JP4804003B2 - Production method of feed materials for fish, echinoderms or crustaceans - Google Patents

Production method of feed materials for fish, echinoderms or crustaceans Download PDF

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JP4804003B2
JP4804003B2 JP2004527319A JP2004527319A JP4804003B2 JP 4804003 B2 JP4804003 B2 JP 4804003B2 JP 2004527319 A JP2004527319 A JP 2004527319A JP 2004527319 A JP2004527319 A JP 2004527319A JP 4804003 B2 JP4804003 B2 JP 4804003B2
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Prior art keywords
krill
fish
feed
meal
crustaceans
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JPWO2004014145A1 (en
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吉川  和宏
吉央 松田
徹 森
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日本水産株式会社
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Priority to PCT/JP2003/009773 priority patent/WO2004014145A1/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K50/00Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals
    • A23K50/80Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals for aquatic animals, e.g. fish, crustaceans or molluscs
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K10/00Animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K10/30Animal feeding-stuffs from material of plant origin, e.g. roots, seeds or hay; from material of fungal origin, e.g. mushrooms
    • A23K10/37Animal feeding-stuffs from material of plant origin, e.g. roots, seeds or hay; from material of fungal origin, e.g. mushrooms from waste material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K20/00Accessory food factors for animal feeding-stuffs
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • Y02A40/818Alternative feeds for fish, e.g. in aquacultures
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/80Food processing, e.g. use of renewable energies or variable speed drives in handling, conveying or stacking
    • Y02P60/87Re-use of by-products of food processing for fodder production

Description

【技術分野】
【0001】
本発明は、大豆、大豆粕(脱脂大豆)、小麦、大麦、コーングルテンミール、米糠など植物性タンパク質原料を含む動物用飼料原料及びそれを原料とする動物用飼料、特に魚類、棘皮類又は甲殻類用飼料の製造方法に関する。
【背景技術】
【0002】
