JP4954444B2 - Channel forming member, exposure apparatus, and device manufacturing method - Google Patents

Channel forming member, exposure apparatus, and device manufacturing method Download PDF

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JP4954444B2
JP4954444B2 JP2003431950A JP2003431950A JP4954444B2 JP 4954444 B2 JP4954444 B2 JP 4954444B2 JP 2003431950 A JP2003431950 A JP 2003431950A JP 2003431950 A JP2003431950 A JP 2003431950A JP 4954444 B2 JP4954444 B2 JP 4954444B2
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liquid
suction port
member
space
flow path
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JP2005191344A (en
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英明 原
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株式会社ニコン
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70216Systems for imaging mask onto workpiece
    • G03F7/70341Immersion

Description

The present invention irradiates exposure light onto a substrate via a flow path forming member that forms an immersion region so that the optical path of exposure light between the optical member and the object is filled with the liquid , the projection optical system, and the liquid. The present invention relates to an exposure apparatus for exposing a substrate and a device manufacturing method.

Semiconductor devices and liquid crystal display devices are manufactured by a so-called photolithography technique in which a pattern formed on a mask is transferred onto a photosensitive substrate. An exposure apparatus used in this photolithography process has a mask stage for supporting a mask and a substrate stage for supporting a substrate, and a mask pattern is transferred via a projection optical system while sequentially moving the mask stage and the substrate stage. It is transferred to the substrate. In recent years, in order to cope with higher integration of device patterns, higher resolution of the projection optical system is desired. The resolution of the projection optical system becomes higher as the exposure wavelength used is shorter and the numerical aperture of the projection optical system is larger. Therefore, the exposure wavelength used in the exposure apparatus is shortened year by year, and the numerical aperture of the projection optical system is also increasing. The mainstream exposure wavelength is 248 nm of the KrF excimer laser, but the 193 nm of the shorter wavelength ArF excimer laser is also being put into practical use. Also, when performing exposure, the depth of focus (DOF) is important as well as the resolution. The resolution R and the depth of focus δ are each expressed by the following equations.
R = k 1 · λ / NA (1)
δ = ± k 2 · λ / NA 2 (2)
Here, λ is the exposure wavelength, NA is the numerical aperture of the projection optical system, and k 1 and k 2 are process coefficients. From the equations (1) and (2), it can be seen that the depth of focus δ becomes narrower when the exposure wavelength λ is shortened and the numerical aperture NA is increased in order to increase the resolution R.

If the depth of focus δ becomes too narrow, it becomes difficult to match the substrate surface with the image plane of the projection optical system, and the focus margin during the exposure operation may be insufficient. Therefore, as a method for substantially shortening the exposure wavelength and increasing the depth of focus, for example, a liquid immersion method disclosed in Patent Document 1 below has been proposed. In this immersion method, a space between the lower surface of the projection optical system and the substrate surface is filled with a liquid such as water or an organic solvent to form an immersion region, and the wavelength of exposure light in the liquid is 1 / n of that in air. (Where n is the refractive index of the liquid, which is usually about 1.2 to 1.6), the resolution is improved, and the depth of focus is expanded about n times.
International Publication No. 99/49504 Pamphlet

  By the way, the above prior art is a local liquid immersion method in which a liquid immersion region is locally formed on a substrate. However, in the local liquid immersion method, it is important to maintain the size of the liquid immersion region on the substrate. It is. For example, when the liquid immersion area becomes large and the liquid in the liquid immersion area flows out of the substrate, inconveniences such as rusting occur on mechanical parts around the substrate stage that holds the substrate. Also, the environment in which the substrate is placed (humidity, temperature, etc.) fluctuates due to the spilled liquid, for example, causing a change in the refractive index on the optical path of the measurement light of the interferometer that measures the position information of the substrate stage. It can also affect accuracy. On the other hand, if the immersion area becomes smaller than the projection area of the projection optical system during exposure light exposure, or if the immersion area is not formed in the desired state due to depletion of the liquid on the substrate, exposure is not performed via the liquid. Light is irradiated onto the substrate, resulting in deterioration of exposure accuracy.

  In addition, when the liquid on the substrate is sucked and collected from the liquid recovery port, the size of the liquid immersion area on the substrate changes and the end of the liquid immersion area moves. Situation that is not covered by occurs. For example, if the recovery port is not covered with liquid, it is recovered from the recovery port by biting the surrounding gas together with the liquid, so that the recovered liquid is divided into droplets and is recovered from the recovery port. It flows into a collection pipe connected to the collection port. In this case, there is a high possibility that the liquid in the droplet state hits the collection tube and generates a sound or vibration, and the exposure accuracy deteriorates due to the generated vibration.

The present invention has been made in view of such circumstances, and a flow path forming member, an exposure apparatus, and a device using the exposure apparatus that can obtain high exposure accuracy while maintaining the size of the liquid immersion region. An object is to provide a manufacturing method.

In order to solve the above-described problems, the present invention adopts the following configuration corresponding to FIGS. 1 to 7 shown in the embodiment.
An exposure apparatus (EX) of the present invention is an exposure apparatus that exposes a substrate (P) by irradiating the substrate (P) with exposure light (EL) via a projection optical system (PL) and a liquid (LQ). , Supply ports (13, 14) for supplying liquid (LQ), and first suction ports (13, 14) provided outside the supply ports (13, 14) with respect to the projection area (AR1) of the projection optical system (PL). 25), a second suction port (26) provided outside the first suction port (25), and a first member (27) provided at the first suction port (25) and having a first flow resistance. ) And a second member (28) provided at the second suction port (26) and having a second flow resistance different from the first flow resistance, and the second suction port (26), An end (EG) of the immersion area (AR2) formed on the image plane side of the projection optical system (PL) by the liquid (LQ) is disposed. The features.
The device manufacturing method of the present invention is characterized by using the above-described exposure apparatus (EX).

  According to the present invention, by arranging the end of the liquid immersion area at the second suction port, the first suction port is completely covered with the liquid, and the liquid is recovered well through the first suction port. By controlling the position of the end of the liquid immersion region, the movement of the end can be suppressed. Therefore, the size of the liquid immersion area can be maintained, and high exposure accuracy can be obtained by preventing the outflow or depletion of liquid or occurrence of vibration.

  According to the present invention, since the size of the liquid immersion area on the substrate can be maintained and high exposure accuracy can be obtained, a device having desired performance can be manufactured.

The exposure apparatus of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings. FIG. 1 is a schematic block diagram showing an embodiment of the exposure apparatus of the present invention.
In FIG. 1, an exposure apparatus EX includes a mask stage MST that supports a mask M, a substrate stage PST that supports a substrate P, and an illumination optical system IL that illuminates the mask M supported by the mask stage MST with exposure light EL. A projection optical system PL that projects and exposes the pattern image of the mask M illuminated by the exposure light EL onto the substrate P supported by the substrate stage PST, and a control device CONT that controls the overall operation of the exposure apparatus EX. I have.

  The exposure apparatus EX of the present embodiment is an immersion exposure apparatus to which an immersion method is applied in order to improve the resolution by substantially shortening the exposure wavelength and substantially increase the depth of focus. A liquid supply mechanism 10 for supplying the liquid LQ to the substrate P, and a liquid recovery mechanism 20 for recovering the liquid LQ on the substrate P. While transferring at least the pattern image of the mask M onto the substrate P, the exposure apparatus EX uses a liquid LQ supplied from the liquid supply mechanism 10 to a part on the substrate P including the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL ( Locally) the immersion area AR2 is formed. Specifically, the exposure apparatus EX employs a local liquid immersion method in which the liquid LQ is filled between the optical element 2 at the image plane side end portion of the projection optical system PL and the surface of the substrate P disposed on the image plane side. The pattern of the mask M is projected onto the substrate P by irradiating the substrate P with the liquid LQ between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P and the exposure light EL that has passed through the mask M via the projection optical system PL. Exposure.

