JP4835521B2 - Collision mitigation device - Google Patents

Collision mitigation device Download PDF

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JP4835521B2
JP4835521B2 JP2007160452A JP2007160452A JP4835521B2 JP 4835521 B2 JP4835521 B2 JP 4835521B2 JP 2007160452 A JP2007160452 A JP 2007160452A JP 2007160452 A JP2007160452 A JP 2007160452A JP 4835521 B2 JP4835521 B2 JP 4835521B2
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collision
means
braking
vehicle
avoidance
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JP2008308128A (en
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洋介 伊東
一馬 橋本
晃 磯貝
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株式会社デンソー
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Description

  The present invention relates to a vehicle collision mitigation device that mitigates damage caused when a vehicle collides.

Conventionally, as the above-described collision mitigation device, an apparatus that detects an obstacle on the course of the vehicle and activates a brake when the vehicle cannot avoid collision with the obstacle is known (for example, a patent) Reference 1).
JP 2006-298315 A

  However, in the above-described collision mitigation device, there is a possibility that the vehicle stops before colliding with an obstacle depending on conditions such as speed when the brake is operated. As described above, when the vehicle is decelerated so that the vehicle does not collide, it is possible to avoid a collision with an obstacle, but there is a problem that the driver overtrusts the device. In addition, the technical guideline by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism shows that the driver does not overtrust the device.

  In view of these problems, in a vehicle collision mitigation device that mitigates damage when a vehicle collides, the driver overtrusts the device while maintaining the function of mitigating damage when the vehicle collides. It is an object of the present invention to be able to prevent this.

2. The collision mitigation apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the mitigation means for mitigating damage caused when the vehicle collides is configured such that the collision time calculated by the collision time calculation means is a braking avoidance lower limit. When the time is below, the braking means is activated. The braking avoidance lower limit time represents a limit time during which the device can avoid a collision between an obstacle and a vehicle by operating the braking means.

  Therefore, according to such a collision mitigation device, if the mitigation means intervenes, the damage caused when the vehicle collides can be mitigated, but the collision itself cannot be avoided, so the vehicle stops before the collision. Can be prevented. Therefore, it is possible to prevent the driver from overconfidencing the device.

  In addition, the obstacle as used in the field of this invention represents the whole thing which can become obstacle to driving | running | working of the own vehicle, for example, is a concept also including installation objects, such as another vehicle, a pedestrian, the fallen object on a road, or a guardrail ( It corresponds to “object” in the embodiment).

In addition, as the braking avoidance lower limit time , for example, when deceleration is set when the braking means is operated by the mitigation means, the vehicle can avoid a collision when the vehicle decelerates according to this deceleration. It may be set to the limit time to disappear.

In the present invention also provides a relaxation means actuates the collision avoidance assistance means for actuating the brake means to assist avoidance operation of the driver, the braking means in order to mitigate the damage when the vehicle collides collide Damage reduction means .

According to such a collision mitigation device, the braking means can be used not only for the damage mitigation function but also for the collision avoidance support function.
Moreover, Te shock absorbing device odor of the present invention, the collision avoidance assisting means, collision time actuates the braking means when the following normal steering avoidance limit hours or less and braking avoidance limit hours, Collision Mitigation means, the collision time the braking means when: steering avoidance limit hours or less and braking avoidance limit hours Ru is activated. The normal steering avoidance lower limit time is a limit time during which a driver can avoid a collision between an obstacle and the vehicle by performing normal steering, and is set to a value equal to or greater than the steering avoidance limit time. Yes. Further, the steering avoidance limit time represents the limit time during which the driver can avoid a collision between the obstacle and the vehicle by steering, and the braking avoidance limit time is the driver operating the braking means. This represents the limit time during which the collision between the obstacle and the vehicle can be avoided.

  According to such a collision mitigation device, when the limit of the collision can be avoided by the driver's normal steering, the relative speed with the obstacle is reduced by using the braking means, and the collision is avoided by the driver's operation. The avoidance operation is supported by lengthening the possible time. Further, if the collision cannot be avoided even by the driver's steering, the braking means can be operated in order to mitigate damage when the vehicle collides.

