminals, each data stream for steering a data stream 7. The method of claim 6, further comprising performing receiver spatial processing that is processed with each steering vector.
  9.   The method of claim 1, wherein a plurality of user terminals are selected for data transmission, and the selected spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode.
  10.   The method of claim 9, further comprising performing receiver spatial processing on the plurality of received symbol streams to obtain estimates of the plurality of data streams transmitted by the plurality of user terminals.
  11.   The method of claim 9, further comprising providing a plurality of data streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to a plurality of user terminals each having a plurality of antennas.
  12.   The method of claim 1, wherein the MIMO system is a time division duplex (TDD) system.
  13.   The method of claim 12, wherein the selected spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode if at least one user terminal is adjusted and the downlink channel response is opposite to the uplink channel response.
  14.   13. The selected spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode if at least one user terminal is not coordinated and the downlink channel response is not reciprocal with the uplink channel response. the method of.
  15. Selecting multiple rates
    The method of claim 1, comprising estimating a signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SNR) of a plurality of spatial channels and selecting a plurality of rates based on the estimated SNR of the plurality of spatial channels.
  16. An apparatus in a wireless multiple access multiple input multiple output (MIMO) communication system comprising:
    A terminal selector operable to select at least one user terminal for data transmission;
    A mode selector operable to select a spatial multiplexing mode from among a plurality of spatial multiplexing modes supported by the system for use in the at least one user terminal;
    A rate selector operable to select a plurality of rates for a plurality of data streams to be transmitted over a plurality of spatial channels of a MIMO channel for the at least one user terminal; and A scheduler operable to schedule the at least one user terminal for data transmission in a selected rate and a selected spatial multiplexing mode;
    Here, selecting the spatial multiplexing mode selects a steering vector matrix used for spatial processing of transmission data symbols in a transmitter according to the spatial multiplexing mode, and selects according to the spatial multiplexing mode. This is accomplished by selecting a spatial filter matrix that is used to spatially process the received data symbols at the receiver .
  17.   A transmission space that operates to spatially process a plurality of data streams according to a selected spatial multiplexing mode to obtain a plurality of transmission symbol streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to the at least one user terminal. The apparatus of claim 16, further comprising a processor.
  18.   A receiving spatial processor that operates to spatially process a plurality of received symbol streams according to a selected spatial multiplexing mode to obtain an estimate of a plurality of data streams transmitted by the at least one user terminal The apparatus of claim 16, further comprising:
  19. An apparatus in a wireless multiple access multiple input multiple output (MIMO) communication system comprising:
    Means for selecting at least one user terminal for data transmission;
    Means for selecting a spatial multiplexing mode from among a plurality of spatial multiplexing modes supported by the system for use in the at least one user terminal;
    Means for selecting a plurality of rates for a plurality of data streams to be transmitted over a plurality of spatial channels of a MIMO channel for the at least one user terminal; and a plurality of selected rates And means for scheduling the at least one user terminal for data transmission in a selected spatial multiplexing mode;
    Here, selecting the spatial multiplexing mode selects a steering vector matrix used for spatial processing of transmission data symbols in a transmitter according to the spatial multiplexing mode, and selects according to the spatial multiplexing mode. This is accomplished by selecting a spatial filter matrix that is used to spatially process the received data symbols at the receiver .
  20.   Means for spatially processing the plurality of data streams according to the selected spatial multiplexing mode to obtain a plurality of transmission symbol streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to the at least one user terminal. The apparatus of claim 19.
  21.   Means for spatially processing a plurality of received symbol streams according to a selected spatial multiplexing mode to obtain an estimate of a plurality of data streams transmitted by the at least one user terminal. The apparatus of claim 19.
