JP4780148B2 - Cogeneration system operation method - Google Patents

Cogeneration system operation method Download PDF

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JP4780148B2
JP4780148B2 JP2008159350A JP2008159350A JP4780148B2 JP 4780148 B2 JP4780148 B2 JP 4780148B2 JP 2008159350 A JP2008159350 A JP 2008159350A JP 2008159350 A JP2008159350 A JP 2008159350A JP 4780148 B2 JP4780148 B2 JP 4780148B2
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hot water
temperature
heat exchanger
heat
storage tank
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JP2008281331A (en
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守 千代延
英行 尾形
悟 平國
敬 田邊
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三菱電機株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/50Fuel cells

Description

  The present invention relates to a method for operating a cogeneration system including an air conditioner.

  In recent years, cogeneration systems have been studied as a power supply system for homes using a gas engine system and a fuel cell system, and their introduction into the market has begun. The overall efficiency of the cogeneration system is about 70 to 80% by using the exhaust heat generated from the entire gas engine and fuel cell system mainly for hot water supply, bath, and warm water for floor heating. The cogeneration system is an individual distributed energy supply system, and is excellent as an efficient total energy system. In particular, a fuel cell system using hydrogen as a fuel is a system that is very clean and suitable for global environmental conservation because the basic emission is only water.

  As a cogeneration system that effectively uses both electric and thermal energy, there has been a system in which a fuel cell system and a hot water supply tank are integrated (for example, see Patent Document 1).

  Further, as a system in which an air conditioning system is further incorporated into the cogeneration system, there is a fuel cell exhaust heat utilization air conditioning system (see, for example, Patent Document 2). This system supplies a DC power generated from a fuel cell system to drive an air conditioner, and also adds a surplus of the DC power to a power storage and a load from the system, and a power system that performs at least one of them And means for storing hot water using exhaust heat generated from the fuel cell. And at the time of heating operation, the temperature of blowing air is raised with the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger located in the downstream of an indoor heat exchanger. In addition, the exhaust heat generated when the refrigerant condenses in the outdoor heat exchanger during the cooling operation is recovered through the air by the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger located on the downstream side of the outdoor heat exchanger and stored as hot water. It is configured.

  In addition, there has been a fuel cell heat pump system including a fuel cell system, a heat storage tank, a cold storage tank, and a heat pump system (see, for example, Patent Document 3). This system guides the hot water in the heat storage tank to the water evaporator during the heating operation to increase the refrigerant pressure and increase the heating capacity. On the other hand, particularly in an air conditioner for automobiles, the cooling water in the regenerator is guided to the radiator during cooling operation, and the refrigerant pressure in the radiator is reduced to increase the efficiency of the heat pump system.

  In addition, a heat supply system configured to use a part of heat energy generated in the fuel cell system in the evaporator at the time of heating operation of the air conditioner (for example, see Patent Document 4), or a heat pump for supplying waste heat of the fuel cell system to hot water supply There is a configuration (see, for example, Patent Document 5) used on the evaporator side.

Japanese Patent Laying-Open No. 2003-214712 (FIG. 1) JP 2003-130491 A (Pages 4 to 7, FIGS. 1 and 2) JP 2002-81792 A (Page 5, FIGS. 1 and 2) Japanese Laid-Open Patent Publication No. 11-281072 (pages 3 to 5, FIG. 1) JP 2002-168537 A (page 4, FIG. 4)

Among systems including an air conditioning system in addition to a fuel cell system and a hot water supply tank, the system described in Patent Document 2 includes a heat exchanger and a waste heat utilization side heat exchanger in each of the indoor unit and the outdoor unit, Although it is a system that conveys exhaust heat directly to the indoor unit of the air conditioning system at the time of operation, there are many devices and the configuration is complicated. In particular, piping for using exhaust heat is required separately from the refrigerant piping up to the indoor unit of the air conditioner. Furthermore, in the fuel cell heat pump system described in Patent Document 3, the exhaust heat utilization side heat exchanger is installed so that the air conditioning exhaust heat during cooling operation is adjacent to the air conditioning condenser installed in the outdoor unit. Is a heat recovery system using air as a medium. Here, since the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger installed in the outdoor unit uses air as a medium, there are problems such as low heat recovery efficiency and the need for installation space. Furthermore, although the heat supply system described in Patent Document 4 uses the exhaust heat of the fuel cell system to improve the heating performance, no consideration is given to performance improvement during cooling operation or the like. Moreover, in patent document 5, although it is the structure which combined the hot water supply heat pump and the fuel cell system, and the exhaust heat of a fuel cell is utilized with the evaporator of a heat pump, it is not made into the object of an air conditioning.
Thus, in the prior art, as a whole cogeneration system that performs power generation, hot water supply, and air conditioning, the system has not yet been fully utilized, and there is a portion that can improve efficiency. Also, no consideration was given to downsizing.

  The present invention has been made to solve the problems of the conventional cogeneration system as described above, and includes an efficient and comfortable air conditioner by effectively utilizing the water in the hot water storage tank as an energy buffer. An object of the present invention is to obtain a cogeneration system capable of enhancing energy efficiency and an operation method thereof.

The present invention includes a fuel cell system that generates electric power from supplied fuel, a hot water storage tank that stores hot water, a temperature sensor that detects the temperature of water in the hot water storage tank, an outside air temperature sensor for detecting the temperature, the compressor, expansion device, a cogeneration system operating method which is provided with air-conditioning system, a having a refrigerant circuit for circulating a refrigerant include indoor heat exchangers, fuel cells The system includes a heat exchanger that performs heat exchange between heat energy generated in the fuel cell stack, which is a power generation unit of the fuel cell main body, and water in the hot water storage tank, and stores the heat energy in the water in the hot water storage tank. An air-cooling heat exchanger in which the air conditioning system exchanges heat between the refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant circuit and the outdoor air, and water in the hot water storage tank circulated by the pump A heat exchanger using exhaust heat that exchanges heat with the refrigerant circulating in the medium circuit, and a flow path switching valve that can switch the refrigerant circuit to either an air-cooled heat exchanger or a heat exchanger that uses exhaust heat And a hot water storage step for storing the exhaust heat from the fuel cell main body in the water in the hot water storage tank by the heat exchanger, and a water temperature detection step for detecting the temperature of the water in the hot water storage tank by the temperature sensor; An outside air temperature detecting step for detecting an outside air temperature by an outside air temperature sensor, and a comparison step for comparing the water temperature detected in the water temperature detecting step with the outside air temperature detected in the outside air temperature detecting step, and an air conditioning system. cold but in the case of the cooling operation, in the comparison step, if the temperature of the water is determined to be lower than the outside air temperature, and fuel cell system stops operation, the passage switching valve Connect the circuit to waste heat utilization heat exchanger at the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger to condense the refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant circuit by dissipating the water of the hot water storage tank, the heat of condensation of the refrigerant in the savings hot water tank In the cooling heat storage step for storing heat in the water and the comparison step, when the temperature of the water is determined to be equal to or higher than the outside air temperature, and the water temperature is determined to be lower than the outside air temperature, and the fuel cell system is operating In this case, the refrigerant circuit is connected to the air-cooling heat exchanger by the flow path switching valve, and the refrigerant circulating through the refrigerant circuit is condensed by dissipating heat to the outdoor air by the air-cooling heat exchanger, and the condensation heat of the refrigerant is A normal operation step for radiating heat to the air, and when the air conditioning system is in the heating operation , if the comparison step determines that the water temperature is higher than the outside air temperature , the flow path switching valve Heat exchanger using exhaust heat through the refrigerant circuit Heating exhaust heat utilization step to evaporate the refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant circuit by using the heat energy stored in the water in the hot water storage tank and removing heat from the water in the hot water storage tank with the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger In the comparison step, when it is determined that the temperature of the water is equal to or lower than the outside air temperature, the refrigerant circuit is connected to the air cooling heat exchanger by the flow path switching valve, and the heat of evaporation from the outdoor air by the air cooling heat exchanger. a normal operation step of evaporating the refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant circuit by absorbs, is the ash comprises a.

The cogeneration system operating method according to the present invention, the exhaust heat from the exhaust heat and air-conditioning system of a fuel cell system or al and heat storage in the hot water storage tank, water heater Ya energy that is accumulated in the hot water storage tank if necessary Since it is operated to be used for air conditioning, power generation, hot water supply, and air conditioning can be realized with one system, high functionality, efficient hot water supply and air conditioning, and annual energy consumption can be reduced.

Embodiment 1 FIG.
FIG. 1 is a schematic configuration diagram showing a cogeneration system according to Embodiment 1 of the present invention. 2 and 3 are refrigerant circuit diagrams showing an air conditioning system portion according to the present embodiment. The fuel cell used here is, for example, of the solid polymer type.

