JP4731269B2 - Polarizing element, liquid crystal panel, and liquid crystal display device - Google Patents

Polarizing element, liquid crystal panel, and liquid crystal display device Download PDF

Info

Publication number
JP4731269B2
JP4731269B2 JP2005293808A JP2005293808A JP4731269B2 JP 4731269 B2 JP4731269 B2 JP 4731269B2 JP 2005293808 A JP2005293808 A JP 2005293808A JP 2005293808 A JP2005293808 A JP 2005293808A JP 4731269 B2 JP4731269 B2 JP 4731269B2
Authority
JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
optical element
liquid crystal
film
preferably
nm
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
JP2005293808A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Other versions
JP2007102016A (en
Inventor
伸一 佐々木
龍男 内田
政毅 林
隆宏 石鍋
一広 若生
Original Assignee
国立大学法人東北大学
日東電工株式会社
財団法人21あおもり産業総合支援センター
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by 国立大学法人東北大学, 日東電工株式会社, 財団法人21あおもり産業総合支援センター filed Critical 国立大学法人東北大学
Priority to JP2005293808A priority Critical patent/JP4731269B2/en
Publication of JP2007102016A publication Critical patent/JP2007102016A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of JP4731269B2 publication Critical patent/JP4731269B2/en
Application status is Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Description

  The present invention relates to a polarizing element having an optical element and a polarizer, and a liquid crystal panel and a liquid crystal display device using the polarizing element.

A liquid crystal display device including an OCB mode liquid crystal cell has a high-speed response characteristic as compared with a conventional TN mode liquid crystal display device, and is expected to be a CRT alternative in the future. However, in a liquid crystal display device including an OCB mode liquid crystal cell, the contrast ratio decreases in the front direction and the oblique direction, and coloration of the image that changes with the viewing angle (also referred to as an oblique color shift) occurs. It is a problem that display characteristics are deteriorated. Therefore, in order to improve these display characteristics, a polarizer and a λ / 4 plate are provided on both surfaces of the liquid crystal cell so that the absorption axis of the polarizer and the slow axis of the λ / 4 plate are 45 °. A method of increasing the contrast by arranging stacked circularly polarizing plates has been proposed (see, for example, Patent Document 1). However, with such a technique, the contrast ratio in the front direction is improved, but the contrast ratio in the oblique direction and the color shift amount are not sufficiently improved.
JP 2003-107477 A

  The present invention has been made to solve the above-described conventional problems, and an object of the present invention is to provide a polarizing element that can realize a liquid crystal display device having a high contrast ratio in all directions and a small color shift amount in an oblique direction. Is to provide.

  As a result of intensive studies to solve the above problems, the present inventors have conventionally arranged a polarizing element in which a plurality of optical elements having a specific retardation value are stacked on a polarizer on at least one side of a liquid crystal cell. The present inventors have found that it is possible to provide a liquid crystal display device having a high contrast ratio in all directions and a small amount of color shift in an oblique direction as compared with those using the polarizing element.

The polarizing element of the present invention includes a polarizer, a first optical element satisfying the following formulas (1) and (2), a second optical element satisfying the following formulas (3) and (4), and the following formula ( A third optical element satisfying 5) and (6) is provided in this order:
200 nm ≦ Re [590] ≦ 350 nm (1)
Re [590]> Rth [590] (2)
70 nm ≦ Re [590] ≦ 210 nm (3)
Re [590]> Rth [590] (4)
Re [590]> 0 nm (5)
Re [590] <Rth [590] (6)
[However, Re [590] and Rth [590] are the retardation value in the film plane and the retardation value in the thickness direction, respectively, measured with light having a wavelength of 590 nm at 23 ° C. ]

  In a preferred embodiment, the ratio of the retardation value in the film plane of the first optical element to the retardation value in the thickness direction (Rth [590] / Re [590]) is 0.20 to 0.80.

  In a preferred embodiment, the slow axis of the first optical element and the absorption axis of the polarizer are arranged so as to be substantially parallel or orthogonal.

  In a preferred embodiment, the first optical element is composed of a single retardation film.

  In a preferred embodiment, the ratio of the retardation value in the film plane of the second optical element to the retardation value in the thickness direction (Rth [590] / Re [590]) is 0.20 to 0.80.

  In a preferred embodiment, the second optical element is composed of a single retardation film, and the angle formed between the slow axis of the retardation film and the absorption axis of the polarizer is 45 ± 2.0 °. It is arranged to become.

In another embodiment, the second optical element is composed of a laminate of a first retardation film and a second retardation film, the slow axis of the first retardation film and the polarizer. Where α is the angle between the absorption axis and β is the angle between the slow axis of the second retardation film and the absorption axis of the polarizer, α and β have the relationship of the following formula (7): Satisfied:
2α + 40 ° <β <2α + 50 ° (7).

  In a preferred embodiment, the angle α is 15 ° to 20 ° or 70 ° to 75 ° clockwise or counterclockwise with respect to the absorption axis.

In still another embodiment, the second optical element is composed of a laminate of a third retardation film, a fourth retardation film, and a fifth retardation film, and the third retardation film. The angle between the slow axis of the polarizer and the absorption axis of the polarizer is α, the angle between the slow axis of the fourth retardation film and the absorption axis of the polarizer is β, and the fifth retardation film Where γ is the angle formed by the slow axis of the polarizer and the absorption axis of the polarizer, α, β, and γ satisfy the relationship of the following formula (8):
2 (β−α) + 40 ° <γ <2 (β−α) + 50 ° (8).

  In a preferred embodiment, the angle α is 81 ° to 87 ° clockwise or counterclockwise with respect to the absorption axis, and the angle β is clockwise or counterclockwise with respect to the absorption axis. It is 52 ° to 62 °.

  In a preferred embodiment, the ratio of the retardation value in the film plane of the third optical element to the retardation value in the thickness direction (Rth [590] / Re [590]) is 2-10.

  In a preferred embodiment, the third optical element is made of a stretched polymer film mainly composed of polyimide.

  According to another aspect of the present invention, a liquid crystal panel is provided. The liquid crystal panel includes the polarizing element and a liquid crystal cell. In a preferred embodiment, the liquid crystal cell is in OCB mode.

  According to still another aspect of the present invention, a liquid crystal display device is provided. The liquid crystal display device includes the liquid crystal panel.

  According to the present invention, by producing a polarizing element having specific constituent members (typically, retardation films) combined in a specific positional relationship, the advantages of the respective constituent members can be exhibited synergistically. The As a result, according to the liquid crystal panel using the polarizing element (as a result, a liquid crystal display device), a contrast ratio and a color shift in an oblique direction that are markedly superior to those of conventional liquid crystal panels are realized. . More specifically, in a liquid crystal display device having an OCB mode liquid crystal cell, by using a circularly polarizing plate that can convert linearly polarized light into circularly polarized light from both the front and oblique directions, regardless of the angle. The adverse effect caused by the optical rotation of the liquid crystal molecules in the bend alignment state can be eliminated. Such a circularly polarizing plate is realized by arranging a predetermined λ / 4 plate (second optical element) on the polarizer at a predetermined angle. This second optical element can realize further excellent circular polarization characteristics by adopting a specific laminated structure. At the same time, by disposing a predetermined λ / 2 plate (first optical element) on the polarizer at a predetermined angle, it is possible to prevent the polarization degree of the two polarizers arranged orthogonally from decreasing in an oblique direction. . As a result, the contrast ratio of the liquid crystal display device can be significantly increased in all directions.

  In addition, in the present invention, by improving the axial accuracy of the biaxial retardation film, the omnidirectional contrast ratio can be further increased in the liquid crystal display device including the OCB mode liquid crystal cell. . That is, conventionally, the retardation film used in the liquid crystal cell needs to have a thickness of about 100 μm to 200 μm in order to compensate for the liquid crystal cell in the bend alignment state, which is very thick. On the other hand, according to the present invention, a material having a large birefringence in the thickness direction is selected, and the retardation film is thinned (for example, up to about 10 μm) while maintaining the retardation value in the thickness direction (third). Optical element) and axial accuracy can be remarkably improved. This is a knowledge obtained for the first time by making the retardation film much thinner than before, and is an unexpectedly excellent effect. As a result, the contrast ratio of the liquid crystal display device can be further increased in all directions.

A. Schematic diagram 1 of the polarizing element and the liquid crystal panel of the present invention is a schematic sectional view of a polarizing element according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 2 is a representative example of a preferred embodiment of the liquid crystal panel of the present invention, in which an absorption axis of a polarizer, a slow axis of a first optical element, a slow axis of a second optical element, and a slow phase of a third optical element. It is a schematic perspective view explaining the relationship of an axis | shaft. It should be noted that, for the sake of easy understanding, the ratio of the vertical, horizontal, and thickness of each component in FIGS. 1 and 2 is described differently from the actual one.

  As shown in FIG. 1, a polarizing element 50 according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention includes a polarizer 10, a first optical element 20, a second optical element 30, and a third optical element arranged in this order on one side of the polarizer 10. Device 40. Practically, any appropriate protective film (not shown) can be disposed outside the polarizer 10 (the side where the first optical element is not disposed).