  In the present embodiment, the exposure apparatus EX is a scanning exposure apparatus (so-called so-called exposure apparatus EX) that exposes the pattern formed on the mask M onto the substrate P while synchronously moving the mask M and the substrate P in different directions (reverse directions) in the scanning direction. A case where a scanning stepper) is used will be described as an example. In the following description, the direction that coincides with the optical axis AX of the projection optical system PL is the Z-axis direction, the synchronous movement direction (scanning direction) between the mask M and the substrate P in the plane perpendicular to the Z-axis direction is the X-axis direction, A direction (non-scanning direction) perpendicular to the Z-axis direction and the X-axis direction is defined as a Y-axis direction. Further, the rotation (inclination) directions around the X axis, Y axis, and Z axis are the θX, θY, and θZ directions, respectively.

The illumination optical system IL illuminates the mask M supported by the mask stage MST with the exposure light EL, and the exposure light source, and an optical integrator and an optical integrator for uniformizing the illuminance of the light beam emitted from the exposure light source A condenser lens that collects the exposure light EL from the light source, a relay lens system, a variable field stop that sets the illumination area on the mask M by the exposure light EL in a slit shape, and the like. A predetermined illumination area on the mask M is illuminated with the exposure light EL having a uniform illuminance distribution by the illumination optical system IL. As the exposure light EL emitted from the illumination optical system IL, for example, far ultraviolet light (g-line, h-line, i-line) and KrF excimer laser light (wavelength 248 nm) emitted from a mercury lamp, DUV light), vacuum ultraviolet light (VUV light) such as ArF excimer laser light (wavelength 193 nm) and F 2 laser light (wavelength 157 nm), or the like is used. In this embodiment, ArF excimer laser light is used.

  In the present embodiment, pure water is used as the liquid LQ. Pure water is not only ArF excimer laser light, but also far ultraviolet light (DUV light) such as ultraviolet emission lines (g-line, h-line, i-line) emitted from mercury lamps and KrF excimer laser light (wavelength 248 nm). Can also be transmitted.

  The mask stage MST is movable while holding the mask M. For example, the mask M is fixed by vacuum suction (or electrostatic suction). The mask stage MST can be moved two-dimensionally in the plane perpendicular to the optical axis AX of the projection optical system PL, that is, the XY plane, and can be slightly rotated in the θZ direction by a mask stage driving device MSTD including a linear motor or the like. The mask stage MST is movable at a scanning speed specified in the X-axis direction, and the movement stroke in the X-axis direction is such that the entire surface of the mask M can cross at least the optical axis AX of the projection optical system PL. have.

  A movable mirror 50 is provided on the mask stage MST. A laser interferometer 51 is provided at a position facing the moving mirror 50. The position of the mask M on the mask stage MST in the two-dimensional direction and the rotation angle in the θZ direction (including rotation angles in the θX and θY directions in some cases) are measured in real time by the laser interferometer 51, and the measurement result is the control device. Output to CONT. The control device CONT controls the position of the mask M supported by the mask stage MST by driving the mask stage drive device MSTD based on the measurement result of the laser interferometer 51.

  The projection optical system PL projects and exposes the pattern of the mask M onto the substrate P at a predetermined projection magnification β, and includes a plurality of optical elements including an optical element (lens) 2 provided at the front end portion on the substrate P side. These optical elements 2 are supported by a lens barrel PK. In the present embodiment, the projection optical system PL is a reduction system having a projection magnification β of, for example, 1/4 or 1/5. Note that the projection optical system PL may be either an equal magnification system or an enlargement system.

In the present embodiment, the optical element 2 at the tip of the projection optical system PL is exposed from the lens barrel PK, and the liquid LQ in the liquid immersion area AR2 comes into contact therewith. The optical element 2 is made of meteorite. Since the surface of the meteorite or the surface to which MgF 2 , Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 or the like is attached has a high affinity with water, the liquid LQ can be adhered to almost the entire liquid contact surface 2 a of the optical element 2. it can. That is, in the present embodiment, the liquid (water) LQ having a high affinity with the liquid contact surface 2a of the optical element 2 is supplied, and therefore the adhesion between the liquid contact surface 2a of the optical element 2 and the liquid LQ. And the optical path between the optical element 2 and the substrate P can be reliably filled with the liquid LQ. The optical element 2 may be quartz having a high affinity for water. Further, the liquid contact surface 2a of the optical element 2 may be subjected to a hydrophilization (lyophilic process) to further increase the affinity with the liquid LQ.

  The substrate stage PST is movable while holding the substrate P, and includes an XY stage 55 and a Z tilt stage 54 mounted on the XY stage 55. The XY stage 55 is supported in a non-contact manner above the upper surface of the stage base 56 via a gas bearing (air bearing) which is a non-contact bearing (not shown). The XY stage 55 (substrate stage PST) is supported in a non-contact manner on the upper surface of the stage base 56, and is in a plane perpendicular to the optical axis AX of the projection optical system PL by the substrate stage driving device PSTD including a linear motor and the like. That is, it can move two-dimensionally in the XY plane and can rotate in the θZ direction. A Z tilt stage 54 is mounted on the XY stage 55, and the substrate P is held on the Z tilt stage 54 through a substrate holder (not shown), for example, by vacuum suction. The Z tilt stage 54 is movably provided in the Z-axis direction, the θX direction, and the θY direction. The substrate stage driving device PSTD is controlled by the control device CONT.

  A plate member 57 is provided on the Z tilt stage 54 of the substrate stage PST so as to surround the substrate P held by the Z tilt stage 54. The plate member 57 is an annular member and is disposed outside the substrate P. The plate member 57 has a flat surface (flat portion) 57A having substantially the same height (level) as the surface of the substrate P held by the substrate stage PST. The flat surface 57 </ b> A is disposed around the outside of the substrate P held by the substrate holder on the Z tilt stage 54.

  The plate member 57 is made of a material having liquid repellency such as polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon (registered trademark)). Therefore, the flat surface 57A has liquid repellency. For example, the flat member 57A may be made liquid repellent by forming the plate member 57 with a predetermined metal and applying a liquid repellent treatment to at least the flat surface 57A of the metal plate member 57. As the liquid repellent treatment of the plate member 57 (flat surface 57A), for example, a liquid repellent material such as a fluororesin material such as polytetrafluoroethylene or an acrylic resin material is applied, or the liquid repellent material is used. Apply a thin film. As the liquid repellent material for making it liquid repellent, a material that is insoluble in the liquid LQ is used. In addition, the application region of the liquid repellent material may be applied to the entire surface of the plate member 57, or may be applied to only a part of the region requiring liquid repellency such as the flat surface 57A. You may do it.

