JP4830183B2 - Optical multilayer structure, optical switching element, and image display device - Google Patents

Optical multilayer structure, optical switching element, and image display device Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4830183B2
JP4830183B2 JP2000219599A JP2000219599A JP4830183B2 JP 4830183 B2 JP4830183 B2 JP 4830183B2 JP 2000219599 A JP2000219599 A JP 2000219599A JP 2000219599 A JP2000219599 A JP 2000219599A JP 4830183 B2 JP4830183 B2 JP 4830183B2
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layer
optical
multilayer structure
substrate
refractive index
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JP2002040238A (en
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博一 石川
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ソニー株式会社
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Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to an optical multilayer structure having a function of reflecting, transmitting, or absorbing incident light, an optical switching element using the same, and an image display device.
[0002]
[Prior art]
In recent years, the importance of a display as a display device for video information has increased, and as an element for this display, an optical switching element (such as an optical communication, optical storage device, optical printer, etc.) that operates at high speed ( Development of light bulbs is demanded. Conventionally, as this kind of element, those using liquid crystal, those using micromirrors (DMD; Digital Micro Miror Device, digital micromirror device, registered trademark of Texas Instruments Incorporated), those using diffraction gratings (GLV) : Grating Light Valve, SLM (Silicon Light Machine).
[0003]
In GLV, a diffraction grating is produced with a MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) structure, and a high-speed light switching element of 10 ns with an electrostatic force is realized. The DMD also performs switching by moving a mirror in the MEMS structure. Although a display such as a projector can be realized using these devices, the liquid crystal and the DMD have a low operation speed. Therefore, in order to realize a display as a light valve, a two-dimensional arrangement is required, and the structure becomes complicated. . On the other hand, since the GLV is a high-speed drive type, a projection display can be realized by scanning a one-dimensional array.
[0004]
However, since the GLV has a diffraction grating structure, there are complexity such that it is necessary to make six elements for one pixel and to combine the diffracted light emitted in two directions into one by some optical system.
[0005]
Examples of what can be realized with a simple configuration include those disclosed in US Pat. No. 5,589,974 and US Pat. This light valve has a substrate (refractive index nS) With a refractive index of √nSThe light-transmitting thin film is provided. In this element, an optical signal is transmitted or reflected by driving the thin film using electrostatic force and changing the distance between the substrate and the thin film, that is, the size of the gap. Here, the refractive index of the thin film is the refractive index n of the substrate.S√nSIt is said that high contrast light modulation can be performed by satisfying such a relationship.
[0006]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
However, in the element configured as described above, the refractive index n of the substrateSIf is not a large value such as “4”, there is a problem that it cannot be realized in the visible light region. That is, when considering that it is a structure as a light-transmitting thin film, silicon nitride (SiThreeNFour) (Refractive index n = 2.0) is desirable, and in that case, the refractive index n of the substrateS= 4. In the visible light region, such a transparent substrate is difficult to obtain and the choice of materials is narrow. In communication wavelengths such as infrared rays, it can be realized by using germanium (Ge) (n = 4) or the like. However, it is considered that it is difficult to apply in practical use as a display or the like.
[0007]
The present invention has been made in view of such a problem, and a first object thereof is a simple configuration, a small size and a light weight, a degree of freedom in selection of constituent materials, and high speed even in the visible light region. An object of the present invention is to provide an optical multilayer structure that can respond and can be suitably used for an image display device or the like.
[0008]
A second object of the present invention is to provide an optical switching element and an image display device capable of high-speed response using the optical multilayer structure.
[0009]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
  An optical multilayer structure according to the present invention has, on a substrate, a first layer that absorbs light and has a size that can cause a light interference phenomenon.OpticalSizeBinary or continuous change is possible between an odd multiple of λ / 4 and an even multiple of λ / 4 (including 0)The gap, and the second layerIn this orderHas a structure arrangedAnd a driving means for changing the optical size of the gap, and by changing the size of the gap, the amount of reflection, transmission or absorption of light incident from the second layer side And the substrate is replaced with N satisfying the formula (2). S (= N S -I ・ k S , N S Is the refractive index, k S Is an extinction coefficient, i is an imaginary unit), and the first layer is N satisfying the formula (2). 1 (= N1 -I ・ k1 , N1 Is the refractive index, k1 Is a material with a complex refractive index of extinction coefficient)And the second layer is n satisfying the formula (2) 2 (The refractive index of the incident medium is assumed to be 1.0).
[0011]
[0012]
An optical switching element according to the present invention includes the optical multilayer structure according to the present invention, and driving means for changing the optical size of the gap in the optical multilayer structure.
[0013]
An image display device according to the present invention includes a plurality of optical switching elements according to the present invention arranged one-dimensionally or two-dimensionally, and emits light of three primary colors and displays a two-dimensional image by scanning with a scanner. Is.
[0014]
In the optical multilayer structure according to the present invention, the size of the gap is between an odd multiple of “λ / 4” (λ is the design wavelength of incident light) and an even multiple of “λ / 4” (including 0). Thus, when the value is changed in a binary or continuous manner, the amount of reflection, transmission or absorption of incident light changes in a binary or continuous manner.
[0015]
In the optical multilayer structure of the present invention, the size of the gap is fixed to 0, the substrate, the first layer having light absorption formed in contact with the substrate, and the first layer By using the second layer formed in contact with the surface opposite to the substrate, it can be used as an antireflection film.
[0016]
In the optical switching element according to the present invention, a switching operation is performed with respect to incident light by changing the optical size of the gap portion of the optical multilayer structure by the driving means.
[0017]
In the image display device according to the present invention, a two-dimensional image is displayed by irradiating light to the plurality of optical switching elements of the present invention arranged in one or two dimensions.
[0018]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.