Further, the shock absorbing device according to claim 1, which may be determined the braking avoidance limit time in accordance with the map braking avoidance limit time is associated in accordance with the running speed of the vehicle, according to claim 2 , the braking avoidance lower limit time based on the detection result by the relative speed detecting means for detecting the relative speed between the vehicle and the obstacle, and the deceleration that can be exhibited by the braking means of the vehicle set in advance. There may be provided a limit time calculating means for calculating.

  According to such a collision mitigation device, adaptation (specification change according to the type of vehicle) when mounting the device on a different vehicle can be performed simply by changing the function (coefficient). The work at the time can be facilitated.

The limit time calculation means may calculate the steering avoidance limit time based on the detection result by the relative speed detection means and the preset steering performance of the vehicle.
In the collision mitigation device, as described in claim 3, the collision avoidance assisting means operates the braking means with a braking force weaker than the braking force when the collision damage reducing means operates the braking means. It may be.
According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, the collision avoidance support means takes into account the deceleration when the braking means is operated by the collision avoidance support means and the deceleration when the braking means is operated by the collision damage reduction means. Thus, the braking means may be activated only when the collision avoidance assisting means and the collision damage reducing means actuate the braking means and the vehicle cannot avoid the collision.

Embodiments according to the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.
FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing a schematic configuration of a pre-crash safety system (hereinafter referred to as PCS; collision mitigation device in the present invention) 1 to which the present invention is applied.

  The PCS 1 is a system that is mounted on, for example, a vehicle such as a passenger car, detects that the vehicle collides, and reduces damage when the vehicle collides. Specifically, as shown in FIG. 1, the PCS 1 includes a collision mitigation controller 10, various sensors 30, and a controlled object 40 (braking means in the present invention).

  As the various sensors 30, for example, a radar sensor 31 (obstacle detection means in the present invention) that detects an object such as a pedestrian, an obstacle on the road, or another vehicle together with its position (relative position with respect to the host vehicle), a vehicle A yaw rate sensor 32 for detecting the turning angular velocity of the vehicle, a wheel speed sensor 33 for detecting the rotational speed of the wheel, and the like. The detection results by these various sensors 30 are acquired by the collision mitigation controller 10.

The radar sensor 31 detects an object located in the traveling direction of the vehicle every predetermined period (for example, 100 ms) set in advance.
The collision mitigation controller 10 is configured as a known microcomputer including a CPU 11, a ROM 12, a RAM 13, and the like. The collision mitigation controller 10 executes various processes such as a collision mitigation process (a mitigation means in the present invention) to be described later by executing a program stored in the ROM 12 based on detection results by the various sensors 30. .

  The collision mitigation controller 10 performs such processing, and activates the controlled object 40 according to the processing results of these processing. As a result, damage caused when the vehicle collides can be reduced.

  The controlled object 40 includes, for example, an actuator that drives a brake, a steering, a seat belt, and the like. Hereinafter, in the present embodiment, a case where the controlled object 40 is a brake will be described.

  Here, in the PCS 1 of the present embodiment, an avoidance assist brake (automatic brake 1) for assisting the driver's avoidance operation when the driver (driver) may collide with the vehicle and the object, and the driver A damage reduction brake (automatic brake 2) for reducing damage caused when the vehicle and the object collide with each other is activated.

  Note that the automatic brake 1 is a brake for assisting the avoidance operation of the driver for the purpose of assisting avoidance. Therefore, when the CPU 11 operates the automatic brake 1, the automatic brake 2 is intended to reduce damage. Compared with deceleration, braking is performed with a small deceleration. On the other hand, when the CPU 11 operates the automatic brake 2, in order to reduce deceleration damage, braking is performed at the maximum deceleration that the host vehicle can exhibit.

  As described above, when the CPU 11 operates the function as each automatic brake, the controlled object 40 is operated so as to obtain a preset deceleration according to the detection signal from the wheel speed sensor 33.

