JP4973324B2 - Cold spray method, cold spray device - Google Patents

Cold spray method, cold spray device Download PDF

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JP4973324B2
JP4973324B2 JP2007152894A JP2007152894A JP4973324B2 JP 4973324 B2 JP4973324 B2 JP 4973324B2 JP 2007152894 A JP2007152894 A JP 2007152894A JP 2007152894 A JP2007152894 A JP 2007152894A JP 4973324 B2 JP4973324 B2 JP 4973324B2
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material powder
temperature
cold spray
base material
material
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JP2008302317A (en
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圭司 久布白
彰洋 佐藤
廣喜 吉澤
洋平 榊原
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株式会社Ihi
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C24/00Coating starting from inorganic powder
    • C23C24/02Coating starting from inorganic powder by application of pressure only
    • C23C24/04Impact or kinetic deposition of particles

Description

  The present invention relates to a cold spray method and a cold spray apparatus.

In recent years, a cold spray method has attracted attention as a new coating method. This cold spray is a technique in which a material powder is jetted from a nozzle at a high speed together with a working gas, and is allowed to collide with a substrate in a solid state to form a coating.
As the material powder, metals, alloys, intermetallic compounds, ceramics, and the like are used. Moreover, air, nitrogen, helium etc. are used as working gas, and it sets to temperature lower than melting | fusing point of material powder.

  In this cold spray, it is not necessary to heat the material powder to a high temperature as compared with the conventional plasma spraying method, flame spraying method, high-speed flame spraying method and the like. For this reason, there is almost no material change (oxidation and thermal alteration) by heating, and the coating film which has the intended property can be formed. That is, a dense film with high density and good adhesion can be obtained.

In cold spray, in order to improve the adhesion efficiency of the material powder, that is, the ratio of the sprayed material powder adhering to the base material, the particle size of the material powder is reduced, the injection speed of the material powder is increased, and the operation is performed. A technique has been proposed in which the temperature of a gas is controlled (for example, 600 to 700 ° C.) and the material powder is heated to such an extent that no material change occurs (see Patent Document 1).
US Pat. No. 7,178,744

However, the conventional techniques have the following problems.
First, if the particle size of the material powder is reduced, the pulverization process takes time and the cost increases. Similarly, when the injection speed of the material powder is increased, the amount of working gas used is increased, leading to an increase in cost.
Furthermore, it is often difficult to control the working gas to a constant temperature. When the working gas temperature varies, there is a problem that the quality of the formed film becomes non-uniform. is there.

  The present invention has been made in view of the above-described circumstances, and can provide a cold spray method and a cold spray apparatus that can reliably improve the adhesion efficiency of material powder and can form a uniform quality film. The purpose is to propose.

In the cold spray method and the cold spray apparatus according to the present invention, the following means are employed in order to solve the above problems.
A first invention is a cold spray method in which material powder is sprayed from a nozzle at a high speed to be deposited on a base material, and a first step of controlling the temperature of the base material to a first predetermined temperature; A second step of injecting the material powder.
Thereby, when the material powder sprayed from the nozzle at high speed collides with the base material, the base material is easily deformed by absorbing heat from the base material.

The first predetermined temperature is a temperature not higher than a melting point of the material powder.
The first predetermined temperature (absolute temperature) is about half the melting point (absolute temperature) of the material powder.
Thereby, generation | occurrence | production of heat alteration etc. to material powder can be avoided.

Further, the first predetermined temperature is a temperature not higher than a melting point of the base material.
The first predetermined temperature (absolute temperature) is approximately half the melting point (absolute temperature) of the substrate.
Thereby, generation | occurrence | production of thermal alteration etc. can be avoided in material powder and a base material.

Further, the second step includes a step of preheating the material powder to a second predetermined temperature equal to or lower than the first predetermined temperature by a working gas injected from the nozzle together with the material powder.
As a result, the material powder is more easily deformed.

A second invention is a cold spray device that sprays material powder from a nozzle at a high speed and deposits the material powder on a substrate, and a substrate heating unit that heats the substrate to a first predetermined temperature below the melting point of the material powder; And a cold spray unit for injecting the material powder toward the base material.
Thereby, when the material powder sprayed from the nozzle at high speed collides with the base material, the base material is easily deformed by absorbing heat from the base material.

In addition, the cold spray unit includes a gas heating unit that heats the working gas sprayed together with the material powder from the nozzle to a second predetermined temperature that is equal to or lower than the first predetermined temperature.
As a result, the material powder is more easily deformed.