  22. A method for transmitting data in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system for wireless multiple access, the method comprising:
    Selecting a first user terminal for data transmission at a first transmission interval;
    Selecting a first spatial multiplexing mode for use with a first user terminal;
    Selecting a second user terminal for data transmission at a second transmission interval;
    Selecting a second spatial multiplexing mode for use with a second user terminal;
    Scheduling a first user terminal for data transmission at a first transmission interval according to a first spatial multiplexing mode;
    Scheduling a second user terminal for data transmission at a second transmission interval in a second spatial multiplexing mode;
    Here, selecting the spatial multiplexing mode selects a steering vector matrix used for spatial processing of transmission data symbols in a transmitter according to the spatial multiplexing mode, and selects according to the spatial multiplexing mode. This is accomplished by selecting a spatial filter matrix that is used to spatially process the received data symbols at the receiver .
  23.   23. The method of claim 22, wherein the first spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode and the second spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode.
  24. Spatially processing the first plurality of data streams with the plurality of steering vectors to transmit to the first user terminal the first plurality of data streams on a spatial channel orthogonal to the MIMO channel;
    24. The method of claim 23, further comprising providing a second plurality of data streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to a second user terminal.
  25. Performing receiver spatial processing on the first plurality of received symbol streams with a plurality of eigenvectors to obtain an estimate of the first plurality of data streams transmitted by the first user terminal;
    Performing receiver spatial processing on the second plurality of received symbol streams according to a spatial filter to obtain an estimate of the second plurality of data streams transmitted by the second user terminal. 24. The method of claim 23.
  26. Selecting, for a first user terminal, a first plurality of rates for a first plurality of data streams to be transmitted via a first plurality of spatial channels of a first MIMO channel; And
    Selecting a second plurality of rates for a second plurality of data streams to be transmitted via a second plurality of spatial channels of a second MIMO channel to a second user terminal; And further comprising
    24. The method of claim 23, wherein the first user terminal is further scheduled at a first plurality of rates and the second user terminal is scheduled at a second plurality of rates.
  27. An apparatus in a wireless multiple access multiple input multiple output (MIMO) communication system comprising:
    A user operating to select a first user terminal for data transmission at a first transmission interval and operating to select a second user terminal for data transmission at a second transmission interval Selector;
    A mode that operates to select a first spatial multiplexing mode for use in a first user terminal and that operates to select a second spatial multiplexing mode for use in a second user terminal Selector;
    Operates to schedule the first user terminal for data transmission at the first transmission interval in the first spatial multiplexing mode, and transmits data at the second transmission interval in the second spatial multiplexing mode A scheduler that operates to schedule a second user terminal for
    Here, selecting the spatial multiplexing mode selects a steering vector matrix used for spatial processing of transmission data symbols in a transmitter according to the spatial multiplexing mode, and selects according to the spatial multiplexing mode. This is accomplished by selecting a spatial filter matrix that is used to spatially process the received data symbols at the receiver .
  28.   28. The apparatus of claim 27, wherein the first spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode and the second spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode.
  29. Acting to spatially process the first plurality of data streams with a plurality of steering vectors to transmit to the first user terminal the first plurality of data streams on a spatial channel orthogonal to the MIMO channel And
    30. The apparatus of claim 28, further comprising a transmit spatial processor operative to provide a second plurality of data streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to a second user terminal.
  30. Operate to perform receiver spatial processing on the first plurality of received symbol streams with the plurality of eigenvectors to obtain an estimate of the first plurality of data streams transmitted by the first user terminal. ,
    A reception that operates to perform receiver spatial processing on the second plurality of received symbol streams in accordance with a spatial filter to obtain an estimate of the second plurality of data streams transmitted by the second user terminal. 30. The apparatus of claim 28, further comprising a spatial processor.