Thus, the collision mitigation process which is a process at the time of implementing the automatic brakes 1 and 2 will be described with reference to FIGS.
FIG. 2 is a flowchart showing a collision mitigation process executed by the CPU 11 of the collision mitigation controller 10. FIG. 3 is a flowchart showing the operation determination process in the collision mitigation process. Further, FIG. 4 is a flowchart showing threshold calculation processing in the operation determination processing.

  The collision mitigation process is a process that is activated every predetermined period (for example, about 50 ms) set in advance. Specifically, as shown in FIG. 2, in the collision mitigation process, the object selection process (S110: relative speed detection means), the driver operation determination process (S120), the operation determination process (S130: collision avoidance support means and collision) Damage reduction means), arbitration processing (S140), and operation control processing (S150: collision avoidance support means and collision damage reduction means) are sequentially performed.

  In the object selection process (S110), other vehicles that enter the lane (own lane) on which the host vehicle (the vehicle on which the PCS 1 is mounted) run, pedestrians and road obstacles that are on the course of the host vehicle. The object such as is detected. In this object selection process, a process of estimating the course of the object, a process of calculating a relative speed with the object using a detection result by the radar sensor 31, and the like are performed. Based on these processes, Select an object that may collide with your vehicle.

  In the driver operation determination process (S120), it is determined whether or not the driver of the host vehicle has performed an operation (a collision avoiding operation) for avoiding a collision with the object. In this process, for example, it is detected whether or not the brake is operated, and when it is detected that the brake is operated, the collision avoiding operation is performed and the result is recorded in the RAM 13.

  In the operation determination process (S130), it is determined whether it is time to operate the controlled object 40 based on the course of the object estimated by the object selection process, the relative speed with the object, and the like. An operation instruction is generated and recorded in the RAM 13 at the timing for operating the control target 40.

In the arbitration process (S140), it is finally determined whether or not the controlled object 40 is actually operated. Details of the operation determination process and the arbitration process will be described later.
Subsequently, in the operation control process (S150), on the basis of the generated operation instruction, an operation command corresponding to the controlled object 40 is sent to the controlled object 40 (if there are a plurality of controlled objects 40, each of the controlled commands 40). To the controlled object 40).

  Next, details of the operation determination process will be described. In the operation determination process, as shown in FIG. 3, a collision time that represents the time until the vehicle collides with the object is calculated based on the behavior and relative speed of the object detected in the object selection process. (S210: collision time calculation means). Then, a threshold value calculation process for calculating a threshold value that is a criterion for determining whether or not to operate the automatic brake (braking means) is performed (S220).

  In this threshold value calculation process, as shown in FIG. 4, first, a braking avoidance limit time is calculated (S310: limit time calculation means). Here, the braking avoidance limit time represents a limit time during which the driver can avoid a collision between the object and the vehicle by operating the braking means. Therefore, even if the driver operates the brake after the collision time becomes less than the braking avoidance limit time, the collision with the object cannot be avoided only by operating the brake.

  The accurate braking avoidance limit time becomes a large value approximately in proportion to the relative speed with the object, and specific numerical values are experimentally obtained for each vehicle. However, when this braking avoidance limit time is calculated by the PCS 1, it is approximated as a function having the relative speed as a variable.

  That is, the function is expressed by, for example, an expression that divides the relative speed with the object by a constant (for example, a value of about 16) set in advance according to the deceleration that the brake of the vehicle can exert. In addition, you may enable it to change a constant here according to vehicle environments, such as a friction coefficient of a road surface.

  Subsequently, a steering avoidance limit time is calculated (S320). Here, the steering avoidance limit time represents a limit time during which the collision between the object and the vehicle can be avoided by the driver steering. Therefore, even if the driver operates the steering after the collision time becomes less than the steering avoidance limit time, the collision with the object cannot be avoided only by the steering.