畜産物ならびに養殖魚介類は、ヒトにとって重要なタンパク質供給源であることは周知のとおりであり、それらを飼育・養殖するための飼料は多くの分野で古くから研究が行われ、効率の良い飼料原料が開発されてきた。畜産用原料では大豆粕が供給安定であり、かつ安価なため注目されているものの、少糖類や消化酵素阻害物質、吸収阻害物質、成長阻害物質などが含まれているためにその利用が伸び悩んでいるのが実態である。そのため、アルコール洗浄や酸洗浄により不要成分を除去して良質の飼料を提供する手法や、あるいはカビ類(Aspergillus属、Rhizopus属)や酵母類(Saccharomyces属)、細菌類(Bacillus属、Lactobacillus属)などを単独、あるいは2種以上の組合せで接種発酵して消化吸収性の良い飼料原料を製造したり、動物飼料原料中の不要成分除去法として、糖質あるいは少糖類分解酵素であるセルラーゼ、ガラクタナーゼ、ラムノガラクチュロナーゼや、フィチン(フィチン酸)分解酵素であるフィターゼを添加して分解除去するとともに、さらに消化性を高めるためにタンパク質分解酵素を添加することが行われている。これらの分解酵素もやはりカビ類(Aspergillus属、Rhizopus属)や酵母類(Saccharomyces属)、細菌類(Bacillus属、Lactobacillus属)などに由来するものであり、これら酵素の供給源となる微生物を培養するか、あるいは遺伝子組換えによる生産によって必要とする酵素を提供するものである。しかしながら、これらの技術ではカビ類、酵母類、細菌類など微生物の予備培養が必要で、微生物的な管理を徹底する必要があるため、全工程を考慮すると更に簡便化する必要がある。
一方、魚介類の蓄養殖産業は国際的にも益々盛んになりつつあり、飼料タンパク質源である沿岸魚粉の需要が著しく高まっているが、沿岸魚の漁獲量の変動が著しいため、生産者は魚粉の価格変動に苦しんでいるのが実情である。こういった中で、以前より魚粉代替タンパク質として植物性タンパク質、特に脱脂大豆粕が注目されてきたが、蓄養殖魚介類の必要アミノ酸が、植物性タンパク質の構成アミノ酸と異なるためアミノ酸バランスが崩れること、消化酵素阻害活性因子が含まれていること、植物の難消化性糖質が消化吸収を阻害することなど、その添加量には限界があった。アミノ酸バランスに関しては複数の飼料原料を用いることによって克服できるが、難消化性糖質、フィチン(フィチン酸)などの消化吸収阻害物質の分解除去には新たな技術の開発が望まれていた。
このような背景から、蓄養殖魚介類の飼料においても麹菌類(Aspergillus属、)を脱脂大豆粕に作用させて発酵し、消化性を高める研究がなされており、大豆粕無添加の場合に比べると成長性は劣るものの、無加工の大豆粕を用いた場合よりは成長性が改善されると報告されている(非特許文献1)。
また、特許文献1では微生物を大豆粕に接種して発酵処理し、大豆粕中の蔗糖、ラフィノース、スタキオースなどの少糖類を分解除去する方法が開示されている。この際使用する微生物はAspergillus属、Saccharomyces属、Bacillus属、Lactobacillus属など通常の醸造食品、発酵食品でされるものでよいとしており、これらを接種して発酵処理した大豆粕をハマチ稚魚に投与して成長性が改善されると開示している。
しかしながら、植物性タンパク質原料が飼料原料中に占める割合が増加するにつれて、ハマチ、マダイなど肉食性魚類は摂餌行動が低下することが知られており改善が必要とされており(非特許文献2)、オキアミミールを5〜10%添加して摂餌を誘引しなければならないのが実情である。
また、植物性タンパク質原料を動物飼料原料とする際には、通常の醸造や発酵食品で用いられる微生物を予備培養して植物性タンパク質原料を発酵処理する必要があり、工程の単純化が必要であった。
特許文献2にはクリル酵素(オキアミ酵素)を使用した水生動物用飼料が開示されている。これはオキアミ酵素の活性を保持したままで飼料に混合するものである。すなわち、飼料とともにオキアミ酵素を給餌することにより動物の消化を助けるという考え方である。オキアミ酵素の活性を保持したまま、精製して飼料に添加しなければならないため、加熱することができないなど、その取り扱いには制限が多く、汎用性のある飼料原料としては使いにくいものである。
特許文献3には自己消化させたオキアミを飼料原料として用いることが記載されている。オキアミに含まれるプロテアーゼにより消化されやすくなると記載されている。
【特許文献1】
特開平5−268881
【特許文献2】
特開平8−242777
【特許文献3】
WO98/34498
【非特許文献1】
日本水産学会誌、59巻、1883−1888(1993)
【非特許文献2】
Aoki,et al.:Suisanzoshoku,48,73−79,(2000)
【発明の開示】
【発明が解決しようとする課題】
【0003】