[0019]
1 and 2 show a basic configuration of an optical multilayer structure 1 according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 1 shows a state in which a gap 12 described later in the optical multilayer structure 1 exists and is highly reflective, and FIG. 2 shows a state in which there is no gap 12 in the optical multilayer structure 1 and low reflection. The optical multilayer structure 1 is specifically used as, for example, an optical switching element, and an image display device can be configured by arranging a plurality of the optical switching elements in one or two dimensions. Moreover, although mentioned later for details, when it fixes to a structure like FIG. 2, it can utilize as an antireflection film.
[0020]
The optical multilayer structure 1 according to the present embodiment has a first layer 11 that absorbs light and is in contact with the substrate 10 and has a size capable of causing a light interference phenomenon on the substrate 10. The gap portion 12 and the second layer 13 that can change the distance are arranged in this order.
[0021]
Here, the complex refractive index of the substrate 10 is represented by NS(= NS-I ・ kS, NSIs the refractive index, kSIs an extinction coefficient, i is an imaginary unit), and the complex refractive index of the first layer 11 is N1(= N1-I ・ k1, N1Is the refractive index, k1Is the extinction coefficient, i is the imaginary unit), and the refractive index of the second layer 13 is n2When the refractive index of the incident medium is 1.0 (air), it is set so as to satisfy the relationship of the following formula (3). The significance of this will be described later.
[0022]
[0023]
The substrate 10 is made of non-metal such as carbon (C) or graphite (graphite), metal such as tantalum (Ta), metal oxide such as chromium oxide (CrO), titanium nitride (TiN).X), Nitrides such as silicon carbide (SiC), semiconductors such as silicon (Si), and the like, or thin films made of opaque and light-absorbing materials. May be formed on a transparent substrate. The substrate 10 may also be formed of a transparent material such as glass or plastic or a translucent material having a low extinction coefficient k.
[0024]
The first layer 11 is a layer that absorbs light. For example, a metal such as Ta, Ti, or Cr, a metal oxide such as CrO, or TiN.XThese are formed of a metal nitride such as SiC, a carbide such as SiC, or a semiconductor such as silicon (Si).
[0025]
The second layer 13 is formed of a transparent material, for example, titanium oxide (TiO 2).2) (N2= 2.4), silicon nitride (SiThreeNFour) (N2= 2.0), zinc oxide (ZnO) (n2= 2.0), niobium oxide (Nb)2OFive) (N2= 2.2), tantalum oxide (Ta2OFive) (N2= 2.1), silicon oxide (SiO) (n1= 2.0), tin oxide (SnO2) (N2= 2.0), ITO (Indium-Tin Oxide) (n2= 2.0) or the like.
[0026]
The second layer 13 acts as a movable part as will be described later during the switching operation, and therefore has a particularly high Young's modulus and a strong Si.ThreeNFourIt is preferable that it is formed by. Further, when driven by static electricity, a transparent conductive film such as ITO may be included in a part of the second layer 13. SiThreeNFourSince the refractive indexes of ITO and ITO are equivalent to each other, the film thickness can be arbitrarily determined. In addition, when the first layer 11 and the second layer 13 are in contact, the substrate side of the second layer 13 is not Si short so as not to be electrically short-circuited at the time of contact.ThreeNFourThe incident medium side is preferably made of ITO.
[0027]
Physical thickness d of the first layer 111Is determined by the wavelength of incident light, the values of n and k of the material, and the optical constants of the substrate and the second layer 13, and takes a value of about 5 to 60 nm, for example.
[0028]
Optical thickness n of the second layer 132・ D2The substrate 10 is made of a transparent material such as carbon, graphite, carbide, or glass, and the first layer 11 has an extinction coefficient k such as tantalum (Ta).1In the case of being formed of a large metal material or the like, it is equal to or less than “λ / 4” (λ is the design wavelength of incident light). However, the substrate 10 is formed of a transparent material such as carbon, graphite, carbide, or glass, and the first layer 11 is extinction coefficient k such as silicon (Si).1The second layer 13 has an optical film thickness d.2Is larger than “λ / 4” and smaller than “λ / 2”. This is because the locus of the optical admittance when the first layer 11 is made of Si moves upward on the admittance diagram, so that the intersection with the second layer 12 is above the real axis (on the + side on the imaginary axis). ).
[0029]
The above film thickness d1, D2Is not strictly "λ / 4" or "λ / 2", but may be a value in the vicinity thereof. This is because, for example, the optical film thickness of one layer becomes thicker than λ / 4, so that the other layer can be made thinner, and the refractive index slightly deviates from the above formula (3). In some cases, the film thickness can be adjusted.1, D2Is slightly deviated from λ / 4. The same applies to other embodiments. Therefore, in this specification, the expression “λ / 4” includes the case of “approximately λ / 4”.
[0030]
The first layer 11 and the second layer 13 may be a composite layer composed of two or more layers having different optical characteristics. In this case, the synthesized optical characteristics (optical) in the composite layer are used. The admittance must have the same characteristics as in the case of a single layer.
[0031]
The gap portion 12 is set so that its optical size (the distance between the first layer 11 and the second layer 13) can be changed by a driving means described later. The medium that fills the gap 12 may be gas or liquid as long as it is transparent. Examples of the gas include air (refractive index n with respect to sodium D line (589.3 nm)).D= 1.0), nitrogen (N2) (ND= 1.0) and the like as water (nD= 1.333), silicone oil (nD= 1.4-1.7), ethyl alcohol (nD= 1.3618), glycerin (nD= 1.4730), Joodomethane (nD= 1.737). The gap 12 can be in a vacuum state.
[0032]
The optical size of the gap 12 changes in a binary or continuous manner between “odd multiple of λ / 4” and “even multiple of λ / 4 (including 0)”. . As a result, the amount of reflection, transmission or absorption of incident light changes in a binary or continuous manner. As in the case of the film thicknesses of the first layer 11 and the second layer 13, even if there is a slight deviation from a multiple of λ / 4, it can be supplemented by a slight change in the film thickness or refractive index of other layers. Therefore, the expression “λ / 4” includes the case of “approximately λ / 4”.