  Since the plate member 57 having the flat surface 57A substantially flush with the surface of the substrate P is provided around the substrate P, even when the edge region E of the substrate P is subjected to immersion exposure, the liquid is placed under the projection optical system PL. The liquid immersion area AR2 can be satisfactorily formed on the image plane side of the projection optical system PL while maintaining LQ. Further, by making the flat surface 57A liquid-repellent, the liquid LQ is prevented from flowing out to the outside of the substrate P (outside the flat surface 57A) during immersion exposure, and the liquid LQ is smoothly recovered even after immersion exposure. Thus, the liquid LQ can be prevented from remaining on the flat surface 57A.

  A movable mirror 52 is provided on the substrate stage PST (Z tilt stage 54). A laser interferometer 53 is provided at a position facing the movable mirror 52. The position and rotation angle of the substrate P on the substrate stage PST in the two-dimensional direction are measured in real time by the laser interferometer 53, and the measurement result is output to the control device CONT. The controller CONT positions the substrate P supported by the substrate stage PST by driving the substrate stage driving device PSTD including a linear motor or the like based on the measurement result of the laser interferometer 53.

  In addition, the exposure apparatus EX includes a focus detection system (not shown) that detects the position of the surface of the substrate P supported by the substrate stage PST. As the configuration of the focus detection system, for example, the one disclosed in JP-A-8-37149 can be used. The light reception result of the focus detection system is output to the control device CONT. Based on the detection result of the focus detection system, the control device CONT can detect the position information of the surface of the substrate P in the Z-axis direction and the tilt information of the substrate P in the θX and θY directions. The Z tilt stage 54 controls the focus position and tilt angle of the substrate P to adjust the surface of the substrate P to the image plane of the projection optical system PL by the auto focus method and the auto leveling method. Positioning is performed in the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction. Needless to say, the Z tilt stage and the XY stage may be provided integrally.

  The liquid supply mechanism 10 supplies a predetermined liquid LQ onto the substrate P, and includes a first liquid supply unit 11 and a second liquid supply unit 12 capable of delivering the liquid LQ, and first and second liquid supplies. First and second supply pipes 11 </ b> A and 12 </ b> A that connect one end of each of the parts 11 and 12 are provided. Each of the first and second liquid supply units 11 and 12 includes a tank for storing the liquid LQ, a pressure pump, and the like.

  The liquid recovery mechanism 20 recovers the liquid LQ supplied onto the substrate P, and includes a liquid recovery unit 21 that can recover the liquid LQ, and a recovery tube 22 that connects one end of the liquid recovery unit 21 to the liquid recovery unit 21. And a vacuum system 23 and a suction tube 24 connected to one end of the vacuum system 23. The liquid recovery unit 21 includes, for example, a vacuum system (a suction device) such as a vacuum pump, a gas-liquid separator, and a tank that stores the recovered liquid LQ. The vacuum system 23 is configured by a vacuum pump or a vacuum system provided in a factory.

  A flow path forming member 30 is disposed in the vicinity of the optical element 2 at the end of the projection optical system PL. The flow path forming member 30 is an annular member provided so as to surround the optical element 2 above the substrate P (substrate stage PST), and has an inner peripheral wall 30 </ b> A facing the optical member 2. The inner peripheral wall 30A and the optical element 2 are separated from each other, and the flow path forming member 30 and the projection optical system PL are supported by a support mechanism (not shown) so as to be vibrationally separated. The flow path forming member 30 constitutes a part of each of the liquid supply mechanism 10 and the liquid recovery mechanism 20.

2 is a cross-sectional view of the vicinity of the flow path forming member 30, FIG. 3 is a view of the flow path forming member 30 as viewed from below, and FIG. 4 is a perspective view in which the flow path forming member 30 is partially broken.
2 and 3, the flow path forming member 30 is provided above the substrate P (substrate stage PST), and the first liquid supply port 13 and the second liquid supply arranged so as to face the surface of the substrate P. And a mouth 14. The lower surface of the flow path forming member 30 is a substantially flat surface, and the first liquid supply port 13 and the second liquid supply port 14 are provided on the lower surface of the flow path forming member 30. The flow path forming member 30 has supply flow paths 15 and 16 therein. One end of the supply channel 15 is connected to the first liquid supply port 13, and the other end is connected to the first liquid supply unit 11 via the first supply pipe 11 </ b> A. One end of the supply flow channel 16 is connected to the second liquid supply port 14, and the other end is connected to the second liquid supply unit 12 through the second supply pipe 12 </ b> A.

  The liquid LQ delivered from the first liquid supply unit 11 is supplied onto the substrate P from the first liquid supply port 13 via the supply pipe 11A and the supply flow path 15. Similarly, the liquid LQ delivered from the second liquid supply unit 12 is supplied onto the substrate P from the second liquid supply port 14 via the supply pipe 12 </ b> A and the supply flow channel 16. The liquid supply operation of the first and second liquid supply units 11 and 12 is controlled by the control device CONT, and the control device CONT supplies the liquid per unit time onto the substrate P by the first and second liquid supply units 11 and 12. Each amount can be controlled independently. In this embodiment, the liquid supply unit is configured by a plurality of supply units (first and second liquid supply units 11 and 12). However, the present invention is not limited to this. For example, the liquid supply unit is configured by one supply unit. Also good.

  Furthermore, the flow path forming member 30 is provided above the substrate P (substrate stage PST), and is arranged so as to face the surface of the substrate P. The inner suction port (first suction port) 25 and the outer suction port (first suction port). 2 suction ports) 26. The inner suction port 25 and the outer suction port 26 are provided on the lower surface of the flow path forming member 30. The inner suction port 25 and the outer suction port 26 are connected to a space portion 31 formed inside the flow path forming member 30. The other end portion of the suction tube 24 is connected to the space portion 31, and the vacuum system 23 and the space portion 31 are connected via a flow path of the suction tube 24. The vacuum system 23 connected to the space portion 31 via the suction tube 24 can suck the gas inside the space portion 31 via the flow path of the suction tube 24.

  The other end portion of the recovery pipe 22 is connected to the space portion 31, and the liquid recovery portion 21 and the space portion 31 are connected via a flow path of the recovery tube 22. The liquid recovery part 21 connected to the space part 31 via the recovery pipe 22 can recover the liquid LQ inside the space part 31 via the flow path of the recovery pipe 22.

  As shown in FIG. 3, the first liquid supply port 13 is provided on the −X side with respect to the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL, and the second liquid supply port 14 is provided on the + X side with respect to the projection area AR1. ing. The projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL is set in a rectangular shape with the Y-axis direction as the long direction and the X-axis direction as the short direction. Each of the first liquid supply port 13 and the second liquid supply port 14 is formed in a slit shape having a substantially arc shape in plan view, and the size in the Y-axis direction is at least larger than the projection area AR1.

  The inner suction port 25 is provided outside the first and second liquid supply ports 13 and 14 with respect to the projection region AR1 of the projection optical system PL, and the projection region AR1 and the first and second liquid supply ports 13 are provided. , 14 are divided into a plurality of parts so as to surround them. In the present embodiment, the inner suction ports 25 are provided at approximately equal intervals at 12 locations. The outer suction port 26 is provided further outside the inner suction port 25 with respect to the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL, and is provided in a plurality of divisions so as to surround the projection area AR1 and the inner suction port 25. ing. In the present embodiment, the outer suction ports 26 are provided at approximately the same intervals at the same 12 locations as the inner suction ports 25.

  Each of the plurality of inner suction ports 25 is provided with a first member 27 having a first flow resistance. Each of the plurality of outer suction ports 26 is provided with a second member 28 having a second flow resistance different from the first flow resistance. The flow resistance of the second member 28 (second flow resistance) is greater than the flow resistance of the first member 27 (first flow resistance).