According to the present invention, the following effects can be obtained.
When the material powder is sprayed from the nozzle at a high speed and deposited on the substrate, the temperature of the substrate is controlled to the first predetermined temperature so that the material powder is easily deformed. Is attached to the base material, and improvement in the adhesion efficiency of the material powder can be achieved.
In addition, by preheating the material powder ejected from the nozzle, the material powder is more easily deformed, and the adhesion efficiency of the material powder can be improved.

Hereinafter, an embodiment of a cold spray method according to the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a schematic configuration of a cold spray apparatus 1 according to the present embodiment.
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram illustrating a schematic configuration of the cold spray unit 10 according to the present embodiment.
The cold spray system 1 includes a cold spray unit 10 and a base material temperature adjusting unit 50 for placing the base material B and controlling the temperature of the base material B to a constant temperature.

  The cold spray unit 10 is an apparatus for forming a film R by causing the material powder A to collide with the surface of the base material B in a solid state at a sonic speed to a supersonic speed. Spray gun 11 for spraying, powder supply unit 12 for supplying a desired amount of material powder A to the spray gun 11 together with the working gas G, gas heater 13 for heating and supplying the working gas G to the spray gun 11, powder supply unit 12 And a gas supply unit (not shown) for supplying the working gas G to the gas heater 13.

  The high-pressure working gas G supplied from the gas supply unit is branched into two paths, and one working gas G1 is heated to room temperature or higher via the gas heater 13 and then supplied to the spray gun 11. The other working gas G2 is supplied to the powder supply unit 12 and supplied to the spray gun 11 together with the material powder A as a carrier gas.

Then, the working gas G (G1, G2) and the material powder A supplied to the spray gun 11 become a sonic to supersonic flow through the nozzle 11N at the tip of the spray gun 11, and are ejected from the outlet of the nozzle 11N. The spraying speed (injection speed) of the material powder A is about 300 to 800 m / s.
As the working gas G, air, nitrogen, helium or the like is used. In particular, an inert gas (helium) is suitable. The gas pressure is about 0.27 to 0.69 MPa, but about 0.59 to 0.69 MPa is particularly suitable.

  The material powder A ejected from the outlet of the nozzle 11N collides with the base material B while remaining solid. The material powder A colliding with the base material B at high speed is plastically deformed and adheres to the base material B (forms a coating R). Further, when the material powder A collides with the base material B, the kinetic energy changes to thermal energy, and depending on the material, the material surface exceeds the melting point and can be bonded to obtain a strong adhesion.

In this way, the cold spray unit 10 forms the coating R by colliding with the base material B in the solid phase in the sonic to supersonic flow together with the working gas G without melting or gasifying the material powder A. Can do.
Compared with the conventional plasma spraying method, flame spraying method, high-speed flame spraying method and the like, the material powder can be adhered to the base material B in a solid state without being heated so much.
The film R thus obtained has excellent properties such as denseness, high density, high thermal conductivity / conductivity, and good adhesion. In particular, since the material powder A is not heated and melted, it has an excellent property that there is almost no oxidation or thermal alteration.

  The base material temperature adjusting unit 50 places the base material B and can heat the base material B. The base plate temperature adjusting unit 50 is embedded in the heating plate 52 and detects the temperature of the heater 54 and the heating plate 52. The sensor 56 includes a temperature control unit 58 that operates the heater 54 based on the detection result of the temperature sensor 56, and the like.

As the heating plate 52, a material having high thermal conductivity, such as copper or aluminum, is preferably used.
As the heater 54, a high frequency coil (high frequency induction heating device) is preferably used. When the heater 54 (high frequency coil) connected to the AC power source is operated, a high-density eddy current is generated near the surface of the heating plate 52, and the heating plate 52 is induction-heated by the Joule heat. .
Thereby, even if the base material B is a non-conductive substance such as ceramics, the base material B is placed on the heating plate 52 and is heated by heat conduction from the heating plate 52.

A thermocouple is preferably used as the temperature sensor 56. The temperature of the heating plate 52 is detected by a temperature sensor 56 (thermocouple) embedded in the heating plate 52. Since the temperature of the heating plate 52 is substantially equal to the heating temperature of the base material B, this temperature can be regarded as the heating temperature of the base material B.
Therefore, the temperature control unit 58 can heat and maintain the base material B at a desired temperature by controlling the heater 54 based on the detection result of the temperature sensor 56.