[0033]
The optical multilayer structure 1 having such a gap 12 can be manufactured by the manufacturing process shown in FIGS. First, as shown in FIG. 3A, a first layer 11 made of Ta is formed on a substrate 10 made of carbon, for example, by sputtering, for example, and then, as shown in FIG. For example, an amorphous silicon (a-Si) film 12a as a sacrificial layer is formed by a CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) method. Subsequently, as shown in FIG. 3C, a photoresist film 14 having a pattern shape of the gap 12 is formed, and this photoresist film 14 is used as a mask as shown in FIG. The amorphous silicon (a-Si) film 12a is selectively removed by RIE (Reactive Ion Etching).
[0034]
Next, after removing the photoresist film 14 as shown in FIG. 4 (A), as shown in FIG.ThreeNFourA second layer 13 made of is formed. Next, as shown in FIG. 4C, the amorphous silicon (a-Si) film 12a is removed by dry etching. Thereby, the optical multilayer structure 1 provided with the gap | interval part 12 is producible.
[0035]
In the optical multilayer structure 1 according to the present embodiment, the optical size of the gap 12 is set between an odd multiple of λ / 4 and an even multiple of λ / 4 (including 0) (for example, “λ / 4 ”and“ 0 ”), the amount of reflection, transmission, or absorption of incident light is changed by changing it in a binary or continuous manner.
[0036]
Next, with reference to FIGS. 5A and 5B and FIGS. 6A and 6B, the significance of the expression (3) will be described.
[0037]
The filter characteristics of the optical multilayer structure 1 as described above can be explained by optical admittance. The optical admittance y has the same value as the complex refractive index N (= n−i · k, n is the refractive index, k is the extinction coefficient, and i is the imaginary unit). For example, the admittance of air is y (air) = 1, n (air) = 1, and the admittance of glass is y (glass) = 1.52 and n (glass) = 1.52.
[0038]
When a transparent optical film is formed on a transparent substrate, the locus moves in an arc as the film thickness increases on the optical admittance diagram as shown in FIG. Here, the horizontal axis is the real axis of admittance (Re), The vertical axis is the imaginary axis of admittance (Im) Respectively. For example, n = y = 2.40 TiO on a glass substrate with n = y = 1.52.2And the like, the locus of the synthetic optical admittance moves while drawing an arc from the point of y = 1.52 as the film thickness increases. If TiO2When the optical film thickness of λ / 4 is λ / 4, the locus of the synthetic admittance is 2.4 on the real axis.2/1.52 points, that is, 3.79 points (λ / 4 law). This is TiO / 4 film thickness on a glass substrate (transparent substrate)2It is a synthetic admittance when a film (first layer) is formed. That is, when this structure is viewed from above, it is as if viewing an integrated substrate with n = 3.79. Since the reflectance at this time is obtained by the following equation (4) at the interface with air, the reflectance R = 33.9%.
[0039]
R = (n−1 / n + 1)2... (4)
[0040]
Next, when a film of n = y = 1.947, for example, with an optical film thickness = λ / 4 is further formed on this optical multilayer structure, on the optical admittance diagram, from the point of 3.79 to the right The trajectory moves around. The composite admittance is Y = 1.0, which is 1.0 on the real axis. That is, this is equivalent to a synthetic admittance = composite refractive index of 1.0, that is, equivalent to air, so that there is no reflection at the interface, and it can be regarded as a so-called V-coat antireflection film.
[0041]
On the other hand, the TiO2When the gap of n = 1 (air) is provided on the film (n = 2.4) by the optical film thickness = λ / 4, the composite admittance is shown in FIGS. As shown in B), Y2= 0.2638. Further, when there is a film of n = y = 1.947 as much as the optical film thickness = λ / 4 on the gap, the composite admittance is YThree= 14.37, which is 14.37 on the real axis. The reflectivity at that time is Y in the above equation (4).Three= 14.37. At this time, the reflectance R is 76%. From the above, it can be seen that when the optical film thickness of the gap (air layer) 12 is changed from “0” to “λ / 4”, the reflectance changes from “0%” to “76%”. .
[0042]
The above is a transparent layer (TiO 2) that does not absorb light on a substrate made of a transparent material such as glass.2), And in all cases, k = 0 in the complex refractive index N = n−i · k (n is the refractive index, k is the extinction coefficient, and i is the imaginary number). On the other hand, in the present embodiment, at least the first layer 11 out of the substrate 10 and the first layer 11 is formed of a light-absorbing material such as an opaque metal material or metal oxide. That is, the complex refractive index N of the first layer 111In k, k ≠ 0. Hereinafter, features of the present embodiment will be described.
[0043]
On the optical admittance diagram, n2When a second layer having a refractive index of (2) has a trajectory passing through the point (1, 0) (air admittance) on the diagram, the result is as shown in FIG. That is, 1 and n on the real axis2 2Through the center (n2 2+1) / 2 arc. If the optical admittance of the material of the substrate 10 (which is numerically equal to the complex refractive index N) is within this arc, the optical admittance of the material of the first layer 11 on the outside of the arc will be When the first layer 11 is formed, the combined optical admittance of the substrate 10 and the first layer 11 is the point of the optical admittance of the substrate 10 (N in the figure) on the admittance diagram.sThe point of the optical admittance of the first layer 11 (N in the figure) as the film thickness increases while drawing a gentle curve.1To the point indicated by
[0044]
At this time, since the optical admittance (the same value as the complex refractive index) of the substrate 10 and the first layer 11 is on both sides of the arc drawn by the second layer 13, it always crosses the arc (point A). Here, the film thickness of the first layer 11 is determined so that the combined admittance of the substrate 10 and the first layer 11 just reaches the intersection A. From the intersection A, the synthetic admittance moves along the locus (arc) of the second layer 13.