In the present invention, the first optical element satisfies the following formulas (1) and (2), the second optical element satisfies the following formulas (3) and (4), and the third optical element has the following formula (5). ) And (6) are satisfied. By arranging such specific optical elements on one side of the polarizer in a specific order, extremely good optical compensation is performed, and as a result, the contrast ratio is high in all directions and the color shift amount in the oblique direction A polarizing element capable of realizing a liquid crystal display device having a small size can be obtained.
200 nm ≦ Re [590] ≦ 350 nm (1)
Re [590]> Rth [590] (2)
70 nm ≦ Re [590] ≦ 210 nm (3)
Re [590]> Rth [590] (4)
Re [590]> 0 nm (5)
Re [590] <Rth [590] (6)
[However, Re [590] and Rth [590] are the retardation value in the film plane and the retardation value in the thickness direction, respectively, measured with light having a wavelength of 590 nm at 23 ° C. ]

  As shown in FIG. 2, a liquid crystal panel 70 according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention includes a liquid crystal cell 60 and the polarizing element 50 of the present invention on at least one side of the liquid crystal cell 60. Depending on the purpose and the alignment mode of the liquid crystal cell, any appropriate polarizing plate or retardation plate may be disposed on one side of the liquid crystal cell 60. In the illustrated example, the liquid crystal panel 70 includes polarizing elements 50 and 50 ′ on both sides of the liquid crystal cell 60. As in the illustrated example, the polarizing elements 50 and 50 ′ of the present invention are preferably disposed on both sides of the liquid crystal cell 60. As described above, the polarizing element 50 (50 ′) includes, in order from the polarizer 10 (10 ′) to the liquid crystal cell 60, the polarizer 10 (10 ′), the first optical element 20 (20 ′), It has the 2nd optical element 30 (30 ') and the 3rd optical element 40 (40'). The absorption axes of the polarizers 10 and 10 'are arranged so as to be orthogonal to each other. The slow axis of the first optical element 20 (20 ') is arranged parallel or orthogonal to the absorption axis of the polarizer 10 (10'). In the illustrated example, the slow axis of the first optical element 20 is arranged in parallel to the absorption axis of the polarizer 10, and the slow axis of the first optical element 20 'is relative to the absorption axis of the polarizer 10'. Are arranged so as to be orthogonal to each other. When the second optical element 30 (30 ′) is composed of a single retardation film, the slow axis of the second optical element 30 (30 ′) is the absorption axis of the polarizer 10 (10 ′). On the other hand, it is preferably arranged to be 45 ° ± 2 ° (45 ° in the illustrated example). The slow axis of the third optical element 40 (40 ′) is disposed so as to be orthogonal to the rubbing direction of the liquid crystal cell 60. The details of the first optical element, the second optical element, and the third optical element will be described later in terms C, D, and E, respectively.

B. The "polarizer" in the polarizer herein, refers to films that convert arbitrary polarization natural light or polarized light. The polarizer used in the present invention is not particularly limited, but a polarizer that converts natural light or polarized light into linearly polarized light is preferably used.

  As the polarizer 10 used in the present invention, any appropriate polarizer can be adopted depending on the purpose. For example, a stretched film of a polymer film containing a dichroic substance such as iodine or a dichroic dye, or a guest / host type in which a liquid crystalline composition containing a dichroic substance and a liquid crystalline compound is oriented in a certain direction. Examples thereof include an O-type polarizer (US Pat. No. 5,523,863) and an E-type polarizer (US Pat. No. 6,049,428) in which lyotropic liquid crystal is aligned in a certain direction.

  The transmittance of the polarizer is preferably 41% to 45%, more preferably 43% to 45%, as measured with light having a wavelength of 440 nm at 23 ° C.

  The polarization degree of the polarizer is preferably 99.85% to 100%, more preferably 99.90% to 100%. If it is said range, when it uses for a liquid crystal display device, the contrast ratio of a front direction can be made still higher. The degree of polarization can be measured using a spectrophotometer [product name “DOT-3” manufactured by Murakami Color Research Laboratory Co., Ltd.].

As a specific method for measuring the degree of polarization of the polarizer, the parallel transmittance (H 0 ) and orthogonal transmittance (H 90 ) of the polarizer are measured, and the formula: degree of polarization (%) = {(H 0 -H 90) / (H 0 + H 90)} can be determined from 1/2 × 100. The parallel transmittance (H 0 ) is a value of the transmittance of a parallel laminated polarizer prepared by superposing two identical polarizers so that their absorption axes are parallel to each other. The orthogonal transmittance (H 90 ) is a value of the transmittance of an orthogonal laminated polarizer produced by superposing two identical polarizers so that their absorption axes are orthogonal to each other. Note that these transmittances are Y values obtained by correcting the visibility using the 2-degree field of view (C light source) of JlSZ8701-1982.

  The thickness of the polarizer used in the present invention can be appropriately selected in consideration of optical characteristics such as the degree of polarization and manufacturing convenience such as mechanical strength. The thickness is preferably 1 μm to 80 μm, more preferably 10 μm to 50 μm, and particularly preferably 20 μm to 40 μm. If it is said range, it can contribute to thickness reduction of a liquid crystal display device.

  As a method for producing a polarizer having the above characteristics, for example, a polymer film mainly composed of a polyvinyl alcohol resin is drawn out, and 0.01 to 0.1 part by weight of iodine with respect to 100 parts by weight of water. Swelled and dyed while applying tension in the longitudinal direction of the film with rolls having different speed ratios, and then 1 to 7 parts by weight of boric acid and 100 parts by weight of water. It is immersed in an aqueous solution containing ~ 7 parts by weight of potassium iodide, subjected to crosslinking treatment while applying tension in the longitudinal direction of the film with rolls having different speed ratios, and then immersed in an aqueous solution containing potassium iodide. It can be obtained by subjecting the polymer film to 5 to 7 times the original length through a step of washing with water and finally drying in a drying oven and adjusting the moisture content to 10 to 30%.

C. First Optical Element The first optical element 20 used in the present invention satisfies the following expressions (1) and (2). Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, the first optical element 20 is disposed between the second optical element 30 and the polarizer 10.
200 nm ≦ Re [590] ≦ 350 nm (1)
Re [590]> Rth [590] (2)

  In the present invention, the first optical element is used as a λ / 2 plate having a retardation value in the film plane of about ½ with respect to the wavelength of light (usually the visible light region). In this specification, “λ / 2 plate” means that linearly polarized light having a specific vibration direction is converted into linearly polarized light having a vibration direction orthogonal to the vibration direction of the linearly polarized light, or right circularly polarized light. Is converted to left circularly polarized light (or left circularly polarized light is converted to right circularly polarized light). Normally, two polarizers arranged in an orthogonal arrangement are unlikely to leak light from the front direction, but light leakage occurs in an oblique direction. When the absorption axis of each polarizer is set to 0 ° and 90 °, 45 There is a tendency for the amount of light leakage to be maximum at the azimuth. The first optical element used in the present invention is characterized in that it has the effect of reducing light leakage that occurs in the oblique direction of the liquid crystal display device and increasing the contrast ratio in the oblique direction.

C-1. Optical Characteristics of First Optical Element In the present specification, Re [590] refers to an in-plane retardation value measured with light having a wavelength of 590 nm at 23 ° C. Re [590] is expressed by the formula: Re [590] = when the refractive indices in the slow axis direction and the fast axis direction of the film at a wavelength of 590 nm are nx and ny and d (nm) is the thickness of the film, respectively. It can be obtained by (nx−ny) × d. The slow axis refers to the direction in which the refractive index in the film plane becomes maximum.

  Re [590] of the first optical element used in the present invention is 200 nm to 350 nm, more preferably 240 nm to 300 nm, and particularly preferably 260 nm to 280 nm. By setting Re [590] to about ½ of the measurement wavelength, the contrast ratio in the oblique direction of the liquid crystal display device can be increased.

  In this specification, Rth [590] refers to a thickness direction retardation value measured with light having a wavelength of 590 nm at 23 ° C. Rth [590] is expressed by the formula: Rth [590] = (nx) where the refractive index in the slow axis direction and the thickness direction of the film at a wavelength of 590 nm is nx and nz, respectively, and d (nm) is the thickness of the film. −nz) × d.

  Rth [590] of the first optical element used in the present invention is preferably 50 nm to 270 nm, more preferably 60 nm to 230 nm, and particularly preferably in the range satisfying Re [590]> Rth [590]. Is 65 nm to 210 nm. Rth [590] can be appropriately selected according to a ratio (also referred to as Nz coefficient) between a retardation value in the thickness direction, which will be described later, and an in-plane retardation value.

Re [590] and Rth [590] can also be obtained by using a trade name “KOBRA21-ADH” manufactured by Oji Scientific Instruments. In-plane retardation value (Re) at a wavelength of 590 nm at 23 ° C., retardation value measured by tilting 40 ° with the slow axis as the tilt axis (R40), retardation film thickness (d), and retardation film Nx, ny and nz can be obtained by computer numerical calculation from the following formulas (i) to (vi) using the average refractive index (n0), and then Rth can be calculated by formula (iv). Here, φ and ny ′ are represented by the following equations (v) and (vi), respectively.
Re = (nx−ny) × d (i)
R40 = (nx−ny ′) × d / cos (φ) (ii)
(Nx + ny + nz) / 3 = n0 (iii)
Rth = (nx−nz) × d (iv)
φ = sin −1 [sin (40 °) / n0] (v)
ny ′ = ny × nz [ny 2 × sin 2 (φ) + nz 2 × cos 2 (φ)] 1/2 (vi)

  In this specification, Rth [590] / Re [590] refers to the ratio between the retardation value in the thickness direction measured with light having a wavelength of 590 nm at 23 ° C. (also referred to as the Nz coefficient). ).