  Each of the 1st member 27 and the 2nd member 28 is comprised by the porous body, for example, is comprised by the porous ceramics etc. For example, the first member 27 is formed of a coarse porous body, and the second member 28 is formed of a dense porous body, whereby the flow resistance of the second member 28 is reduced to the flow resistance of the first member 27. Can be larger.

  As the first member 27, one that can pass through the liquid LQ is used. As the second member 28 whose flow resistance is larger than that of the first member 27, a member that hardly allows the liquid LQ to pass therethrough and mainly allows only the gas to pass therethrough is used. Therefore, the inner suction port 25 in which the first member 27 is disposed can pass the liquid LQ, and the outer suction port 26 in which the second member 28 is disposed hardly allows the liquid LQ to pass, and mainly allows gas to pass. .

  Here, by making the second member 28 liquid repellent, the passage of the liquid LQ through the second member 28 (outer suction port 26) can be more effectively regulated (blocked), and only the gas can pass. . For example, the second member 28 having liquid repellency can be formed by forming the second member 28 with a porous body made of a liquid repellent material such as polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon (registered trademark)). . Of course, the second member 28 may be made liquid repellent by forming the second member 28 from a predetermined material such as ceramics and applying a liquid repellent treatment such as applying a liquid repellent material to the second member 28. .

  The first member 27 and the second member 28 are not limited to porous bodies, and any member (material) may be used as long as it has a predetermined flow resistance such as a capillary tube. In particular, the first member 27 may be constituted by a member provided with a plurality of small through holes in a plate member made of stainless steel, for example, or a net-like member such as metal, in addition to the porous body and the capillary tube. Moreover, it is preferable that the 1st member 27 arrange | positioned at the inner side suction port 25 is lyophilic so that the liquid LQ may distribute | circulate smoothly. On the other hand, in the present embodiment, the second member 28 is a porous body having liquid repellency made of ceramics, polytetrafluoroethylene, or the like, as described above, so as to mainly allow only gas to pass therethrough. It is preferable.

  As shown in FIG. 4, the space 31 connected to the inner suction port 25 and the outer suction port 26 is divided into a plurality of parts so as to surround the projection area AR1. That is, a plurality of (12) space portions 31 are provided so as to correspond to the plurality of inner suction ports 25 and outer suction ports 26. The plurality of space portions 31 are partitioned by a partition wall 32, and the recovery tube 22 and the suction tube 24 are connected to the plurality of space portions 31, respectively. The suction tube 24 is connected to a top plate portion 30T that covers the upper portion of the space portion 31, and the recovery tube 22 is connected to the side wall portion 30S. The inner suction port 25 and the outer suction port 26 are provided on the bottom 30 </ b> B of the space portion 31. The vacuum system 23 can suck the gas in each of the plurality of space portions 31 via the suction pipe 24. The liquid recovery part 21 can recover the liquid LQ of each of the plurality of space parts 31 via the recovery pipe 22.

  Further, as shown in FIG. 2, each of the plurality of suction pipes 24 connecting the space portion 31 and the vacuum system 23 is provided with a third member 29 having a third flow resistance. The third member 29 is also composed of a porous body such as porous ceramics. The third member 29 may be constituted by an orifice.

  In the present embodiment, the plurality of recovery pipes 22 are connected to one liquid recovery section 21, but a plurality of (here, twelve) liquid recovery sections 21 corresponding to the number of recovery pipes 22 are provided. Each of the twelve) recovery pipes 22 may be connected to each of the plurality of liquid recovery units 21. Similarly, in the present embodiment, a plurality of suction pipes 24 are connected to one vacuum system 23, but a plurality of (here, twelve) vacuum systems 23 corresponding to the number of suction pipes 24 are provided to provide a plurality ( Each of the 12 suction pipes 24 may be connected to each of the plurality of vacuum systems 23.

  A gas-liquid separation member 33 that separates the liquid LQ and the gas is provided inside each of the plurality of space portions 31. The gas-liquid separation member 33 is a box-like member, and an opening 34 corresponding to the outer suction port 26 is provided in the lower part thereof. The gas-liquid separation member 33 is provided so as to cover the outer suction port 26 in a state where the opening 34 and the outer suction port 26 are aligned. A protrusion 35 is provided above the gas-liquid separation member 33. The protrusion 35 has a hole 36 that communicates the internal space 33K of the gas-liquid separation member 33, which is a box-shaped member, with the outside. Is formed. The gas-liquid separation member 33 separates the gas sucked from the outer suction port 26 with respect to the liquid LQ arranged in the space portion 31. A connection part (flow path) that connects the space part 31 and the recovery pipe 22 is provided at a position lower than the upper end part of the hole part 36.

  In addition, a liquid level adjustment mechanism 40 that adjusts the height of the liquid level of the liquid LQ disposed in the space portion 31 is provided inside each of the plurality of space portions 31. The liquid level adjusting mechanism 40 adjusts the height of the liquid level of the liquid LQ inside the space portion 31 to be lower than at least the upper end portion of the hole portion 36 of the protruding portion 35 of the gas-liquid separation member 33. The liquid level adjustment mechanism 40 includes a floating member 41 that floats on the liquid level of the liquid LQ, and a hinge portion 42A that opens and closes the flow path of the connecting portion that connects the recovery pipe 22 and the space portion 31 according to the position of the floating member 41. And a valve portion 42 having When the liquid level of the liquid LQ is at a position below the upper end of the hole 36 by a predetermined distance or more, the floating member 41 is also below the upper end of the hole 36 depending on the position of the liquid level. The valve part 42 closes the connection part (flow path) that connects the space part 31 and the recovery pipe 22 in accordance with the position of the floating member 41. On the other hand, when the liquid LQ is located at a position closer to a predetermined distance or less with respect to the upper end portion of the hole 36, the floating member 41 is also arranged at a position closer to a predetermined distance or less with respect to the upper end portion of the hole 36, The valve portion 42 is driven according to the position of the floating member 41 so as to open a connection portion (flow path) that connects the space portion 31 and the recovery pipe 22.

Next, an operation of forming the liquid LQ immersion area AR2 on the substrate P will be described.
After the substrate P is carried into the substrate stage PST, the control device CONT supplies the liquid LQ using the liquid supply mechanism 10 and the liquid recovery mechanism 20 in order to form the liquid LQ immersion area AR2 on the substrate P. And start recovery.

  The control device CONT drives the first liquid supply unit 11 and the second liquid supply unit 12, and supplies the first liquid supply port 13 and the second liquid supply via the supply pipes 11 </ b> A and 12 </ b> A and the supply channels 15 and 16. A predetermined amount of liquid LQ per unit time is supplied onto the substrate P from the mouth 14. In the present embodiment, the liquid LQ is simultaneously supplied from each of the first liquid supply port 13 and the second liquid supply port 14. The supplied liquid LQ spreads between the substrate P and the optical element 2 of the projection optical system PL, and is larger than the projection area AR1 and smaller than the substrate P so as to cover the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL. The immersion area AR2 is locally formed on the substrate P.

  In addition, the control device CONT drives the vacuum system 23 of the liquid recovery mechanism 20 simultaneously with (or before) the start of driving of the first and second liquid supply units 11 and 12 of the liquid supply mechanism 10. The vacuum system 23 sucks the gas in each of the plurality of space portions 31 through the suction pipe 24.