[0045]
Therefore, if the second layer 13 is formed with a film thickness such that the synthetic admittance of the substrate 10, the first layer 11, and the second layer 13 is 1, incident light to the optical multilayer structure 1 Is 0 at the design wavelength. In other words, if there is an optical admittance between the substrate 10 and the first layer 11 on both sides of the arc depending on the optical characteristics of the second layer 13, there is always a combination of film thicknesses at which reflection is zero.
[0046]
In this case, the optical admittance of the substrate 10 may be inside or outside the arc. In order to satisfy such conditions, the complex refractive index of the substrate 10 is set to NS(= NS-I ・ kS), The complex refractive index of the first layer 11 is N1(= N1-I ・ k1), The refractive index of the second layer 13 is n2When the refractive index of the incident medium is 1.0 (air), the relationship between the optical constants of the material of the substrate 10 and the first layer 11 is expressed by the following equation (5), that is, the above-described equation rewriting (2) should be satisfied.
[0047]
[0048]
Therefore, when the gap 13 having a variable size is provided between the first layer 11 and the second layer 13 of the optical multilayer film configured as described above, the distance d is set.ThreeIs “0”, the antireflection film (see FIG. 2), dThreeIs optically approximately “λ / 4” with respect to the design wavelength λ, it becomes a reflective film (see FIG. 1). In other words, by making the size of the gap 13 variable between “0” and “λ / 4”, an optical switching element that can change the reflectance between 0 and 70% or more can be realized. It becomes possible.
[0049]
As a material for such an optical multilayer structure 1, it is sufficient to satisfy the above-described restrictions, and the degree of freedom in selection is wide. In addition, the structure is easy because it is only necessary to form a three-layer structure including the gap 12 on the substrate 10. Hereinafter, a specific example will be described.
[0050]
〔Concrete example〕
FIG. 8 shows an opaque carbon substrate (NS= 1.90, k = 0.75), Ta layer (N1= 2.46, k = 1.90), the air layer (n = 1.00) as the gap 12, and Si as the second layer 13ThreeNFourLaminated film of ITO film and ITO (Indium-Tin Oxide) film (synthetic refractive index n2= 2.0, k = 0) represents the relationship between the wavelength of incident light (design wavelength 550 nm) and the reflectance. Here, (a) shows an optical film thickness of the gap (air layer) of “0” (low reflection side), and (b) shows an optical film thickness of “λ / 4” (137.5 nm) (high reflection side). The characteristics in the case of. 9 and 10 show the optical admittance diagrams at this time as a reference, and FIG. 9 shows the case of the low reflection side and FIG. 10 shows the case of the high reflection side, respectively.
[0051]
As is apparent from FIG. 8, in the optical multilayer structure 1 of the present embodiment, when the optical film thickness of the gap (air layer) 12 is “λ / 4”, the high reflection characteristics and the gap 12 When the optical film thickness is “0”, low reflection characteristics are shown. That is, when the optical film thickness of the gap portion 12 is switched between an odd multiple of “λ / 4” and an even multiple of “λ / 4” (including 0), the high reflection characteristic and the low reflection characteristic are alternated. Will show.
[0052]
By the way, the extinction coefficient k is added to the first layer 11.1Large metal film (for example, Ta, k1= 1.90), the optical thickness of the second layer 13 is “λ / 4”.1Small semiconductor materials (eg Si, k1= 0.63), the optical film thickness of the second layer 13 is larger than “λ / 4” (however, smaller than λ / 2). As a specific example, for example, the substrate 10 is made of graphite (refractive index nS= 1.90, k = 0.75), the first layer 11 is made of silicon (refractive index n1= 4.40, k = 0.63, film thickness 13.09 nm), the second layer 13 is made of Si.ThreeNFourLaminated film of ITO film and ITO (Indium-Tin Oxide) film (synthetic refractive index n2FIG. 11 shows the reflection characteristics (design wavelength 550 nm) in the case of forming with = 2.0, k = 0, film thickness 83.21 nm. Here, (a) shows the optical thickness of the gap (air layer) as “0” (low reflection side), and (b) shows the optical thickness as “λ / 4” (137.5 nm) (high reflection side). The characteristics in the case of. 12 and 13 show optical admittance diagrams at that time. FIG. 12 shows the low reflection side, and FIG. 13 shows the high reflection side.
[0053]
In the above two examples, the substrate 10 is assumed to be opaque carbon or graphite. The optical admittance (the same value as the complex refractive index) of carbon and graphite is inside the locus of the circular arc drawn so that the transparent film with a refractive index of 2.0 passes through (1,0) on the admittance diagram. It is suitable as the substrate 10. This is because the optical admittance of many metal materials is arranged outside the circle.
[0054]
For reference, FIG. 14 shows an admittance diagram in which the optical admittance of each material is plotted. FIG. 14 shows simultaneously that n = 2 and TiO.2The trajectory (n = 2.4) also passes through the air admittance (1, 0). If the material inside the arc is the substrate 10, the material outside the arc is the first layer 11, and the material on the arc is the second layer 13, a combination of film thicknesses with low reflectivity (approximately 0). There is always. For example, the substrate 10 is carbon (C in the figure), the first layer 11 is a material outside the arc of n = 2 (almost all materials in the figure), and the second layer 13 is a material of n = 2 ( SiThreeNFour, ITO, ZnO, etc.), an optical switching element with good characteristics can be realized.
[0055]
Further, as the second layer 13, TiO2When the substrate 10 is used, the substrate 10 is selected from silicon (Si), carbon (C), tantalum (Ta), germanium (Ge) film, graphite, glass, etc., and the first layer 11 is other than that in the figure. If a metal is selected, an optical switching element with good characteristics can be realized.