  31. An apparatus in a wireless multiple access multiple input multiple output (MIMO) communication system comprising:
    Means for selecting a first user terminal for data transmission at a first transmission interval;
    Means for selecting a first spatial multiplexing mode for use with the first user terminal;
    Means for selecting a second user terminal for data transmission at a second transmission interval;
    Means for selecting a second spatial multiplexing mode for use with the second user terminal;
    Means for scheduling a first user terminal for data transmission at a first transmission interval according to a first spatial multiplexing mode;
    Means for scheduling a second user terminal for data transmission at a second transmission interval in a second spatial multiplexing mode;
    Here, selecting the spatial multiplexing mode selects a steering vector matrix used for spatial processing of transmission data symbols in a transmitter according to the spatial multiplexing mode, and selects according to the spatial multiplexing mode. This is accomplished by selecting a spatial filter matrix that is used to spatially process the received data symbols at the receiver .
  32.   32. The apparatus of claim 31, wherein the first spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode and the second spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode.
  33. Means for spatially processing the first plurality of data streams with a plurality of steering vectors to transmit to the first user terminal the first plurality of data streams on a spatial channel orthogonal to the MIMO channel When,
    35. The apparatus of claim 32, further comprising means for providing a second plurality of data streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to a second user terminal.
  34. Means for performing receiver spatial processing on the first plurality of received symbol streams with a plurality of eigenvectors to obtain an estimate of the first plurality of data streams transmitted by the first user terminal; ,
    Means for performing receiver spatial processing on the second plurality of received symbol streams according to a spatial filter to obtain an estimate of the second plurality of data streams transmitted by the second user terminal; The apparatus of claim 32, further comprising:
  35. A method for transmitting data in a wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system, comprising:
    Encoding and modulating the first plurality of data streams to obtain the first plurality of data symbol streams;
    A first plurality of data symbol streams with a first plurality of steering vectors to obtain a first plurality of transmission symbol streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to a first user terminal at a first transmission interval; Processing spatially;
    Encoding and modulating a second plurality of data streams to obtain a second plurality of data symbol streams; and for transmission from a plurality of antennas to a second user terminal in a second transmission interval Providing a second plurality of data symbol streams as a second plurality of transmitted symbol streams;
    Here, the spatial processing of the data symbol stream is based on a spatial multiplexing mode selected by the following procedure:
    Selecting a steering vector matrix to be used for spatial processing of transmitted data symbols at the transmitter according to the spatial multiplexing mode; and
    Selecting a spatial filter matrix to be used for spatial processing of received data symbols in the receiver according to the spatial multiplexing mode .
  36.   Further comprising deriving a first plurality of steering vectors such that the first plurality of data streams are transmitted on the plurality of orthogonal spatial channels of the first MIMO channel to the first user terminal. Item 36. The method according to Item 35.
  37. Encoding and modulating the third plurality of data streams to obtain a third plurality of data symbol streams;
    A third plurality of data symbol streams with a second plurality of steering vectors to obtain a third plurality of transmission symbol streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to a plurality of user terminals at a third transmission interval. 36. The method of claim 35, further comprising spatially processing.
  38.   38. The method of claim 37, further comprising deriving a second plurality of steering vectors such that the third plurality of data streams are received at the plurality of user terminals with reduced interference.
  39. An apparatus in a wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system comprising:
    Operable to encode and modulate the first plurality of data streams to obtain a first plurality of data symbol streams;
    A transmit data processor operable to encode and modulate the second plurality of data streams to obtain a second plurality of data symbol streams; and a first user terminal from the plurality of antennas at the first transmission interval Operating the first plurality of data symbol streams spatially with the first plurality of steering vectors to obtain a first plurality of transmission symbol streams for transmission to the
    A transmission spatial processor that operates to provide a second plurality of data symbol streams as a second plurality of transmission symbol streams for transmission from a plurality of antennas to a second user terminal at a second transmission interval;
    Here, the spatial processing of the data symbol stream is based on a spatial multiplexing mode selected by the following procedure:
    Selecting a steering vector matrix to be used for spatial processing of transmitted data symbols at the transmitter according to the spatial multiplexing mode; and
    Selecting a spatial filter matrix to be used for spatial processing of received data symbols in the receiver according to the spatial multiplexing mode .