  The vacuum system 23 makes the space 31 have a negative pressure by sucking the gas in the space 31. As a result, the liquid LQ on the substrate P is sucked and collected from the inner suction port 25 connected to the space portion 31 and is disposed in the space portion 31. The liquid LQ that has flowed out of the projection area AR1 and the first and second liquid supply ports 13 and 14 is sucked and collected through the inner suction port 25, and the space (outside of the gas-liquid separation member 33 in the space 31) ( (Space outside the internal space 33K). At this time, the liquid level of the liquid LQ is at a position that is a predetermined distance or more away from the upper end of the hole 36, so that the valve unit 42 determines the position of the floating member 41 of the liquid level adjustment mechanism 40. A connecting portion (flow path) that connects the space portion 31 and the recovery pipe 22 is closed.

  Eventually, the amount of the liquid LQ sucked and collected in the space 31 increases, and the liquid level of the liquid LQ rises in the space 31. As the liquid level of the liquid LQ rises (moves), the floating member 41 of the liquid level adjustment mechanism 40 also rises (moves). When the liquid level of the liquid LQ, and hence the floating member 41, is less than a predetermined distance with respect to the upper end of the hole 36, the valve 42 is driven to connect the space 31 and the recovery pipe 22 (flow Road) is opened. Here, the suction device (vacuum system) of the liquid recovery unit 21 is always driven, and the recovery pipe 22 is always negative pressure (for example, set to a pressure lower than the pressure set in the vacuum system 23). Yes. Then, by opening a flow path connecting the space portion 31 and the recovery pipe 22, the liquid recovery portion 21 recovers the liquid LQ in the space portion 31 via the recovery pipe 22. When the liquid LQ in the space portion 31 is recovered by the liquid recovery portion 21 and the liquid level (floating member 41) of the liquid LQ in the space portion 31 is lowered, a flow path connecting the space portion 31 and the recovery pipe 22 is formed. It is closed by the valve part 42.

  On the other hand, since the outer suction port 26 is provided with the second member 28 that allows the liquid LQ to hardly pass but mainly the gas only, the space portion 31 and the gas-liquid separation constituting a part of the space portion 31 are provided. Even if the internal space 33K of the member 33 is set to a negative pressure, the liquid LQ on the substrate P is not collected through the outer suction port 26. The gas is mainly sucked from the outer suction port 26 by the negative pressure in the internal space 33K (space portion 31). The gas sucked from the outer suction port 26 is sucked into the vacuum system 23 through the inner space 33K, the hole 36, the space outside the gas-liquid separation member 33 in the space 31, and the suction pipe 24.

  Here, in the space portion 31, the liquid LQ is disposed in a space outside the internal space 33 </ b> K by the gas-liquid separation member 33, and the liquid level of the liquid LQ in the space portion 31 is The liquid LQ in the space outside the internal space 33K in the space 31 does not flow into the internal space 33K through the hole 36. Thus, the liquid LQ is not flowed into (not arranged in) the internal space 33K connected to the outer suction port 26 by the gas-liquid separation member 33, and only the gas is mainly filled.

  And by providing the gas-liquid separation member 33 as a liquid shielding member so that the liquid LQ is not arranged on the space part 31 side of the outer suction port 26, the outer side with respect to the liquid LQ arranged in the space part 31. The gas sucked from the suction port 26 is separated, and the outer suction port 26 can suck the gas smoothly. That is, in the case of the configuration in which the gas-liquid separation member 33 is not provided, the liquid LQ is disposed on the upper surface side (space portion 31 side) of the second member 28, and via the outer suction port 26 (second member 28). Thus, there is a high possibility that the gas (air) sucked to the space portion 31 side flows into the liquid LQ in the space portion 31 to generate bubbles and generate vibration. Although the vibration causes deterioration in exposure accuracy, the gas is arranged by the gas-liquid separation member 33 without arranging the liquid LQ on the upper surface side of the outer suction port 26 (second member 28) as in this embodiment. Therefore, the generation of the bubbles can be prevented, and the generation of vibration can be prevented.

  As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, the outer suction port 26 is provided with the end EG of the liquid immersion area AR2 formed on the image plane side of the projection optical system PL by the liquid LQ. In the present embodiment, the size and flow of the first member 27 and the second member 28 disposed in the inner suction port 25 and the outer suction port 26 respectively so that the end portion EG is disposed in the outer suction port 26. The resistance is set optimally. The pressure of the space 31 is maintained in the liquid immersion region while the suction force of the vacuum system 23 is constant, in other words, the pressure (negative pressure) on the vacuum system 23 side of the third member 29 in the suction pipe 24 is constant. By changing according to the position of the end portion EG of AR2, the end portion EG of the liquid immersion area AR2 is controlled to be disposed in the outer suction port 26. Here, the third member 29 is provided in order to maintain the difference between the pressure Pv on the vacuum system 23 side and the pressure Pc on the space portion 31 side with respect to the third member 29 in the suction pipe 24.

Hereinafter, the principle of controlling the position of the end EG of the liquid immersion area AR2 will be described.
When sucking and collecting the liquid LQ on the substrate P, the inner suction port 25 where the first member 27 is disposed is always covered with the liquid LQ. The flow rate per unit time of the liquid LQ passing through the inner suction port 25 is Mw, the atmospheric pressure is Pa, the pressure inside the space 31 is Pc, the viscosity coefficient of the liquid (water) LQ is μw, the density of the liquid LQ is ρw, When the thickness of the first member 27, which is a porous body, is ta, the area of the first member 27 (inner suction port 25) is Aa, and the permeability of the first member 27 is Ka, from Darcy's law ,

The relationship holds. Here, Ra corresponds to the flow resistance (first flow resistance) of the first member 27. When the first member (porous body) 27 becomes dense, the value of Ra increases, and when it becomes rough, the value of Ra decreases.

  Further, gas (air) is mainly sucked from the outer suction port 26 where the second member 28 is disposed. The flow rate per unit time of the gas passing through the outer suction port 26 is M1, the atmospheric pressure is Pa, the pressure in the space 31 is Pc, the gas viscosity coefficient is μa, the gas density is ρa, The thickness of the second member 28 is tb, the area of the second member 28 (outer suction port 26) is Ab, the air permeability (permeability) of the second member 28 is Kb, and the second suction port 26 (second member 28) When the ratio of the area covered with gas is α,

The relationship holds. Here, Rb corresponds to the flow resistance (second flow resistance) of the second member 28. Further, when the end portion EG of the liquid immersion area AR2 is disposed in the second suction port 26, the liquid LQ in the second suction port 26 (second member 28) is moved along with the movement of the end portion EG. The ratio between the area covered and the area covered with gas varies. When all the second suction ports 26 are covered with the liquid LQ, α = 0, and when all the second suction ports 26 are covered with gas, α = 1.

  Further, the flow rate per unit time of the gas passing through the third member 29 disposed in the suction pipe 24 is M2, the atmospheric pressure is Pa, and the pressure on the vacuum system 23 side from the third member 29 in the suction pipe 24 is Pv. , The viscosity coefficient of the gas is μa, the density of the gas is ρa, the thickness of the third member 29 which is a porous body is tc, the area of the third member 29 (suction pipe 24) is Ac, and the air permeability of the third member 29 When (permeability) is Kc,

The relationship holds. Here, Rc corresponds to the flow resistance (third flow resistance) of the third member 29. Further, as described above, the suction force of the vacuum system 23, that is, the pressure Pv on the vacuum system 23 side with respect to the third member 29 in the suction tube 24 is constant.