[0056]
In FIG. 14, representative metal materials, semiconductors, and the like are plotted, but other materials are also plotted in this figure, and it is easy to select a good combination of materials by focusing on the inside or outside of the arc. it can.
[0057]
By the way, the fact that the optical characteristics of the substrate 10 and the first layer 11 are inside and outside the arc of the second layer 13 as described above is a sufficient condition for realizing an optical structure with good characteristics. Is not a requirement. This is because the trajectory of the synthetic optical admittance when a light-absorbing film (that is, k ≠ 0) is formed on a substrate 10 is changed from the admittance of the substrate 10 to the optical admittance of the material to be linearly formed. Instead of heading, head for the optical admittance of the film-forming material while curving greatly. Therefore, if the degree of curvature is large, the combined optical admittance may cross the arc of the second layer 13 even if the optical admittance of the first layer 11 is inside the arc of the previous second layer 13. .
[0058]
FIG. 15 shows an example. When a graphite film is formed as the first layer 11 on the substrate 10 made of carbon (C), it is bent and crosses an arc of n = 2 twice. At either point, n = 2 films (eg SiThreeNFour, ITO, ZnO, etc.), the optical multilayer structure 1 with good characteristics can be realized.
[0059]
As described above, in the present embodiment, even in the visible light region such as 550 nm, the reflectance at the time of low reflection can be almost 0, and the reflectance at the time of high reflection can be 70% or more. Can be done. Moreover, since the configuration is simple, it can be more easily produced than a diffraction grating structure such as GLV or a complicated three-dimensional structure such as DMD. In addition, the GLV requires six grid-like ribbons for one pixel, but in this embodiment, only one is required, so that the configuration is simple and it is possible to make the ribbon small. Further, since the moving range of the movable part is at most “λ / 2”, a high-speed response of 10 ns level is possible. Therefore, when used as a light valve for display applications, it can be realized with a simple configuration of a one-dimensional array as will be described later.
[0060]
Furthermore, the optical multilayer structure 1 of the present embodiment is essentially different from a narrow-band transmission filter having a structure in which a gap is sandwiched between a metal thin film and a reflective layer, that is, a Fabry-Perot type. The bandwidth of the reflection band can be increased. Therefore, it is possible to take a relatively wide margin for film thickness management at the time of manufacture, and the degree of freedom of design increases.
[0061]
In the present embodiment, since the refractive indexes of the substrate 10 and the first layer 11 may be any value within a certain range, the degree of freedom in material selection is widened. Further, when the substrate 10 is made of an opaque material, incident light is absorbed by the substrate 10 at the time of low reflection, so that there is no fear that stray light or the like is generated.
[0062]
As described above, by using the optical multilayer structure 1 of the present embodiment, a high-speed and small optical switching element and an image display device can be realized. Details of these will be described later.
[0063]
In the above embodiment, the gap portion of the optical multilayer structure 1 is a single layer, but a plurality of layers, for example, two layers as shown in FIG. 16 may be provided. This is because the first layer 11, the first gap portion 12, the second layer 13, the second gap portion 30, and the third transparent layer 31 are formed in this order on the substrate 10. 13 and the third transparent layer 31 are configured to be supported by supports 15 and 32 made of, for example, silicon nitride.
[0064]
In this optical multilayer structure, the intermediate second layer 13 is displaced up and down, and one gap between the first gap 12 and the second gap 30 is narrowed, so that the other gap is widened. Due to this, the reflection characteristics change.
[0065]
[Driving method]
Next, specific means for changing the size of the gap 12 in the optical multilayer structure 1 will be described.
[0066]
FIG. 17 shows an example in which the optical multilayer structure is driven by static electricity. In this optical multilayer structure, electrodes 16a and 16a made of, for example, aluminum are provided on both sides of the first layer 11 on the transparent substrate 10, respectively, and the second layer 13 is made of, for example, silicon nitride (SiThreeNFour), And electrodes 16b and 16b are formed at positions facing the electrodes 16a and 16a of the support 15.
[0067]
In this optical multilayer structure, the optical film thickness of the gap portion 12 is set to, for example, “λ / 4” and “0” by the electrostatic attraction generated by the potential difference caused by the voltage application to the electrodes 16a and 16a and the electrodes 16b and 16b. Or in a binary manner between “λ / 4” and “λ / 2”. Of course, by continuously changing the voltage application to the electrodes 16a and 16a and the electrodes 16b and 16b, the size of the gap 12 is continuously changed within a certain range of values, and the incident light is reflected or transmitted. Alternatively, the amount of absorption or the like can be changed continuously (analog).
[0068]
As another method for driving the optical multilayer structure with static electricity, the method shown in FIGS. 18 and 19 may be used. In the optical multilayer structure 1 shown in FIG. 18, a transparent conductive film 17a made of, for example, ITO (Indium-Tin Oxide) is provided on the first layer 11 on the transparent substrate 10, and, for example, SiO 22The second layer 13 made of is formed in a crosslinked structure, and a transparent conductive film 17b made of ITO is provided on the outer surface of the second layer 13.
[0069]
In this optical multilayer structure, the optical film thickness of the gap portion 12 can be switched by electrostatic attraction generated by a potential difference caused by voltage application between the transparent conductive films 17a and 17b.
[0070]
In the optical multilayer structure shown in FIG. 19, for example, a tantalum (Ta) film is disposed as the conductive first layer 11 instead of the transparent conductive film 17a of the optical multilayer structure shown in FIG.
[0071]
In addition to such static electricity, the optical multilayer structure can be driven by various methods such as a method using a micromachine such as a toggle mechanism or a piezoelectric element, a method using a magnetic force, and a method using a shape memory alloy. 20A and 20B show a mode of driving using magnetic force. In this optical multilayer structure, a magnetic layer 40 made of a magnetic material such as cobalt (Co) having an opening is provided on the second layer 13 and an electromagnetic coil 41 is provided below the substrate 10. By switching the electromagnetic coil 41 on and off, the gap 12 is switched between, for example, “λ / 4” (FIG. 20A) and “0” (FIG. 20B). Thus, the reflectance can be changed.
