JP4880329B2 - Vehicle lighting - Google Patents

Vehicle lighting Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4880329B2
JP4880329B2 JP2006059926A JP2006059926A JP4880329B2 JP 4880329 B2 JP4880329 B2 JP 4880329B2 JP 2006059926 A JP2006059926 A JP 2006059926A JP 2006059926 A JP2006059926 A JP 2006059926A JP 4880329 B2 JP4880329 B2 JP 4880329B2
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light
fluorescent
light emitting
fluorescent layer
thickness
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JP2007242717A (en
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由隆 大島
久芳 大長
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株式会社小糸製作所
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21SNON-PORTABLE LIGHTING DEVICES; SYSTEMS THEREOF; VEHICLE LIGHTING DEVICES SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR VEHICLE EXTERIORS
    • F21S41/00Illuminating devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, e.g. headlamps
    • F21S41/10Illuminating devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, e.g. headlamps characterised by the light source
    • F21S41/14Illuminating devices specially adapted for vehicle exteriors, e.g. headlamps characterised by the light source characterised by the type of light source
    • F21S41/16Laser light sources

Description

  The present invention relates to a vehicular lamp.

  In recent years, lamps using white light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been actively developed. The white LED is realized by combining a yellow phosphor with a blue LED. For example, the light-emitting diode disclosed in Patent Document 1 is a so-called bullet-type white LED, which includes an LED chip made of a GaN compound semiconductor and emitting blue light, and a transparent resin containing a YAG phosphor. Yes. The YAG phosphor is excited by blue light from the LED chip and emits yellow fluorescence.

Japanese Patent No. 2927279

  When a white LED is applied to a lamp (e.g., a headlamp) of a vehicle such as an automobile, the following problem occurs. In other words, it is desirable that the vehicular lamp has a very high far-intensity in order to ensure far visibility. Therefore, a light source used for a vehicular lamp is required to have a much higher luminance than a light source of a general lighting lamp. However, the conventional white LED has a low luminance, and it has been difficult to ensure sufficient distance visibility even when applied to a vehicular lamp.

  This invention is made | formed in view of the said subject, and it aims at raising the brightness | luminance of a light source more in the vehicle lamp which uses a light emitting diode as a light source.

  In order to solve the above problems, a vehicular lamp according to the present invention includes a light emitting diode chip having a semiconductor layer that generates blue light, a rectangular light emitting surface that intersects the thickness direction of the semiconductor layer, and blue light. And a fluorescent layer provided on the light emitting surface and the side surface of the light emitting diode chip, and the thickness of the fluorescent layer is d / 10 (d Is less than or equal to the length of the side of the light exit surface), and d / 10 or less on the side surface.

  The luminance of the light source is proportional to the luminous flux emitted from the unit light emitting area. Therefore, if a certain amount of light is emitted from the light source, the luminance is inversely proportional to the light emitting area. And in the light emitting diode chip covered with the fluorescent layer, the surface area of the fluorescent layer becomes the light emitting area. Therefore, in order to increase the luminance, it is preferable to reduce the surface area of the fluorescent layer.

  In the vehicle lamp described above, the blue light generated by the light emitting diode chip is emitted from other surfaces (light emission surface and side surfaces) excluding the mounting surface. In addition, since the chromaticity of the emitted light varies if the thickness of the fluorescent layer is not uniform, the thickness of the fluorescent layer is preferably uniform over the light emitting surface and the side surface. In such a case, the surface area of the fluorescent layer is determined according to the thickness of the fluorescent layer on the light emitting surface of the light emitting diode chip and the thickness of the fluorescent layer on the side surface of the light emitting diode chip. In view of these matters, the present inventor has made the fluorescent layer thickness d / 10 or less on the light emitting surface and the fluorescent layer thickness d / 10 or less also on the side surface. It has been found that the surface area (light emitting area) of the layer can be effectively reduced, and higher brightness can be obtained as compared with a vehicular lamp using conventional LEDs.

  That is, according to the vehicle lamp described above, in the vehicle lamp using a light emitting diode as a light source, it is possible to further increase the luminance of the light source and ensure far visibility.

  Further, in the vehicle lamp, the side length d of the light emitting surface is 150 μm or more, the thickness of the fluorescent layer is 15 μm or more on the light emitting surface, and 15 μm or more on the side surface. May be a feature. In order to obtain higher luminance, it is preferable to make the fluorescent layer thinner. However, in order to improve the visibility during driving, a strict chromaticity range is required for the color of the emitted light from the vehicular lamp unlike ordinary illumination light. If the intensity of the fluorescence extracted from the fluorescent layer is too small relative to the intensity of the blue light transmitted through the fluorescent layer, the chromaticity of the emitted light that is the combined light of the blue light and the fluorescence falls within this strict chromaticity range. It becomes difficult. When the fluorescent layer is made of a fluorescent material and the thickness of the fluorescent layer is 15 μm or more on both the light emitting surface and the side surface, the inventor of the present invention can sufficiently increase the intensity of fluorescence extracted from the fluorescent layer. It has been found that the chromaticity of the emitted light can be kept within the chromaticity range desirable for a lamp. That is, according to this vehicular lamp, emitted light having a chromaticity suitable as a vehicular lamp can be obtained.

Further, in the vehicular lamp, the fluorescent layer further includes a binder for holding the fluorescent material, and the volume occupancy v of the fluorescent material in the fluorescent layer is v ≧ 15 / t 1 (t 1 on the light emission surface). [Μm] satisfies the thickness of the fluorescent layer on the light emission surface) and also satisfies v ≧ 15 / t 2 (t 2 [μm] is the thickness of the fluorescent layer on the side surface) on the side surface. It may be a feature.