  Since the inner suction port 25 is entirely covered with the liquid LQ, the flow rate M1 per unit time of the gas passing through the outer suction port 26 where the second member 28 is disposed and the third member 29 of the suction pipe 24 pass. The flow rate M2 per unit time of the gas is equal (M1 = M2). Therefore, the pressure Pc inside the space portion 31 is expressed by the equations (2-1) and (3-1):

It is. As shown in the equation (4), the pressure Pc in the space portion 31 is a function of the resistance Rb of the second flow, and hence a function of α. Therefore, when α varies, that is, the end portion EG of the liquid immersion area AR2. When the area of the second member 28 (outer suction port 26) covered with gas changes, the pressure Pc inside the space 31 changes. Thus, the pressure Pc inside the space 31 changes according to the position of the end EG of the liquid immersion area AR2.

  When the pressure Pc fluctuates, the flow rate Mw per unit time of the liquid LQ passing through the inner suction port 25 where the first member 26 is arranged fluctuates from the equation (1-1). Specifically, as shown in FIG. 5A, the end EG of the liquid immersion area AR2 moves inward (projection area AR1 side) and is covered with gas in the outer suction port 26 (second member 28). As the area ratio α increases, the pressure Pc increases, the difference between the atmospheric pressure Pa and the pressure Pc decreases, and the force for sucking and collecting the liquid LQ via the inner suction port 25 (first member 27) is weak. Become. Accordingly, the amount of liquid recovered via the inner suction port 25 is reduced, and the liquid immersion area AR2 is increased. That is, the end EG of the liquid immersion area AR2 moves outward (in the direction away from the projection area AR1).

  On the other hand, as shown in FIG. 5B, when the end portion EG of the liquid immersion area AR2 moves to the outside and the ratio α of the area covered with gas in the outer suction port 26 (second member 28) decreases, The pressure Pc decreases, the difference between the atmospheric pressure Pa and the pressure Pc increases, and the force for sucking and collecting the liquid LQ via the inner suction port 25 (first member 27) increases. Accordingly, the amount of liquid recovered via the inner suction port 25 increases, and the liquid immersion area AR2 becomes smaller. That is, the end EG of the liquid immersion area AR2 moves inward.

  Thus, the mask M illuminated with the exposure light EL is illuminated by illuminating the mask M supported by the mask stage MST with the exposure light EL while the position of the end EG of the liquid immersion area AR2 is controlled. The pattern image is projected onto the substrate P through the projection optical system PL and the liquid LQ in the liquid immersion area AR2.

  As described above, the materials and dimensions of the first member 27 and the second member 28 are selected, the flow resistance of the inner suction port 25 and the flow resistance of the outer suction port 26, the size of each suction port, and each member. By optimizing the dimensions and the like, the position of the end EG of the liquid immersion area AR2 can be controlled with the pressure Pv kept constant. Accordingly, the liquid immersion area AR2 becomes too large, and the liquid LQ in the liquid immersion area AR2 flows out of the substrate P, causing, for example, an environmental change where the substrate P is placed, or conversely, the liquid immersion area AR2 is small. It is possible to prevent the occurrence of inconvenience that the exposure light EL is irradiated onto the substrate P without passing through the liquid LQ.

  A first member 27 that can pass the liquid LQ is provided in the inner suction port 25, and a second member 28 that mainly passes gas is provided in the outer suction port 26, and the recovery of the liquid LQ is mainly performed in the inner suction port 25. Therefore, the liquid LQ can be sucked and collected while the inner suction port 25 is always covered with the liquid LQ. Thus, when the liquid LQ and the gas are separately sucked by the inner suction port 25 and the outer suction port 26, only the liquid LQ is sucked and collected from the inner suction port 25, and the liquid LQ is sucked and collected. Further, it is possible to prevent the generation of sound and vibration caused by the gas surrounding the liquid LQ being collected together. Further, the large movement of the end portion EG of the liquid immersion area AR2 may contribute to deterioration of the exposure accuracy, for example, when the substrate P is vibrated. By keeping the fluctuation region of the position of the end portion EG within a predetermined range (within the region of the outer suction port 26), it is possible to prevent the occurrence of vibration or the like accompanying the movement of the end portion EG of the liquid immersion region AR2.

  In addition, when the size of the inner suction port 25 is sufficiently small, a configuration in which the first member 27 is not provided in the inner suction port 25 may be employed. On the other hand, the second member 28 is provided mainly for controlling the position of the end portion EG of the liquid immersion area AR2, and the first member 27 is mainly used for controlling the flow rate per unit time of the liquid LQ to be collected. Therefore, by providing the first member 27 in the inner suction port 25, it is possible to prevent inconvenience that the position control of the end portion EG of the liquid immersion area AR2 becomes unstable. That is, for example, when the first member 27 is not provided in the inner suction port 25 (when the flow resistance is not provided in the inner suction port 27), all of the outer suction port 26 (second member 28) is covered with the liquid LQ. At this time, there is no gas inflow port, and a situation occurs in which the liquid LQ is rapidly sucked and collected from the inner suction port 25 having no flow resistance, and the end EG of the liquid immersion area AR2 is suddenly projected into the projection area AR1. Will move to the side. This abrupt movement of the end portion EG causes vibrations, but the inconvenience can be avoided by providing the first member 27 in the inner suction port 25.

  In the above-described embodiment, the inner suction port 25 and the outer suction port 26 are arranged side by side in the radial direction with reference to the projection area AR1 (the optical axis AX of the projection optical system PL). As shown, they may be offset. In the embodiment described above, the lower surface of the flow path forming member 30 is a flat surface, and the inner suction port 25 and the outer suction port 26 are provided at substantially the same height with respect to the surface of the substrate P. For example, the lower surface of the flow path forming member 30 is formed in a tapered shape so as to be gradually higher (away from the substrate P) toward the outside with respect to the projection area AR1, and the inner suction port 25 and the outer suction port 26 with respect to the substrate P are formed. The heights may be different from each other.

  As described above, the liquid LQ in the present embodiment is composed of pure water. Pure water has an advantage that it can be easily obtained in large quantities at a semiconductor manufacturing factory or the like, and has no adverse effect on the photoresist, optical element (lens), etc. on the substrate P. In addition, pure water has no adverse effects on the environment, and since the impurity content is extremely low, it can be expected to clean the surface of the substrate P and the surface of the optical element provided on the front end surface of the projection optical system PL. . When the purity of pure water supplied from a factory or the like is low, the exposure apparatus may have an ultrapure water production device.

  The refractive index n of pure water (water) with respect to the exposure light EL having a wavelength of about 193 nm is said to be approximately 1.44. When ArF excimer laser light (wavelength 193 nm) is used as the light source of the exposure light EL, On the substrate P, the wavelength is shortened to 1 / n, that is, about 134 nm, and high resolution is obtained. Furthermore, since the depth of focus is enlarged by about n times, that is, about 1.44 times compared with that in the air, the projection optical system PL can be used when it is sufficient to ensure the same depth of focus as that in the air. The numerical aperture can be further increased, and the resolution is improved in this respect as well.