  1, 2, and 3, a fuel cell body that is a basic configuration of the fuel cell system includes a fuel processing unit 1 mainly including a desulfurizer and a reformer, and a fuel cell stack 2 that is a power generation unit. For example, a stacked heat exchanger 3 that recovers thermal energy generated in the fuel cell stack 2 is used. One cell of the fuel cell stack 2 has an ion exchange membrane at the center, electrodes that are a hydrogen electrode and an oxygen electrode across the ion exchange membrane, and a separator outside the electrodes. A plurality of the cells are stacked and fixed to each other to constitute the fuel cell stack 2. Hydrogen desulfurized and reformed in the fuel processing unit 1 is supplied to the hydrogen electrode on one side of the ion exchange membrane of each cell of the fuel cell stack 2, and when it touches a catalyst such as platinum, electrons (e -) Jumps out and leaves a proton (H +). The electrons flow to the external circuit and work as power for the load. Protons move through the ion exchange membrane to the oxygen electrode, where oxygen and protons combine at the oxygen electrode, and further combine with electrons returned from the external circuit to form water. In the case of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, this reaction has an operating temperature of about 80 ° C., and the temperature of the water that comes out is also about 80 ° C. to 100 ° C. The water in the hot water storage tank 5 is circulated in the stacked heat exchanger 3 by the pump 4 a, and the water at about 80 ° C. discharged from the fuel cell stack 2 and the water in the hot water storage tank 5 are combined in the stacked heat exchanger 3. By exchanging heat, the exhaust heat from the fuel cell main body is stored in the hot water storage tank 5 as hot water. At the same time, electric power is generated by the movement of electrons. One cell has a thickness of 2 to 4 mm and generates a voltage of about 0.5 to 0.8 volts. The exhaust heat generated in the fuel cell main body includes reaction heat due to a chemical reaction, is discharged together with water, and is stored in the hot water storage tank 5 through the stacked heat exchanger 3. As the water in the hot water storage tank 5, for example, tap water is used, and is supplied so as to be always stored in the hot water storage tank 5 by a specified amount by a water supply means (not shown).

  Further, as equipment constituting the air conditioning system, the compressor 6, the air cooling heat exchanger 7 for exchanging heat between the refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant circuit and the outdoor air, and the water in the hot water storage tank 5 by the pump 4b in the heat exchanger The exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 for exchanging heat between the refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant circuit and the water in the hot water storage tank 5, the air cooling heat exchanger 7 and the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 for the refrigerant circuit. Flow path switching valves 9a and 9b, which are flow path switching means that can switch the connection of, for example, an expansion device 10 such as an electronic expansion valve or a capillary tube, a four-way valve 11, an outdoor blower 12, and a refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant circuit The air conditioner indoor unit 13 performs heat exchange with room air, and further includes, for example, an inverter, a converter, and a power control unit 14 including, for example, a storage battery as a storage means and a controller. The indoor unit 13 includes a heat exchanger that exchanges heat between indoor air and a refrigerant, and a blower that blows indoor air to the heat exchanger. The auxiliary heat exchanger 15 that radiates exhaust heat from the fuel cell body to the outdoor air is for radiating surplus heat during power generation to the outside air, and the power controller 16 includes an external commercial power source and a fuel cell. Controls the electricity generated by the system and supplies it indoors. Further, a water temperature sensor 17 which is a temperature detecting means for detecting the temperature of water below the hot water storage tank 5 is installed, for example, below the center in the hot water storage tank 5. In the configuration shown in FIG. 1, the air-cooled heat exchanger 7 and the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 are respectively arranged outdoors, and the cogeneration system outdoor unit 18 and the hot water tank container 19 are arranged outdoors. .

  In the present embodiment, the indoor unit 13 is installed in a room that performs air conditioning in the house, and other devices are installed outside the room. Here, the hot water storage tank 5 having a large capacity and other devices are separately configured so as to be easily installed. That is, the fuel processing unit 1, the fuel cell stack 2, the stacked heat exchanger 3, the pumps 4a and 4b, the compressor 6, the air-cooled heat exchanger 7, the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8, the flow path switching valves 9a and 9b, The expansion device 10, the four-way valve 11, the outdoor blower 12, the power control unit 14, the heat exchanger 15, and the power controller 16 are used as a cogeneration system outdoor unit 18 and stored in a single container separately from the hot water storage tank container 19. By arranging in this way, between the container storing the fuel cell main body and the majority of the air conditioning system and the hot water storage tank 5, as shown in FIG. A pipe for circulating water is connected between the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8. Further, between the cogeneration system outdoor unit 18 and the indoor unit 13, a refrigerant circuit pipe of the air conditioning system is connected. As described above, in the present embodiment, the outdoor unit of the conventional air conditioning system and the fuel cell main body are brought close to each other by installing the air-cooled heat exchanger 7 and the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 in the vicinity of the fuel cell main body. The cogeneration system outdoor unit 18 is stored in a single box.

The fuel cell system in the present embodiment can use propane gas, city gas, kerosene, or the like as the fuel. Furthermore, hydrogen itself can be used without reforming. In that case, it is not necessary to incorporate the fuel processing unit 1 into the system. Here, city gas mainly composed of methane CH 4 is used as fuel.

  For example, carbon dioxide is used as a circulating refrigerant in the refrigeration cycle of the air conditioning system. When this carbon dioxide is used as a refrigerant, the refrigerant temperature when condensed in the cooling operation is about 90 ° C.

  The flow path switching valves 9a and 9b provided in the refrigerant circuit according to the present embodiment are valves that can be switched from a one-way flow path to a two-way flow path. Further, one of the two flow paths on the outflow side can be closed and the other can be opened. Of course, both the two flow paths on the outflow side can be opened, and further, both the two flow paths can be closed.

Hereinafter, the operation of the fuel cell system will be described. The city gas drawn into the fuel processing unit 1 is desulfurized by the desulfurizer of the fuel processing unit 1 and guided to the reformer. In the reformer, a part of the city gas is burned inside and is in a high temperature state. When desulfurized city gas and water are introduced together into the space where the catalyst is installed, both react to change into hydrogen and carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide. Furthermore, the generated carbon monoxide and water are reacted to be extracted as carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and carbon dioxide not required for power generation is discharged.
When the hydrogen generated in the fuel processing unit 1 is drawn into the power generation unit 2, in the fuel cell stack 2, as described above, oxygen from the outside air and hydrogen drawn into each cell undergo a binding reaction via the solid polymer membrane. Occurs and generates heat and water associated with electromotive and reaction.

The generated direct current electricity is converted into alternating current by the inverter of the power control unit 14 and supplied to a consumption part such as a home. A part of the electric charge is stored in a storage battery (not shown) provided in the electronic control unit 14 via a converter, or used to drive a compressor 6 and a blower for air conditioning.
On the other hand, the heat energy generated in the fuel processing unit 1 and the fuel cell stack 2 is recovered by the stacked heat exchanger 3, and the water in the hot water storage tank 5 is circulated and driven by the pump 4a, so that the hot water is stored in the hot water storage tank 5 as hot water. Heat is stored.

Next, an example of the operation when performing the cooling operation of the air conditioning system incorporated in the cogeneration system will be described with reference to FIGS. Moreover, the flowchart which shows the operation | movement of the air_conditionaing | cooling operation of an air conditioning system is shown in FIG. 4, and operation | movement explanatory drawing is shown in FIG. In FIGS. 2 and 3, the arrows indicate the flow direction of the refrigerant. Although not shown, the cogeneration system outdoor unit 18 or the hot water storage tank container 19 installed outside is provided with an outside air temperature sensor for detecting the temperature of the outside air.
Here, the exhaust heat generated in the cooling operation of the air conditioning system, for example, the heat of condensation of the refrigerant, is stored in the hot water storage tank 5 and used for hot water supply or the like for effective use of energy.

  For example, when a cooling operation command is issued by a remote controller installed indoors, the temperature of the lower water in the hot water storage tank 5 is detected by the temperature sensor 17 in ST1 of the flowchart shown in FIG. 4 (water temperature detection step). To detect the outside air temperature. This detected temperature is compared in ST3, and when the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 is lower than the outside air temperature (the state of NO. 1 and 2 in Table 1), the refrigerant circuit is connected as shown in FIG. That is, the flow path switching valve 9 a is connected so as to flow from the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 that exchanges heat with the water in the hot water storage tank 5, and the flow path switching valve 9 b is also connected to the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8. Connecting. In the configuration of this refrigerant circuit, an operation for storing the heat of condensation in the refrigeration cycle in the hot water storage tank 5 is performed, which is referred to as an exhaust heat utilization operation (ST4).

  If the water temperature in the hot water storage tank 5 is equal to or higher than the outside air temperature (NO. 3 and 4 in Table 1), the refrigerant circuit is connected as shown in FIG. That is, the flow path switching valve 9 a is connected so as to flow from the air-cooled heat exchanger 7 that exchanges heat with outdoor air, and the flow path switching valve 9 b is also connected to the air-cooled heat exchanger 7. In the configuration of the refrigerant circuit, as in the conventional air conditioning system, an operation of dissipating the heat of condensation in the refrigeration cycle to the outdoor air is performed, which is referred to as a normal operation (ST5).