  The accurate steering avoidance limit time is a substantially constant value regardless of the relative speed with respect to the object, and a specific numerical value is experimentally obtained for each vehicle. However, in PCS1, the steering avoidance limit time is approximated as a constant value. That is, a fixed value (for example, 0.6 seconds) set in advance based on the steering performance of the vehicle (responsiveness of the steering device, turning radius of the vehicle, etc.) is adopted.

  Next, a collision determination line is calculated (S330). The collision determination line represents a limit line where a collision can be avoided by braking or steering. Specifically, the smaller one of the braking avoidance limit time and the steering avoidance limit time is adopted as the collision determination line. .

Therefore, when the collision time is shorter than the collision determination line, the collision with the object cannot be avoided.
Next, a braking avoidance limit time (hereinafter referred to as a combination limit time) when the automatic brake 1 and the automatic brake 2 are operated in combination is calculated (S340). The combination limit time here is determined even if the automatic brakes 1 and 2 are operated in consideration of the deceleration and the operation time when the automatic brake 1 is operated and the deceleration when the automatic brake 2 is operated. It is set so as not to escape collision with the object.

  Note that specific numerical values in the combination limit time are also experimentally obtained for each vehicle. Here, the sum is obtained by multiplying the collision determination line by a predetermined coefficient, and by dividing the relative speed by the predetermined coefficient. Further, the combination limit time can be matched with the braking avoidance limit time calculated in S310.

  Subsequently, a normal steering avoidance lower limit time is calculated (S350). Here, the normal steering avoidance lower limit time represents a time necessary for avoiding a collision with an object by a smooth steering operation of the driver, and adopts a preset fixed value (for example, 1.4 seconds). Shall.

  Then, an automatic brake 1 determination line (set time: avoidance limit time according to the present invention) serving as a reference for determining whether or not to operate the automatic brake 1 is calculated (S360). Here, the automatic brake 1 determination line is set by adopting the smaller one of the combination limit time and the normal steering avoidance limit time.

  Subsequently, an automatic brake 2 determination line (a set time) serving as a determination criterion for determining whether or not to operate the automatic brake 2 is calculated (S370). Here, the automatic brake 2 determination line is set by adopting the collision determination line as it is.

  In the PCS 1 of the present embodiment, when the automatic brake 1 determination line and the automatic brake 2 determination line are set as described above, these have a relationship as shown in FIG. FIG. 5 is a graph showing the relationship between the relative speed and the set time.

  As shown in FIG. 5, the automatic brake 2 determination line in the PCS 1 increases the set time along the braking avoidance limit time in the region where the relative speed is from 0 to about 34 km / h, and is constant after the steering avoidance limit time. become. That is, even if the relative speed increases, the set time does not increase beyond 0.6 seconds.

  The automatic brake 1 determination line has a relative speed of about 57 km / h from the intersection of the braking avoidance limit time and the steering avoidance limit time (relative speed: about 34 km / h, set time: 0.6 seconds). In the meantime, the set time increases substantially along the braking avoidance limit time and becomes constant after the normal steering avoidance limit time. That is, even if the relative speed increases, the set time does not increase beyond 1.4 seconds.

By the way, the automatic brake 1 determination line in the PCS having the conventional configuration is set to a value as shown by a broken line in FIG. Unlike the present embodiment, the automatic brake 1 determination line in this case is set to a value exceeding the combination limit time. For this reason, when the automatic brakes 1 and 2 are operated, there is a possibility that the vehicle stops before colliding with an object. However, in the PCS 1 of the present embodiment, this problem is solved by setting the automatic brake 1 determination line to the combination limit time or less as described above.

Each calculation result in the threshold calculation process is recorded in the RAM 13. When S370 ends, the threshold calculation process ends. When such a threshold calculation process ends, the process returns to FIG. 3 to determine whether the collision time calculated in S210 is less than the automatic brake 2 determination line. (S230). If the collision time is less than the automatic brake 2 determination line (S230: YES), an automatic brake 2 operation command is generated (S240), and the operation determination process is terminated.