As described above, when the fluorescent layer is made of a fluorescent substance, if the fluorescent layer has a thickness of 15 μm or more on both the light emitting surface and the side surface, the fluorescent layer is fluorescent with respect to the intensity of blue light transmitted through the fluorescent layer. The intensity of the fluorescence extracted from the layer can be sufficiently increased, and the chromaticity of the emitted light can be suitably kept within the chromaticity range desirable for a vehicle lamp. However, when the fluorescent material is fixed by a binder, the intensity of the fluorescence extracted from the fluorescent layer depends not only on the thickness of the fluorescent layer but also on the density (volume occupation ratio v) of the fluorescent material. That is, the intensity of the fluorescence extracted from the fluorescent layer is determined by the amount of fluorescent substance per unit light emitting area (volume occupation ratio × thickness of the fluorescent layer). As described above, when the volume occupation ratio v is 1 (that is, 100%), the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer are 15 μm or more (that is, v × t 1 ≧ 15, v × t 2 ≧ 15). Therefore, if the volume occupancy v of the fluorescent material in the fluorescent layer satisfies v ≧ 15 / t 1 on the light emission surface and satisfies v ≧ 15 / t 2 on the side surface, it is suitable as a vehicle lamp. It is possible to obtain outgoing light with a proper chromaticity.

In the vehicular lamp, the fluorescent layer further includes a binder for holding the fluorescent substance, and the volume occupancy v of the fluorescent substance in the fluorescent layer is v ≦ x 1 (x 1 : 23 on the light emission surface). / T 1 and 1 whichever is smaller, t 1 [μm] satisfies the thickness of the fluorescent layer on the light exit surface, and v ≦ x 2 (x 2 : 23 / t 2 on the side surface). And t 2 [μm], whichever is smaller, and the thickness of the fluorescent layer on the side surface) may be satisfied.

In a vehicular lamp, it is difficult to keep the chromaticity of emitted light within the above chromaticity range even if the intensity of fluorescence extracted from the fluorescent layer is excessive with respect to the intensity of blue light transmitted through the fluorescent layer. Become. When the fluorescent layer is made of a fluorescent material and the thickness of the fluorescent layer is 23 μm or less on both the light emitting surface and the side surface, the present inventor believes that the emitted light is within the chromaticity range desirable for the vehicle lamp. It was found that chromaticity could be accommodated. As described above, when the fluorescent material is fixed by the binder, the intensity of the fluorescence extracted from the fluorescent layer is determined by the amount of the fluorescent material per unit light emitting area (volume occupancy × thickness of the fluorescent layer). When the volume occupancy v is 1 (ie, 100%), the thickness t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer may be 23 μm or less (ie, v × t 1 ≦ 23, v × t 2 ≦ 23). If the volume occupancy v of the fluorescent material in the fluorescent layer satisfies v ≦ 23 / t 1 on the light emitting surface and also satisfies v ≦ 23 / t 2 on the side surface, the chromaticity is suitable for a vehicle lamp. Output light can be obtained. When 23 / t 1 and 23 / t 2 exceed 1 (that is, when the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer are 23 μm or less), the volume occupation ratio v is 1 (100%). However, the intensity of the fluorescence extracted from the fluorescent layer does not become excessive, and outgoing light with a suitable chromaticity can be obtained.

  Moreover, it is preferable that the vehicle lamp is included in a wavelength range where the peak wavelength of blue light is 420 nm or more and 490 nm or less and a peak wavelength of light emitted from the fluorescent material is 510 nm or more and 600 nm or less.

  The vehicular lamp may be characterized in that the thickness of the fluorescent layer on the light emitting surface is substantially equal to the thickness of the fluorescent layer on the side surface. Thereby, variation in chromaticity (color unevenness) of emitted light can be suppressed, and uniform white light can be generated. Here, the substantially equal thickness means that, for example, the difference between the average thickness of the fluorescent layer on the light emitting surface and the average thickness of the fluorescent layer on the side surface is 8 / v μm or less (v: volume occupancy of the fluorescent material). This is the case.

  ADVANTAGE OF THE INVENTION According to this invention, the brightness | luminance of a light source can be raised more in the vehicle lamp which uses a light emitting diode as a light source.

  Hereinafter, a preferred embodiment of a vehicular lamp according to the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings. In the description of the drawings, the same or corresponding parts are denoted by the same reference numerals, and redundant description is omitted.

  FIG. 1 is a horizontal sectional view showing a configuration of a vehicle headlamp as an embodiment of a vehicle lamp according to the present invention. A vehicle headlamp 1 according to the present embodiment is a headlamp used in, for example, an automobile, and irradiates visible light forward of the vehicle. Referring to FIG. 1, the vehicle headlamp 1 includes a plurality of light source units 2, a cover 21, a base portion 22, a circuit unit 23, and a plurality of wirings 24.

  Each of the plurality of light source units 2 includes a light source unit 10, a wiring board 20, and a lens 25. The light source unit 10 includes a light emitting diode chip and is mounted on the wiring board 20. The light source unit 10 emits visible light according to the power received from the circuit unit 23 via the wiring 24 connected to each light source unit 2. The lens 25 irradiates the visible light emitted from the light source unit 10 to the outside of the vehicle headlamp 1. The light source unit 2 is supported on the base 22 by a mechanism (not shown) and can be tilted by a mechanism for adjusting the optical axis of the light source unit 2. In the present embodiment, one light source unit 10 is arranged for each light source unit 2, but each light source unit 2 may have a plurality of light source units 10.

  The cover 21 and the base 22 constitute a container for housing the plurality of light source units 2. The cover 21 and the base 22 preferably seal and waterproof a space for housing the light source unit 2. The cover 21 is made of a material that transmits visible light emitted from the light source unit 10 and covers the front of the plurality of light source units 2. The base 22 is disposed so as to sandwich the plurality of light source units 2 between the cover 21 and covers the plurality of light source units 2 from the rear. Note that the base 22 may be formed integrally with the body of the vehicle.

  The circuit unit 23 includes a lighting circuit for lighting the light source unit 10. The circuit unit 23 is electrically connected to the plurality of light source units 2 via the wiring 24. Further, the circuit unit 23 is electrically connected to an external circuit of the vehicle headlamp 1 via a wiring (not shown).