  The Nz coefficient of the first optical element is preferably smaller than 1. By making the Nz coefficient smaller than 1, the angle dependency of the phase difference value can be reduced, and the contrast ratio in the oblique direction of the liquid crystal display device can be increased. Therefore, the first optical element that satisfies Re [590]> Rth [590] is preferably used. A more preferable range of the Nz coefficient of the first optical element can be appropriately selected according to the configuration of the liquid crystal display device and the like. For example, the Nz coefficient of the first optical element is preferably 0.20 to 0.80. When the polarizing elements of the present invention are arranged above and below the liquid crystal cell, the Nz coefficients of the first optical elements used above and below may be the same or different.

  When the first optical elements having the same Nz coefficient are used above and below the liquid crystal cell, the Nz coefficients of the first optical elements are each substantially 0.75, or each is substantially 0.25. Some are preferred. When the first optical elements having different Nz coefficients are used above and below the liquid crystal cell, the Nz coefficient of one first optical element is substantially 0.75, and the other is substantially 0.25. Some are preferably used. In the present specification, “substantially 0.75” includes the case where the Nz coefficient is 0.75 ± 0.05, preferably 0.75 ± 0.03, particularly preferably 0. .75 ± 0.02. “Substantially 0.25” includes the case where the Nz coefficient is 0.25 ± 0.05, preferably 0.25 ± 0.03, and particularly preferably 0.25 ± 0.00. 02.

  In the present invention, the first optical elements having different Nz coefficients are preferably used in combination above and below the liquid crystal cell. More preferably, one having an Nz coefficient substantially 0.75 on one side and one having an Nz coefficient substantially 0.25 on the other is used in combination. By using in combination as described above, the contrast ratio of the liquid crystal display device and the coloring of the image that changes with the viewing angle (also called color software in an oblique direction) can be significantly reduced. By arranging two first optical elements having different Nz coefficients above and below the liquid crystal cell, the wavelength of the retardation value can be obtained even when a material having a large wavelength dependency of the retardation value (for example, polycarbonate) is used. This is because the dependencies are compensated for each other, and optical compensation can be performed in a wide wavelength region and without depending on the angle.

  The transmittance of the first optical element measured with light having a wavelength of 590 nm at 23 ° C. is preferably 80% or more, more preferably 85% or more, and particularly preferably 90% or more.

C-2. Arrangement Means of First Optical Element Referring to FIG. 2, any appropriate method may be adopted as a method of arranging the first optical element 20 between the polarizer 10 and the second optical element 30 according to the purpose. obtain. Preferably, the first optical element 30 is provided with an adhesive layer or a pressure-sensitive adhesive layer (not shown) on both sides thereof, and is adhered to the polarizer 10 and the second optical element 30. By filling the gap between the optical elements with the adhesive layer or the pressure-sensitive adhesive layer in this manner, the optical axes of the optical elements can be prevented from shifting when they are incorporated into a liquid crystal display device. Can be prevented from being rubbed and damaged. Further, the interface reflection between the layers of each optical element can be reduced, and the contrast can be increased when used in a liquid crystal display device.

  The thickness of the adhesive layer or the pressure-sensitive adhesive layer can be appropriately determined within an appropriate range depending on the purpose of use and adhesive force. Preferably they are 1 micrometer-500 micrometers, More preferably, they are 5 micrometers-200 micrometers, Most preferably, they are 10 micrometers-100 micrometers.

  Any appropriate adhesive or pressure-sensitive adhesive can be adopted as the adhesive or pressure-sensitive adhesive forming the adhesive layer or pressure-sensitive adhesive layer. For example, thermoplastic adhesives, hot melt adhesives, rubber adhesives, thermosetting adhesives, monomer reactive adhesives, inorganic adhesives, natural product adhesives, solvent adhesives, non-aqueous emulsion adhesives A water-based pressure-sensitive adhesive, a hot-melt pressure-sensitive adhesive, a liquid curable adhesive, a curable adhesive, an adhesive by a calendar method, and the like can be appropriately selected and used. In particular, solvent-based pressure-sensitive adhesives based on acrylic polymers are preferred in that they are excellent in optical transparency, exhibit moderate wettability, cohesiveness, and adhesive pressure-sensitive adhesive properties, and are excellent in weather resistance and heat resistance. Used.

  The first optical element used in the present invention is preferably arranged so that its slow axis is substantially parallel or orthogonal to the absorption axis of the adjacent polarizer. More preferably, the first optical element is arranged so that its slow axis is substantially parallel to the absorption axis of the adjacent polarizer. This is because rolls can be manufactured and bonding becomes easy, and as a result, manufacturing efficiency can be greatly improved. In the present specification, “substantially parallel” includes the case where the angle formed by the slow axis of the first optical element and the absorption axis of the adjacent polarizer is 0 ° ± 2.0 °, The angle is preferably 0 ° ± 1.0 °, more preferably 0 ° ± 0.5 °. The term “substantially orthogonal” includes the case where the angle formed by the slow axis of the first optical element and the absorption axis of the adjacent polarizer is 90 ° ± 2.0 °, preferably 90 °. It is ± 1.0 °, and more preferably 90 ° ± 0.5 °. As the degree of deviation from these angle ranges increases, the degree of polarization of the polarizing element decreases, and the contrast ratio in the front and oblique directions tends to decrease when used in a liquid crystal display device.

C-3. Configuration of First Optical Element The configuration (laminated structure) of the first optical element is not particularly limited as long as it satisfies the optical characteristics described in the above section C-1. Specifically, the first optical element may be a retardation film alone or a laminate composed of two or more retardation films. Preferably, the first optical element is a single retardation film. This is because the shift and unevenness of the retardation value due to the contraction stress of the polarizer and the heat of the backlight can be reduced, and the liquid crystal panel can be made thin. When the first optical element is a laminate, an adhesive layer or a pressure-sensitive adhesive layer may be included. When the laminate includes two or more retardation films, these retardation films may be the same or different. Details of the retardation film will be described later in the section C-4.

  Re [590] of the retardation film used in the first optical element can be appropriately selected depending on the number of retardation films used. For example, when the first optical element is composed of the retardation film alone, Re [590] of the retardation film is preferably equal to Re [590] of the first optical element. Therefore, it is preferable that the phase difference of the pressure-sensitive adhesive layer or the adhesive layer used when the first optical element is laminated on the polarizer or the liquid crystal cell is as small as possible. For example, when the first optical element is a laminate including two or more retardation films, the sum of Re [590] of each retardation film is equal to Re [590] of the first optical element. It is preferable to design to be equal. Specifically, when two retardation films are used, those having Re [590] of 100 to 175 nm are preferably used. The slow axes of the two retardation films are preferably laminated in parallel.

  In addition, Rth [590] / Re [590] (also referred to as Nz coefficient) of the retardation film is preferably equal to the Nz coefficient of the first optical element regardless of the number of retardation films used. For example, an optical element having an Nz coefficient of 0.75 and Re [590] of 280 nm is obtained by using two retardation films having an Nz coefficient of 0.75 and Re [590] of 140 nm, with a slow axis of It can be obtained by stacking so as to be parallel to each other. For example, the method described above can also be applied when an optical element having an Nz coefficient of 0.25 is made of two retardation films. For simplicity, only the case where the number of retardation films is two or less is shown, but it goes without saying that the same method can be applied to a laminate including three or more retardation films.

  The total thickness of the first optical element is preferably 50 μm to 240 μm, more preferably 50 μm to 150 μm, and most preferably 50 μm to 120 μm. When the first optical element has a thickness in such a range, a liquid crystal display device excellent in optical uniformity can be obtained.

C-4. Retardation film used for the first optical element As the retardation film used for the first optical element, a film having excellent transparency, mechanical strength, thermal stability, moisture shielding properties and the like is preferably used. The retardation film is preferably a stretched polymer film mainly composed of a thermoplastic resin. In this specification, “stretched film” refers to a film in which tension is applied to an unstretched film at an appropriate temperature, or tension is applied to a previously stretched film to increase molecular orientation in a specific direction. Say.

  The transmittance of the retardation film measured with light having a wavelength of 590 nm at 23 ° C. is preferably 80% or more, more preferably 85% or more, and particularly preferably 90% or more.

The absolute value C [590] (m 2 / N) of the photoelastic coefficient of the retardation film is preferably 2.0 × 10 −13 to 1.0 × 10 −8 , more preferably 1.0 ×. 10 -12 1.0 a × 10 -9, particularly preferably 1.0 × 10 -12 ~5.0 × 10 -10 . By setting it as said range, the liquid crystal display device excellent in optical uniformity can be obtained.

  The thickness of the retardation film can be appropriately selected according to the purpose and the laminated structure of the first optical element. Preferably they are 20 micrometers-100 micrometers, More preferably, they are 30 micrometers-80 micrometers, Most preferably, they are 40 micrometers-80 micrometers. If it is said range, it is excellent in mechanical strength or display uniformity, and can obtain the retardation film which satisfies the optical characteristic as described in said C-1 term.