本発明は、大豆、脱脂大豆粕、小麦、コーングルテンミール、米糠、脱脂米糠、加工糠、ナタネ油粕、綿実油粕、ポテトプロテインなどの植物性タンパク質を用いて、該タンパク質の消化性を高め、摂餌誘引効果をもった動物用飼料原料、ならびに、それを原料とした動物用飼料、特に魚類、棘皮類又は甲殻類用飼料を提供することを目的とする。
【0004】
【課題を解決するための手段】
本発明は、以下の(1)ないし(4)の魚類、棘皮類又は甲殻類用飼料の製造方法を要旨とする。
(1)自己消化処理されていないオキアミを圧搾処理して得た難消化性糖質を分解する酵素活性を有する酵素液を用いて、難消化性糖質を含有する植物性タンパク質原料を20〜60℃にて1〜48時間、かつ攪拌下熟成処理を行い、次いで加熱殺菌処理、乾燥処理することを特徴とする、植物性タンパク質原料を自己消化処理されていないオキアミ成分に含まれる難消化性糖質分解酵素で処理した魚類、棘皮類又は甲殻類用飼料原料の製造方法。
(2)植物性タンパク質原料が、大豆、脱脂大豆粕、コーングルテンミール、生糠、加工糠、小麦、ナタネ油粕、綿実油粕およびポテトプロテインからなる群より選ばれる1種以上の植物性タンパク質原料である(1)の魚類、棘皮類又は甲殻類用原料の製造方法。
(3)オキアミ成分が南極オキアミ成分である(1)または(2)の魚類、棘皮類又は甲殻類用原料の製造方法。
(4)魚類がタイ類、サケ・マス類、ブリ類、マグロ類である(1)ないし(3)のいずれかの魚類、棘皮類又は甲殻類用原料の製造方法。
【0005】
本発明は、植物性タンパク質を用いて、該タンパク質の消化性が向上し、かつ、摂餌誘引効果をもった動物用飼料原料を提供することができる。
また、本発明は、その動物用飼料原料を原料としとした動物タンパク質原料の使用割合を著しく低減できる動物用飼料、特に魚類、棘皮類又は甲殻類用飼料を提供することができる。
【発明を実施するための最良の形態】
【0006】
本発明における動物用飼料原料とは、畜産、養鶏、養魚用に使用される飼料原料であって、タンパク質補給源として用いる飼料原料である。本発明の飼料は特に養魚用、甲殻類の養殖用に適している。養魚、棘皮類、甲殻類としてはマダイ、サケ、ハマチ、シマアジ、マス、ヒラメ、マグロ、ウナギ、ウニ、エビ等の養殖対象魚が例示される。
【0007】
本発明において植物性タンパク質原料とは、動物用飼料原料の動物性タンパク質原料の代替品として用いられている植物性タンパク質原料であれば何でも使用することができる。主なものとしては、大豆、脱脂大豆粕、コーングルテンミール、生糠、加工糠、小麦、ナタネ油粕、綿実油粕、ポテトプロテイン等が例示される。
【0008】
本発明において使用するオキアミは、資源量が豊富で、酵素活性が高い南極オキアミが好ましいが、同様の活性のあるオキアミであれば他のオキアミも使用できる。
オキアミ成分としては、オキアミまたはミンチ処理したオキアミの他に、圧搾処理により選択的に得たオキアミ内在酵素を植物性タンパク質原料に添加熟成することも可能である。
ただし、これらオキアミ内在酵素を含有するオキアミ、圧搾液は難消化性糖質分解活性を有さなければならず、その活性は薄層クロマトグラフィーにて容易に確認できる。
【0009】
難消化性糖質の分解活性の測定は以下に述べるようにして行う。すなわち、オキアミであればオキアミをミンチ処理して固形分を分別除去し、これに終濃度1%となるようにセロビオースまたはマルトヘキサオースなどの少糖類を加えて40℃、2時間攪拌処理を行う。その後、3000rppm、10分間、4℃にて遠心分離を行って得られる上清10μLをシリカゲル薄層プレート上にスポットし、ブタノール:プロパノール:水(1:3:2)にて展開し、オルシノール硫酸溶液を用いて発色させる。この際に、セロビオース、マルトヘキサオースなどの少糖類のスポットが完全に消滅し、β−グルコース、α−グルコースなどと考えられる単糖のスポットのみが出現する活性を有するものに限定される。
オキアミ圧搾液に関しても同様の方法で活性を確認したものを用いる。
【0010】
本発明の動物用飼料原料は、難消化性糖質を含有する植物性タンパク質原料にオキアミ、ミンチ処理したオキアミ、または圧搾液を加えて20〜60℃、好ましくは30〜50℃にて1〜48時間、好ましくは2〜6時間熟成処理を行い、次いで80℃以上、好ましくは85℃、10分間維持して加熱殺菌処理を行い、乾燥処理に付することによって得られる。熟成の際に、撹拌処理を行うが、撹拌が困難で熟成が不充分とならないように清水を加えることも可能である。反応時間は植物性タンパク質に対する酵素量によって調節する必要があるが、遊離アミノ酸が多くなると飼料効率が悪くなるので、遊離アミノ酸が生成しにくい条件を選択するのが好ましい。
【0011】
本発明の動物用飼料原料を原料として使用した動物用飼料。
本発明の動物用飼料は本発明の動物用飼料原料及びその他の飼料原料を一緒に加工成形して製造することができる。本発明の動物用飼料原料はオキアミ処理後、加熱乾燥して粉末状の形態で提供できるもので、種々のタイプの飼料用原料として、特に動物性タンパク質の代替品として容易に使用することができる。養魚用の場合でいえば、魚粉の代替品として使用することができる。