  The vehicle headlamp 1 may further include a heat radiating member (heat sink) and a reflecting mirror (reflector) not shown. The heat radiating member is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity such as metal, and is provided in contact with at least a part of the light source unit 2. The reflecting mirror is formed so as to surround the optical axis of the light source unit 2 by, for example, a thin metal plate or the like, and is provided across the plurality of light source units 2 and the cover 21.

  2 and 3 are diagrams illustrating an example of the configuration of the light source unit 10. FIG. 2 is a plan view of the light source unit 10 viewed from the optical axis direction of the light source unit 2. FIG. 3 is a side cross-sectional view taken along the line II of the light source unit 10 shown in FIG. The light source unit 10 includes a light emitting diode chip 3 and a fluorescent layer 4.

  The light-emitting diode chip 3 is a semiconductor element having a configuration in which a semiconductor layer 30 made of, for example, a gallium nitride semiconductor is grown on a sapphire substrate 31, and for example, blue light having a peak wavelength in a wavelength region of 420 nm or more and 490 nm or less is semiconductor Produced in layer 30. The light emitting diode chip 3 has a light emitting surface 3a (corresponding to the back surface of the sapphire substrate 31) intersecting the thickness direction of the semiconductor layer 30, and a side surface 3b along the edge of the light emitting surface 3a. Blue light generated in the semiconductor layer 30 is emitted to the outside of the light emitting diode chip 3 from the light emitting surface 3a and the side surface 3b. In addition, the light emission surface 3a of this embodiment is formed in the rectangular shape (square shape, rectangular shape, etc.) as shown in FIG. The length of one side of the light exit surface 3a (the length of the short side in the case of a rectangular shape) d is a value of 300 μm to 1500 μm, for example.

  The semiconductor layer 30 is formed on the main surface 31a of the sapphire substrate 31 by epitaxial growth. The semiconductor layer 30 of this embodiment includes an n-type GaN layer 32 that functions as a first cladding layer, a p-type GaN layer 34 that functions as a second cladding layer, and an n-type GaN layer 32 and a p-type GaN layer 34. An active layer 33 sandwiched between the layers is laminated on the main surface 31 a of the sapphire substrate 31. The semiconductor layer 30 may be another layer (for example, a buffer layer between the sapphire substrate 31 and the n-type GaN layer 32) in addition to the n-type GaN layer 32, the active layer 33, and the p-type GaN layer 34. You may have.

  The light emitting diode chip 3 further includes an anode electrode 35 and a cathode electrode 36 for supplying power to the semiconductor layer 30. The anode electrode 35 is electrically connected to the p-type GaN layer 34 through an ohmic junction with the p-type GaN layer 34. The cathode electrode 36 is electrically connected to the n-type GaN layer 32 through an ohmic junction with the exposed surface of the n-type GaN layer 32. The light emitting diode chip 3 is mounted on the wiring board 20 by bonding the anode electrode 35 and the cathode electrode 36 to the wiring pattern on the wiring board 20 using solder or the like.

  When a voltage is applied between the anode electrode 35 and the cathode electrode 36, an electric field is generated between the anode electrode 35 and the cathode electrode 36. Then, carriers generated in the n-type GaN layer 32 and the p-type GaN layer 34 concentrate on the active layer 33. Thereby, blue light is generated in the active layer 33. Blue light generated in the active layer 33 is emitted to the outside of the light emitting diode chip 3 from the light emitting surface 3a and the side surface 3b.

  The fluorescent layer 4 is a layer containing a fluorescent material 41 and is provided over the light emitting surface 3 a and the side surface 3 b of the light emitting diode chip 3. The fluorescent material 41 is excited by the blue light from the light emitting diode chip 3 and emits yellow fluorescence that is a complementary color of blue. Therefore, the light emitted from the surface of the fluorescent layer 4 becomes white light based on the blue light transmitted through the fluorescent layer 4 and the yellow fluorescent light emitted from the fluorescent material 41. The fluorescence emitted from the fluorescent material 41 preferably has a peak wavelength in a wavelength range of, for example, 510 nm to 600 nm. Examples of such a fluorescent material 41 include a cerium-activated garnet structure (YAG: Ce, etc.). The fluorescent material 41 is dispersed in the form of particles having a diameter of, for example, about 5 μm inside the fluorescent layer 4. The fluorescent material 41 is preferably dispersed at a substantially uniform density inside the fluorescent layer 4.

  The fluorescent layer 4 has a binder 42 for holding the fluorescent material 41. The binder 42 is formed so as to cover the light emitting surface 3 a and the side surface 3 b of the light emitting diode chip 3. The binder 42 is preferably made of a material transparent to the blue light from the light emitting diode chip 3 and the fluorescence from the fluorescent material 41, and is formed of, for example, a silicone resin or a fluorine resin. The binder 42 is cured with the fluorescent material 41 mixed therein.

In order to make the chromaticity of white light uniform, the thickness t 1 of the fluorescent layer 4 on the light emitting surface 3a is macroscopically substantially uniform over the light emitting surface 3a. desirable. Similarly, the thickness t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 on the side 3b also macroscopically, desirably is substantially uniform over on the side surface 3b. However, microscopically, in order to reduce reflection of light at the interface of the fluorescent layer 4, it is preferable that a fine uneven shape is formed on the surface of the fluorescent layer 4. The specific size of the uneven shape is determined as follows, for example. That is, the size of the concavo-convex shape that can avoid reflection of blue light (not flat when viewed from blue light) is 0.1 μm or more, which is a quarter wavelength or more of the blue light. Further, in order to ensure the uniformity of the density of the fluorescent material 41, the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 are ½ of 6 μm which is the optimum particle diameter of the fluorescent material 41 (particularly the YAG phosphor). The following is preferable. Therefore, the size of the uneven shape on the surface of the fluorescent layer 4 is preferably 0.1 μm to 3 μm.

  The light emitting diode chip 3 and the fluorescent layer 4 may be sealed (molded) by a sealing member (not shown). The sealing member is preferably formed of a material that transmits visible light (such as a silicone resin or a fluororesin resin) so as to cover the light emitting diode chip 3 and the fluorescent layer 4. By further providing such a sealing member, the light emitting diode chip 3 and the fluorescent layer 4 can be suitably protected.