  As a method for obtaining the polymer film containing the thermoplastic resin as a main component, any appropriate molding method is used, for example, compression molding method, transfer molding method, injection molding method, extrusion molding method, blow molding method. Appropriate ones can be selected from powder molding methods, FRP molding methods, casting methods, and the like. Among these production methods, an extrusion method or a casting method is preferred. It is because the smoothness of the obtained retardation film can be improved and good optical uniformity can be obtained. Specifically, the extrusion molding method involves heating and melting a resin composition containing a thermoplastic resin, a plasticizer, and an additive as a main component, and using a T-die or the like to form a thin film on the surface of the casting roll. The film is extruded and cooled to produce a film. Specifically, the above casting (casting) method involves defoaming a concentrated solution (dope) obtained by dissolving a resin composition containing a thermoplastic resin, a plasticizer, an additive, and the like as a main component in a solvent. This is a method for producing a film by uniformly casting a thin film on the surface of a steel belt or rotating drum and evaporating the solvent. The molding conditions can be appropriately selected depending on the composition and type of the resin used, the molding method, and the like.

  Examples of the thermoplastic resin include general-purpose plastics such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polynorbornene, polyvinyl chloride, cellulose acetate, polystyrene, ABS resin, AS resin, polymethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl acetate, and polyvinylidene chloride; polyamide, polyacetal, General-purpose engineering plastics such as polycarbonate, modified polyphenylene ether, polybutylene terephthalate, and polyethylene terephthalate; Super such as polyphenylene sulfide, polysulfone, polyethersulfone, polyetheretherketone, polyarylate, liquid crystal polymer, polyamideimide, polyimide, and polytetrafluoroethylene Examples include engineering plastics. The thermoplastic resin can be used after any appropriate polymer modification. Specific examples of the polymer modification include modifications such as copolymerization, branching, crosslinking, molecular terminal, and stereoregularity. Further, two or more of the above thermoplastic resins may be mixed and used. Among these, polycarbonate is preferable as the material used for the first optical element. This is because it is excellent in transparency, mechanical strength, thermal stability, moisture shielding properties and the like, and is excellent in the expression of the retardation value and the ease of control of the retardation value.

  As the polycarbonate, an aromatic polycarbonate composed of an aromatic dihydric phenol component and a carbonate component is preferably used. The aromatic polycarbonate can be usually obtained by a reaction between an aromatic dihydric phenol compound and a carbonate precursor. Specifically, a phosgene method in which phosgene is blown into an aromatic dihydric phenol compound in the presence of caustic and a solvent, or transesterification in which an aromatic dihydric phenol compound and bisaryl carbonate are transesterified in the presence of a catalyst. Can be obtained by law.

  Specific examples of the aromatic dihydric phenol compound include 2,2-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane, 2,2-bis (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylphenyl) propane, and bis (4-hydroxy). Phenyl) methane, 1,1-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) ethane, 2,2-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) butane, 2,2-bis (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylphenyl) butane, 2 , 2-bis (4-hydroxy-3,5-dipropylphenyl) propane, 1,1-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) cyclohexane, 1,1-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) -3,3,5- And trimethylcyclohexane. In addition, these may be used independently and may use 2 or more types together.

  Examples of the carbonate precursor include phosgene, bischloroformate of the above dihydric phenols, diphenyl carbonate, di-p-tolyl carbonate, phenyl-p-tolyl carbonate, di-p-chlorophenyl carbonate, dinaphthyl carbonate and the like. Of these, phosgene and diphenyl carbonate are preferred.

  When polycarbonate is used for the first optical element, a commercially available polycarbonate film may be used as it is, or may be used after secondary processing such as stretching or surface treatment. Specific examples of commercially available polycarbonate films include Teijin Chemicals' product name "Pure Ace Series", Kaneka Corporation's product name "Elmec Series" (R140, R435, etc.), and GE Plastics Product names such as “Illuminix Series” are listed.

  The polycarbonate has a weight average molecular weight measured by a gel permeation chromatograph (GPC) method using a tetrahydrofuran solvent, preferably from 5,000 to 500,000, more preferably from 10,000 to 300,000. Especially preferably, it is 20,000-200,000. If it is said range, what is excellent in mechanical strength, thermal stability, stretchability, etc. can be obtained.

  The retardation film used for the first optical element is obtained by laminating a shrinkable film on both sides of a polymer film containing a thermoplastic resin as a main component and heating and stretching the film by a longitudinal uniaxial stretching method using a roll stretching machine. Can do. The shrinkable film is used for imparting a shrinkage force in a direction perpendicular to the stretching direction at the time of heat stretching and increasing a refractive index (nz) in the thickness direction. The method for bonding the shrinkable film to one or both sides of the polymer film is not particularly limited, but an acrylic polymer having an acrylic polymer as a base polymer between the polymer film and the shrinkable film. A method in which a pressure-sensitive adhesive layer is provided for adhesion is preferred from the viewpoint of excellent workability and economy.

  The shrinkable film has a shrinkage ratio in the film longitudinal direction at 140 ° C .: S (MD) of 4.7% to 6.7%, and a shrinkage ratio in the width direction: S (TD) of 6.6% to What is 8.6% is preferably used. The shrinkage rates S (MD) and S (TD) can be determined according to the method of heating shrinkage rate A of JIS Z 1712-1997 (however, the heating temperature is set to 140 ° C. instead of 120 ° C.). The difference is that a load of 3 g was applied).

  The shrinkable film is preferably a stretched film such as a biaxially stretched film or a uniaxially stretched film. The shrinkable film can be obtained, for example, by stretching an unstretched film formed into a sheet by an extrusion method in the longitudinal and / or transverse direction at a predetermined magnification with a simultaneous biaxial stretching machine or the like. The molding and stretching conditions can be appropriately selected depending on the composition, type and purpose of the resin used.

  Examples of the material for forming the shrinkable film include polyester, polystyrene, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, and polyvinylidene chloride. Among these, as the shrinkable film used in the present invention, a biaxially stretched polypropylene film is preferably used in view of excellent mechanical strength, thermal stability, surface uniformity and the like.

  In addition, the shrinkable film can be used for general packaging, food packaging, pallet packaging, shrinkage label, cap seal, and electrical insulation as long as the object of the present invention is satisfied. A commercially available shrinkable film can be appropriately selected and used. These commercially available shrinkable films may be used as they are, or after being subjected to secondary processing such as stretching treatment or shrinkage treatment. Specific examples of commercially available shrinkable films include Oji Paper Co., Ltd. product name “Alphan Series”, Gunze Co., Ltd. product name “Fancy Top Series”, and Toray Industries, Inc. product name “Trephan Series”. , Santox Co., Ltd., trade name “Santox-OP Series”, Tosero Co., Ltd., trade name “Tosero OP Series”, and the like.

  The temperature (stretching temperature) in the stretching oven when stretching a laminate of a polymer film mainly composed of a thermoplastic resin and a shrinkable film is the target retardation value, the type and thickness of the polymer film used. It can be appropriately selected depending on the like. Preferably, it is in the range of Tg + 1 ° C. to Tg + 30 ° C. with respect to the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer film. This is because the retardation value is likely to be uniform in the width direction and the film is difficult to crystallize (white turbidity). More specifically, the stretching temperature is preferably 110 ° C to 185 ° C, more preferably 120 ° C to 180 ° C, and particularly preferably 135 ° C to 175 ° C.

  The stretching ratio (stretching ratio) when stretching a laminate of a polymer film mainly composed of a thermoplastic resin and a shrinkable film is the target retardation value, the type and thickness of the polymer film used. It can be appropriately selected depending on the like. The draw ratio is preferably 1.02 times to 1.70 times, more preferably 1.02 times to 1.50 times, and particularly preferably 1.02 times to 1.30 times. In the case of producing a retardation film having an Nz coefficient of 0.75, the draw ratio is preferably 1.05 to 1.07 times, and in the case of producing a retardation film having an Nz coefficient of 0.25. The draw ratio is preferably 1.02 to 1.05 times. If it is said extending | stretching conditions, not only the optical characteristic as described in the said C-1 term can be satisfied, but the retardation film excellent in optical uniformity can be obtained.

D. Second Optical Element The second optical element used in the present invention satisfies the following expressions (3) and (4). Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, the second optical element 30 is disposed between the first optical element 20 and the third optical element 40.
70 nm ≦ Re [590] ≦ 210 nm (3)
Re [590]> Rth [590] (4)

  In the present invention, the second optical element is used as a λ / 4 plate having a retardation value in the film plane of about ¼ with respect to the wavelength of light (usually the visible light region). In this specification, “λ / 4 plate” refers to a plate having a function of converting linearly polarized light having a specific wavelength into circularly polarized light (or circularly polarized light). In the present invention, it is preferable to arrange two λ / 4 plates above and below the liquid crystal cell. By doing in this way, the light which permeate | transmits a liquid crystal cell can be made into circularly polarized light or elliptically polarized light. As a result, the contrast ratio in the oblique direction of the liquid crystal display device can be improved. Furthermore, it is possible to eliminate the adverse effect that occurs when linearly polarized light passes through the liquid crystal cell. Examples of adverse effects that occur when linearly polarized light passes through a liquid crystal cell include light leakage (decrease in contrast) due to optical rotation of the liquid crystal cell and decrease in luminance of the liquid crystal display device due to disclination of liquid crystal molecules. Etc.