【0012】
作用
難消化性糖質分解活性を有するオキアミ、ミンチ処理したオキアミあるいはオキアミ圧搾液を難消化性糖質含有の植物性タンパク質原料に添加し熟成することにより、タンパク質の消化性が向上する。
また、該タンパク質の消化性を高め、摂餌誘引効果をもった動物用飼料原料とする。
動物タンパク質原料の使用割合を著しく低減できる動物用飼料原料を提供することが可能となった。また、その動物性飼料原料を使用した動物用飼料を提供することができる。
【0013】
本願発明の詳細を実施例で説明する。本願発明はこれらの実施例によって何ら限定されるものではない。
【0014】
[比較例]
難消化性糖質分解活性を有するオキアミ25kgをミンチ処理した後、脱脂大豆粕30kgを加えて40℃、2時間加熱攪拌処理して分解脱脂大豆粕を作製した(以下、オキアミミンチ処理大豆粕と称する)。
【実施例
【0015】
難消化性糖質分解活性を有するオキアミを圧搾処理して、オキアミ原料の10%重量の圧搾液(酵素液)を作製し、これに脱脂大豆粕30kgを加えて40℃、2時間加熱攪拌処理して分解脱脂大豆粕を作製した(以下、オキアミ酵素液処理大豆粕と称する)。
[参考例]
【0016】
難消化性糖質分解活性を有するオキアミ25kgをミンチ処理した後、卵白250g、脱脂大豆粕30kgを加えて40℃、2時間加熱攪拌処理して分解脱脂大豆粕を作製した(以下、オキアミ処理大豆粕卵白添加と称する)。
【実施例
【0017】
マダイ(平均体重17.9g)を試験魚に用いて56日間の飼育実験を行った。用いた飼育用飼料の配合組成を表1に、飼育結果を表2、3に示した。
【0018】
【表1】
【0019】
【表2】
【0020】
【表3】
【0021】
この結果から明らかなように、脱脂大豆粕を無添加の1区と成長には差が認められず、マダイ用飼料にオキアミのミンチや圧搾液(酵素液)を用いて処理した脱脂大豆粕を多量添加できることが分かり、オキアミによる熟成処理の有効性が確認された
また、飼料中の遊離アミノ酸/総アミノ酸(%)と飼料効率には負の相関が認められた
【実施例
【0022】
ニジマス(平均体重10.6g)を試験魚に用いて84日間の飼育実験を行った。用いた飼育用飼料の配合組成を表4に、飼育結果を表5、6に示した。
【0023】
【表4】
【0024】
【表5】
【0025】
【表6】
【0026】
表5から明らかなように、脱脂大豆粕を添加しなかった対照区に比してオキアミ酵素液処理区は体重増加(成長性)の点で有効であった。また、オキアミミールのみを混合した9区よりも効果があり、オキアミで脱脂大豆粕を処理することが有効であることが確認された。更に、通常市販されているセルラーゼ処理(市販酵素処理区)では、成長が劣ることも分かり、オキアミによる熟成処理の必要性が分かった。
また、飼料中の遊離アミノ酸/総アミノ酸(%)と飼料効率には負の相関が認めらた。
【0027】
試験例1:オキアミ圧搾液の酵素活性の阻害剤による影響
本試験例では、2002年2月に漁獲したオキアミより調製した圧搾液を「夏」ロット、2002年5月に漁獲したオキアミより調製した圧搾液を「冬」ロットと記載する。これは漁獲地である南極海における季節を反映させた命名である。
きな粉(焙煎大豆粉)および卵白粉末のそれぞれ12%(w/v)濃度の懸濁液を調製した。夏および冬ロットのオキアミ圧搾液3.0mLに対して、蒸留水、きな粉懸濁液、豆乳(固形分12%w/v)、または卵白懸濁液を0.1mL添加した。このとき、きな粉、豆乳、または卵白は固形分換算で0.4%濃度と計算される。これら添加したオキアミ圧搾液のプロテアーゼ活性、および糖質分解酵素活性を測定した。蒸留水(即ち固形分なし)を添加した場合の活性(吸光度の上昇値)を100%として、各添加物を添加した場合の活性を計算した。
図1に示すように、きな粉、豆乳、および、卵白はいずれのロットについてもオキアミ圧搾液のプロテアーゼ活性を阻害する一方、糖質分解酵素活性には影響を与えないことがわかった。
【図面の簡単な説明】
【0028】
【図1】プロテアーゼ阻害作用を有するきな粉、豆乳、卵白のオキアミ酵素に対する作用を示す図面である。
【Technical field】
[0001]
The present invention relates to animal feed materials containing plant protein materials such as soybeans, soybean meal (defatted soybeans), wheat, barley, corn gluten meal, rice bran, and animal feeds made from such materials, in particular fish, echinoderms or crustaceans. The present invention relates to a method for producing animal feed .