Here, the performance desired for the vehicle headlamp 1 will be described in more detail. When the vehicular headlamp 1 is used in, for example, an automobile, a special irradiation pattern is desired for the vehicular headlamp 1 in order to ensure a field of view necessary for safe driving. For example, (1) to increase the illuminance near the optical axis to ensure distant visibility, (2) to realize an asymmetric illumination area that spreads laterally, and to suppress the glare of oncoming vehicles to the side shoulder to the road shoulder (3) having bright and dark lines along the horizontal plane, (4) realizing a gentle change in illuminance within the illumination area, and the like. Among these, with regard to the distant visibility of (1), it is difficult to ensure sufficient illuminance because the conventional white LED has low luminance (about 4 to 10 cd / mm 2 ).

Moreover, it is desirable that the color of the light emitted from the automotive headlamp is included in the following chromaticity range in the chromaticity coordinate system.
Yellow direction: x ≦ 0.50
Blue direction: x ≧ 0.31
Green direction: y ≦ 0.44 and y ≦ 0.15 + 0.64x
Purple direction: y ≧ 0.05 + 0.75x and y ≧ 0.382
In order to keep the emission color from the light source unit 10 within this chromaticity range, the intensity of blue light (primary light) emitted from the light emitting diode chip 3 and transmitted through the fluorescent layer 4 and the fluorescent layer 4 emitted from the fluorescent material 41 are emitted. It is necessary that the ratio with the intensity of the fluorescence (secondary light) extracted from the light falls within a suitable range.

  Further, the vehicle headlamp 1 is desired to have higher luminous efficiency in order to improve the fuel efficiency of the vehicle. The luminous efficiency of the conventional white LED is 30 [lm / W] to 50 [lm / W], which exceeds the halogen lamp, but does not reach the discharge bulb (91 [lm / W]). In a white LED that combines blue light and yellow fluorescence, the greater the blue light component contained in white light, the lower the visibility and the lower the light emission efficiency. Therefore, it seems that if the amount of the fluorescent material is increased to increase the fluorescence intensity, the light emission efficiency is improved. However, if the fluorescent material is thick, the fluorescence emitted from the inner fluorescent material is shielded by the outer (surface layer) fluorescent material, so that the luminous efficiency is reduced even if the amount of the fluorescent material is excessive. It will be.

  In order to solve these problems desired for the vehicular headlamp 1, the present inventor (A) increases the surface area (light emitting area) of the fluorescent layer 4 and decreases the luminance when the fluorescent layer 4 is too thick. The fluorescent layer 4 is made as thin as possible (that is, the surface area is made small), and (B) the fluorescent layer 4 is fluorescent so that the emission color is within the chromaticity range described above and the luminous efficiency is sufficiently high. The idea of determining the amount of fluorescent material 41 in layer 4 was obtained.

In order to embody the above idea, first, the thickness of the fluorescent layer 4 capable of ensuring sufficient luminance was examined. In the vehicle headlamp 1, the blue light generated by the light emitting diode chip 3 is emitted from other surfaces (light emitting surface 3a and side surface 3b) except the mounting surface. In addition, in order to suppress variation in emission color (color unevenness) from the light source unit 10 and generate uniform white light, the thickness t 1 (see FIG. 3) of the fluorescent layer 4 on the light emitting surface 3a and the side surface It is preferable that the thickness t 2 (see FIG. 3) of the fluorescent layer 4 on 3b is substantially equal. For example, the difference between the average thickness of the fluorescent layer 4 on the light emitting surface 3a and the average thickness of the fluorescent layer 4 on the side surface 3b is 8 / v μm or less (v: volume occupation of the fluorescent material). Rate). For example, when the volume occupancy v is 1 (100%), if the average thickness is within the range of ± 4 μm from the reference value, the difference in the average thickness is 8 μm or less, and the variation in the emission color (color Unevenness can be suitably suppressed.

In the fluorescent layer 4, when the amount of the fluorescent material 41 per unit light emitting area is constant, the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 are minimum when the volume occupancy v of the fluorescent material 41 is 1 (100%). Therefore, in order to minimize the light emitting area (surface area of the fluorescent layer 4) and maximize the luminance of the light source unit 10, the volume occupation ratio v of the fluorescent material 41 is preferably set to 1 (100%). However, actually, in order to ensure the workability of the fluorescent layer 4, the fluorescent material 41 is mixed with the binder 42 to form the fluorescent layer 4. At this time, the mixing ratio of the fluorescent material 41 and the binder 42 is adjusted according to the particle size of the fluorescent material 41 and the viscosity of the binder 42 in consideration of the rheological characteristics of the mixture. Generally, the ratio of the fluorescent material 41 is set with the upper limit being 60% to 70%.

Further, the degree of influence of the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 on the light emitting area varies depending on the size of the light emitting diode chip 3. Therefore, with reference to the luminance of the light source unit 10 when the volume occupancy v of the fluorescent material 41 is 1 (100%), the conditions of the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 for ensuring the luminance of at least 70% are as follows: It calculated | required for every magnitude | size of the light emitting diode chip | tip 3. FIG. FIG. 4 shows the thickness t of the fluorescent layer 4 necessary to ensure 70% luminance when the size d of one side of the light emitting surface 3a of the light emitting diode chip 3 is 300 μm, 500 μm, 1000 μm, and 1500 μm. 1 is a table showing the maximum value and the volume fraction v of t 2. Referring to FIG. 4, it can be seen that the maximum values of the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 are values slightly exceeding 1/10 of the size d of one side of the light emitting surface 3a. Therefore, the thickness t 1 of the fluorescent layer 4 in the light-emitting surface 3a on the d / 10 or less, and, if the thickness t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 also d / 10 or less on the side surface 3b, the light emitting area It has been found that can be secured to 1.4 or less of the minimum value, and sufficient luminance can be ensured as compared with a vehicular lamp using a conventional white LED. Thereby, in the vehicle headlamp 1 using the light-emitting diode chip 3 as a light source, the luminance of the light source unit 10 can be further increased, and remote visibility can be ensured.