  Next, the compressor 6 is driven by the direct current electricity generated by the fuel cell, the blower (not shown) of the indoor unit 13 is driven, and the air is blown to the heat exchanger by the blower to start the cooling operation. .

  The operation of the refrigerant at this time will be described. First, in the exhaust heat utilization operation when the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 is lower than the outside air temperature as shown in FIG. 2, the vapor refrigerant compressed to high pressure and high temperature by the compressor 6 is subjected to exhaust heat utilization heat exchange. The water is dissipated to the water in the hot water storage tank 5 by the vessel 8 and is condensed. And it is pressure-reduced with the expansion apparatus 10, turns into a low-temperature low-pressure gas-liquid two-phase refrigerant | coolant, and flows into the heat exchanger of the indoor unit 13 via a connection piping. In the indoor unit 13, the refrigerant takes heat from the indoor air and evaporates, and is sucked into the compressor 6 through the connection pipe and the four-way valve 11 and compressed again.

  As shown in FIG. 3, in a normal operation when the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 is higher than the outside air temperature, the vapor refrigerant compressed to high pressure and high temperature by the compressor 6 is converted into outdoor air by the air-cooling heat exchanger 7. Dissipates heat and condensates. And it is pressure-reduced with the expansion apparatus 10, turns into a low-temperature low-pressure gas-liquid two-phase refrigerant | coolant, and flows into the heat exchanger of the indoor unit 13 via a connection piping. In the indoor unit 13, heat is taken from the indoor air to evaporate and is sucked into the compressor 6 through the connecting pipe and the four-way valve 11 and compressed again.

  FIG. 5 is a graph showing the operation modes of Table 1, and shows the outside air temperature, tank water temperature, fuel cell system operation state, and air conditioner operation state in each operation mode (NO. 1 to 4). ing.

  In this way, the exhaust heat of the fuel cell system is stored in the water in the hot water storage tank 5 (hot water heat storage step), and the temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 is compared with the outside air temperature and the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 during the cooling operation. When the temperature is lower than the outside air temperature, exhaust heat generated in the cooling operation of the air conditioning system, for example, the heat of condensation of the refrigerant is stored in the hot water storage tank 5 (cooling heat storage step). And since the heat storage of the hot water storage tank 5 is utilized for hot water supply etc. and effective utilization of energy is aimed at, the waste heat from an air conditioning system can also be utilized and a very efficient operation is attained. In addition to this, the energy efficiency of the system can be greatly improved by driving the compressor 6 and the blower with electricity generated by the fuel cell system and using the indoor heat for hot water supply. Further, when the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 is equal to or higher than the outside air temperature, the operation is controlled so that the air cooling heat exchanger 7 is connected to the refrigerant circuit of the air conditioning system by the flow path switching valves 9a and 9b. By controlling in this way, heat is radiated to the outside air, so that it is possible to prevent an unnecessary increase in energy during cooling operation in the air conditioning system.

  The determination between the exhaust heat utilization operation and the normal operation shown in FIG. 4 may be performed not only when the cooling operation is requested, but also periodically, for example, about every hour during the cooling operation. By performing periodically, the air conditioning system can be optimally operated following the change in the outside air temperature and the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 even during the cooling operation.

  Further, the operation of the air conditioning system may be determined in consideration of the operation / stop of the fuel cell system. For example, even when the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 is lower than the outside air temperature, when the fuel cell system is in an operating state, the tank water temperature is considered to rise immediately due to exhaust heat of the fuel cell system. For this reason, when the temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 is lower than the outside air temperature, if the exhaust heat utilization operation is always performed in the air conditioning system, it is necessary to switch to the normal operation immediately after the operation starts, and the operation is complicated. Become. Therefore, even when the temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 is lower than the outside air temperature, when the fuel cell system is operating, a normal operation is performed in which the heat of condensation is radiated to the outdoor air by the air-cooling heat exchanger 7 (outside air radiating step). Control in this way is preferable because operation switching can be reduced, unnecessary operation can be prevented, and smooth operation control can be performed.

  Further, in the flowcharts shown in Table 1 and FIG. 4, the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 is compared with the outside air temperature, and it is determined whether the exhaust heat utilization operation or the normal operation is performed based on the comparison result. It is not limited to. For example, the change of the outside air temperature in the place or area where the heat exchanger is installed in advance is grasped, and a fixed set temperature is set as the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 when the air-cooled heat exchanger 7 and the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 are switched. It may be used. For example, 30 ° C. is stored as a fixed value, and when the water temperature in the hot water storage tank 5 is equal to or higher than the fixed value, the air cooling heat exchanger 7 performs a normal operation for releasing the heat of condensation to the outdoor air. When the temperature is lower than a fixed value, operation control may be performed so as to perform an exhaust heat utilization operation in which heat is stored in the hot water storage tank 5 via the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8. By using a fixed set value, the outside temperature sensor is not necessary, and the cost can be reduced.

  2 and 3, among the flow path switching valves 9 a and 9 b that enable switching of the heat exchangers 7 and 8 to the refrigerant circuit, the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 that condenses the refrigerant. Alternatively, the flow path switching valve 9b on the upstream side of the air-cooling heat exchanger 7 configures a circuit so as to be connected to either the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 or the air-cooling heat exchanger 7, and the heat exchanger 7 8, the refrigerant is prevented from flowing into the heat exchanger that is not used, but is not limited thereto. If the flow path switching valve 9a on the downstream side of the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 or the air-cooling heat exchanger 7 is connected to the heat exchanger on the side to be used without fail, the flow path switching valve on the upstream side 9b may be connected to both the air-cooled heat exchanger 7 and the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8. Since the refrigerant tends to flow to the lower temperature side, a small amount of refrigerant flows into the heat exchanger that is not used. Even if a part of the refrigerant circulating in the refrigeration cycle enters the unused heat exchanger, there is no problem.

Next, an example of operation | movement when performing the heating operation of the air conditioning system incorporated in the cogeneration system is demonstrated based on FIG. 6, FIG. 7 and Table 2. FIG. Moreover, the flowchart which shows operation | movement of the heating operation of an air conditioning system is shown in FIG. 8, and operation | movement explanatory drawing is shown in FIG. 6 and 7, the arrows indicate the flow direction of the refrigerant.
Here, the heat energy necessary for the heating operation of the air conditioning system, that is, the heat stored in the hot water storage tank 5 is used for the heat of evaporation of the refrigerant to improve the effective use of energy and the capacity of the heating operation. The thermal energy used here is called heating assist.

  For example, when a heating operation command is issued by a remote controller installed indoors, the temperature of the lower water in the hot water storage tank 5 is detected by the temperature sensor 17 in ST11 of the flowchart shown in FIG. 8 (water temperature detection step). To detect the outside air temperature. This detected temperature is compared in ST13, and when the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 is higher than the outside air temperature (the states of No. 1 and 2 in Table 2), the refrigerant circuit is connected as shown in FIG. That is, the flow path switching valve 9b is connected so as to flow in from the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 that exchanges heat with the water in the hot water storage tank 5, and the flow path switching valve 9a is also connected to the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8. Connecting. In this refrigerant circuit configuration, an operation is performed in which the heat energy stored in the hot water storage tank 5 is used as the heat of evaporation in the refrigeration cycle, which is referred to as an exhaust heat utilization operation (ST14). When viewed from the whole cogeneration system, it functions as a heating assist.

  If the water temperature in the hot water storage tank 5 is equal to or lower than the outside air temperature as determined in ST13 (Nos. 3 and 4 in Table 2), the refrigerant circuit is connected as shown in FIG. That is, the flow path switching valve 9 b is connected so as to flow from the air-cooled heat exchanger 7 that performs heat exchange with the outdoor air, and the flow path switching valve 9 a also connects the flow path to the air-cooled heat exchanger 7. In the configuration of this refrigerant circuit, as in the conventional air conditioning system, an operation for absorbing the heat of evaporation in the refrigeration cycle from the outdoor air is performed, which is referred to as a normal operation (ST15).

  Next, the compressor 6 is driven by direct current electricity generated by the fuel cell, the blower (not shown) of the indoor unit 13 is driven, and the indoor air is blown to the heat exchanger of the indoor unit 13 to perform the heating operation. Start.

  The operation of the refrigerant at this time will be described. First, as shown in FIG. 6, in the exhaust heat utilization operation (heating assist) when the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 is higher than the outside air temperature, the vapor refrigerant compressed to high pressure and high temperature by the compressor 6 It flows into the heat exchanger of the indoor unit 13 through The heat is then radiated to the room air that has been requested to be heated and condensed. After that, the pressure is reduced by the expansion device 10 installed outside through the connection pipe, and becomes a low-temperature and low-pressure gas-liquid two-phase refrigerant, which flows into the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8. In the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8, the refrigerant takes heat from the water in the hot water storage tank 5 to evaporate and is sucked into the compressor 6 through the four-way valve 11 and compressed again.