[Background]
[0002]
It is well known that livestock products and cultured seafood are important protein sources for humans, and feeds for breeding and aquaculture of them have been studied in many fields for a long time. Raw materials have been developed. As raw materials for livestock production, soybean meal is attracting attention because of its stable supply and low price, but its use is sluggish because it contains oligosaccharides, digestive enzyme inhibitors, absorption inhibitors and growth inhibitors. The reality is. Therefore, a method for providing a good quality feed by removing unnecessary components by alcohol washing or acid washing, or fungi ( Aspergillus genus, Rhizopus genus), yeasts ( Saccharomyces genus), bacteria ( Bacillus genus, Lactobacillus genus) Inoculated and fermented as a single or a combination of two or more to produce a feed material with good digestibility and absorption, and as a method for removing unnecessary components from animal feed materials, cellulase and galacta, which are carbohydrate or oligosaccharide-degrading enzymes A protease, rhamnogalacturonase, and phytase, which is a phytin (phytic acid) -degrading enzyme, are added for decomposition and removal, and a proteolytic enzyme is added to enhance digestibility. These degrading enzymes are also derived from fungi ( Aspergillus genus, Rhizopus genus), yeasts ( Saccharomyces genus), bacteria ( Bacillus genus, Lactobacillus genus), etc., and the microorganisms that supply these enzymes are cultured. Or an enzyme required by gene recombination production. However, these techniques require pre-culture of microorganisms such as molds, yeasts, and bacteria, and it is necessary to thoroughly manage microorganisms, so that it is necessary to further simplify the process when all processes are taken into consideration.
On the other hand, the seafood aquaculture industry is becoming increasingly popular internationally, and the demand for coastal fish meal, which is a source of feed protein, has increased significantly. The reality is that they are suffering from price fluctuations. Under these circumstances, vegetable proteins, especially defatted soybean meal, have attracted attention as a fish meal substitute protein, but the amino acid balance is disrupted because the necessary amino acids of farmed seafood differ from the constituent amino acids of plant proteins. There are limits to the amount of addition, such as the presence of a digestive enzyme inhibitory active factor and the fact that non-digestible carbohydrates of plants inhibit digestion and absorption. The amino acid balance can be overcome by using a plurality of feed raw materials, but the development of a new technique has been desired for the decomposition and removal of digestible absorption inhibitors such as indigestible carbohydrates and phytin (phytic acid).
Against this background, research has also been conducted on fermented farmed seafood feeds by using gonococcal fungi ( Aspergillus genus) to act on defatted soybean meal to increase digestibility, compared to the case where soybean meal is not added. Although the growth is inferior, it is reported that the growth is improved as compared with the case of using unprocessed soybean meal (Non-patent Document 1).
Patent Document 1 discloses a method in which microorganisms are inoculated into soybean meal and fermented to decompose and remove oligosaccharides such as sucrose, raffinose and stachyose in soybean meal. The microorganism used in this case may be a normal brewed food or fermented food such as Aspergillus genus, Saccharomyces genus, Bacillus genus, or Lactobacillus genus. Disclosed that growth will be improved.
However, as the proportion of vegetable protein materials in feed materials increases, carnivorous fish such as sea bream and red sea bream are known to have reduced feeding behavior, and improvements are required (Non-Patent Document 2). ) In reality, 5 to 10% of krill meal must be added to induce food intake.
In addition, when plant protein raw materials are used as animal feed raw materials, it is necessary to pre-cultivate microorganisms used in normal brewing and fermented foods and to ferment the vegetable protein raw materials, which requires a simplified process. there were.
Patent Document 2 discloses an aquatic animal feed using a krill enzyme (krill enzyme). This is mixed with the feed while maintaining the activity of the krill enzyme. That is, the idea is to help animals digest by feeding krill enzymes with feed. Since it must be refined and added to the feed while retaining the activity of the krill enzyme, it cannot be heated, and there are many restrictions on its handling, making it difficult to use as a versatile feed material.