  In addition, the above description is a case where the light emitting surface 3a of the light emitting diode chip 3 is a square, and when the light emitting surface 3a is a rectangle, the value of d is replaced with the size of the short side of the light emitting surface 3a. Good.

Thus, in order to obtain higher luminance, it is preferable to make the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 thinner. However, in order to improve the visibility during driving, a strict chromaticity range is required for the color of the emitted light from the vehicular lamp unlike ordinary illumination light. Hereinafter, the amount of the fluorescent material 41 in the fluorescent layer 4 is examined so that the emission color is within the chromaticity range described above and the luminous efficiency is sufficiently high.

  First, the correlation between the intensity of blue light and fluorescence extracted from the surface of the fluorescent layer and the thickness t of the fluorescent layer was measured while changing the amount (volume occupancy) of the fluorescent substance. The configuration of the measurement system at this time is shown in FIG. The primary light source 101 is a light source for emitting primary light (blue light Lb) having a peak wavelength of 460 nm. The photometry unit 102 is a spectrophotometer capable of separately measuring the blue component intensity and the yellow component intensity of received light. Here, an instantaneous multi-photometry system (MCPD-1000) manufactured by Otsuka Electronics was used. The phosphor paste film 104 (phosphor layer) applied on the glass plate 103 is irradiated with the blue light Lb from the primary light source 101 and transmitted from the phosphor paste film 104 and from the phosphor paste film 104. The intensity of each secondary light (fluorescence) Ly was measured by the photometry unit 102. The phosphor paste film 104 includes a YAG: Ce phosphor and a transparent binder (Shin-Etsu Chemical silicone resin, KE106) with a predetermined mass ratio (phosphor: binder = 2: 1, 1: 1, 1: 2,). And 1: 4) was applied to the glass plate 103 and cured by maintaining at 150 ° C. for 1 hour.

  6 to 9 are graphs showing the correlation between the intensity (relative intensity) of the blue light Lb incident on the photometry unit 102 and the thickness t of the phosphor paste film 104 in the above experiment. FIG. 6 shows a case where the ratio of the phosphor to the binder in the phosphor paste film 104 is 2: 1. 7 to 9 show cases where the mass ratios of the fluorescent material and the binder are 1: 1, 1: 2, and 1: 4, respectively.

  10 to 13 are graphs showing the correlation between the intensity (relative intensity) of the fluorescence Ly incident on the photometry unit 102 and the thickness t of the phosphor paste film 104 in the above experiment. 10 to 13 show cases where the mass ratio of the phosphor to the binder in the phosphor paste film 104 is set to 2: 1, 1: 1, 1: 2, and 1: 4, respectively.

Here, the intensities of the blue light Lb and the fluorescence Ly when the attenuation in the phosphor paste film 104 is considered will be considered. The light traveling inside the phosphor paste film 104 is attenuated exponentially according to the optical path length. Therefore, the intensity I B of the blue light Lb that has passed through the phosphor paste film 104 and the intensity I Y of the fluorescence Ly extracted from the phosphor paste film 104 can be approximated by the following equations (1) and (2).
I B = BIexp (−bt) (1)
I Y = B (η / 2) I (exp (−bt) −exp (−at)) / (ab) (2)
In the above formula, I is the incident intensity of the blue light Lb to the phosphor paste film 104, and a and b are the decay rates (units: fluorescence Ly and blue light Lb in the phosphor paste film 104, respectively). m −1 ). Also, η is the conversion efficiency per unit thickness of the phosphor paste film 104 (unit: m −1 ), and B is a constant. In addition, the reason why the conversion efficiency η is divided by 2 in the equation (2) is to exclude the fluorescence converted in the phosphor paste film 104 in the direction opposite to the photometry unit 102 from the intensity I Y. is there.

  When the graphs of FIGS. 5 to 13 are fitted to these approximate expressions (1) and (2) by the least square method, the volume occupancy v of the fluorescent material in the phosphor paste film 104 and the numerical values a, b, and η The relationship with / 2 is as shown in FIG.

Here, FIG. 15 is a graph showing the correlation between the attenuation rate b of the blue light (primary light) Lb and the volume occupancy v of the fluorescent material based on FIG. FIG. 16 is a graph showing the correlation between the decay rate a of the fluorescence (secondary light) Ly and the volume occupancy v of the fluorescent material based on FIG. FIG. 17 is a graph showing the correlation between the conversion efficiency (η / 2) and the volume occupancy v of the fluorescent material based on FIG. As shown in FIGS. 15 to 17, the attenuation rate b of blue light (primary light) Lb, the attenuation rate a of fluorescence (secondary light) Ly, and the conversion efficiency (η / 2) are the volume occupancy of the fluorescent material. It was found to be proportional to v. And based on these graphs, it confirmed that each numerical value b, a, and ((eta) / 2) can be approximated by the following formula | equation (3)-(5).
b = 0.116v (3)
a = 0.0131v (4)
η / 2 = 0.038v (5)

The numerical values b, a, and (η / 2) can be calculated by the above formulas (3) to (5), and the intensity ratio of the blue light Lb and the fluorescence Ly is obtained based on the formulas (1) and (2). It is done. For example, when mixed at a mass ratio of fluorescent material: binder = 4: 1, the volume occupancy v of the fluorescent material is 0.44 (ie, 44%) due to the specific gravity of each of the fluorescent material and the binder. When this numerical value is substituted into the above equations (3) to (5), the attenuation rate b of the blue light Lb is 5.1 × 10 −2 , the attenuation rate of the fluorescence Ly is a = 5.7 × 10 −3 , conversion Efficiency (η / 2) = 1.7 × 10 −2 FIG. 18 shows the intensities of the blue light Lb, the fluorescence Ly, and their combined light (white light) when these numerical values b, a, and (η / 2) are applied to the equations (1) and (2). 4 is a graph showing the correlation between (relative intensity) and the film thickness t of the phosphor paste film 104. In FIG. 18, a graph Gb 1 shows the intensity of the blue light Lb, a graph Gy 1 shows the intensity of the fluorescence Ly, and a graph Gw 1 shows the luminous flux of the combined light.