  As shown in FIG. 7, in the normal operation when the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 is lower than the outside air temperature, the vapor refrigerant compressed to high pressure and high temperature by the compressor 6 passes through the four-way valve 11 and the connection pipe. It flows into the heat exchanger of the indoor unit 13 and dissipates heat to the indoor air to be condensed and liquefied. Next, the pressure is reduced by the expansion device 10 installed outdoors via the connection pipe, and the refrigerant becomes a low-temperature and low-pressure gas-liquid two-phase refrigerant and flows into the air-cooled heat exchanger 7. In the air-cooling heat exchanger 7, the refrigerant evaporates by exchanging heat with the outside air, and is sucked into the compressor 6 and compressed again.

  FIG. 9 is a graph showing the operation modes in Table 2, and shows the outside air temperature, tank water temperature, fuel cell system operation state, and air conditioner operation state in each operation mode (NO. 1 to 4). ing.

  In this way, the exhaust heat of the fuel cell system is stored in the water of the hot water storage tank 5 (hot water heat storage step), and the outside air temperature and the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 are compared during the heating operation, and the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 is compared. When the temperature is equal to or higher than the outside air temperature, the heat of the hot water storage tank 5 is absorbed to heat the room (heating exhaust heat utilization step). Thereby, since the evaporating pressure of the refrigerant can be increased, the heating capacity can be increased, and a highly efficient operation as an air conditioning system is possible. In addition, the energy efficiency of the system can be greatly improved by driving the compressor 6 and the blower with electricity generated by the fuel cell system. Further, when the water temperature in the hot water storage tank 5 falls and becomes lower than the outside air temperature, the operation is controlled so as to connect to the air-cooled heat exchanger 7 through the flow path switching valves 9a and 9b. For this reason, it can prevent that the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 falls more than necessary. When the water temperature in the hot water storage tank 5 and the outside air temperature are the same, either the normal operation or the exhaust heat utilization operation may be used from the viewpoint of the heating capacity of the air conditioning system, but if the heat is exchanged with external air in the normal operation, the hot water storage tank 5 has an effect of preventing the water temperature of 5 from being lowered.

  In addition, when the hot water supply load is large and it is necessary to save and use the water in the hot water storage tank 5 as much as possible, the hot water in the hot water storage tank 5 is used to supply the refrigerant only when the heating load is large, such as when the heating operation is started. You may control to evaporate. By performing the heating assist when the heating load is large, the evaporation pressure of the refrigerant can be increased even during the heating operation, so that the heating capacity can be increased. Further, during the exhaust heat utilization operation, when the room temperature approaches the heating target temperature, the flow path switching valves 9a and 9b may be switched to be connected to the air-cooling heat exchanger 7. By returning to the normal operation when the operation target is almost reached, it is possible to prevent the water temperature in the hot water storage tank 5 from being lowered more than necessary.

  The determination between the exhaust heat utilization operation and the normal operation illustrated in FIG. 8 may be performed not only when the heating operation is requested, but also periodically, for example, about every hour during the heating operation. By performing regularly, the air conditioning system can be optimally operated following the change in the outside air temperature or the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 even during the heating operation.

  Further, in the flowchart shown in Table 2 and FIG. 8, the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 and the outside air temperature are compared, and it is determined whether the exhaust heat utilization operation or the normal operation is performed based on the comparison result. It is not limited to. For example, the change of the outside air temperature in the place or area where the heat exchanger is installed in advance is grasped, and a fixed set temperature is set as the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 when the air-cooled heat exchanger 7 and the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 are switched. It may be used. For example, 10 ° C. is stored as a fixed value, and when the water temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 is equal to or lower than the fixed value, the air cooling heat exchanger 7 performs a normal operation of absorbing the heat of evaporation from the outdoor air, and the water in the hot water storage tank 5 When the temperature is higher than a fixed value, operation control may be performed so as to perform an exhaust heat utilization operation that absorbs heat from the heat storage in the hot water storage tank 5 via the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8. By using a fixed set value, the outside temperature sensor is not necessary, and the cost can be reduced.

  Further, the temperature of the water below the hot water storage tank 5 is periodically detected, and when the temperature of the hot water is equal to or lower than a preset temperature, the flow path is forcibly switched to the air-cooled heat exchanger 7. Also good. That is, when the temperature of the hot water drops to some extent, the heating operation of the air conditioning system is controlled to the normal operation so that the refrigerant is evaporated by the outdoor air. By controlling in this way, it is possible to prevent the temperature of the hot water in the hot water storage tank 5 from being lowered more than necessary, and to prevent the influence on the hot water supply load, floor heating load, and the like. For example, in the processing step of FIG. 8, after the tank water temperature is detected (ST11), when the tank water temperature is lower than a preset minimum temperature, for example, about 5 ° C., the air-cooling heat exchanger 7 is connected to the refrigerant circuit. Then, the normal operation of evaporating the refrigerant with the outdoor air may be performed. This is for operation so that the tank water temperature does not become 5 ° C. or lower, which leads to prevention of tank water freezing.

  As described above, the hot water storage tank 5 that stores the exhaust heat of the fuel cell main bodies 1, 2, and 3, and the air that is disposed outside the room and circulates the refrigerant to perform air conditioning indoors and exchanges heat between the outdoor air and the refrigerant The cooling heat exchanger 7, the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 that is arranged outdoors and exchanges heat between the water in the hot water storage tank 5 and the refrigerant, the air cooling heat exchanger 7, and the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 are used as a refrigerant circuit. By providing the flow path switching valves 9a and 9b that allow connection switching, the exhaust heat from the fuel cell system and the exhaust heat from the cooling load of the air conditioning system can be used for indoor heating and hot water supply. By doing so, an efficient coordination system including air conditioning in addition to power generation and hot water supply can be obtained, and the energy efficiency of the entire system can be greatly improved. In particular, it is not necessary to change the configuration of the indoor unit 13 of the air conditioning system. Further, a hot water storage step for storing the exhaust heat of the fuel cell system in the water in the hot water storage tank 5, a water temperature detection step for detecting the temperature of the water in the hot water storage tank 5, and the temperature of the water in the hot water storage tank 5 in the cooling operation of the air conditioning system When the temperature of the hot water storage tank 5 is lower than the outside air temperature, the cooling heat storage step for storing the heat of condensation in the hot water storage tank 5 and when the temperature of the water in the hot water storage tank 5 is higher than the outside air temperature in the heating operation of the air conditioning system. By operating with a heating exhaust heat utilization step to be taken out, an efficient coordinating system operation method including air conditioning in addition to power generation and hot water supply can be obtained, greatly improving the energy efficiency of the entire system be able to. Further, since the compressor 6 and the blower in the air conditioning system are driven by electricity generated by the fuel cell system, an efficient coordination system including air conditioning in addition to power generation and hot water supply can be obtained.

Next, the vertical position of the pipe connected to the hot water storage tank 5 is shown in FIG. Since the hot water storage tank 5 is used as a heat storage buffer, pipes for taking out hot water according to user requirements, such as pipes used for hot water supply and pipes used for floor heating, are connected. In addition, as piping for circulating water in the hot water storage tank 5 for storing heat, the air conditioning side piping S1 and S2 connected to the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 of the air conditioning system, and the stacked heat exchanger 3 of the fuel cell system Are connected to the fuel cell side pipes S3 and S4.
The pipe S3 connected from the lower part of the hot water storage tank 5 is connected to the stacked heat exchanger 3 for recovering the thermal energy generated in the fuel cell stack 2 via the pump 4a, and the connection pipe S4 returning to the hot water storage tank 5 is The hot water storage tank 5 is connected around the center in the height direction. Further, the pipe connecting the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 connects one pipe S <b> 2 to the central portion of the hot water storage tank 5 and connects the other pipe S <b> 1 to the lower part of the hot water storage tank 5. The arrow shown in FIG. 10 indicates the flow direction of the tank water, but the solid line arrow of the flow direction to the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 of the air conditioning system is when the air conditioning system is performing the cooling operation. In the case of heating operation, it is circulated in the direction of the dotted arrow.

Here, the hot water from the stacked heat exchanger 3 that recovers the thermal energy generated in the fuel cell stack 2 is, for example, about 60 ° C. to 90 ° C., and the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 in the cooling operation of the air conditioning system. Since it is expected that the hot water from the heat recovery in the stacked heat exchanger 3 will be higher, such as about 40 ° C. to 80 ° C. when CO 2 is used as the refrigerant, The connection pipe S4 returning from the mold heat exchanger 3 to the hot water storage tank 5 is provided at a position higher than the connection pipe S2 returning from the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 to the hot water storage tank 5. Furthermore, the intake pipe for hot water supply from the hot water storage tank 5 is installed in the upper part of the hot water storage tank 5 so as to supply hot hot water.