Patent Document 3 describes the use of self-digested krill as a feed material. It is described that it is easily digested by protease contained in krill.
[Patent Document 1]
JP-A-5-268881
[Patent Document 2]
JP-A-8-242777
[Patent Document 3]
WO98 / 34498
[Non-Patent Document 1]
Journal of Japanese Society of Fisheries Science, 59, 1883-1888 (1993)
[Non-Patent Document 2]
Aoki, et al. : Suisanzoshoku, 48, 73-79, (2000)
DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
[0003]
The present invention uses plant proteins such as soybean, defatted soybean meal, wheat, corn gluten meal, rice meal, defatted rice meal, processed meal, rapeseed oil meal, cottonseed oil meal, potato protein, etc. An object of the present invention is to provide an animal feed material having a bait attracting effect, and an animal feed using the animal feed material, particularly a fish, echinoderm or crustacean feed .
[0004]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
The gist of the present invention is the following methods (1) to (4) for producing a feed for fishes, spines, or crustaceans.
(1) By using an enzyme solution having an enzyme activity for decomposing indigestible carbohydrates obtained by squeezing krill that has not been self-digested, 20 to 60 ° C. at 48 hours, and the resulting mixture was being stirred under aging treatment, then heat sterilization treatment, characterized by drying, indigestible contained vegetable protein material to krill components that are not self-digested A method for producing a feed material for fish, echinoderms or crustaceans treated with a saccharide-degrading enzyme.
(2) The vegetable protein material is one or more vegetable protein materials selected from the group consisting of soybean, defatted soybean meal, corn gluten meal, ginger, processed meal, wheat, rapeseed oil meal, cottonseed oil meal and potato protein. A method for producing a raw material for fish, echinoderms or crustaceans according to (1).
(3) The method for producing a raw material for fish, echinoderms or crustaceans according to (1) or (2), wherein the krill component is an Antarctic krill component.
(4) The method for producing a raw material for fish, echinoderms or crustaceans according to any one of (1) to (3), wherein the fish is Thai, salmon and trout, yellowtail and tuna.
[0005]
INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY The present invention can provide an animal feed raw material that uses a plant protein to improve the digestibility of the protein and has a food attracting effect.
In addition, the present invention can provide an animal feed, particularly a fish, echinoderm or crustacean feed, which can significantly reduce the use rate of animal protein raw materials using the animal feed raw materials as raw materials.
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
[0006]
The animal feed material in the present invention is a feed material used for animal husbandry, poultry farming, and fish farming, and is a feed material used as a protein supplement source. The feed of the present invention is particularly suitable for fish farming and crustacean farming. Examples of fish farms, echinoderms, and crustaceans include fish to be cultured such as red sea bream, salmon, yellowtail, striped horse mackerel, trout, flounder, tuna, eel, sea urchin, and shrimp.
[0007]
In the present invention, any vegetable protein material can be used as long as it is a vegetable protein material used as an alternative to animal protein materials for animal feed materials. Main examples include soybean, defatted soybean meal, corn gluten meal, ginger, processed meal, wheat, rapeseed oil meal, cottonseed oil meal, potato protein, and the like.
[0008]
The krill used in the present invention is preferably Antarctic krill, which has abundant resources and high enzyme activity, but other krill can be used as long as it has similar activity.
In addition to krill or minced krill, krill endogenous enzymes selectively obtained by pressing can be added to the plant protein raw material and ripened as krill components.
However, the krill and the compressed solution containing these krill endogenous enzymes must have indigestible saccharide-degrading activity, and the activity can be easily confirmed by thin layer chromatography.
[0009]
The degradation activity of the hardly digestible carbohydrate is measured as described below. That is, if krill is minced, the solid content is separated and removed, and oligosaccharides such as cellobiose or maltohexaose are added to this so that the final concentration becomes 1%, followed by stirring at 40 ° C. for 2 hours. . Thereafter, 10 μL of the supernatant obtained by centrifugation at 3000 rppm for 10 minutes at 4 ° C. was spotted on a silica gel thin layer plate, developed with butanol: propanol: water (1: 3: 2), and orcinol sulfate. Color is developed using the solution. At this time, the spots of oligosaccharides such as cellobiose and maltohexaose are completely extinguished, and it is limited to those having an activity in which only monosaccharide spots considered to be β-glucose, α-glucose and the like appear.