[0072]
[Optical switching device]
FIG. 21 shows a configuration of an optical switching device 100 using the optical multilayer structure 1. In the optical switching device 100, for example, a plurality (four in the figure) of optical switching elements 100A to 100D are arranged in a one-dimensional array on a substrate 101 made of carbon. In addition, it is good also as a structure arranged not only in one dimension but in two dimensions. In this optical switching device 100, for example, a Ta film 102 is formed along one direction (element arrangement direction) of the surface of the substrate 101. The Ta film 102 corresponds to the first layer 11 of the above embodiment.
[0073]
On the substrate 101, a plurality of Si is provided in a direction perpendicular to the Ta film 102.ThreeNFourA membrane 105 is provided. SiThreeNFourAn ITO film 106 as a transparent conductive film is formed outside the film 105. These ITO film 106 and SiThreeNFourThe film 105 corresponds to the second layer 13 of the above embodiment, and has a crosslinked structure at a position across the Ta film 102. Between the Ta film 102 and the ITO film 106, a gap 104 whose size changes in accordance with the switching operation (on / off) is provided. The optical film thickness of the gap 104 changes between, for example, “λ / 4” (137.5 nm) and “0” with respect to the wavelength of incident light (λ = 550 nm).
[0074]
The optical switching elements 100 </ b> A to 100 </ b> D have an optical film thickness of the gap 104 of, for example, “λ / 4” and “0” by electrostatic attraction generated by a potential difference caused by voltage application to the Ta film 102 and the ITO film 106. Switch between. In FIG. 21, the optical switching elements 100A and 100C are in the state where the gap 104 is “0” (ie, the low reflection state), and the optical switching elements 100B and 100D are in the state where the gap 104 is “λ / 4” (ie, the high Reflection state). The Ta film 102 and the ITO film 106 and a voltage application device (not shown) constitute the “driving means” of the present invention.
[0075]
In this optical switching device 100, when the Ta film 102 is grounded to have a potential of 0V and a voltage of, for example, + 12V is applied to the ITO film 106 formed on the second layer side, the Ta film 102 and the ITO film 106 are caused by the potential difference. In FIG. 21, the first layer and the second layer are brought into close contact with each other as in the optical switching elements 100A and 100C, and the gap 104 is in a “0” state. In this state, the incident light P1Passes through the multilayer structure and is absorbed by the substrate 21.
[0076]
Next, when the transparent conductive film 106 on the second layer side is grounded and the potential is set to 0 V, the electrostatic attractive force between the Ta film 102 and the ITO film 106 disappears, and in FIG. 21, like the optical switching elements 100B and 100D. Then, the first layer and the second layer are separated from each other, and the gap portion 12 is in a state of “λ / 4”. In this state, the incident light P1Is reflected and reflected light PThreeIt becomes.
[0077]
Thus, in the present embodiment, the incident light P in each of the optical switching elements 100A to 100D.1By switching the gap to a binary value by electrostatic force, there is no reflected light and the reflected light PThreeCan be switched to a binary value in a state where the error occurs. Of course, the incident light P can be obtained by continuously changing the size of the gap as described above.1Reflected light P from the state without reflectionThreeIt is also possible to continuously switch to a state where the occurrence occurs.
[0078]
In these optical switching elements 100A to 100D, since the distance that the movable part has to move is at most about “λ / 2 (or λ / 4)” of incident light, the response speed is sufficiently high to about 10 ns. It is. Therefore, a display light valve can be realized with a one-dimensional array structure.
[0079]
In addition, in the present embodiment, if a plurality of optical switching elements are assigned to one pixel, they can be independently driven. Therefore, when performing gradation display of image display as an image display device, a method using time division In addition to this, gradation display by area is also possible.
[0080]
(Image display device)
FIG. 22 shows a configuration of a projection display as an example of an image display device using the optical switching device 100. Here, the reflected light P from the optical switching elements 100A to 100DThreeAn example in which is used for image display will be described.
[0081]
This projection display includes light sources 200a, 200b, and 200c composed of lasers of red (R), green (G), and blue (B), and optical switching element arrays 201a, 201b, and 201c provided corresponding to the respective light sources. A dichroic mirror 202a, 202b, 202c, a projection lens 203, a galvano mirror 204 as a uniaxial scanner, and a projection screen 205. The three primary colors may be cyan, magenta, and yellow in addition to red, green, and blue. Each of the switching element arrays 201a, 201b, and 201c is a one-dimensional array of a plurality of the above switching elements in the direction perpendicular to the paper, for example, the required number of pixels, for example, 1000. ing.
[0082]
In this projection display, the light emitted from the RGB light sources 200a, 200b, and 200c is incident on the optical switching element arrays 201a, 201b, and 201c, respectively. In addition, it is preferable to make this incident angle as close to 0 as possible and to make it enter perpendicularly so that the influence of polarization may not be exerted. Reflected light P from each optical switching elementThreeIs condensed on the projection lens 203 by the dichroic mirrors 202a, 202b, 202c. The light condensed by the projection lens 203 is scanned by the galvanometer mirror 204 and projected onto the projection screen 205 as a two-dimensional image.
[0083]
As described above, in this projection display, a plurality of optical switching elements are arranged in a one-dimensional manner, RGB light is respectively irradiated, and the light after switching is scanned by a one-axis scanner to display a two-dimensional image. be able to.
[0084]
In the present embodiment, the reflectance at the time of low reflection can be 0.1% or less, and the reflectance at the time of high reflection can be 70% or more. Therefore, a high contrast display of about 1,000 to 1 can be achieved. In addition, since the characteristics can be obtained at a position where the light is perpendicularly incident on the element, it is not necessary to consider polarization or the like when assembling the optical system, and the configuration is simple.