In this way, the connection position S4 of the pipe that flows into the hot water storage tank 5 from the stacked heat exchanger 3 that has recovered the exhaust heat of the fuel cell main body is connected to the pipe that flows into the hot water storage tank 5 from the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 in the cooling operation. Accordingly, the temperature distribution in the hot water storage tank 5 is maintained at a high temperature above the hot water storage tank 5 and at a low temperature below the hot water storage tank 5. If the temperature in the hot water storage tank 5 is made uniform, a large amount of energy is required to obtain a high temperature. However, by providing a temperature distribution, the energy required to obtain a high temperature can be reduced.
Of course, the condensing temperature differs depending on the refrigerant used in the air conditioning system, and the operating temperature differs depending on the type of fuel cell. Therefore, the connection position S4 of the fuel cell side piping flowing into the hot water storage tank 5 from the fuel cell main bodies 1, 2, 3 What is necessary is just to provide the one where the temperature of the water which flows in into the hot water storage tank 5 is higher above the connection position S2 of the air conditioning side piping which flows into the hot water storage tank 5 from the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 in the cooling operation.

  Further, in the connection pipe between the hot water storage tank 5 and the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8, the exhaust heat utilization heat is set at the connection position S2 of the pipe through which water flows from the hot water storage tank 5 to the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 in the heating operation. When connected above the connection position S1 of the pipe through which the water returning from the exchanger 8 flows, the intermediate temperature water of the hot water storage tank 5 is used as the heat of evaporation by the exhaust heat use heat exchanger 8 and the temperature drops. The temperature is lowered and returned to the lower side of the hot water storage tank 5. On the other hand, in the cooling operation, conversely, the connection position S1 of the pipe for flowing water from the hot water storage tank 5 to the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 is lower than the connection position S2 of the pipe for flowing water returning from the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8. Is connected, the low temperature water in the hot water storage tank 5 rises to an intermediate temperature due to the heat of condensation by the cooling operation in the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 and is returned to the intermediate temperature part of the hot water storage tank 5. For this reason, the temperature distribution in the hot water storage tank 5 is maintained.

As described above, the outlet and inlet of the water in the hot water storage tank 5 are not provided at the same height, but the connection position of the connection pipe is changed in the vertical direction according to the temperature flowing into or out of the hot water tank 5. If the temperature distribution is positively imparted to the hot water in the hot water storage tank 5 by attaching the hot water, hot water with high energy can be obtained above the hot water storage tank 5.
Further, if hot water having a temperature corresponding to the purpose of use is taken out and used, the entire hot water supply system can be operated more smoothly and efficiently. For example, if it is about 50 ° C when used for floor heating, about 20 ° C for heating air conditioning, and about 40 ° C for hot water supply when taking a bath, useless energy can be saved by changing the portion from which hot water is taken up and down. A system without loss is obtained.

For example, if the pump 4b can be circulated in both directions, the outlet and the inlet are separated by reverse rotation of the pump 4a or the like depending on whether the air conditioning system performs heating operation or cooling operation. Conversely, the water circulation channel can be reversed.
Further, in the case where the pump 4b can be driven to circulate only in one direction, as shown in FIG. 11, four on-off valves (a, b, c, d) can be provided around the pump 4b to reverse the circulation. In the cooling operation, when the pipe connection ports S1 and S2 are connected to the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 of the hot water storage tank 5, the pump 4b is circulated in the direction of the arrow in the circle.
In the cooling operation, the on-off valves a and d are closed and the on-off valves b and c are opened. When the pump 4b is moved in this state, it flows as indicated by solid line arrows S1->b->4b->c-> S2. In the heating operation, the on-off valves b and c are closed and the on-off valves a and d are opened. When the pump 4b is moved in this state, the flow flows as indicated by dotted arrows in S2->d->4b->a-> S1.

By comprising in this way, the efficiency as a coordination system can be made high without impairing the temperature distribution of the hot water storage tank 5, and it is efficient from the viewpoint of the whole cogeneration system, such as hot water supply and air conditioning, and also floor heating. In addition, a user-friendly system can be constructed.
Further, when controlling the operation of this cogeneration system, detecting the temperature of the water in the hot water storage tank 5 is a major factor. Here, since temperature distribution occurs in the hot water storage tank 5, a temperature sensor 17 for detecting the temperature of the water in the hot water storage tank 5 is provided below, and the temperature of the water below the hot water storage tank 5 is detected. . Thereby, the temperature of the water in the hot water storage tank 5 can be detected almost accurately. If this detected temperature is used for operation control of a cogeneration system, more accurate operation control can be performed.

  In FIG. 1, devices constituting an outdoor unit of a conventional air conditioning system, for example, a compressor 6, a pressure reducing device 10, an air-cooling heat exchanger 7, a four-way valve 11, and a pipe connecting them are incorporated in the fuel cell system. It is installed in. In particular, the cogeneration system outdoor unit 18 is configured by arranging the compressor 6, the air-cooled heat exchanger 7 and the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 that require a relatively large installation space in the air conditioning system in the vicinity of the fuel cell main body. ing. For this reason, the installation space required outside is the space for the cogeneration system outdoor unit 18 in which the fuel cell main body and the outdoor unit of the air conditioning system are integrated, and the hot water storage tank container 19. No installation space is required. For this reason, even a cogeneration system incorporating an air conditioning system can be reduced in size without taking up a large installation space. In addition to this, the piping of the indoor unit 13 of the air conditioning system and the cogeneration system outdoor unit 18 is two refrigerant pipings, which can increase the size of the indoor unit 13 without complicating the conventional apparatus configuration. There is no cogeneration system. Furthermore, the installation work can be prevented from becoming complicated.

  Further, in the configuration shown in FIG. 1, an auxiliary heat exchanger 15 that dissipates the exhaust heat from the fuel cell main body to the outdoor air and an air-cooling heat exchanger 7 are arranged in the vicinity, and the outdoor air is supplemented with a single blower 12. It is set as the structure which ventilates to the exchanger 15 and the air cooling heat exchanger 7. FIG. That is, the auxiliary heat exchanger 15 and the air-cooling heat exchanger 7 can be provided as a single fan, so that effective use of space and cost reduction can be achieved.

In addition, equipment that constitutes an outdoor unit of a conventional air conditioning system, for example, a compressor 6, a pressure reducing device 10, an air-cooling heat exchanger 7, an exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8, a four-way valve 11, and piping connecting them are hot water storage. You may arrange | position in the vicinity of the tank 5. FIG. An outline of the arrangement in this case is shown in the configuration example of FIG. The fuel cell stack 2, the heat exchanger 3, the auxiliary heat exchanger 15, and the main devices constituting the fuel cell system are housed in a casing for the fuel cell system to form a cogeneration system outdoor unit 20, and the compressor 6, Parts constituting the air conditioning system such as the air-cooled heat exchanger 7 and the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 are stored in the vicinity of the hot water storage tank 5, that is, in a similar housing, and used as the hot water storage tank container 21. If arrange | positioned in this way, refrigerant | coolant piping will be needed between the hot water storage tank container 21 and the indoor unit 13 of an air conditioning system, but between the indoor unit 13 and the cogeneration system outdoor unit 20, and the cogeneration system outdoor unit 20 and The refrigerant piping between the hot water storage tank container 21 is not necessary. For this reason, piping is simplified, and the cogeneration system which does not enlarge the indoor unit 13 without complicating the conventional apparatus structure is obtained. Furthermore, the installation work can be prevented from becoming complicated. However, in this case, the auxiliary heat exchanger 15 and the air-cooling heat exchanger 7 cannot be arranged in the vicinity, so a blower for the air-cooling heat exchanger 7 is required for the hot water storage tank container 21.
Further, only the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 among the outdoor devices constituting the air conditioning system may be stored in the hot water storage tank container in the vicinity of the hot water storage tank 5. In this case, when the air-cooling heat exchanger 7 is disposed in the vicinity of the fuel cell main body, the air-cooling heat exchanger 7 and the auxiliary heat exchanger 15 can serve as a blower as described above.

Since the air conditioning system is connected by refrigerant piping and the water storage tank 5 is connected by water piping, the exhaust heat heat exchanger 8 for exchanging heat between the refrigerant and water is used as either the hot water storage tank 5 or the equipment constituting the air conditioning system. Are also preferred. Therefore, if the fuel cell main body and the hot water storage tank are integrally formed, one device may be installed outside the room. By arranging all the devices in the vicinity of each other, the distance between the refrigerant pipe and the water pipe can be shortened to reduce the loss, and a cogeneration system with high energy efficiency can be obtained.
However, storing the fuel cell main body and the hot water storage tank 5 in a single container increases the size of the fuel cell main body and the hot water storage tank 5, and a relatively large installation location is required even when installing in a house that has already been built.

As the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8 described in the present embodiment, for example, a stacked heat exchanger in which plates are stacked can be used. Since this stacked heat exchanger is small and has high heat exchange efficiency, the entire system can be configured compactly. In addition, when a double pipe heat exchanger configured with double pipes is used as the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger 8, it is possible to reduce the cost. Furthermore, a shell and tube type heat exchanger may be used. Any shape may be used as long as heat can be exchanged between the water and the refrigerant.
Further, the exhaust heat from the fuel cell system body has been described as hot water generated at the oxygen electrode and discharged from 80 ° C. to 100 ° C. However, when there is exhaust heat from the reformed portion of the fuel, If the exhaust heat is also stored in the hot water storage tank 5, energy can be used more effectively.