The heating temperature K1 (first predetermined temperature) of the base material B is set to a temperature lower than the melting point of the material powder A.
When the base material B is heated, when the material powder A collides with the base material B, heat is conducted from the base material B to the material powder A, and thus the material powder A is easily plastically deformed. At this time, since the base material B is set at a temperature lower than the melting point of the material powder A, the material powder A is not dissolved and no material change (oxidation or thermal alteration) occurs. Furthermore, most of the sprayed material powder A adheres to the base material B, and the adhesion efficiency of the material powder A can be improved.

In particular, the heating temperature K1 of the base material B is preferably set to a temperature (absolute temperature) of about half the melting point (absolute temperature) of the material powder A. This is to reliably avoid the occurrence of material change.
Specifically, when the material powder A is aluminum, since the melting point of aluminum is 993K, the heating temperature of the base material B is set to 466.5K or less. When the material powder A is nickel (melting point 1726K), the heating temperature of the base material B is set to 863K or less.
Similarly, in the case of gold (melting point 1337K), the heating temperature is 668.5K or lower, in the case of silver (melting point 1234K), the heating temperature 617K or lower, in the case of copper (melting point 1356K), the heating temperature 678K or lower, iron (melting point 1808K). In this case, the heating temperature is set to 904K or less.

For example, in order to improve the wear resistance of the surface of the base material B, it is conceivable to attach tungsten carbide (WC). Since the melting point of WC is 3020K, the temperature of the base material B is desirably 1510K or less.
However, the melting point of the base material B is generally much lower than that of WC. For example, if a Ni-based alloy is used as the base material B, the melting point is about 1600 to 1900K. The following is desirable.

Further, the heating temperature K1 of the base material B is set to a temperature lower than the melting point of the base material B. This is to prevent a material change from occurring in the base material B itself.
In particular, the heating temperature K1 of the base material B is preferably set to a temperature (absolute temperature) that is about half the melting point (absolute temperature) of the base material B. This is to reliably avoid the occurrence of material change.
Specifically, when the base material B is aluminum, since the melting point of aluminum is 993K, the heating temperature of the base material B is set to 466.5K or less. When the base material B is nickel (melting point 1726K), the heating temperature of the base material B is set to 863K or less.
Similarly, in the case of gold (melting point 1337K), the heating temperature is 668.5K or lower, in the case of silver (melting point 1234K), the heating temperature 617K or lower, in the case of copper (melting point 1356K), the heating temperature 678K or lower, iron (melting point 1808K). In this case, the heating temperature is set to 904K or less.

  For example, when an Al-based alloy is used as the base material B, for example, the melting point of Al-4 wt% Cu is 920K, so that it is preferably less than half thereof, ie, 460K or less. More specifically, in AC1A-F of an Al—Cu casting, a T6 heat treatment (36 ks solution at 788 K, followed by tempering at 2433 ks at 433 K) is performed. Therefore, it is desirable that the temperature of the base material B is lower than the tempering temperature (433 K or less) even when cold spraying is performed.

Moreover, when injecting material powder A from the cold spray part 10, the material powder A is heated by the working gas G to the temperature K2 (second predetermined temperature) lower than the heating temperature K1 of the base material B described above. That is, the working gas G is heated to a temperature K2 that is lower than the heating temperature K1 (first predetermined temperature) of the base material B described above to preheat the material powder A.
Thereby, since the temperature difference between the material powder A and the base material B becomes small, when the material powder A collides with the base material B, heat conduction is performed instantaneously and reliably, and the material powder A is plastically deformed. It becomes easy to do. That is, the amount of heat conduction from the base material B to the material powder A can be reduced, and the heat conduction from the base material B to the material powder A is ensured.
Moreover, since the heating temperature K2 of the material powder A by the working gas G is set lower than the heating temperature K1 of the base material B, the heat of the material powder A can be prevented from being absorbed by the base material B.

The heating temperature K2 of the working gas G is desirably set for each material of the material powder A.
For example, when the material powder A is Al, the working gas G temperature K2 is set to 466.5K or less, when Ni (melting point 1728K), 864K or less, and when Ti (melting point 1940K), 970K or less.

In addition, for example, the material powder A may be set separately for a soft material and a hard material.
Specifically, when the material powder A is aluminum which is a soft material, the heating temperature K2 of the working gas G is set to about 437 K (200 ° C.). At this time, the heating temperature K1 of the base material B is about 466K at the maximum. Thereby, the temperature difference between the material powder A and the base material B becomes small, and when the material powder A collides with the base material B, heat conduction is performed instantaneously and reliably, and the material powder A is plastically deformed. Good film R can be formed.