  As described above, when the liquid immersion method is used, the numerical aperture NA of the projection optical system may be 0.9 to 1.3. When the numerical aperture NA of the projection optical system becomes large in this way, the imaging performance may deteriorate due to the polarization effect with random polarized light conventionally used as exposure light. desirable. In that case, linearly polarized illumination is performed in accordance with the longitudinal direction of the line pattern of the mask (reticle) line-and-space pattern. From the mask (reticle) pattern, the S-polarized light component (TE-polarized light component), that is, the line pattern It is preferable that a large amount of diffracted light having a polarization direction component is emitted along the longitudinal direction. When the space between the projection optical system PL and the resist applied on the surface of the substrate P is filled with a liquid, the space between the projection optical system PL and the resist applied on the surface of the substrate P is filled with air (gas). Compared with the case where the transmittance of the diffracted light of the S-polarized component (TE-polarized component) contributing to the improvement of the contrast is high on the resist surface, the numerical aperture NA of the projection optical system exceeds 1.0. Even in this case, high imaging performance can be obtained. Further, it is more effective to appropriately combine a phase shift mask or an oblique incidence illumination method (particularly a die ball illumination method) or the like according to the longitudinal direction of the line pattern as disclosed in JP-A-6-188169.

  Further, for example, an ArF excimer laser is used as the exposure light, and a fine line and space pattern (for example, a line and space of about 25 to 50 nm) is formed on the substrate by using the projection optical system PL with a reduction magnification of about 1/4. When exposing on P, depending on the structure of the mask M (for example, the fineness of the pattern and the thickness of chromium), the mask M acts as a polarizing plate due to the Wave guide effect, and the P-polarized component (TM polarized light) that lowers the contrast. Since the diffracted light of the S-polarized component (TE-polarized component) is emitted from the mask M more than the diffracted light of the component), it is desirable to use the linearly polarized illumination described above. However, even if the mask M is illuminated with randomly polarized light, high resolution performance can be obtained even when the numerical aperture NA of the projection optical system PL is as large as 0.9 to 1.3. When an extremely fine line-and-space pattern on the mask M is exposed on the substrate P, the P-polarized component (TM-polarized component) is larger than the S-polarized component (TE-polarized component) due to the Wire Grid effect. There is also a possibility. However, when, for example, an ArF excimer laser is used as the exposure light and a line and space pattern larger than 25 nm is exposed on the substrate P using the projection optical system PL with a reduction magnification of about 1/4, S Since the diffracted light of the polarization component (TE polarization component) is emitted from the mask M more than the diffracted light of the P polarization component (TM polarization component), the numerical aperture NA of the projection optical system PL is 0.9 to 1.3. Even in such a large case, high resolution performance can be obtained.

  Furthermore, not only linearly polarized illumination (S-polarized illumination) matched to the longitudinal direction of the line pattern of the mask (reticle) but also a circle centered on the optical axis as disclosed in JP-A-6-53120. A combination of the polarization illumination method that linearly polarizes in the tangential (circumferential) direction and the oblique incidence illumination method is also effective. In particular, when a mask (reticle) pattern includes not only a line pattern extending in a predetermined direction but also a plurality of line patterns extending in different directions, the same is disclosed in Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 6-53120. In addition, by using the polarization illumination method that linearly polarizes in the tangential direction of the circle centered on the optical axis and the annular illumination method, high imaging performance can be obtained even when the numerical aperture NA of the projection optical system is large. it can.

  In the present embodiment, the optical element 2 is attached to the tip of the projection optical system PL, and the optical characteristics of the projection optical system PL, for example, aberration (spherical aberration, coma aberration, etc.) can be adjusted by this lens. The optical element attached to the tip of the projection optical system PL may be an optical plate used for adjusting the optical characteristics of the projection optical system PL. Alternatively, it may be a plane parallel plate that can transmit the exposure light EL.

  When the pressure between the optical element at the tip of the projection optical system PL generated by the flow of the liquid LQ and the substrate P is large, the optical element is not exchangeable but the optical element is moved by the pressure. It may be fixed firmly so that there is no.

  In the present embodiment, the space between the projection optical system PL and the surface of the substrate P is filled with the liquid LQ. However, for example, the liquid with the cover glass made of a plane-parallel plate attached to the surface of the substrate P is used. The structure which satisfy | fills LQ may be sufficient.

The liquid LQ of the present embodiment is water, but may be a liquid other than water. For example, when the light source of the exposure light EL is an F 2 laser, the F 2 laser light does not pass through water. The liquid LQ may be, for example, a fluorinated fluid such as perfluorinated polyether (PFPE) or fluorinated oil that can transmit F 2 laser light. In this case, the lyophilic treatment is performed by forming a thin film with a substance having a molecular structure having a small polarity including fluorine, for example, at a portion in contact with the liquid LQ. In addition, as the liquid LQ, the liquid LQ is transmissive to the exposure light EL, has a refractive index as high as possible, and is stable with respect to the photoresist applied to the projection optical system PL and the surface of the substrate P (for example, Cedar). Oil) can also be used. Also in this case, the surface treatment is performed according to the polarity of the liquid LQ to be used.

  The substrate P in each of the above embodiments is not only a semiconductor wafer for manufacturing a semiconductor device, but also a glass substrate for a display device, a ceramic wafer for a thin film magnetic head, or an original mask or reticle used in an exposure apparatus. (Synthetic quartz, silicon wafer) or the like is applied.

  As the exposure apparatus EX, in addition to the step-and-scan type scanning exposure apparatus (scanning stepper) that scans and exposes the pattern of the mask M by moving the mask M and the substrate P synchronously, the mask M and the substrate P Can be applied to a step-and-repeat type projection exposure apparatus (stepper) in which the pattern of the mask M is collectively exposed while the substrate P is stationary and the substrate P is sequentially moved stepwise. The present invention can also be applied to a step-and-stitch type exposure apparatus that partially transfers at least two patterns on the substrate P.

  The present invention can also be applied to a twin stage type exposure apparatus disclosed in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 10-163099, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 10-214783, and Japanese Translation of PCT International Publication No. 2000-505958.

  In the above-described embodiment, an exposure apparatus that locally fills the liquid between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P is employed. However, the present invention is disclosed in Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 6-124873. It is also applicable to an immersion exposure apparatus that moves a stage holding a substrate to be exposed in a liquid tank.

  The type of the exposure apparatus EX is not limited to an exposure apparatus for manufacturing a semiconductor element that exposes a semiconductor element pattern on the substrate P, but an exposure apparatus for manufacturing a liquid crystal display element or a display, a thin film magnetic head, an image sensor (CCD). ) Or an exposure apparatus for manufacturing reticles or masks.

  When using a linear motor (see USP5,623,853 or USP5,528,118) for the substrate stage PST and mask stage MST, use either an air levitation type using air bearings or a magnetic levitation type using Lorentz force or reactance force. Also good. Each stage PST, MST may be a type that moves along a guide, or may be a guideless type that does not have a guide.

  As a driving mechanism for each stage PST, MST, a planar motor that drives each stage PST, MST by electromagnetic force with a magnet unit having a two-dimensionally arranged magnet and an armature unit having a two-dimensionally arranged coil facing each other is provided. It may be used. In this case, either one of the magnet unit and the armature unit may be connected to the stages PST and MST, and the other of the magnet unit and the armature unit may be provided on the moving surface side of the stages PST and MST.

As described in JP-A-8-166475 (USP 5,528,118), the reaction force generated by the movement of the substrate stage PST is not transmitted to the projection optical system PL, but mechanically using a frame member. You may escape to the floor (ground).
As described in JP-A-8-330224 (US S / N 08 / 416,558), a frame member is used so that the reaction force generated by the movement of the mask stage MST is not transmitted to the projection optical system PL. May be mechanically released to the floor (ground).