[0085]
Although the present invention has been described with reference to the embodiments, the present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiments and modifications, and various modifications can be made. For example, in the above-described embodiment, the display configured to scan a one-dimensional array of light valves using a laser as a light source has been described. However, as shown in FIG. 23, an optical switching device arranged two-dimensionally A configuration may also be adopted in which light is emitted from the white light source 207 to 206 and an image is displayed on the projection screen 208.
[0086]
In the above embodiment, an example in which a glass substrate is used as the substrate has been described. However, as shown in FIG. 24, for example, a paper shape using a flexible substrate 209 having a thickness of 2 mm or less. The display may be configured such that an image can be seen by direct viewing.
[0087]
Furthermore, in the above-described embodiment, an example in which the optical multilayer structure of the present invention is used for a display has been described. However, for example, an optical printer other than a display can be used such as drawing an image on a photosensitive drum using an optical printer. It is also possible to apply to various devices such as.
[0088]
【The invention's effect】
As described above, according to the optical multilayer structure and the optical switching element of the present invention, the first layer having light absorption on the substrate has a size capable of causing the light interference phenomenon and the size thereof. Since it has a structure in which a variable gap and a second layer are provided, the amount of reflection, transmission or absorption of incident light can be changed by changing the size of the gap. With a simple configuration, high-speed response is possible even in the visible light region. Further, by providing a structure in which the first layer and the second layer are in contact with each other in this order by eliminating the gap, it can be used as an antireflection film.
[0089]
Further, according to the image display device of the present invention, the optical switching elements of the present invention are arranged one-dimensionally, and image display is performed using the optical switching device having this one-dimensional array structure. In addition, since the characteristics can be obtained at a position where light is incident perpendicularly to the element, it is not necessary to consider polarization or the like when assembling the optical system, and the configuration is simplified.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a configuration when a gap portion of an optical multilayer structure according to an embodiment of the present invention is “λ / 4”.
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view showing a configuration when the gap portion of the optical multilayer structure shown in FIG. 1 is “0”.
3 is a cross-sectional view for explaining a manufacturing process of the optical multilayer structure shown in FIG. 1. FIG.
4 is a plan view for explaining a process following the process of FIG. 3. FIG.
FIG. 5 is a diagram for explaining characteristics when a gap portion of an optical multilayer structure using a transparent substrate and a transparent film is “0”.
FIG. 6 is a diagram for explaining characteristics when a gap portion of an optical multilayer structure using a transparent substrate and a transparent film is “λ / 4”.
FIG. 7 is an admittance diagram when the substrate and the first layer are made of metal.
FIG. 8 is a diagram illustrating reflection characteristics of a specific example of the optical multilayer structure illustrated in FIG. 1;
9 is a diagram for explaining optical admittance at the time of low reflection in the example of FIG. 8;
10 is a diagram for explaining optical admittance during high reflection in the example of FIG.
FIG. 11 is a diagram illustrating the reflection characteristics of another specific example of the optical multilayer structure of FIG. 1;
12 is a diagram for explaining optical admittance during low reflection in the example of FIG.
13 is a diagram for explaining optical admittance at the time of high reflection in the example of FIG.
FIG. 14 is an admittance diagram in which the optical admittance of each material is plotted.
FIG. 15 is a diagram for explaining an example in which the reflection can be zero even when the optical admittance of the substrate and the first layer is inside the second layer;
FIG. 16 is a cross-sectional view for explaining still another modification of the first embodiment.
FIG. 17 is a cross-sectional view for explaining a method of driving the optical multilayer structure by static electricity.
FIG. 18 is a cross-sectional view for explaining another driving method by static electricity of the optical multilayer structure.
FIG. 19 is a cross-sectional view for explaining still another driving method by static electricity of the optical multilayer structure.
FIG. 20 is a cross-sectional view for explaining a magnetic driving method of the optical multilayer structure.
FIG. 21 is a diagram illustrating a configuration of an example of an optical switching device.
FIG. 22 is a diagram illustrating a configuration of an example of a display.
FIG. 23 is a diagram illustrating another example of the display.
FIG. 24 is a block diagram of a paper-like display.
[Explanation of symbols]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1, 2 ... Optical multilayer structure, 10 ... Board | substrate, 11 ... 1st layer, 12 ... Gap part, 13 ... 2nd layer, 100-Optical switching apparatus

Claims (20)

  1. A first layer having light absorption on the substrate, having a size capable of causing an optical interference phenomenon, and having an optical size that is an odd multiple of λ / 4 and an even multiple of λ / 4 (including 0) And a driving means for changing the optical size of the gap portion, and a gap portion that can be changed in a binary or continuous manner and a second layer in this order. An optical multilayer structure that changes the amount of reflection, transmission, or absorption of light incident from the second layer side by changing the size of the gap,
    The substrate is a substrate having a complex refractive index of N S (= n S −i · k S , n S is a refractive index, k S is an extinction coefficient, and i is an imaginary unit) satisfying the formula (1), The first layer is formed of a material having a complex refractive index of N 1 (= n 1 −i · k 1 , where n 1 is a refractive index and k 1 is an extinction coefficient) satisfying the formula (1), The layer 2 is formed of a material having a refractive index of n 2 that satisfies the formula (1).
    (However, the refractive index of the incident medium is 1.0)
    Optical multilayer structure.
  2. The optical multilayer structure according to claim 1, wherein the second layer is formed of a transparent material.
  3. The optical multilayer structure according to claim 1, wherein the substrate is a substrate that absorbs light or a substrate on which a thin film that absorbs light is formed.
  4. The optical multilayer structure according to claim 1, wherein the substrate is formed of a transparent material or a translucent material.
  5. The optical multilayer structure according to claim 1, wherein at least one of the first layer and the second layer is a composite layer composed of two or more layers having different optical characteristics.