Moreover, when the material powder A is copper which is a soft material, the heating temperature K2 of the working gas G is set to about 437 K (200 ° C.). At this time, the heating temperature K1 of the base material B is about 678K at the maximum.
Similarly, when the material powder A is gold or silver, the heating temperature K2 of the working gas G is set to about 437 K (200 ° C.). At this time, the heating temperature K1 of the base material B is about 668K and 617K at the maximum.

When the material powder A is nickel which is a hard material, the heating temperature K2 of the working gas G is set to about 637K (400 ° C.). At this time, the heating temperature K1 of the base material B is about 863K at the maximum.
When the material powder A is iron which is a hard material, the heating temperature K2 of the working gas G is set to about 637K (400 ° C.). At this time, the heating temperature K1 of the base material B is about 904K at the maximum.

  The operation procedures shown in the above-described embodiment, or the shapes and combinations of the constituent members are examples, and can be variously changed based on various conditions, design requirements, and the like without departing from the gist of the present invention.

For example, in the above-described embodiment, the case where the heating plate 52 of the substrate temperature adjusting unit 50 is induction-heated to heat the substrate B placed on the heating plate 52 by heat conduction has been described. Not exclusively.
For example, when the base material B is a conductor, the heating plate 52 may not be used. That is, when the heater 54 (high-frequency coil) is operated, an eddy current is generated in the base material B, and the base material B is induction-heated directly without contact.

  Further, a laser heating device may be used instead of the high frequency coil. In the case of the laser heating device, only the region of the surface of the base material B where the material powder A is sprayed can be locally heated, so that the device can be made compact.

  As the temperature sensor 56, an infrared detection type temperature sensor may be used to detect the surface temperature of the substrate B in a non-contact and direct manner. In particular, an infrared detection type temperature sensor is suitable when an eddy current is generated in the base material B and induction heating is performed without using the heating plate 52.

It is a mimetic diagram showing a schematic structure of a cold spray device concerning an embodiment of the present invention. It is a schematic diagram which shows schematic structure of the cold spray part which concerns on this embodiment.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Cold spray apparatus 10 ... Cold spray part 11N ... Nozzle 13 ... Gas heater (gas heating part)
50. Base material temperature adjustment part (base material heating part)
B ... Substrate A ... Material powder G ... Working gas R ... Coating K1 ... Substrate heating temperature (first predetermined temperature)
K2 ... Working gas heating temperature (second predetermined temperature)

Claims (8)

  1. In a cold spray method in which material powder is sprayed at high speed from a nozzle and deposited on a substrate,
    A first step of controlling the temperature of only the region of the substrate on which the material powder is sprayed by a laser heating device to a first predetermined temperature;
    A second step of injecting the material powder toward the substrate;
    A cold spray method characterized by comprising:
  2.   The cold spray method according to claim 1, wherein the first predetermined temperature is a temperature not higher than a melting point of the material powder.
  3.   3. The cold spray method according to claim 2, wherein the first predetermined temperature (absolute temperature) is about half the melting point (absolute temperature) of the material powder.
  4.   The cold spray method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the first predetermined temperature is a temperature equal to or lower than a melting point of the base material.
  5.   5. The cold spray method according to claim 4, wherein the first predetermined temperature (absolute temperature) is about half the melting point (absolute temperature) of the substrate.
  6.   The second step includes a step of preheating the material powder to a second predetermined temperature that is equal to or lower than the first predetermined temperature by a working gas injected together with the material powder from the nozzle. The cold spray method according to any one of 5.
  7. In a cold spray device in which material powder is sprayed at high speed from a nozzle and deposited on a substrate,
    A base material heating section that heats only the region of the base material to which the material powder is sprayed by a laser heating device to a first predetermined temperature below the melting point of the material powder;
    A cold spray unit for injecting the material powder toward the substrate;
    A cold spray device comprising:
  8.   The cold spray unit according to claim 7, wherein the cold spray unit includes a gas heating unit that heats a working gas sprayed together with the material powder from the nozzle to a second predetermined temperature that is equal to or lower than the first predetermined temperature. apparatus.
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JP4310251B2 (en) * 2003-09-02 2009-08-05 国立大学法人信州大学 Nozzle for cold spray and method for producing cold spray coating
US20060040048A1 (en) * 2004-08-23 2006-02-23 Taeyoung Han Continuous in-line manufacturing process for high speed coating deposition via a kinetic spray process
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