  If the collision time is equal to or longer than the automatic brake 2 determination line (S230: NO), it is determined whether the collision time calculated in S210 is less than the automatic brake 1 determination line (S250). If the collision time is less than the automatic brake 1 determination line (S250: YES), an automatic brake 2 operation command is generated (S260), and the operation determination process is terminated.

If the collision time is equal to or longer than the automatic brake 1 determination line (S230: NO), the operation determination process is immediately terminated.
Next, in the arbitration process (S140) performed following the operation determination process, even if an operation instruction for operating the controlled object 40 is recorded in the RAM 13 in the operation determination process, collision avoidance is performed by the driver in S120. If the operation is recorded in the RAM 13, the arbitration process (S140) may prevent the controlled object 40 from being operated in the collision mitigation process.

  Specifically, in the operation determination process, if the operation instruction for the automatic brake 1 is recorded in the RAM 13 and the fact that the collision avoidance operation is performed by the driver is recorded in the RAM 13, the driver itself performs the collision avoidance. As a result, operating the controlled object 40 (brake) as the automatic brake 1 is prohibited. On the other hand, even if the operation instruction for the automatic brake 2 is recorded in the RAM 13 and the collision avoidance operation by the driver is recorded in the RAM 13, the collision cannot be avoided already. The controlled object 40 (brake) is operated.

  In other words, in the arbitration process, the operation of the automatic brake 1 may be canceled, but the process of continuing the operation of the automatic brake 2 is performed. As a result, in the operation control process (S150), the controlled object 40 can be appropriately operated so that the driver's operation is given priority when the collision can be avoided and the damage of the collision is alleviated when the collision cannot be avoided. It becomes like this.

  In the PCS 1 described in detail above, the CPU 11 of the collision mitigation controller 10 causes the controlled object 40 (brake) to be controlled when the calculated collision time is equal to or less than the automatic brake 1 determination line set to be equal to or less than the combination limit time. Operate. In other words, in view of the deceleration in each automatic brake, when the stoppable point that can be stopped by each automatic brake is the position after the collision with the target object (the target is intermediate between the vehicle and the stoppable point). The controlled object 40 is actuated.

  Therefore, according to such PCS1, if the collision mitigation process intervenes, the damage caused by the collision of the vehicle can be mitigated, but the collision itself cannot be avoided, so the vehicle stops before the collision. Can be prevented. Therefore, it is possible to prevent the driver from overtrusting the device.

  In the collision mitigation process, a process for operating the controlled object 40 (brake) to assist the driver's avoidance operation and a process for operating the controlled object 40 to alleviate the damage caused when the vehicle collides. And carry out.

Therefore, according to such PCS1, the controlled object 40 can be used not only for the damage mitigation function but also for the collision avoidance support function.
Further, the CPU 11 activates the controlled object 40 to assist the driver's avoidance operation when the collision time is less than the normal steering avoidance lower limit time and less than the avoidance limit time in the operation control process (automatic brake 1). When the collision time is shorter than the steering avoidance limit time and less than the braking avoidance limit time, the controlled object 40 is set to operate (automatic brake 2) in order to reduce damage caused when the vehicle collides.

  Therefore, according to such PCS1, when the limit of the collision can be avoided by the normal steering of the driver, the relative speed with the obstacle is reduced by using the controlled object 40, and the collision is caused by the driver's operation. The avoidance operation is supported by lengthening the avoidable time. Further, if the collision cannot be avoided even by the steering of the driver, the controlled object 40 can be operated in order to mitigate the damage caused when the vehicle collides.

  Further, the CPU 11 is based on the detection result by the object selection process for detecting the relative speed between the vehicle and the object in the threshold value calculation process, and the deceleration that can be exhibited by the preset controlled object 40 of the vehicle. To calculate the avoidance limit time.

  Therefore, according to such PCS1, since adaptation (specification change for each vehicle) when mounting the device on a different vehicle can be performed only by changing a function (coefficient), Work can be facilitated.