  40. A method for receiving data in a wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system, comprising:
    Performing receiver spatial processing on the first plurality of received symbol streams according to a first spatial multiplexing mode to obtain a first plurality of recovered data symbol streams;
    Demodulating and decoding the first plurality of recovered data symbol streams according to the first plurality of rates to obtain a first plurality of decoded data streams;
    Performing receiver spatial processing on the second plurality of received symbol streams in accordance with a second spatial multiplexing mode to obtain a second plurality of recovered data symbol streams; and a second plurality of decoding Demodulating and decoding a second plurality of recovered data symbol streams according to a second plurality of rates to obtain a reconstructed data stream;
    Here, the first and second spatial multiplexing modes are selected by the following procedure:
    Selecting a steering vector matrix to be used for spatial processing of transmitted data symbols at the transmitter according to the spatial multiplexing mode; and
    Selecting a spatial filter matrix to be used for spatial processing of received data symbols in the receiver according to the spatial multiplexing mode .
  41.   The first spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode, where a first plurality of received symbol streams are spatially processed with a plurality of eigenvectors for a plurality of spatial channels of a MIMO channel for a user terminal. 41. The method of claim 40.
  42.   41. The method of claim 40, wherein the second spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode.
  43.   43. The method of claim 42, wherein the second plurality of decoded data streams is an estimate of the plurality of data streams transmitted by a single user terminal.
  44.   43. The method of claim 42, wherein the second plurality of decoded data streams is an estimate of a plurality of data streams transmitted simultaneously by a plurality of user terminals.
  45.   43. The method of claim 42, wherein the second plurality of received symbol streams is spatially processed based on a channel correlation matrix inversion (CCMI) technique.
  46.   43. The method of claim 42, wherein the second plurality of received symbol streams is spatially processed based on a minimum mean square error (MMSE) technique.
  47.   43. The method of claim 42, wherein the second plurality of received symbol streams is spatially processed based on successive interference cancellation (SIC) techniques.
  48. An apparatus in a wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system comprising:
    Operative to perform receiver spatial processing on the first plurality of received symbol streams according to a first spatial multiplexing mode to obtain a first plurality of recovered data symbol streams;
    A receive spatial processor operative to perform receiver spatial processing on the second plurality of received symbol streams according to a second spatial multiplexing mode to obtain a second plurality of recovered data symbol streams; and Operable to demodulate and decode the first plurality of recovered data symbol streams in accordance with the first plurality of rates to obtain a first plurality of decoded data streams;
    A received data processor that operates to demodulate and decode the second plurality of recovered data symbol streams according to the second plurality of rates to obtain a second plurality of decoded data streams;
    Here, the first and second spatial multiplexing modes are selected by the following procedure:
    Selecting a steering vector matrix to be used for spatial processing of transmitted data symbols at the transmitter according to the spatial multiplexing mode; and
    Selecting a spatial filter matrix to be used for spatial processing of received data symbols in the receiver according to the spatial multiplexing mode .
  49. A method for transmitting data in a wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system, comprising:
    Receiving information indicating a spatial multiplexing mode and a plurality of rates used for data transmission, wherein the spatial multiplexing mode is selected from a plurality of spatial multiplexing modes supported by the system; Receiving each of the rates selected from a set of rates supported by the system;
    Encoding and modulating multiple data streams according to multiple rates to obtain multiple data symbol streams; and multiple according to spatial multiplexing mode to obtain multiple transmit symbol streams for transmission from multiple antennas Spatially processing the data symbol stream of
    Here, selecting the spatial multiplexing mode selects a steering vector matrix used for spatial processing of transmission data symbols in a transmitter according to the spatial multiplexing mode, and selects according to the spatial multiplexing mode. This is accomplished by selecting a spatial filter matrix that is used to spatially process the received data symbols at the receiver.