Regarding the krill compressed liquid, those whose activity has been confirmed by the same method are used.
[0010]
The animal feed raw material of the present invention is obtained by adding krill, minced krill, or pressing solution to a vegetable protein raw material containing an indigestible carbohydrate, and 20 to 60 ° C., preferably 30 to 50 ° C. It is obtained by performing an aging treatment for 48 hours, preferably 2 to 6 hours, and then performing a heat sterilization treatment by maintaining at 80 ° C. or higher, preferably 85 ° C. for 10 minutes, followed by a drying treatment. Stirring is performed during aging, but it is also possible to add fresh water so that stirring is difficult and aging is not insufficient. The reaction time needs to be adjusted by the amount of enzyme with respect to the vegetable protein. However, the feed efficiency decreases when the amount of free amino acids increases, so it is preferable to select conditions that do not easily generate free amino acids.
[0011]
Animal feed using the animal feed raw material of the present invention as a raw material.
The animal feed of the present invention can be produced by processing and molding together the animal feed raw material of the present invention and other feed raw materials. The animal feed material of the present invention can be provided in the form of powder by heating and drying after krill treatment, and can be easily used as a raw material for various types of feed, particularly as an alternative to animal protein. . In the case of fish farming, it can be used as a substitute for fish meal.
[0012]
Action The digestibility of protein is improved by adding and ripening krill, minced krill or krill pressurizing liquid having indigestible saccharide-degrading activity to a plant protein raw material containing indigestible sugar.
Moreover, it is set as the animal feed raw material which raises the digestibility of this protein and has the feeding attraction effect.
It has become possible to provide animal feed materials that can significantly reduce the proportion of animal protein materials used. Moreover, the animal feed using the animal feed raw material can be provided.
[0013]
The details of the present invention will be described in Examples. The present invention is not limited to these examples.
[0014]
[Comparative example]
After 25 kg of krill having indigestible saccharide-degrading activity was minced, 30 kg of defatted soybean meal was added and heated and stirred at 40 ° C. for 2 hours to produce a decomposed defatted soybean meal (hereinafter referred to as krill mince-treated soybean meal) Called).
[Example 1 ]
[0015]
The krill having indigestible saccharide-degrading activity is squeezed to produce a 10% weight compressed solution (enzyme solution) of krill raw material, 30 kg of defatted soybean cake is added to this, and the mixture is heated and stirred at 40 ° C for 2 hours Thus, a decomposed and defatted soybean meal was produced (hereinafter referred to as a krill enzyme solution-treated soybean meal).
[Reference example]
[0016]
After mincing 25 kg of krill having indigestible saccharide-degrading activity, 250 g of egg white and 30 kg of defatted soybean meal were added, and the mixture was heated and stirred at 40 ° C. for 2 hours to produce a decomposed defatted soybean meal (hereinafter referred to as “krill treatment large”). This is referred to as bean egg white addition).
[Example 2 ]
[0017]
A red sea bream (average weight 17.9 g) was used as a test fish for a 56-day breeding experiment. The composition of the feed for breeding used is shown in Table 1, and the results of breeding are shown in Tables 2 and 3.
[0018]
[Table 1]
[0019]
[Table 2]
[0020]
[Table 3]
[0021]
As is clear from this result, there was no difference in growth compared to the 1st section where defatted soybean meal was not added, and defatted soybean meal treated with krill mince or pressing liquid (enzyme solution) was used for the red sea bream feed. It was found that a large amount could be added, and the effectiveness of the aging treatment with krill was confirmed .
Further, a negative correlation was found in the free amino acids / total amino acids (%) and feed efficiency in the feed.
[Example 3 ]
[0022]
The rainbow trout (average weight 10.6 g) was used as a test fish for 84 days of breeding experiments. The composition of the feed for breeding used is shown in Table 4, and the results of breeding are shown in Tables 5 and 6.