D-1. Optical properties of the second optical element Re [590] of the second optical element used in the present invention is 70 nm to 210 nm, preferably 100 nm to 180 nm, more preferably 120 nm to 160 nm, and particularly preferably 130 nm. ~ 150 nm. By setting Re [590] to about ¼ of the measurement wavelength, the contrast ratio in the oblique direction of the liquid crystal display device can be increased.

  Rth [590] of the second optical element is preferably 35 to 105 nm, more preferably 50 to 90 nm, particularly preferably 60 to 80 nm, and most preferably 65 to 75 nm. By setting Rth [590] to about ½ of Re [590], the contrast ratio in the oblique direction of the liquid crystal display device can be increased.

  Rth [590] / Re [590] (also referred to as Nz coefficient) of the second optical element is preferably smaller than 1. By making the Nz coefficient smaller than 1, the angle dependency of the retardation value can be reduced, and the contrast ratio in the oblique direction of the liquid crystal display device can be increased. Therefore, the second optical element that satisfies Re [590]> Rth [590] is preferably used. More specifically, the Nz coefficient of the second optical element is preferably 0.2 to 0.8, more preferably 0.3 to 0.7, and particularly preferably 0.4 to 0.00. 6, most preferably 0.5. By setting the Nz coefficient to 0.5, it is possible to achieve a characteristic in which the phase difference value is almost constant regardless of the angle, and the contrast ratio in the oblique direction of the liquid crystal display device can be increased.

D-2. Second Optical Element Arrangement Means Referring to FIG. 2, as the method of arranging the second optical element 30 between the first optical element 20 and the third optical element 40, any appropriate method can be used depending on the purpose. Can be employed. Preferably, the second optical element 30 is provided with an adhesive layer or a pressure-sensitive adhesive layer (not shown) on both sides thereof, and is adhered to the first optical element 20 and the third optical element 40. By filling the gap between the optical elements with the adhesive layer or the pressure-sensitive adhesive layer in this manner, the optical axes of the optical elements can be prevented from shifting when they are incorporated into a liquid crystal display device. Can be prevented from being rubbed and damaged. Further, the interface reflection between the layers of each optical element can be reduced, and the contrast can be increased when used in a liquid crystal display device.

  The thickness of the adhesive layer or pressure-sensitive adhesive layer and the type of adhesive or pressure-sensitive adhesive forming the adhesive layer or pressure-sensitive adhesive layer are as described in the above section C-2.

  The direction in which the second optical element is arranged varies depending on the number of retardation films constituting the second optical element. The configuration of the second optical element will be described in detail in the next section D-3.

D-3. Configuration of Second Optical Element The configuration (laminate structure) of the second optical element is not particularly limited as long as it satisfies the optical characteristics described in the above section D-1. Specifically, the second optical element may be a retardation film alone or a laminate composed of two or more retardation films. Preferably, the second optical element is a laminate composed of two or more retardation films, and more preferably a laminate composed of three retardation films. By adopting a laminate as the second optical element, for example, even if the material forming the retardation film has a wavelength dependency of a large retardation value (for example, polycarbonate), the entire second optical element The phase difference value can have a small wavelength dependence (that is, a constant phase difference value in a wide wavelength region). As a result, the contrast ratio in the oblique direction of the liquid crystal display device can be increased, and the color shift in the oblique direction can be reduced. When the second optical element is a laminate, an adhesive layer or a pressure-sensitive adhesive layer may be included. When the laminate includes two or more retardation films, these retardation films may be the same or different. Details of the retardation film will be described later in section D-4.

  Re [590] and the angle of the slow axis of the retardation film used in the second optical element can be appropriately selected depending on the number of retardation films used.

  FIG. 3 is a schematic perspective view illustrating the relationship between the absorption axis of the polarizer and the slow axis of the second optical element in one embodiment of the second optical element. In the present embodiment, the second optical element 30 is composed of a single retardation film 31. 3A and 3B, the retardation film 31 is disposed so that the angle formed between the slow axis and the absorption axis of the adjacent polarizer 10 is α. The angle α is preferably 45 ° ± 2.0 °, more preferably 45 ° ± 1.0 °, and particularly preferably 45 ° ± 1.0 °, clockwise or counterclockwise with respect to the absorption axis of the polarizer 10. ° ± 0.5 °.

  In the embodiment shown in FIG. 3, Re [590] of the retardation film 31 is preferably equal to Re [590] of the second optical element 30. Specifically, Re [590] of the retardation film 31 is preferably 70 nm to 210 nm, more preferably 100 nm to 180 nm, particularly preferably 120 nm to 160 nm, and most preferably 130 nm to 150 nm. . As shown in FIGS. 3A and 3B, the absorption axis of the polarizer 10 and the slow axis of the first optical element 20 may be parallel or orthogonal to each other.

  FIG. 4 is a schematic perspective view illustrating the relationship between the absorption axis of the polarizer and the slow axis of the second optical element (component member thereof) in another embodiment of the second optical element. In the present embodiment, the second optical element 30 is composed of two retardation films (that is, a first retardation film 32 and a second retardation film 33). 4A and 4B, the first retardation film 32 is disposed such that the angle formed between the slow axis and the absorption axis of the polarizer 10 is α. Further, the second retardation film 33 is arranged so that the angle formed between the slow axis and the absorption axis of the polarizer 10 is β. As shown in FIGS. 4A and 4B, the absorption axis of the polarizer 10 and the slow axis of the first optical element 20 may be parallel or orthogonal to each other.

Preferably, the angles α and β satisfy the relationship of the following formula (7):
2α + 40 ° <β <2α + 50 ° (7).
The relationship between the angle α and the angle β is more preferably 2α + 42 ° <β <2α + 48 °, particularly preferably 2α + 43 ° <β <2α + 47 °, and most preferably β = 2α + 45 °. More specifically, the angle α is clockwise or counterclockwise with respect to the absorption axis of the polarizer 10, preferably 15 ° to 20 ° or 70 ° to 75 °, and more preferably 16 ° to 18 °. ° or 72 ° to 73 °, most preferably 17.5 ° or 72.5 °. Thus, in the most preferred embodiment (β = 2α + 45 °), the angle β is clockwise or counterclockwise with respect to the absorption axis of the polarizer 10, preferably 75 ° to 85 ° or 5 ° to 15 °. More preferably 77 ° to 81 °, most preferably 80 ° or 10 °.

  Preferably, the first retardation film 32 is a λ / 2 plate, and the second retardation film 33 is a λ / 4 plate. In such a case, Re [590] of the first retardation film 32 is preferably 200 nm to 350 nm, more preferably 240 nm to 300 nm, and particularly preferably 260 nm to 280 nm. Re [590] of the second retardation film 33 is preferably 100 nm to 180 nm, particularly preferably 120 nm to 160 nm, and most preferably 130 nm to 150 nm.

  In the embodiment of FIG. 4, the second optical element is configured using two retardation films to compensate for the wavelength dependence of the retardation value of each retardation film, and the retardation value in a wide wavelength region. Can be reduced to 1/4. As a result, the contrast ratio and color shift in the oblique direction of the liquid crystal display device can be further improved.

  FIG. 5 is a schematic perspective view for explaining the relationship between the absorption axis of the polarizer and the slow axis of the second optical element (component member thereof) in still another embodiment of the second optical element. In the present embodiment, the second optical element 30 includes three retardation films (that is, the third retardation film 34, the fourth retardation film 35, and the fifth retardation film 36). It is. 5A and 5B, the third retardation film 34 is disposed so that the angle formed by the slow axis and the absorption axis of the polarizer 10 is α. The fourth retardation film 35 is disposed so that the angle formed between the slow axis and the absorption axis of the polarizer 10 is β. Further, the fifth retardation film 36 is arranged so that the angle formed between the slow axis and the absorption axis of the polarizer 10 is γ. As shown in FIGS. 5A and 5B, the absorption axis of the polarizer 10 and the slow axis of the first optical element 20 may be parallel or orthogonal to each other.

Preferably, the angles α, β and γ satisfy the relationship of the following formula (8):
2 (β−α) + 40 ° <γ <2 (β−α) + 50 ° (8).
The relationship among the angles α, β and γ is more preferably 2 (β−α) + 42 ° <γ <2 (β−α) + 48 °, and particularly preferably 2 (β−α) + 43 ° <γ <2 (Β−α) + 47 °, and most preferably γ = 2 (β−α) + 45 °. More specifically, the angle α is preferably 81 ° to 87 °, more preferably 82 ° to 86 °, and particularly preferably clockwise or counterclockwise with respect to the absorption axis of the polarizer 10. Is 83 ° to 85 °. In addition, the angle β is preferably 52 ° to 62 °, more preferably 54 ° to 60 °, and particularly preferably 56 ° to 60 °, clockwise or counterclockwise with respect to the absorption axis of the polarizer 10. 58 °. Therefore, in the most preferred embodiment (γ = 2 (β−α) + 45 °), the angle γ is clockwise or counterclockwise with respect to the absorption axis of the polarizer 10, preferably 165 ° to 177 °. More preferably 167 ° to 175 °, particularly preferably 169 ° to 173 °.