The embodiment of the present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiment, and can take various forms as long as it belongs to the technical scope of the present invention.
For example, the avoidance limit time may be determined based on a map (corresponding to the graph of FIG. 5) associated with the avoidance limit time according to the traveling speed of the vehicle. In the threshold calculation process, the steering avoidance limit time and the normal steering avoidance lower limit time may be calculated as variables based on the detection result of the object selection process and the preset steering performance of the vehicle. .

It is a block diagram which shows schematic structure of PCS to which this invention was applied. It is a flowchart which shows a collision mitigation process. It is a flowchart which shows an operation | movement determination process. It is a flowchart which shows a threshold value calculation process. It is a graph which shows the relationship between relative speed and setting time.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... PCS, 10 ... Collision mitigation controller, 11 ... CPU, 12 ... ROM, 13 ... RAM, 31 ... Radar sensor, 32 ... Yaw rate sensor, 33 ... Wheel speed sensor, 34 ... Brake switch, 35 ... Throttle sensor, 36 ... Steering sensor, 40 ... controlled object.

Claims (4)

  1. A collision mitigation device for a vehicle equipped with a mitigation means mounted on a vehicle and mitigating damage when the vehicle collides by operating a braking means for braking the vehicle,
    Obstacle detection means for detecting obstacles located around the vehicle;
    A collision time calculating means for calculating a collision time which is an expected time until the obstacle collides with the obstacle detected by the obstacle detecting means;
    With
    The relaxation means is
    A collision damage mitigation means for operating the braking means to mitigate damage when the vehicle collides,
    A collision avoidance assisting means for operating the braking means to assist the driver's avoidance operation;
    With
    The collision damage alleviating means is configured such that the collision time is equal to or less than a steering avoidance limit time that represents a limit time during which a collision between the obstacle and the vehicle can be avoided by steering by the driver, and the driver performs braking. Activating the braking means when the braking avoidance limit time is less than or equal to a braking avoidance limit time that represents a limit time during which a collision between the obstacle and the vehicle can be avoided by activating the means,
    The collision avoidance support means includes a normal steering avoidance lower limit time set to a value equal to or greater than the steering avoidance limit time, and the collision time is a time required to avoid a collision with an object by a driver's steering operation. Activating the braking means when the apparatus is below a braking avoidance lower limit time that represents a limit time during which the apparatus can operate the braking means to avoid a collision between the obstacle and the vehicle.
    A collision mitigation device characterized by .
  2. A limit for calculating the braking avoidance lower limit time based on the detection result by the relative speed detecting means for detecting the relative speed between the vehicle and the obstacle, and a deceleration that can be exhibited by the braking means of the vehicle set in advance. The collision mitigation device according to claim 1 , further comprising a time calculation unit.
  3.   The collision avoidance support means operates the braking means with a braking force weaker than the braking force when the collision damage reducing means operates the braking means.
      The collision mitigation device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized by the above-mentioned.
  4.   The collision avoidance support means takes into account the deceleration when the braking means is operated by the collision avoidance support means and the deceleration when the braking means is operated by the collision damage reduction means. And, when the collision damage reducing means operates the braking means, the braking means is operated only when the vehicle cannot avoid collision.
      The collision mitigation device according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein:
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US9440649B2 (en) * 2014-10-29 2016-09-13 Robert Bosch Gmbh Impact mitigation by intelligent vehicle positioning

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JPH04372442A (en) * 1991-06-19 1992-12-25 Akebono Brake Res & Dev Center Ltd Automatic brake control device
JP2003182544A (en) * 2001-10-04 2003-07-03 Nissan Motor Co Ltd Braking force controller for vehicle
JP3797217B2 (en) * 2001-12-27 2006-07-12 日産自動車株式会社 Braking control device
JP4290455B2 (en) * 2003-03-28 2009-07-08 日産自動車株式会社 Brake control device for vehicle
JP4314140B2 (en) * 2004-03-23 2009-08-12 カヤバ工業株式会社 Vehicle control device
JP2007062604A (en) * 2005-08-31 2007-03-15 Toyota Motor Corp Automatic brake for vehicle

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