[0023]
[Table 4]
[0024]
[Table 5]
[0025]
[Table 6]
[0026]
As apparent from Table 5, in comparison with the control group was not added defatted soybean meal, krill enzyme solution treated area was effective in terms of body weight increase (growth). Moreover, it was confirmed that it was more effective than the 9th section where only krill meal was mixed, and that it was effective to treat defatted soybean meal with krill. Furthermore, it was also found that the cellulase treatment ( commercial enzyme treatment section) that is usually marketed was inferior in growth, and the necessity of aging treatment with krill was found.
The negative correlation observed we were in free amino acids / total amino acids (%) and feed efficiency in the feed.
[0027]
Test Example 1: Influence of inhibitors on enzyme activity of krill press solution In this test example, press solution prepared from krill caught in February 2002 was prepared from “summer” lot, krill caught in May 2002 The squeeze solution is described as the “winter” lot. This is a nomenclature that reflects the season in the Antarctic Ocean, the fishing area.
Suspensions of 12% (w / v) concentration of kinako (roasted soy flour) and egg white powder were prepared. 0.1 mL of distilled water, kinako suspension, soy milk (solid content 12% w / v), or egg white suspension was added to 3.0 mL of the krill press solution of summer and winter lots. At this time, kinakome, soymilk, or egg white is calculated to be 0.4% in terms of solid content. The protease activity and saccharide-degrading enzyme activity of these added krill pressing solutions were measured. The activity when each additive was added was calculated with the activity (increased absorbance) when distilled water (that is, no solid content) was added as 100%.
As shown in FIG. 1 , it was found that kinakome, soymilk, and egg white inhibit the protease activity of the krill squeezed solution for any lot, but do not affect the carbohydrase activity.
[Brief description of the drawings]
[0028]
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a drawing showing the action of kina flour, soy milk and egg white on krill enzymes having protease inhibitory action.

Claims (4)

  1. 自己消化処理されていないオキアミを圧搾処理して得た難消化性糖質を分解する酵素活性を有する酵素液を用いて、難消化性糖質を含有する植物性タンパク質原料を20〜60℃にて1〜48時間、かつ攪拌下熟成処理を行い、次いで加熱殺菌処理、乾燥処理することを特徴とする、植物性タンパク質原料を自己消化処理されていないオキアミ成分に含まれる難消化性糖質分解酵素で処理した魚類、棘皮類又は甲殻類用飼料原料の製造方法。Using an enzyme solution having an enzymatic activity to decompose indigestible carbohydrates obtained by squeezing krill that has not been subjected to self-digestion treatment, plant protein raw materials containing indigestible carbohydrates are brought to 20 to 60 ° C. 1 to 48 hours, aging treatment with stirring , followed by heat sterilization treatment and drying treatment, decomposition of indigestible carbohydrates contained in krill components that have not been subjected to autolysis treatment of plant protein raw materials A method for producing feed materials for fish, echinoderms or crustaceans treated with enzymes.
  2. 植物性タンパク質原料が、大豆、脱脂大豆粕、コーングルテンミール、生糠、加工糠、小麦、ナタネ油粕、綿実油粕およびポテトプロテインからなる群より選ばれる1種以上の植物性タンパク質原料である請求項1の魚類、棘皮類又は甲殻類用飼料原料の製造方法。  The vegetable protein raw material is at least one vegetable protein raw material selected from the group consisting of soybean, defatted soybean meal, corn gluten meal, ginger, processed meal, wheat, rapeseed oil meal, cottonseed oil meal and potato protein. 1. A method for producing feed materials for fish, echinoderms or crustaceans.
  3. オキアミ成分が南極オキアミ成分である請求項1または2の魚類、棘皮類又は甲殻類用飼料原料の製造方法。  The method for producing a feed material for fish, spines or crustaceans according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the krill component is an Antarctic krill component.
  4. 魚類がタイ類、サケ・マス類、ブリ類、マグロ類である請求項1ないし3のいずれかの魚類、棘皮類又は甲殻類用飼料原料の製造方法。  The method for producing a feed raw material for fish, echinoderms or crustaceans according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the fish is Thai, salmon and trout, yellowtail and tuna.
JP2004527319A 2002-08-09 2003-08-01 Production method of feed materials for fish, echinoderms or crustaceans Expired - Fee Related JP4804003B2 (en)

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US10945452B2 (en) 2014-05-29 2021-03-16 Ohio Soybean Council Mitigation of anti-nutritional substances in plant meal
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