  Preferably, the third retardation film 34 is a λ / 2 plate, the fourth retardation film 35 is a λ / 2 plate, and the fifth retardation film 36 is a λ / 4 plate. In such a case, Re [590] of the third retardation film 34 is preferably 200 nm to 350 nm, more preferably 240 nm to 300 nm, and particularly preferably 260 nm to 280 nm. Re [590] of the fourth retardation film 35 is preferably 200 nm to 350 nm, more preferably 240 nm to 300 nm, and particularly preferably 260 nm to 280 nm. Re [590] of the fifth retardation film 36 is preferably 100 nm to 180 nm, particularly preferably 120 nm to 160 nm, and most preferably 130 nm to 150 nm.

  In the embodiment of FIG. 5, the wavelength dependency of the retardation value of each retardation film is more accurately compensated by configuring the second optical element using three retardation films as described above, The phase difference value can be set to ¼ in almost the entire wavelength range of visible light. As a result, the contrast ratio and color shift in the oblique direction of the liquid crystal display device can be remarkably improved.

  When the second optical element as described above is composed of two or more retardation films, the Nz coefficient of each retardation film is preferably independent of the number of retardation films used and Re [590]. Is 0.2 to 0.8, more preferably 0.3 to 0.7, particularly preferably 0.4 to 0.6, and most preferably 0.5. Further, as described in the above section C-3, for example, an optical element having Re [590] of 140 nm and an Nz coefficient of 0.5 can be constituted by two retardation films. In this case, two retardation films having Re [590] of 70 nm and an Nz coefficient of 0.5 may be laminated so that their slow axes are parallel to each other.

  The total thickness of the second optical element 30 may vary depending on the purpose and the laminated structure, but is preferably 60 μm to 500 μm, more preferably 90 μm to 300 μm, and most preferably 120 μm to 250 μm. When the first optical element has a thickness in such a range, a liquid crystal display device excellent in optical uniformity can be obtained.

  The transmittance of the second optical element 30 measured with light having a wavelength of 590 nm at 23 ° C. is preferably 80% or more, more preferably 85% or more, and particularly preferably 90% or more.

D-4. Retardation film used for the second optical element As the retardation film used for the second optical element, a film excellent in transparency, mechanical strength, thermal stability, moisture shielding property and the like is preferably used. The retardation film is preferably a stretched polymer film mainly composed of a thermoplastic resin.

  The transmittance of the retardation film measured with light having a wavelength of 590 nm at 23 ° C. is preferably 80% or more, more preferably 85% or more, and particularly preferably 90% or more.

The absolute value C [590] (m 2 / N) of the photoelastic coefficient of the retardation film is preferably 2.0 × 10 −13 to 1.0 × 10 −10 , more preferably 1.0 ×. 10 -12 1.0 a × 10 -10, and particularly preferably 1.0 × 10 -12 ~8.0 × 10 -11 . By setting it as said range, the liquid crystal display device excellent in optical uniformity can be obtained.

  The thickness of the retardation film can be appropriately selected according to the purpose and the laminated structure of the second optical element. The thickness is preferably 20 μm to 100 μm, more preferably 30 μm to 80 μm, and particularly preferably 40 to 65 μm. If it is said range, it is excellent in mechanical strength or display uniformity, and can obtain the retardation film which satisfies the optical characteristic as described in said D-1.

  There is no restriction | limiting in particular as a method of obtaining the polymer film which has the said thermoplastic resin as a main component, For example, the same shaping | molding method as described in the said C-4 section is mentioned. Preferred molding methods for obtaining the polymer film used in the second optical element are an extrusion molding method and a casting method. It is because the smoothness of the obtained retardation film can be improved and good optical uniformity can be obtained. The molding conditions can be appropriately selected depending on the composition and type of the resin used, the molding method, and the like.

  Examples of the material for forming the polymer film containing the thermoplastic resin as a main component include the same thermoplastic resins as those described in the above section C-4. Of these, polycarbonate is preferably used as the material of the second optical element. This is because it is excellent in transparency, mechanical strength, thermal stability, moisture shielding properties and the like, and is excellent in the expression of the retardation value and the ease of control of the retardation value. When polycarbonate is used for the second optical element, specific examples of the polycarbonate are also as described in the above section C-4.

  The retardation film used for the second optical element is similar to the retardation film used for the first optical element, in which a shrinkable film is bonded to both sides of a polymer film mainly composed of a thermoplastic resin, and a roll stretching machine is used. Can be obtained by heating and stretching by a longitudinal uniaxial stretching method. As the shrinkable film, the same shrinkable film as described in the above section C-4 can be used.

  The temperature (stretching temperature) in the stretching oven when stretching a laminate of a polymer film mainly composed of a thermoplastic resin and a shrinkable film is the target retardation value, the type and thickness of the polymer film used. It can be appropriately selected depending on the like. Preferably, it is in the range of Tg + 1 ° C. to Tg + 30 ° C. with respect to the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer film. This is because the retardation value is likely to be uniform in the width direction and the film is difficult to crystallize (white turbidity). More specifically, the stretching temperature is preferably 110 ° C to 185 ° C, more preferably 120 ° C to 180 ° C, and particularly preferably 135 ° C to 175 ° C.

  The stretching ratio (stretching ratio) when stretching the laminate of the polymer film mainly composed of the thermoplastic resin and the shrinkable film is the target retardation value, the type and thickness of the polymer film used. It can be appropriately selected depending on the like. The draw ratio is preferably 1.02 times to 1.70 times, more preferably 1.02 times to 1.50 times, and particularly preferably 1.02 times to 1.30 times. More specifically, for example, when a λ / 4 plate having an Nz coefficient of 0.5 is produced, the draw ratio is preferably 1.10 times to 1.40 times. For example, the draw ratio when producing a λ / 2 plate having an Nz coefficient of 0.5 is preferably 1.05 times to 1.15 times. If it is said extending | stretching conditions, not only the optical characteristic of the said D-1 term can be satisfied, but the retardation film excellent in optical uniformity can be obtained.

E. Third optical element The third optical element used in the present invention satisfies the following expressions (5) and (6). 1 and 2, the third optical element 40 is disposed on the surface of the second optical element 30 (the side on which the first optical element is not laminated).
Re [590]> 0 nm (5)
Re [590] <Rth [590] (6)

  In the present invention, the third optical element is used to optically compensate and cancel the retardation value of the liquid crystal cell. FIG. 6 is a typical conceptual diagram illustrating a method for canceling the phase difference value of the liquid crystal cell using the third optical element. In the present specification, “cancel retardation value of liquid crystal cell” means a substantially isotropic refractive index in which a laminate of a liquid crystal cell and an optical element has a relationship of nx = ny = nz. Compensation optically so as to obtain a distribution. As shown in FIG. 6, for example, in order to cancel the phase difference value of the liquid crystal cell in which the refractive index distribution shows a relationship of nz> nx> ny, the refractive index distribution preferably has a relationship of nx> ny> nz. The third optical elements shown are arranged so that their slow axes are orthogonal to each other. Here, the third optical element showing the relationship of nx> ny> nz is an optical element in which Re [590]> 0 nm and Re [590] <Rth [590] (that is, the above formula (5) In other words, the optical element satisfies (6).

E-1. Optical characteristics of third optical element Re [590] of the third optical element is greater than 0 nm in order to cancel Re [590] of the liquid crystal cell. Preferably, it is 10 nm to 300 nm. When the polarizing element of the present invention is used in a liquid crystal display device having an OCB mode liquid crystal cell, the preferred range of Re [590] of the third optical element varies depending on the display mode employed. Details of the OCB mode liquid crystal cell will be described later.

  For example, for a normally white mode liquid crystal cell that is in a bright state (white display) when a low voltage is applied, the phase difference value of the liquid crystal cell when a high voltage is applied may be canceled. [590] is preferably 20 to 100 nm, more preferably 30 to 80 nm, and particularly preferably 40 to 60 nm.

  On the other hand, for a normally black mode liquid crystal cell that is in a dark state (black display) when a low voltage is applied, the phase difference value of the liquid crystal cell when the low voltage is applied may be canceled. [590] is preferably 100 to 280 nm, more preferably 110 to 170 nm, and particularly preferably 130 to 150 nm. By setting it as said range, the contrast ratio of the diagonal direction of a liquid crystal display device can be made high.

  Rth [590] of the third optical element is preferably 100 nm to 1000 nm, more preferably 150 nm to 800 nm, particularly preferably 200 nm to 600 nm in order to cancel Rth [590] of the liquid crystal cell. . By making Rth [590] substantially equal to Rth [590] of the liquid crystal cell, the contrast ratio in the oblique direction of the liquid crystal display device can be increased.

  As the third optical element, those satisfying Re [590] <Rth [590] are preferably used. Rth [590] / Re [590] (also referred to as Nz coefficient) of the third optical element is preferably 2 to 14, more preferably 4 to 12, and particularly preferably 6 to 10. By making the Nz coefficient substantially equal to the Nz coefficient of the liquid crystal cell, the anisotropy of the liquid crystal cell can be optically compensated so as to be isotropic. By doing in this way, the bad influence on the display characteristic of the liquid crystal display device resulting from the anisotropy of a liquid crystal cell can be excluded.