  Referring to FIG. 18, as the thickness of the phosphor paste film 104 increases, the intensity of the blue light (primary light) Lb decreases exponentially, but the intensity of the fluorescence (secondary light) Ly has a certain value. It can be seen that the film thickness has a maximum value. That is, up to a certain film thickness, the intensity of the fluorescence Ly increases as the film thickness increases. However, if the film thickness becomes too thick, the fluorescent substance itself shields the fluorescence Ly, and as a result, the fluorescence Ly is emitted. Strength will decrease. Therefore, the combined light (white light) of the blue light Lb and the fluorescence Ly also has a maximum value at a certain film thickness.

  Thus, the correlation of the intensity | strength of the blue light Lb and fluorescence Ly and the film thickness t according to the volume occupation rate v of the fluorescent substance was obtained. Usually, since the film thickness t and the volume occupation ratio v are known in advance, the intensities of the blue light Lb and the fluorescence Ly can be obtained based on this correlation. If the emission spectra of the blue light Lb and the fluorescence Ly are measured, the chromaticity and luminous flux (product of light intensity and visibility) of the combined light of the blue light Lb and the fluorescence Ly can be obtained.

FIG. 19 shows an example of an emission spectrum of the blue light Lb emitted from the gallium nitride light emitting diode chip. As shown in FIG. 19, the emission spectrum of the blue light Lb has a peak wavelength in a wavelength region of 420 nm or more and 490 nm or less. FIG. 20 is an example of an emission spectrum of fluorescence Ly emitted from the YAG: Ce phosphor. As shown in FIG. 20, the fluorescence Ly emission spectrum has a peak wavelength in a wavelength range of 510 nm or more and 600 nm or less, and a broad spectrum that extends to the wavelength range of 700 nm to 750 nm (red wavelength range). It has become. The light emitted from the vehicular headlamp 1 preferably includes a red wavelength component as described above. More specifically, the red light component is included in the total luminous flux in the visible light region (380 nm to 780 nm). It is preferable that 5% or more of the light flux of the wavelength component (610 nm to 780 nm) is included. The ratio Kred of the red wavelength component can be expressed by the following equation (6).

In the above equation (6), λ is the wavelength [nm], Ee (λ) is the spectral distribution [W] of the radiant flux, and v (λ) is the spectral luminous efficiency [l].

Using the results obtained above, the blue light in the case where the density of the fluorescent material 41 in the fluorescent layer 4 is the highest (that is, the volume occupation ratio v of the fluorescent material 41 in the fluorescent layer 4 is 100%). The correlation between the fluorescence intensity and the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 was obtained. Based on this correlation, the correlation between the luminous flux of the combined light (white light) and the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 was obtained. FIG. 21 shows the correlation between the intensity of blue light and fluorescence and the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 and the correlation between the luminous flux of the combined light and the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 when the volume occupancy v is 100%. It is a graph to show. In FIG. 21, a graph Gb 2 indicates the intensity of blue light, a graph Gy 2 indicates the intensity of fluorescence, and a graph Gw 2 indicates the luminous flux of the combined light.

As described above, the vehicle headlamp 1 is desired to have high luminous efficiency in order to improve the fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Therefore, the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 are preferably set so that the luminous flux of the combined light (white light) becomes substantially maximum. In the present example, the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 at which the luminous flux of the combined light (white light) has the maximum value FL MAX were 14 μm as shown in FIG. Further, the range of the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 in which the luminous flux of the combined light (white light) becomes substantially maximum (specifically, 90% or more of the maximum value FL MAX ) is shown in FIG. As shown, it was in the range of 5 μm to 30 μm.

Further, using the result obtained earlier, the density of the fluorescent material 41 in the fluorescent layer 4 is the highest (that is, the volume occupation ratio v of the fluorescent material 41 in the fluorescent layer 4 is 100%). The correlation between the chromaticity of the synthesized light and the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 was obtained. Graph G1 in FIG. 22 is a graph showing changes in chromaticity when the thickness t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 is changed. In FIG. 22, chromaticities c 1 to c 5 indicate chromaticities when the thickness t 1 (= t 2 ) of the fluorescent layer 4 is 16 μm, 18 μm, 20 μm, 22 μm, and 24 μm, respectively.

As described above, it is desirable that the color of light emitted from the vehicle headlamp 1 be included in the next chromaticity range in the chromaticity coordinate system. That is, in the chromaticity coordinate system, 0.31 ≦ x ≦ 0.50, 0.382 ≦ y ≦ 0.44, and 0.05 + 0.75x ≦ y ≦ 0.15 + 0.64x. This chromaticity range is also shown in FIG. 22 (range A). In the graph G1, the portion included in the range A represents the thickness range of the fluorescent layer 4 that matches the chromaticity range when the volume occupation ratio v is 100%. That is, it was found from FIG. 22 that the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 that match the chromaticity range are 15 μm or more and 23 μm or less.

However, the range of thicknesses t 1 and t 2 (t 1 , t 2 ≧ 15 μm, t 1 , t 2 ≦ 23 μm) of the fluorescent layer 4 that matches the above chromaticity range is the volume of the fluorescent material 41 in the fluorescent layer 4. When the occupation ratio v is 100% and the fluorescent layer 4 has the binder 42, the preferable ranges of the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 are also different. That is, the intensity of blue light and fluorescence emitted from the surface of the fluorescent layer 4 is assumed to be the amount of fluorescent substance per unit light emitting area (volume occupancy v × the fluorescent layer 4) assuming that there is no light attenuation by the binder 42. It depends on the thickness t 1 , t 2 ). As described above, when the volume occupation ratio v is 1 (that is, 100%), the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 need only be 15 μm or more. By satisfying v ≧ 15 / t 1 (unit of t 1 : μm) on the light exit surface 3a and satisfying v ≧ 15 / t 2 (unit of t 2 : μm) also on the side surface 3b. Thus, synthesized light (white light) having a chromaticity suitable for the vehicle headlamp 1 can be obtained.