  As described above, the exposure apparatus EX according to the present embodiment maintains various mechanical subsystems including the respective constituent elements recited in the claims of the present application so as to maintain predetermined mechanical accuracy, electrical accuracy, and optical accuracy. Manufactured by assembling. In order to ensure these various accuracies, before and after assembly, various optical systems are adjusted to achieve optical accuracy, various mechanical systems are adjusted to achieve mechanical accuracy, and various electrical systems are Adjustments are made to achieve electrical accuracy. The assembly process from the various subsystems to the exposure apparatus includes mechanical connection, electrical circuit wiring connection, pneumatic circuit piping connection and the like between the various subsystems. Needless to say, there is an assembly process for each subsystem before the assembly process from the various subsystems to the exposure apparatus. When the assembly process of the various subsystems to the exposure apparatus is completed, comprehensive adjustment is performed to ensure various accuracies as the entire exposure apparatus. The exposure apparatus is preferably manufactured in a clean room where the temperature, cleanliness, etc. are controlled.

  As shown in FIG. 7, a microdevice such as a semiconductor device includes a step 201 for designing a function / performance of the microdevice, a step 202 for producing a mask (reticle) based on the design step, and a substrate as a base material of the device. Manufacturing step 203, exposure processing step 204 for exposing the mask pattern onto the substrate by the exposure apparatus EX of the above-described embodiment, device assembly step (including dicing process, bonding process, packaging process) 205, inspection step 206, etc. It is manufactured after.

It is a schematic block diagram which shows one Embodiment of the exposure apparatus of this invention. It is an expanded sectional view near a flow path forming member having a liquid supply port and a suction port. It is the figure which looked at the flow-path formation member which has a liquid supply port and a suction port from the downward direction. It is the perspective view which fractured | ruptured the flow-path formation member partially. It is a schematic diagram for demonstrating the state which is controlling the position of the edge part of a liquid immersion area | region. It is a figure which shows another Example of the flow-path formation member which has a liquid supply port and a suction port. It is a flowchart figure which shows an example of the manufacturing process of a semiconductor device.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 ... Liquid supply mechanism, 13 ... 1st liquid supply port, 14 ... 2nd liquid supply port,
20 ... Liquid recovery mechanism, 21 ... Liquid recovery unit, 23 ... Vacuum system, 24 ... Suction tube,
25 ... Inner suction port (first suction port), 26 ... Outer suction port (second suction port), 27 ... First member, 28 ... Second member, 29 ... Third member, 31 ... Space, 33 ... Air Liquid separation member (separator),
AR1 ... projection area, AR2 ... immersion area, EG ... edge, EL ... exposure light, EX ... exposure device,
LQ ... Liquid, P ... Substrate, PL ... Projection optical system

Claims (25)

  1. A flow path forming member that forms a liquid immersion region so that an optical path of exposure light between an optical member and an object is filled with a liquid;
    A supply port for supplying the liquid;
    A first suction port provided outside the supply port with respect to the optical path;
    A second suction port provided outside the first suction port;
    A first member provided at the first suction port and having a first flow resistance;
    A second member provided at the second suction port and having a second flow resistance different from the first flow resistance ;
    A flow path forming member in which the suction force for the first suction port to suck the liquid increases as the area ratio of the second suction port covered with the liquid increases .
  2.   The flow path forming member according to claim 1, wherein a resistance of the second flow is larger than a resistance of the first flow.
  3.   The flow path forming member according to claim 1, wherein the first member and the second member are disposed so as to face a surface of the object.
  4.   The flow path forming member according to claim 1, wherein the first member and the second member are porous bodies.
  5.   The first member is a coarse porous body having a resistance of the first flow, and the second member is a dense material having a resistance of the second flow larger than the resistance of the first flow. The flow path forming member according to claim 2, wherein the flow path forming member is a porous body.
  6.   The flow path forming member according to claim 1, wherein the first member is lyophilic with respect to the liquid, and the second member is lyophobic with respect to the liquid.
  7. A space connected to each of the first suction port and the second suction port;
    The flow path forming member according to any one of claims 1 to 6, further comprising a separator that is provided in the space and separates liquid and gas.
  8.   The flow path forming member according to claim 7, wherein the separator separates the liquid sucked into the space portion from the first suction port and the gas sucked into the space portion from the second suction port.
  9. The separator has an opening that is aligned with the second suction port, and includes a separation member provided to cover the second suction port,
    The liquid from the first suction port is sucked into the space outside the separation member in the space portion,
    The flow path forming member according to claim 8, wherein the gas from the second suction port is sucked into the internal space of the separation member through the opening.
  10. The separation member has a hole that communicates the internal space of the separation member with the outside,
    The flow path forming member according to claim 9, wherein the gas in the space is sucked by a vacuum system and the space is made negative.
  11.   A liquid level adjustment mechanism is provided for adjusting the liquid level of the liquid in the space so that liquid in the space outside the internal space does not flow into the internal space through the hole. The flow path forming member according to claim 10.
  12.   The flow path forming member according to any one of claims 9 to 11, wherein the separation member avoids liquid so that the liquid is not disposed on the space side of the second suction port.
  13.   The flow path forming member according to claim 7, wherein the liquid in the space is recovered by a liquid recovery unit.
  14. An exposure apparatus that exposes a substrate with exposure light through a liquid,
    An exposure apparatus comprising the flow path forming member according to claim 1.
  15. In an exposure apparatus that exposes the substrate by irradiating the substrate with exposure light via a projection optical system and a liquid,
    A supply port for supplying the liquid;
    A first suction port provided outside the supply port with respect to the projection region of the projection optical system;
    A second suction port provided outside the first suction port;
    A first member provided at the first suction port and having a first flow resistance;
    A second member provided at the second suction port and having a second flow resistance different from the first flow resistance;
    An end of a liquid immersion area formed on the image plane side of the projection optical system by the liquid is disposed in the second suction port ,
    An exposure apparatus in which the suction force of the first suction port for sucking the liquid increases as the area ratio of the second suction port covered with the liquid increases .
  16.   The exposure apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the resistance of the second flow is larger than the resistance of the first flow.
  17. A space connected to each of the first suction port and the second suction port;
    A vacuum system connected to the space and sucking the gas in the space;
    The exposure apparatus according to claim 15, further comprising: a third member provided in a flow path connecting the space portion and the vacuum system and having a third flow resistance.
  18.   18. The exposure apparatus according to claim 17, wherein the amount of gas per unit time passing through the second suction port and the amount of gas per unit time passing through the flow path are substantially the same.
  19.   The exposure apparatus according to claim 17 or 18, further comprising a separator provided in the space portion for separating liquid and gas.
  20.   The exposure apparatus according to claim 19, wherein the separator separates the gas sucked from the second suction port from the liquid in the space portion.
  21.   21. The exposure apparatus according to claim 17, wherein the space portion connected to the first suction port and the second suction port is divided into a plurality of parts so as to surround the projection region.
  22.   The exposure apparatus according to any one of claims 17 to 21, further comprising a liquid recovery unit that recovers the liquid in the space.
  23.   The exposure apparatus according to any one of claims 15 to 22, wherein the second member is liquid repellent.
  24.   The exposure apparatus according to any one of claims 15 to 23, wherein the second member is a porous body.
  25. Exposing the substrate using the exposure apparatus according to any one of claims 14 to 24;
    Developing the exposed substrate. A device manufacturing method.
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