  The transmittance of the third optical element measured with light having a wavelength of 590 nm at 23 ° C. is preferably 80% or more, more preferably 85% or more, and particularly preferably 90% or more.

E-2. Arrangement Means of Third Optical Element Referring to FIG. 2, any appropriate method is adopted as a method of arranging the third optical element 40 between the second optical element 30 and the liquid crystal cell 60 according to the purpose. obtain. Preferably, the third optical element 40 is provided with an adhesive layer or a pressure-sensitive adhesive layer (not shown) on both sides thereof, and is adhered to the second optical element 30 and the liquid crystal cell 60. By filling the gap between the optical elements with the adhesive layer or the pressure-sensitive adhesive layer in this manner, the optical axes of the optical elements can be prevented from shifting when they are incorporated into a liquid crystal display device. Can be prevented from being rubbed and damaged. Further, the interface reflection between the layers of each optical element can be reduced, and the contrast can be increased when used in a liquid crystal display device.

  The thickness of the adhesive layer or pressure-sensitive adhesive layer and the type of adhesive or pressure-sensitive adhesive forming the adhesive layer or pressure-sensitive adhesive layer are as described in the above section C-2.

  FIG. 7 is a schematic perspective view illustrating the relationship between the slow axis of the third optical element and the rubbing direction of the liquid crystal cell in a representative example of a preferred embodiment of the third optical element. As shown in FIGS. 7A to 7D, the third optical element 40 is arranged so that its slow axis is substantially orthogonal to the rubbing direction of the liquid crystal cell 60. 7A to 7D, the relationship between the slow axis of the first optical element 20 and the absorption axis of the polarizer 10 shows a parallel case, but this may be orthogonal. . In the present specification, the “rubbing direction” indicates a macroscopic alignment direction of liquid crystal molecules, and means for aligning liquid crystal molecules is not limited to the rubbing treatment method. Therefore, even when the liquid crystal molecules are aligned using a method other than the rubbing treatment method (for example, photo-alignment method), the alignment direction is included in the “rubbing direction”.

  In the present invention, since the third optical element is intended to cancel the phase difference value of the liquid crystal cell, the slow axis of the third optical element only needs to be substantially orthogonal to the rubbing direction. In other words, even when the third optical element is stacked on the polarizer / first optical element / second optical element stack, the direction of the slow axis of the third optical element depends on each layer of the stack. It is not limited by the relationship with the optical axis (absorption axis, slow axis). For example, as shown in FIGS. 7B and 7D, in the third optical element, depending on the rubbing direction of the liquid crystal cell, the slow axis is neither parallel nor orthogonal to the absorption axis of the adjacent polarizer 10. Can be arranged in a direction.

E-3. Configuration of third optical element The configuration (laminate structure) of the third optical element is not particularly limited as long as it satisfies the optical characteristics described in the above section E-1. Specifically, the third optical element may be a retardation film alone or a laminate composed of two or more retardation films. Preferably, the third optical element is preferably composed of a retardation film alone. By doing so, a liquid crystal display device with good optical uniformity can be obtained.

  Re [590] and the angle of the slow axis of the retardation film used in the third optical element can be appropriately selected depending on the number of retardation films used. For example, when the third optical element is composed of the retardation film alone, Re [590] and Rth [590] of the retardation film are respectively Re [590] and Rth [590] of the third optical element. Preferably equal. Therefore, it is preferable that the phase difference of the pressure-sensitive adhesive layer or the adhesive layer used when the third optical element is laminated on the polarizer or the liquid crystal cell is as small as possible.

  In addition, for example, when a laminated body including two or more retardation films is used as the third optical element so that the slow axes are parallel to each other, Re [590] of each retardation film is used. Is preferably designed to be equal to Re [590] of the third optical element. Moreover, it is preferable to design so that the sum total of Rth [590] of each retardation film becomes equal to Rth [590] of the third optical element. For example, when two retardation films are arranged so that their slow axes are parallel to each other, and a third optical element having Re [590] of 140 nm and Rth [590] of 400 nm is produced, In the retardation film, Re [590] can be set to 70 nm and Rth [590] can be set to 200 nm. Alternatively, for example, Re [590] of one retardation film can be set to 100 nm and Rth [590] can be set to 300 nm, and Re [590] of the other retardation film can be set to 40 nm and Rth [590] can be set to 100 nm. On the other hand, when a laminated body including two or more retardation films is used as the third optical element with the slow axes orthogonal to each other, Re [590] of each retardation film is 2 It is preferable that the Re [590] difference between the two retardation films is designed to be equal to the Re [590] of the third optical element, and the Rth [590] of each retardation film is two It is preferable to design so that the sum of Rth [590] of the retardation film is equal to Re [590] of the third optical element. For example, when two retardation films are arranged so that their slow axes are orthogonal to each other to produce a third optical element with Re [590] of 50 nm and Rth [590] of 400 nm, Re [590] of the retardation film can be 150 nm and Rth [590] can be 200 nm, and Re [590] of the other retardation film can be 100 nm and Rth [590] can be 200 nm.

  The total thickness of the third optical element is preferably 1 μm to 50 μm, more preferably 2 μm to 40 μm, and most preferably 2 μm to 30 μm. Since the third optical element has a thickness in such a range, even if it is used in a liquid crystal display device, a liquid crystal display device having excellent optical uniformity that hardly causes display unevenness due to the contraction of the polarizer and the heat of the backlight. Obtainable.

E-4. Retardation Film Used for Third Optical Element As the retardation film used for the third optical element, a film having excellent transparency, mechanical strength, thermal stability, moisture shielding property, etc. is preferably used. The retardation film is preferably a stretched polymer film mainly composed of a thermoplastic resin.

  The transmittance of the retardation film measured with light having a wavelength of 590 nm at 23 ° C. is preferably 80% or more, more preferably 85% or more, and particularly preferably 90% or more.

The absolute value C [590] (m 2 / N) of the photoelastic coefficient of the retardation film is preferably 2.0 × 10 −13 to 1.0 × 10 −10 , more preferably 1.0 ×. 10 −12 to 1.0 × 10 −10 . By setting it as said range, the liquid crystal display device excellent in optical uniformity can be obtained.

  The thickness of the retardation film used for the third optical element can be appropriately selected according to the purpose. Preferably they are 1 micrometer-30 micrometers, More preferably, they are 2 micrometers-20 micrometers, Especially preferably, they are 2 micrometers-15 micrometers. If it is said range, the liquid crystal display device excellent in the optical uniformity can be obtained.

  There is no restriction | limiting in particular as a method of obtaining the polymer film which has the said thermoplastic resin as a main component, For example, the same shaping | molding method described in the said C-4 term is mentioned. The casting method is preferred. In addition to improving the smoothness of the resulting retardation film and obtaining good optical uniformity, a retardation having a large thickness direction retardation value (Rth) suitable for optically compensating a liquid crystal cell This is because a film can be obtained. The molding conditions can be appropriately selected depending on the composition and type of the resin used, the molding method, and the like.

  Examples of the solvent used in the casting method include cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene, ethyl acetate, and tetrahydrofuran. These solvents are suitable for obtaining a retardation film having high surface uniformity. The drying temperature of the solvent is preferably 50 ° C to 250 ° C, more preferably 80 ° C to 150 ° C. By setting it as said range, a retardation film with much higher surface uniformity can be obtained.

  Examples of the material for forming the polymer film containing the thermoplastic resin as a main component include the same thermoplastic resins as those described in the above section C-4. Among these, as the third optical element, among them, in addition to being excellent in transparency, mechanical strength, thermal stability, moisture shielding properties, etc., polyimide is also used in that the retardation value (Rth) in the thickness direction can be increased. Is preferably used. More preferably, it is a polyimide having high transparency and solubility, a rigid molecular structure, and high linearity.

  The polyimide can be obtained by reaction of tetracarboxylic dianhydride and diamine. As a method of reacting the tetracarboxylic dianhydride and the diamine, for example, in a reaction vessel equipped with a Dean-Stark apparatus, the diamine, tetracarboxylic dianhydride, and isoquinoline (catalyst) are mixed with a high amount of m-cresol. A method of dissolving in a boiling organic solvent and heating the solution at 175 to 180 ° C. while stirring is mentioned.

  As the tetracarboxylic dianhydride, an aromatic tetracarboxylic dianhydride is preferably used. More preferably, the aromatic tetracarboxylic acid includes a site in which two or more aromatic rings are bonded by any one selected from a single bond, an ether group, a hexafluoropropylene group, a methylene group, a carbonyl group and a sulfone group. Dianhydride. Specific examples of such aromatic tetracarboxylic dianhydrides include 3,3′-4,4′-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride, bisphenol A acid dianhydride, oxydiphthalic acid dianhydride, 2, 2′-dichloro-4,4 ′, 5,5′-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride, 2,2′-bis (3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride, etc. It is not limited to these. In particular, 2,2′-bis (3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride having excellent reactivity with diamine and satisfying the object of the present invention can be obtained, and 2,2′-dichloro-4,4 ′, 5,5′-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride is preferably used.