Further, when the volume occupancy v is 1 (100%), the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 need only be 23 μm or less, so the volume occupancy v of the fluorescent material 41 in the fluorescent layer 4 is light. By satisfying v ≧ 23 / t 1 (unit of t 1 : μm) on the emission surface 3a and satisfying v ≧ 23 / t 2 (unit of t 2 : μm) also on the side surface 3b, Synthetic light (white light) having a chromaticity suitable for the lighting 1 can be obtained. When 23 / t 1 and 23 / t 2 exceed 1 (that is, when the thickness t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 is 23 μm or less), the volume occupation ratio v is 1 (100%). Even if it exists, the intensity | strength of fluorescence does not become excessive, but the synthetic light of suitable chromaticity can be obtained. Therefore, the above condition is that the volume occupation ratio v of the fluorescent material 41 in the fluorescent layer 4 is v ≦ x 1 (x 1 : 23 / t 1 or 1 whichever is smaller) on the light emitting surface 3a, and It can be expressed as v ≦ x 2 (x 2 : 23 / t 2 or 1 whichever is smaller) on the side surface 3b.

Further, from the range of thicknesses t 1 and t 2 (t 1 , t 2 ≧ 5 μm, t 1 , t 2 ≦ 30 μm) of the fluorescent layer 4 where the luminous flux of the combined light (white light) is substantially maximum, the fluorescent layer 4 The volume occupancy v of the fluorescent material 41 satisfies 5 / t 1 ≦ v ≦ 30 / t 1 (unit of μ 1 ) on the light emitting surface 3a and 5 / t 2 ≦ on the side surface 3b. By satisfying v ≦ 30 / t 2 (unit of t 2 : μm), the luminous flux of the combined light (white light) becomes almost maximum, and high luminous efficiency can be obtained.

  In each of the above considerations, it is more preferable if the particle size of the fluorescent material 41 is also taken into consideration. Usually, the fluorescent substance 41 such as a YAG phosphor is formed by doping an element serving as a light emission center in a particulate crystal. In addition, crystal defects present in the crystal reduce the light emission efficiency, but the crystal defect density in the particulate crystal tends to increase at the outermost surface of the particulate crystal. That is, since the surface area per unit volume of the particulate crystal increases as the average particle size decreases, the smaller the average particle size, the greater the number of crystal defects and the lower the emission intensity.

In view of this point, the present inventor examined the correlation between the particle size of the fluorescent material 41 and the emission intensity. Specifically, the fluorescent material (average particle size 6.5 μm) used in the measurement system shown in FIG. 5 was pulverized with a ball mill to change the average particle size, and the luminous efficiency was measured. Note that Particle Size Analyzer LA-500 manufactured by HORIBA, Ltd. was used to measure the average particle size of the fluorescent material. As a result, it was found that when the average particle size of the fluorescent material 41 is smaller than 2 μm, the emission intensity is greatly reduced to 40% or less compared to the case where the average particle size is 6.5 μm. On the other hand, if the average particle size exceeds 10 μm, it becomes difficult to form a densely packed structure when the thicknesses t 1 and t 2 of the fluorescent layer 4 are set to 15 μm. Light (blue light) leaks from the gap. Therefore, the average particle diameter of the fluorescent material 41 is preferably 2 μm or more and 10 μm or less.

  The vehicular lamp according to the present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiment, and various other modifications are possible. For example, the planar shape of the light emitting surface of the light emitting diode chip is not limited to a square or a rectangle as long as it is a rectangle. In the above embodiment, the back emission type (flip chip mounting type) light emitting diode chip is exemplified. However, the light emitting diode chip of the type in which the surface on the semiconductor substrate side becomes the mounting surface and the surface on the semiconductor layer side becomes the light emitting surface. The present invention may be applied.

  Moreover, although the thing of the garnet structure of the cerium activation was illustrated as an example of a fluorescent substance in the said embodiment, the fluorescent substance which has another structure may be sufficient.