In the present embodiment, carbon dioxide is used as the refrigerant, but the present invention is not limited to this. For example, HFC410A and HFC32, which are fluorocarbon refrigerants, isobutane, which is a natural refrigerant, and propane may be used.
In addition, although the solid polymer fuel cell is used as the fuel cell to be incorporated into the cogeneration system, other types of fuel cells such as a phosphoric acid fuel cell may be incorporated.

Next, an example of a method for operating the fuel cell system mainly of the cogeneration system according to the present embodiment will be described. Here, the maximum power generation amount of the fuel cell incorporated in the cogeneration system is 1000 Wh, and an operation method suitable for the season is performed for each season.
As operation modes, for example, four operation modes of operation stop, system full operation, hot water supply load compatible operation, and electric power load compatible operation are provided. The operation stop is a mode for stopping the operation of the fuel cell system, and the system full operation is a maximum output operation for controlling the operation of the fuel cell system at the maximum output. The hot water supply load compatible operation is an operation mode for controlling the fuel cell system so that the amount of hot water stored by exhaust heat from the fuel cell system and the air conditioning system matches the daily hot water supply load. This is an operation mode in which operation control is performed so that the power generation amount of the fuel cell system matches the daily power load. Then, the hot water supply load, power load, heating load, and cooling load at the place of use are calculated for the rough season, and any one is selected and operated according to the calculation results.

  Actually, it is difficult to control the operation so that the hot water supply load and the hot water storage amount, and the electric power load and the power generation amount are exactly the same. For this reason, for example, when the hot water supply load is larger than the amount of stored hot water obtained by operating this system, the amount of deficiency using the exhaust heat of the cogeneration system is not shown, but other energy such as A heating device for heating the water in the hot water storage tank 5 with gas or electricity is provided as a spare. Further, when an excessive amount of hot water is generated, the amount of water stored in the hot water storage tank 5 can be stored, but when the temperature of the lower water in the hot water storage tank 5 approaches 100 ° C., no more heat can be stored. The auxiliary heat exchanger 15 radiates heat to the outdoor air. Further, when the power load is larger than the amount of power generated by operating this system, the electronic controller 16 in FIG. 1 purchases commercial power or stores surplus power up to that time, Configure it so that it can be consumed as needed. In addition, when surplus power is generated, a system that stores power or sells power to the outside such as an electric power company may be used.

  FIG. 12 is a graph showing the standard power load, air conditioning (cooling because it is summer) load, and hot water supply load for each time when a family of four lives in a detached house in Tokyo in the summer, for example. The vertical axis in FIG. 12 indicates the power load, the air conditioning (cooling) load, and the hot water supply load (Wh), and the horizontal axis indicates 24 hours from 0:00 to 24:00. In the figure, black ◇ marks indicate power loads, black Δ marks indicate cooling loads, and black squares indicate hot water supply loads. In summer, the hot water supply load is relatively small, and the power load due to air conditioning tends to increase during the daytime. The electric power load shown here includes electric power necessary for the cooling operation of the air conditioning system.

  FIG. 13 is a graph showing the operating state of the fuel cell system in accordance with the load as shown in FIG. This was obtained as a result of operating the fuel cell system and the air conditioning system most efficiently by simulation and effectively using energy. The vertical axis in FIG. 13 indicates the power generation amount, the cooling exhaust heat utilization amount, and the hot water storage amount (Wh), and the horizontal axis indicates 24 hours from 0:00 to 24:00. In the figure, black ◇ indicates power generation, black △ indicates cooling exhaust heat utilization, and black □ indicates hot water storage. The amount of hot water stored here indicates the amount of heat stored by exhaust heat from the fuel cell system and the amount of heat stored by cooling exhaust heat.

  The fuel cell system is stopped from night to about 1 o'clock, and the hot water supply load and power load necessary during this period are those accumulated on the previous day. When the cooling operation of the air conditioning system is performed while the fuel cell system is stopped, the hot water is stored in the hot water storage tank 5 by the exhaust heat from the cooling as seen at 7:00 and 8:00. Then, the operation of the fuel cell system is started from noon, power is generated and power is supplied to the power load, and hot water is stored in the hot water storage tank. In the evening, when the air conditioning load is large from 17:00 to 21:00, the system is fully operated, and the exhaust heat generated by the power generation is stored in the hot water storage tank 5, and the exhaust air from the cooling operation is also stored by operating the air conditioning system.

  Thus, summer is a time when there is a large cooling load, and the fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present embodiment performs a hot water supply load corresponding operation so as to satisfy, for example, a daily hot water supply load. That is, in terms of the total amount per day, a power generation amount of 8 kWh and a hot water storage amount of 15 kWh are obtained with respect to an electric power load of 15 kWh and a hot water supply load of 15 kWh. That is, the amount of power generation of 7 kWh is insufficient, but in such a case, a commercial power source may be purchased. Here, if the fuel cell system is frequently turned on and off, useless energy is used. Therefore, it is better to control the fuel cell system so that it can be operated continuously. For this reason, the operation of the fuel cell system is stopped from midnight to about 1 o'clock in the daytime, and the operation is performed so that the amount of stored hot water corresponding to the hot water supply load of the day can be obtained only in the afternoon operation. Here, only a part of the power load can be supplied. However, when the power is purchased from the outside, it is economical to use the generated power when the charge is high if the charge is different depending on the time. Moreover, if the power generated at the time of the power peak due to the cooling operation in the afternoon is used, it is possible to avoid a situation where power is insufficient nationwide.

  By operating in this way, the exhaust heat from the daytime cooling operation can be used for the hot water supply load, and further, the fuel cell system can be operated corresponding to the hot water supply load increasing from evening to night. That is, when the fuel cell system is selected for hot water supply load operation when the cooling load is high, the energy utilization efficiency can be greatly improved, and the amount of purchased power can be suppressed at the time of power peak.

  FIG. 14 is a graph showing, for example, standard power load, air conditioning (heating because it is winter) load, and hot water supply load when a family of four lives in a detached house in Tokyo in winter. The vertical axis in FIG. 14 indicates the power load, the air conditioning (heating) load, and the hot water supply load (Wh), and the horizontal axis indicates 24 hours from 0:00 to 24:00. In the figure, black ◇ marks indicate power loads, black Δ marks indicate heating loads, and black squares indicate hot water supply loads. In winter, the hot water supply load is very large, and the air conditioning load is also large. The power load shown here includes power necessary for heating operation of the air conditioning system.

  FIG. 15 is a graph showing the operating state of the fuel cell system according to the load as shown in FIG. This was obtained as a result of operating the fuel cell system and the air conditioning system most efficiently by simulation and effectively using energy. The vertical axis in FIG. 15 represents the power generation amount, the heating assist amount, and the hot water storage amount (Wh), and the horizontal axis represents 24 hours from 0:00 to 24:00. In the figure, black ◇ marks indicate the amount of power generation, black Δ marks indicate the heating assist amount, and black squares indicate the hot water storage amount. The amount of hot water stored here indicates the amount that has already been reduced by the amount of heating assist used as the evaporation heat in the heating operation of the air conditioning system.

In this way, winter is a period when there is a lot of heating load and hot water supply load, and the cogeneration system of this embodiment performs full operation of the fuel cell system that can obtain the maximum output amount for 24 hours, for example, to generate power and store hot water. Do. Hot water storage after reducing the power generation amount 24 kWh and heating assist amount by performing full operation of the fuel cell system for the estimated power load of 16 kWh, the estimated hot water supply load of 22 kWh, and the heating assist of about 10 kWh on this day The amount is 22 kWh. Although the amount of power generated is 8 kWh higher than the power load due to the system full operation, this can be stored or sold to the outside.
As a fuel cell system, exhaust heat can be used effectively, and a cogeneration system without waste can be obtained. As an air conditioning system, by using hot water (heat) in the hot water storage tank 5 in the heating operation of the air conditioning system, the evaporation temperature Can be high. Therefore, the heating capacity can be increased, the COP of the refrigeration cycle of the air conditioning system is improved, and energy saving operation is possible. That is, when the maximum output operation of the fuel cell system is selected at the time when the heating load and the hot water supply load are large, the COP of the refrigeration cycle of the air conditioning system can be improved, and the energy use efficiency can be greatly improved.
In particular, since exhaust heat is not dissipated to the air, the energy that is wasted wasted can be reduced as much as possible, and a cogeneration system suitable for global environmental conservation can be obtained.

  FIG. 16 is a graph showing the standard power load and hot water supply load for each time when a family of four lives in a detached house in Tokyo, for example. The vertical axis in FIG. 16 indicates the power load and the hot water supply load (Wh), and the horizontal axis indicates 24 hours from 0:00 to 24:00. In the figure, black ◇ marks indicate power loads, and black □ marks indicate hot water supply loads. There is almost no air conditioning load during the interim period.