  6. The optical multilayer structure according to claim 1, wherein the second layer is made of a silicon nitride film.
  7. The optical multilayer structure according to claim 1, wherein the second layer includes a silicon nitride film and a transparent conductive film.
  8. At least one of the first layer and the second layer partially includes a transparent conductive film, and the driving unit is configured to generate the gap portion by electrostatic force generated by applying a voltage to the transparent conductive film. The optical multilayer structure according to claim 1, wherein the optical size of the optical multilayer structure is changed.
  9. The optical multilayer structure according to claim 8, wherein the transparent conductive film is formed of any one of ITO, SnO 2 and ZnO.
  10. The optical multilayer structure according to claim 1, wherein the gap is filled with air, or a transparent gas or liquid.
  11. The optical multilayer structure according to claim 1, wherein the gap is in a vacuum state.
  12. The optical multilayer structure according to claim 1, wherein the first layer that absorbs light is made of any one of a metal, a metal oxide, a metal nitride, a carbide, and a semiconductor.
  13. The optical multilayer structure according to claim 3, wherein the light-absorbing substrate or the light-absorbing thin film is made of any one of metal, metal oxide, metal nitride, carbide, and semiconductor.
  14. The optical multilayer structure according to claim 1, wherein an optical film thickness of the second layer is not more than λ / 4 (λ is a design wavelength of incident light).
  15. 2. The optical multilayer structure according to claim 1, wherein the first layer is made of silicon, and the optical film thickness of the second layer is not more than λ / 2 (λ is a design wavelength of incident light). .
  16. The substrate is formed of carbon, graphite, carbide, or a transparent material, and an optical film thickness of the second layer is λ / 4 (λ is a design wavelength of incident light) or less. Optical multilayer structure.
  17. The substrate is made of carbon, graphite, carbide or a transparent material, the first layer is made of silicon, and the optical thickness of the second layer is λ / 2 (λ is incident) The optical multilayer structure according to claim 1, which is equal to or less than a design wavelength of light.
  18. The optical multilayer structure according to claim 1, wherein the driving unit changes the optical size of the gap using magnetic force.
  19. A first layer having light absorption on the substrate, having a size capable of causing an optical interference phenomenon, and having an optical size that is an odd multiple of λ / 4 and an even multiple of λ / 4 (including 0) And a driving means for changing the optical size of the gap portion, and a gap portion that can be changed in a binary or continuous manner and a second layer in this order. An optical switching element that changes a reflection, transmission, or absorption amount of light incident from the second layer side by changing a size of the gap portion,
    The substrate is a substrate having a complex refractive index of N S (= n S −i · k S , n S is a refractive index, k S is an extinction coefficient, and i is an imaginary unit) satisfying the formula (1), The first layer is formed of a material having a complex refractive index of N 1 (= n 1 −i · k 1 , where n 1 is a refractive index and k 1 is an extinction coefficient) satisfying the formula (1), The layer 2 is formed of a material having a refractive index of n 2 that satisfies the formula (1).
    (However, the refractive index of the incident medium is 1.0)
    Optical switching element.
  20. An image display device that displays a two-dimensional image by irradiating light to a plurality of optical switching elements arranged one-dimensionally or two-dimensionally,
    The optical switching element is
    A first layer having light absorption on the substrate, having a size capable of causing an optical interference phenomenon, and having an optical size that is an odd multiple of λ / 4 and an even multiple of λ / 4 (including 0) And a driving means for changing the optical size of the gap portion, and a gap portion that can be changed in a binary or continuous manner and a second layer in this order. An optical multilayer structure that changes the amount of reflection, transmission, or absorption of light incident from the second layer side by changing the size of the gap,
    The substrate is a substrate having a complex refractive index of N S (= n S −i · k S , n S is a refractive index, k S is an extinction coefficient, and i is an imaginary unit) satisfying the formula (1), The first layer is formed of a material having a complex refractive index of N 1 (= n 1 −i · k 1 , where n 1 is a refractive index and k 1 is an extinction coefficient) satisfying the formula (1), The layer 2 is formed of a material having a refractive index of n 2 that satisfies the formula (1).
    (However, the refractive index of the incident medium is 1.0)
    Image display device.
JP2000219599A 2000-07-19 2000-07-19 Optical multilayer structure, optical switching element, and image display device Expired - Fee Related JP4830183B2 (en)

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JP2000219599A JP4830183B2 (en) 2000-07-19 2000-07-19 Optical multilayer structure, optical switching element, and image display device
EP20010305713 EP1170618B1 (en) 2000-07-03 2001-07-02 Optical multilayer structure, optical switching device, and image display
EP05020205A EP1720347B1 (en) 2000-07-03 2001-07-02 Optical multilayer structure, optical switching device, and image display
KR20010039203A KR100840827B1 (en) 2000-07-03 2001-07-02 Optical multilayer structure, optical switching device, and image display
US09/897,571 US6940631B2 (en) 2000-07-03 2001-07-02 Optical multilayer structure, optical switching device, and image display
EP07005859A EP1802114B1 (en) 2000-07-03 2001-07-02 Optical multilayer structure, optical switching device, and image display
DE60142452T DE60142452D1 (en) 2000-07-03 2001-07-02 Optical multilayer structure, optical switching device and image display device
DE60142383T DE60142383D1 (en) 2000-07-03 2001-07-02 Optical multilayer structure, optical switching device, and image display device
US11/136,069 US7012734B2 (en) 2000-07-03 2005-05-24 Optical multilayer structure, optical switching device, and image display
US11/135,829 US7027208B2 (en) 2000-07-03 2005-05-24 Optical multilayer structure, optical switching device, and image display
KR20070122581A KR100873761B1 (en) 2000-07-03 2007-11-29 Optical multilayer structures, optical switching devices and image displays

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