1 is a horizontal sectional view showing a configuration of a vehicle headlamp as an embodiment of a vehicle lamp according to the present invention. It is a top view of the light source part seen from the optical axis direction of the light source unit. It is side surface sectional drawing along the II line of the light source part shown in FIG. It is a graph which shows the maximum thickness and volume occupation rate of a fluorescent layer according to the magnitude | size of the one side of the light emission surface of a light emitting diode chip. It is a figure which shows the structure of a measurement system when measuring the blue light radiate | emitted from the surface of a fluorescent layer, and the intensity | strength of fluorescence, and measuring while changing the quantity (volume occupation rate) of a fluorescent substance. . It is a graph which shows the correlation with the intensity | strength of the blue light which injected into the photometry part, and the thickness of a fluorescent substance paste film when the ratio of the fluorescent substance and binder in a fluorescent substance paste film is 2: 1. It is a graph which shows the correlation with the intensity | strength of the blue light which injected into the photometry part, and the thickness of a fluorescent substance paste film when the ratio of the fluorescent substance and binder in a fluorescent substance paste film is 1: 1. It is a graph which shows the correlation with the intensity | strength of the blue light which injected into the photometry part, and the thickness of a fluorescent substance paste film when the ratio of the fluorescent substance and binder in a fluorescent substance paste film is set to 1: 2. It is a graph which shows the correlation with the intensity | strength of the blue light which injected into the photometry part, and the thickness of a fluorescent substance paste film when the ratio of the fluorescent substance and binder in a fluorescent substance paste film is set to 1: 4. It is a graph which shows the correlation with the intensity | strength of the fluorescence which injected into the photometry part, and the thickness of a fluorescent substance paste film when the ratio of the fluorescent substance and binder in a fluorescent substance paste film is 2: 1. It is a graph which shows the correlation with the intensity | strength of the fluorescence which injected into the photometry part, and the thickness of a fluorescent substance paste film when the ratio of the fluorescent substance in a fluorescent substance paste film | membrane is 1: 1. It is a graph which shows the correlation with the intensity | strength of the fluorescence which injected into the photometry part, and the thickness of a fluorescent substance paste film when the ratio of the fluorescent substance and binder in a fluorescent substance paste film is set to 1: 2. It is a graph which shows the correlation with the intensity | strength of the fluorescence which injected into the photometry part, and the thickness of a fluorescent substance paste film when the ratio of the fluorescent substance and binder in a fluorescent substance paste film is set to 1: 4. It is a graph which shows the relationship between the volume occupation rate of the fluorescent substance in a fluorescent substance paste film | membrane, and each numerical value a, b, (eta) / 2. It is the graph showing the correlation with the attenuation factor of blue light (primary light) and the volume occupation rate of a fluorescent material based on FIG. FIG. 15 is a graph showing the correlation between the decay rate of fluorescence (secondary light) and the volume occupancy of the fluorescent material based on FIG. 14. FIG. 15 is a graph showing the correlation between the conversion efficiency (η / 2) and the volume occupancy of the fluorescent material based on FIG. 14. It is a graph which shows the correlation with the intensity | strength of blue light, fluorescence, and these synthetic lights (white light), and the film thickness of a fluorescent substance paste film | membrane. 2 is an example of an emission spectrum of blue light emitted from a gallium nitride-based light emitting diode chip. It is an example of the emission spectrum of the fluorescence emitted from the YAG: Ce phosphor. It is a graph which shows the correlation with the intensity | strength of a blue light and fluorescence, and the thickness of a fluorescent layer in the case where a volume occupation rate is 100%, and the correlation with the light beam of synthetic light, and the thickness of a fluorescent layer. It is a graph which shows the change of chromaticity when the thickness of a fluorescent layer changes, and the chromaticity range desirable as a vehicle headlamp.

Explanation of symbols

  DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Vehicle headlamp, 2 ... Light source unit, 3 ... Light emitting diode chip, 3a ... Light emission surface, 3b ... Side surface, 4 ... Fluorescent layer, 10 ... Light source part, 20 ... Wiring board, 21 ... Cover, 22 ... Base part 23 ... Circuit unit 24 ... Wiring 25 ... Lens 30 ... Semiconductor layer 31 ... Sapphire substrate 32 ... n-type GaN layer 33 ... Active layer 34 ... p-type GaN layer 35 ... Anode electrode 36 ... cathode electrode, 41 ... fluorescent material, 42 ... binder.

Claims (3)

  1. A light emitting diode chip having a semiconductor layer for generating blue light and having a rectangular light emitting surface intersecting the thickness direction of the semiconductor layer;
    A fluorescent material that emits light when excited by the blue light, and includes a fluorescent layer provided on the light emitting surface and the side surface of the light emitting diode chip,
    The fluorescent layer has a thickness of d / 10 (d is the length of the side of the light emitting surface) or less on the light emitting surface, and d / 10 or less on the side surface,
    The side length d of the light exit surface is 150 μm or more,
    The fluorescent layer has a thickness of 15 μm or more on the light emitting surface and 15 μm or more on the side surface,
    The fluorescent layer further comprises a binder for holding the fluorescent material;
    The volume occupancy v of the fluorescent material in the fluorescent layer satisfies v ≧ 15 / t 1 (t 1 [μm] is the thickness of the fluorescent layer on the light emitting surface) on the light emitting surface, and the even on the side surface v ≧ 15 / t 2 (t 2 [μm] and the thickness of the phosphor layer on the side) to meet,
    The fluorescent layer further comprises a binder for holding the fluorescent material;
    The volume occupancy v of the fluorescent material in the fluorescent layer is v ≦ x 1 (x 1 : 23 / t 1 or 1 whichever is smaller on the light emission surface , t 1 [μm] is the light emission. The thickness of the fluorescent layer on the surface) and v ≦ x 2 (x 2 : 23 / t 2 or 1 whichever is smaller) on the side surface, t 2 [μm] is on the side surface The thickness of the fluorescent layer in (4) is satisfied .
  2. The peak wavelength of the blue light is included in a wavelength range of 420 nm or more and 490 nm or less,
    2. The vehicular lamp according to claim 1 , wherein a peak wavelength of light emitted from the fluorescent material is included in a wavelength range of 510 nm or more and 600 nm or less.
  3. Wherein the thickness of the fluorescent layer, characterized in that the thickness of the phosphor layer on the side are approximately equal, the vehicle lamp according to claim 1 or 2 on the light emitting surface.
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WO2009104652A1 (en) * 2008-02-18 2009-08-27 株式会社小糸製作所 White light emitting device and lighting fitting for vehicles using the white light emitting device
JP2011108672A (en) * 2008-02-18 2011-06-02 Koito Mfg Co Ltd White light emitting apparatus and lighting fitting for vehicle using the same
CN101946336B (en) 2008-02-18 2012-06-27 株式会社小糸制作所 White light emitting device and lighting fitting for vehicles using the white light emitting device
US20110116520A1 (en) * 2008-07-07 2011-05-19 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Eye-safe laser-based lighting
JP4875185B2 (en) * 2010-06-07 2012-02-15 株式会社東芝 Optical semiconductor device
JP5869769B2 (en) * 2011-03-07 2016-02-24 コニカミノルタ株式会社 Method for forming phosphor layer and method for manufacturing light emitting device
JP5369201B2 (en) 2011-04-28 2013-12-18 シャープ株式会社 Floodlight unit and floodlight device
JP5413405B2 (en) * 2011-05-30 2014-02-12 パナソニック株式会社 Resin coating apparatus and resin coating method
JP5413404B2 (en) * 2011-05-30 2014-02-12 パナソニック株式会社 LED package manufacturing system and resin coating method in LED package manufacturing system
JP2015038939A (en) * 2013-08-19 2015-02-26 シチズン電子株式会社 Light emitting device

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