  FIG. 17 is a graph showing the operating state of the fuel cell system in accordance with the load as shown in FIG. This was obtained as a result of operating the fuel cell system and the air conditioning system most efficiently by simulation and effectively using energy. The vertical axis in FIG. 15 represents the power generation amount and the hot water storage amount (Wh), and the horizontal axis represents 24 hours from 0:00 to 24:00. In the figure, the black ◇ marks indicate the amount of power generation, and the black squares indicate the amount of hot water stored.

Thus, the intermediate period such as spring or autumn is a period when the heating load and the cooling load are small, and the cogeneration system of the present embodiment performs, for example, an operation in accordance with the power load to generate and store hot water. By performing the power load operation on the estimated power load of about 10 kWh and the estimated hot water supply load of about 15 kWh on this day, the power generation amount is 11 kWh and the hot water storage amount is 14 kWh. Further, the operation control is performed so that the time change of the power generation amount substantially matches the generation time of the power load. The power generation amount and the hot water storage amount substantially satisfy the electric power load and the hot water supply load, respectively, and hot water is stored in the hot water storage tank 5 when a hot water supply load occurs at 6 o'clock, 12 o'clock, and 18 o'clock, for example. That is, when the heating load and the cooling load are small, selecting the operation corresponding to the power load of the fuel cell system has resulted in a significant improvement in energy use efficiency without wasting power generation and hot water supply.
At this time, the amount of hot water stored in the operation corresponding to the electric power load almost coincides with the hot water supply load, and the exhaust heat generated in the power generation of the cogeneration system can be operated effectively without waste.

  In the above description, it is described that the cogeneration system is operated according to the power load in the intermediate period, but the present invention is not limited to this. The hot water storage load can be covered by the amount of hot water stored during operation according to the electric power load. Conversely, even if the daily hot water storage amount is matched to the daily hot water supply load, the electric power load can be substantially satisfied. Since it is possible, the hot water supply load corresponding operation may be performed. In this case, the fuel cell system may be controlled to operate from a time before a large hot water supply load occurs, for example, around 12:00 noon. It is preferable to set so that the switching of the operation / stop of the fuel cell system is reduced. In this case, even when a hot water supply load or an electric power load is generated when the fuel cell system is not operated, the hot water storage tank 5 may use the hot water or electric power stored in the hot water storage battery and stored in the storage battery.

Thus, calculation steps for calculating the hot water supply load, power load, heating load, and cooling load at the place of use, and depending on the calculation results, maximum output operation, hot water supply load compatible operation, and power load compatible operation, By performing any of the above operations (operation steps), it is possible to efficiently realize power generation, hot water supply, and air conditioning, reduce annual energy consumption, and obtain a cogeneration system operation method suitable for global environmental conservation. It is done.
Further, when the heating load and hot water supply load are high, the maximum output operation of the fuel cell system is selected, and when the cooling load is high, the operation corresponding to the hot water supply load of the fuel cell system is selected. When the heating load and cooling load are low By selecting the operation corresponding to the power load of the fuel cell system (selection step), it is possible to avoid exhausting the exhaust heat to the air as much as possible, especially in the summer, winter, and intermediate period, and it is wasted. A method of operating a cogeneration system that can reduce energy is obtained. By this operation method, power generation, hot water supply, and air conditioning can be efficiently realized, the annual energy consumption can be reduced, and a cogeneration system suitable for global environmental conservation can be obtained.
In addition, the operation method shown above is an example, and the operation method that is particularly efficient in the simulation is described with a water supply temperature of about 15 ° C., and other operation methods may be used.

  When this cogeneration system is used in a place or condition that does not correspond to the normal seasonal pattern, the operation mode of this system can be set throughout the year by the method shown in the flowchart of FIG. it can.

  Suppose that the maximum power generation amount and maximum hot water storage amount of the cogeneration system to be installed are appropriately sized so as to satisfy the maximum required amount of power load, hot water supply load, and air conditioning load at the installation location. .

First, the daily hot water supply load is estimated as Fk (ST21), the daily power load is estimated as Fe (ST22), and the heating load in the daily air conditioning system is estimated as Fd (ST23). The daily cooling load is estimated as Fr (ST24). These estimates may be obtained for the same period last year and the average for the previous and next month may be calculated, or the same period data for the past several years may be obtained and the average calculated. Alternatively, data for the past several days may be recorded and the average calculated. Further, each load may be stored and used as a pattern for each time, or the operation may be controlled only by the total value of the load amount required for one day. When the air conditioning system is not operated, Fd = 0 and Fr = 0. When the heating operation is not performed, Fd = 0. When the cooling operation is not performed, Fr = 0.
Here, for example, it is assumed that there is no extreme change from the previous day in each load, the total amount of each load on the previous day is stored, and operation control is performed as today's target power generation amount and target hot water storage amount.

  The hot water supply load Fk obtained in ST21 is the amount used as hot water in a bath, kitchen, etc., and the hot water storage tank 5 stores hot water due to exhaust heat in the cooling operation when the air conditioning system is operated, that is, a negative hot water supply load (-Fr). , And a positive hot water supply load (+ Fd) is generated due to the heating assist in the heating operation. Therefore, in step ST25, the daily hot water supply load is recalculated based on the heating load or the cooling load. That is, Fka = Fk + Fd−Fr is calculated, and the hot water supply load is corrected to Fka.

  Next, in ST26, as an operation method of the entire cogeneration system, it is determined whether importance is placed on hot water supply or power feeding. In the case of emphasizing hot water supply, the operation is such that the hot water supply load Fka is satisfied with the amount of hot water stored in the exhaust heat of the fuel cell system in one day. That is, the amount of hot water obtained when the fuel cell system is operated at the maximum output in ST27 and the hot water supply load (Fka + α) are compared. Run the system at maximum power operation. At this time, even if the fuel cell system is operated at the maximum output, the hot water supply load may not be satisfied, and the water in the hot water storage tank 5 needs to be heated by an auxiliary heating means.

  If it is determined in ST27 that the amount of stored hot water obtained by the maximum output operation is larger than the hot water supply load (Fka + α), the fuel cell system is operated in a hot water supply load compatible operation in ST30. In the case of emphasizing hot water supply, the daily hot water supply load (Fka + α) can be obtained almost equally, and the exhaust heat can be effectively used without wastefully exhausting the exhaust heat from the fuel cell system. A method is obtained. Here, α in ST27 is an amount for giving a margin to the amount of stored hot water, and is about 100 Wh, for example.

  In ST26, as the operation method of the entire cogeneration system, when power feeding is important, the operation is such that the power load Fe is satisfied with the amount of power generated by the fuel cell system in one day. That is, the power supply amount obtained when the fuel cell system is operated at the maximum output in ST28 and the power load (Fe + β) are compared. When the power generation amount obtained at the maximum output operation is less than the power load (Fe + β), the fuel cell is processed at ST29. Run the system at maximum power operation. At this time, even if the fuel cell system is operated at the maximum output, the power load may not be satisfied, and it is necessary to purchase power from the outside or to use the power when it is stored in the storage battery.

  If the power generation amount obtained by the maximum output operation is larger than the power load (Fe + β) as determined in ST28, the fuel cell system is operated in the power load corresponding operation in ST31. As a result, the daily power load (Fe + β) can be obtained approximately equal, and an operation method that can be used effectively without wastefully discarding the power generated by the fuel cell system is obtained. Here, β in ST28 is an amount for giving a margin to the amount of power generation, for example, about 100 Wh. When the amount of power generation is greater than the power load, it can be stored in a storage battery or sold to the outside of an electric power company, etc., which is not wasteful at all, but when the price at the time of power sale is low This power supply emphasis is effective.

In the above description, in the hot water supply load operation, the fuel cell system is operated and controlled so that the amount of hot water stored by the exhaust heat of the fuel cell system and the air conditioning system matches the daily hot water supply load. The hot water supply load may be stored, and the fuel cell system may be controlled to store hot water, for example, several hours before the hot water supply load for each hour.
Similarly, in the operation corresponding to the power load, the power generation amount of the fuel cell system is controlled so as to match the power load of the day. However, the power load necessary for every hour of the day is stored, and the power load for each hour. For example, the fuel cell system may be operated and controlled to generate power several hours before that.
In particular, when the fuel cell system is operated and controlled so as to generate power several hours before the power load corresponding to the hourly power load operation, the power load changes more slowly than the hot water supply load, Operation control of the output amount can be performed so that the time changes smoothly, and power can be supplied with good timing when necessary.

  As described above, the calculation step for calculating the hot water supply load, the power load, the heating load, and the cooling load at the use place, and the maximum output operation for controlling the operation of the fuel cell system at the maximum output according to these calculation results, The hot water load operation for controlling the fuel cell system so that the amount of hot water stored by the exhaust heat of the fuel cell system and air conditioning system matches the daily hot water load, and the power generation amount of the fuel cell system to match the daily power load Power generation, hot water supply, and air conditioning can be efficiently realized by using a cogeneration operation method that includes an operation step that selects and operates in accordance with an electric power load operation that performs operation control at a time. Can be reduced.