  50.   Spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode, where multiple data symbol streams are spatially processed with multiple steering vectors to transmit multiple data symbol streams on multiple orthogonal spatial channels of a MIMO channel. 50. The method of claim 49.
  51.   51. The method of claim 50, further comprising transmitting a steered pilot on each of a plurality of orthogonal spatial channels.
  52.   50. The method of claim 49, wherein the spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode, and the plurality of data symbol streams are provided as a plurality of transmission symbol streams.
  53.   50. The method of claim 49, further comprising performing an adjustment such that the uplink channel response is inconsistent with the downlink channel response.
  54. An apparatus in a wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system comprising:
    A controller that operates to receive information indicating a spatial multiplexing mode and a plurality of rates used for data transmission, and the spatial multiplexing mode is selected from a plurality of spatial multiplexing modes supported by the system. A controller, wherein each of the plurality of rates is selected from a set of rates supported by the system;
    A transmit data processor that operates to encode and modulate multiple data streams according to multiple rates to obtain multiple data symbol streams; and to obtain multiple transmit symbol streams for transmission from multiple antennas A transmit spatial processor that operates to spatially process a plurality of data symbol streams according to a spatial multiplexing mode;
    Here, selecting the spatial multiplexing mode selects a steering vector matrix used for spatial processing of transmission data symbols in a transmitter according to the spatial multiplexing mode, and selects according to the spatial multiplexing mode. This is accomplished by selecting a spatial filter matrix that is used to spatially process the received data symbols at the receiver.
  55. A method for receiving data in a wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system, comprising:
    Receiving information indicating a spatial multiplexing mode and at least one rate to use for data transmission, wherein the spatial multiplexing mode is selected from a plurality of spatial multiplexing modes supported by the system; Receiving each of the rates selected from a set of rates supported by the system;
    Spatially processing at least one received symbol stream according to a spatial multiplexing mode to obtain at least one recovered data symbol stream; and at least one to obtain at least one decoded data stream Demodulating and decoding at least one recovered data symbol stream according to a rate;
    Here, selecting the spatial multiplexing mode selects a steering vector matrix used for spatial processing of transmission data symbols in a transmitter according to the spatial multiplexing mode, and selects according to the spatial multiplexing mode. This is accomplished by selecting a spatial filter matrix that is used to spatially process the received data symbols at the receiver.
  56.   Spatial multiplexing mode is a steered spatial multiplexing mode in which multiple received symbol streams are spatially processed with multiple eigenvectors for multiple spatial channels of a MIMO channel to obtain multiple recovered data symbol streams. 56. The method of claim 55.
  57.   56. The method of claim 55, wherein the spatial multiplexing mode is a non-steered spatial multiplexing mode.
  58.   To obtain multiple recovered data symbol streams, multiple received symbol streams based on channel correlation matrix inversion (CCMI), minimum mean square error (MMSE), or continuous interference cancellation (SIC) techniques are used. 58. The method of claim 57, wherein the method is spatially processed.
  59.   58. The method of claim 57, wherein one received symbol stream is processed with an estimate of channel gain to obtain one recovered data symbol stream.
  60. An apparatus in a wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system comprising:
    A controller that operates to receive information indicating a spatial multiplexing mode and at least one rate to use for data transmission, the spatial multiplexing mode from among a plurality of spatial multiplexing modes supported by the system A controller, wherein each of the at least one rate is selected from a set of rates supported by the system;
    A receiving spatial processor that operates to spatially process at least one received symbol stream according to a spatial multiplexing mode to obtain at least one recovered data symbol stream; and at least one decoded data stream A received data processor that operates to demodulate and decode at least one recovered data symbol stream according to at least one rate to obtain
    Here, selecting the spatial multiplexing mode selects a steering vector matrix used for spatial processing of transmission data symbols in a transmitter according to the spatial multiplexing mode, and selects according to the spatial multiplexing mode. This is accomplished by selecting a spatial filter matrix that is used to spatially process the received data symbols at the receiver.
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