  Of course, for example, the operation corresponding to the electric power load and the hot water supply load is simulated, and the operation is selected by another method such as correcting the operation so as to reduce useless energy or selecting the operation method while correcting the operation so as to reduce the cost. A method may be determined.

  In the embodiment, the fuel cell is used for the cogeneration system. However, the same effect can be obtained by a system using a gas engine.

  Moreover, in the said embodiment, it heat-stores by raising the temperature of the water in the hot water storage tank 5, and it utilizes for hot water supply, However, You may comprise so that it may heat-store in a thermal storage material instead of water. If the stored exhaust heat is used for hot water supply, it is most convenient to store heat with hot water, but the maximum amount of heat storage is determined by the size of the hot water storage tank 5. Once this maximum amount is stored, it can only be released into the air, but if it is configured to store heat in a heat storage material such as calcium chloride hydrate, sodium sulfate hydrate, sodium thiosulfate, sodium acetate, paraffin, etc. It is also possible to store the exhaust heat.

As described above, in the cogeneration system including the fuel cell main body and the hot water storage tank 5, the compressor, the four-way valve, the flow path switching valve, the refrigerant air heat exchanger, the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger, and the expansion device are Because it is installed in the fuel cell main body or hot water storage tank, it can realize power generation, hot water supply and air conditioning, reduce annual energy consumption, and cogeneration system that does not require the installation space for air conditioning outdoor units that were required in the past Is obtained.
Further, in the cogeneration system, since the heat exchanger for heat radiation is switched by the flow path switching valve so as to store the condensed heat during cooling operation in the hot water storage tank, the heat in the room to be cooled is supplied to the hot water supply. A cogeneration system can be obtained that can be used, greatly improves energy efficiency, and does not unnecessarily increase the energy of cooling operation in the air conditioning system.
In the cogeneration system, since the pipe from the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger is connected to the lower part of the hot water storage tank, a cogeneration system that can store hot hot water at the upper part of the hot water storage tank with less energy can be obtained.
Moreover, in the said cogeneration system, the cogeneration system which can improve the heat exchange efficiency in a waste heat utilization heat exchanger is obtained by using the waste heat utilization heat exchanger as a laminated heat exchanger.
In addition, in the cogeneration system, a cogeneration system that can detect the temperature of water in the hot water storage tank almost accurately can be obtained by installing the temperature detection means in the hot water tank from the bottom to the bottom.
In the cogeneration system, the heat exchanger for heat absorption is switched by the flow path switching valve so that the heat of evaporation during heating operation uses the heat in the hot water storage tank, so that the capacity of heating can be increased. A generation system is obtained.
In the cogeneration system, the fuel cell operation method is controlled to perform full power continuous operation, operation in accordance with the hot water supply load, and operation in accordance with the electric power load according to the annual schedule. A cogeneration system that greatly improves
In the cogeneration system, the fuel cell operation method is controlled to perform full power continuous operation, operation in accordance with the hot water supply load, and operation in accordance with the electric power load according to the outside air temperature. Correspondingly, a fuel cell system can be operated, and a cogeneration system can be obtained in which energy use efficiency is greatly improved.

It is a schematic block diagram which shows the cogeneration system which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention. It is a refrigerant circuit diagram which shows the air-conditioning system part of the air_conditionaing | cooling operation which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention. It is a refrigerant circuit diagram which shows the air-conditioning system part of the air_conditionaing | cooling operation which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention. It is a flowchart which shows the operation | movement of the air_conditionaing | cooling operation of the air conditioning system which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention. It is operation | movement explanatory drawing of the cooling operation of the air conditioning system which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention. It is a refrigerant circuit diagram which shows the air-conditioning system part of the heating operation which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention. It is a refrigerant circuit diagram which shows the air-conditioning system part of the heating operation which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention. It is a flowchart which shows the operation | movement of the heating operation of the air conditioning system which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention. It is operation | movement explanatory drawing of the heating operation of the air conditioning system which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention. It is explanatory drawing which shows the connection piping of the hot water storage tank which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention, and its vicinity. It is explanatory drawing which shows the connection piping of the hot water storage tank which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention. It is a graph which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention and shows the change of the electric power load of summer, cooling load, and hot water supply load with respect to the time of one day. It is a graph which shows the change of the electric power generation amount of the summer, the cooling heat utilization amount, and the amount of stored hot water with respect to the time of the day concerning Embodiment 1 of this invention. It is a graph which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention and shows the change of the electric power load of winter, the heating load, and the hot water supply load with respect to the time of one day. It is a graph which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention and shows the change of the electric power generation amount of winter, the heating assist amount, and the amount of hot water storage with respect to the time of one day. It is a graph which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention and shows the change of the electric power load and hot water supply load of the intermediate | middle period with respect to the time of one day. It is a graph which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention and shows the change of the electric power generation amount and hot water storage amount of the intermediate | middle period with respect to the time of one day. It is a flowchart which shows the process which concerns on Embodiment 1 of this invention and sets the operation mode of this system throughout a year.

Explanation of symbols

  DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Fuel processing part, 2 Fuel cell stack, 3 Heat exchanger, 4a, 4b pump, 5 Hot water storage tank, 6 Compressor, 7 Air-cooled heat exchanger, 8 Waste heat utilization heat exchanger, 9a, 9b Channel switching means, DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 Throttle device, 11 Four-way valve, 12 Outdoor fan, 13 Indoor unit, 14 Electric power control part, 15 Auxiliary heat exchanger, 16 Electric power controller, 17 Temperature detection means.

Claims (1)

  1. A fuel cell system having a fuel cell body and generating electric power from the supplied fuel ;
    A hot water storage tank for storing hot water ;
    A temperature sensor that detects the temperature of the water in the hot water storage tank;
    An outside temperature sensor that detects the temperature of the outside air,
    An air conditioning system having a refrigerant circuit that circulates refrigerant including a compressor, a throttle device, and an indoor unit heat exchanger, and a cogeneration system operation method comprising:
    The fuel cell system is
    The heat exchange between the heat energy generated in the fuel cell stack, which is a power generation unit of the fuel cell main body, and the water in the hot water storage tank, and a heat exchanger that stores the heat energy in the water in the hot water storage tank,
    The air conditioning system is
    An air-cooled heat exchanger that performs heat exchange between the refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant circuit and outdoor air;
    An exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger that exchanges heat between the water in the hot water tank circulated by a pump and the refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant circuit;
    A flow path switching valve that enables connection switching of the refrigerant circuit to either the air-cooled heat exchanger or the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger,
    A hot water heat storage step for storing the exhaust heat from the fuel cell main body in the water in the hot water storage tank by the heat exchanger ;
    A water temperature detecting step of detecting the temperature of the water in the hot water storage tank by the temperature sensor ;
    An outside air temperature detecting step for detecting the outside air temperature by the outside air temperature sensor;
    A comparison step of comparing the temperature of the water detected in the water temperature detection step with the outside air temperature detected in the outside air temperature detection step,
    When the air conditioning system is in cooling operation ,
    In the comparison step, when it is determined that the temperature of the water is lower than the outside air temperature and the fuel cell system is stopped, the refrigerant circuit is used for the exhaust heat utilization by the flow path switching valve. The refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant circuit is condensed by dissipating heat to the water in the hot water storage tank by connecting to the heat exchanger, and the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger condenses the heat of condensation of the refrigerant in the water in the hot water storage tank. Cooling heat storage step to perform,
    In the comparison step, when the temperature of the water is determined to be equal to or higher than the outside air temperature, and when the temperature of the water is determined to be lower than the outside air temperature, and the fuel cell system is operating, The refrigerant circuit is connected to the air-cooled heat exchanger by the flow path switching valve, and the refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant circuit is condensed by dissipating heat to the outdoor air by the air-cooled heat exchanger, and the heat of condensation of the refrigerant is reduced. A normal operation step for radiating heat to outdoor air,
    When the air conditioning system is in heating operation ,
    When it is determined in the comparison step that the temperature of the water is higher than the outside air temperature, the refrigerant circuit is connected to the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger by the flow path switching valve, and the water in the hot water storage tank is Heating exhaust heat utilization step of evaporating the refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant circuit by taking heat from the water in the hot water storage tank in the exhaust heat utilization heat exchanger using the heat energy stored in
    If it is determined in the comparison step that the temperature of the water is equal to or lower than the outside air temperature, the refrigerant circuit is connected to the air-cooled heat exchanger by the flow path switching valve, and the outdoor air is cooled by the air-cooled heat exchanger. And a normal operation step of evaporating the refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant circuit by absorbing heat of evaporation from the air .
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JP5406664B2 (en) * 2009-10-27 2014-02-05 大阪瓦斯株式会社 Fuel cell power generation system
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