  As the diamine, an aromatic diamine is preferably used. More preferably, it is an aromatic diamine containing a site in which two or more aromatic rings are bonded by any one selected from a single bond, an ether group, a hexafluoropropylene group, a methylene group, a carbonyl group and a sulfone group. . Specific examples of such aromatic diamines include 4,4'-diaminobiphenyl, 4,4 '-(9-fluorenylidene) -dianiline, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone, 2,2-dimethyl-4, Examples include, but are not limited to, 4′-diaminobiphenyl, 2,2-dichloro-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl, 2,2-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4′-diaminobiphenyl, and the like. In particular, 2,2-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4′-diaminobiphenyl is an example of a polyimide that is excellent in reactivity with tetracarboxylic dianhydride and that can satisfy the object of the present invention. Is preferably used.

  As the polyimide used for the third optical element, 2,2′-bis (3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropanoic acid dianhydride and 2,2-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4, It is a polyimide composed of a repeating unit represented by the following formula (1) obtained by reacting with 4′-diaminobiphenyl.

  When polyimide is used for the third optical element, a commercially available polyimide film may be used as it is, or may be used after secondary processing such as stretching or surface treatment. Specific examples of commercially available polyimide films include product names “Hopia Series” (HOP-400, HOP-500, etc.) manufactured by Hitachi Cable, Ltd., and product names “NTA Advance Technology Co., Ltd.”. “FLUPI series” and “Transparent polyimide film” manufactured by IST Corporation.

  As a weight average molecular weight (Mw) of the polyimide used in the present invention, a dimethylformamide solution (10 mM lithium bromide and 10 mM phosphoric acid was added to make a 1 L dimethylformamide solution) was used as a developing solvent. A polyethylene oxide standard having a weight average molecular weight (Mw) of 20,000 to 180,000 is preferably used. More preferably, it is 50,000-150,000, Most preferably, it is 70,000-130,000. If it is said range, the retardation film excellent in mechanical strength, thermal stability, dimensional stability, etc. can be obtained. Furthermore, there is an effect that the optical characteristics hardly change even when the polarizing element of the present invention is exposed to high temperature and high humidity.

  Although there is no restriction | limiting in particular as the imidation ratio of the polyimide used for this invention, What is 90% or more is used preferably. More preferably, it is 95% or more, and particularly preferably 98% or more. The imidation ratio can be determined from a peak integral intensity ratio between a proton peak derived from polyamic acid, which is a polyimide precursor, and a proton peak derived from polyimide, in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum.

  Although there is no restriction | limiting in particular as the amount of residual volatile components of the phase difference film used for a 3rd optical element, Preferably it exceeds 0 and 5% or less, More preferably, it exceeds 0 and is 3% or less. If it is such a range, the polyimide film (as a result, 3rd optical element) excellent in stability of retardation value will be obtained. The amount of residual volatile components of the polyimide layer can be determined from the amount of weight loss before and after heating when heated at 250 ° C. for 10 minutes.

  Generally, a thermoplastic resin having a rigid molecular structure typified by polyimide and having high linearity has a molecular structure due to the properties of the resin itself in the process of casting the solution on a substrate and evaporating the solvent. Tends to orient itself in the film plane. That is, the refractive index (nx and ny) in the film plane is larger than the refractive index (nz) in the thickness direction, and the birefringence index in the thickness direction: Δn [xz] (= nx−nz) is increased. it can. That is, the polymer film mainly composed of the thermoplastic resin molded by the casting method can achieve the relationship of Re [590] <Rth [590].

  The birefringence (Δn [xz]) in the thickness direction of the polymer film is preferably 0.007 to 0.23, more preferably 0.015 to 0.12, and particularly preferably 0.00. 03 to 0.09. By setting it as said range, the retardation film which has the desired retardation value (Rth) of the thickness direction can be produced thinly.

  As a method for obtaining a retardation film used for the third optical element, a method of stretching a polymer film mainly composed of a thermoplastic resin molded by a casting method is preferably used. The stretching treatment is used for controlling the in-plane retardation value (Re) of the polymer film to a desired value.

  The stretching treatment method is not particularly limited, and examples thereof include a longitudinal uniaxial stretching method, a transverse uniaxial stretching method, a longitudinal and transverse simultaneous biaxial stretching method, and a longitudinal and transverse sequential biaxial stretching method. The said extending | stretching process method can be performed using suitable extending machines, such as a roll extending machine, a tenter extending machine, or a biaxial stretching machine, for example. Moreover, the said extending | stretching process can also be performed in 2 steps or 3 steps or more. The direction of stretching may be the film longitudinal (MD) direction or the width (TD) direction.

  In addition to the above-described method, the stretching method can be stretched in an oblique direction with respect to the longitudinal direction of the film using the stretching method described in FIG. 1 of JP-A-2003-262721. In this case, when producing a laminate in which the relationship between the slow axes of the third optical element and the second optical element is neither parallel nor orthogonal, it is possible to continuously bond the retardation films in the same longitudinal direction. Therefore, productivity can be significantly improved. Moreover, as described in paragraph [0028] of JP-A-2003-344856, a polymer film formed on the surface of a plastic substrate can be stretched together with the plastic substrate. In this case, even if the polymer film is thin, the film can be stretched uniformly in the width direction without breaking. When the plastic substrate has a retardation value, a laminate of the plastic substrate and the polymer film may be used as it is as the third optical element as long as the object of the present invention is satisfied. When polyimide is used for the third optical element used in the present invention, a method of stretching a polymer film formed on the surface of the plastic substrate together with the plastic substrate is particularly preferably used.

  The temperature (stretching temperature) in the stretching oven when stretching a polymer film containing a thermoplastic resin as a main component can be appropriately selected according to the target retardation value, the type and thickness of the polymer film used, and the like. . The stretching temperature is preferably 110 ° C to 185 ° C, more preferably 120 ° C to 180 ° C, and particularly preferably 135 ° C to 175 ° C.

  In addition, the stretching ratio (stretching ratio) when stretching a polymer film containing a thermoplastic resin as a main component can be appropriately selected according to the target retardation value, the type and thickness of the polymer film used, and the like. . The draw ratio is preferably 1.02 times to 1.70 times, more preferably 1.02 times to 1.50 times, and particularly preferably 1.02 times to 1.30 times. If it is said extending | stretching conditions, the retardation film excellent in the optical uniformity can be obtained.

F. Protective film of polarizing element The surface of the polarizing element of the present invention where the first optical element, the second optical element, and the third optical element are not bonded (that is, outside the polarizer 10 in FIGS. 1 and 2) A transparent film can be arranged as a protective film.

  The transparent film is preferably excellent in transparency, mechanical strength, thermal stability, moisture shielding properties and the like. Examples of the material for forming the transparent film include thermosetting resins, ultraviolet curable resins, thermoplastic resins, thermoplastic elastomers, and biodegradable plastics. In the present invention, among these, a polymer film containing a thermoplastic resin as a main component is preferably used. This is because it is excellent in workability, product quality and economy. The thermoplastic resin may be an amorphous polymer or a crystalline polymer. Amorphous polymers have the advantage of excellent transparency, and crystalline polymers have the advantage of excellent rigidity, strength, and chemical resistance.

  A hard coat treatment, an antireflection treatment, an antisticking treatment, and a diffusion treatment (also referred to as an antiglare treatment) can be appropriately selected and used for the surface of the transparent film to which the polarizer is not adhered. The hard coat treatment is performed for the purpose of preventing the surface of the polarizing element from being scratched. For example, a cured film excellent in curing or slipping with an appropriate ultraviolet curable resin such as acrylic or silicone is used. It can be formed on the surface of the transparent film. The antireflection treatment is performed for the purpose of preventing reflection of external light on the surface of the polarizing plate. The anti-glare treatment is performed for the purpose of preventing the external light from reflecting on the surface of the polarizing plate and preventing the light transmitted from the polarizing element from being obstructed. For example, the sand blast method or the embossing method It can be formed by imparting a fine concavo-convex structure to the surface of the transparent film by an appropriate method such as a surface roughening method or a combination method of transparent fine particles. The anti-glare treatment layer may also serve as a diffusion layer (viewing angle expanding function or the like) for diffusing the light transmitted through the polarizing plate to expand the viewing angle.

G. Liquid crystal display (liquid crystal panel)
The polarizing element of the present invention is preferably disposed on one side or both sides of a liquid crystal cell and used as a liquid crystal panel. More preferably, the polarizing element of the present invention is used by being disposed on both sides of the liquid crystal cell. The type of the liquid crystal cell is not particularly limited, and any of a transmissive type, a reflective type, and a reflective transflective type can be used. Examples of the driving mode of the liquid crystal cell include a twisted nematic (TN) mode, a super twisted nematic (STN) mode, a horizontal alignment (ECB) mode, a vertical alignment (VA) mode, an in-plane switching (IPS) mode, and a bend nematic. (OCB) mode, ferroelectric liquid crystal (SSFLC) mode, antiferroelectric liquid crystal (AFLC) mode, etc. are mentioned. Among these, the polarizing element of the present invention is particularly preferably used for a bend nematic (OCB) mode liquid crystal cell.

  FIG. 8 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a liquid crystal display device according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention. The liquid crystal panel 70 includes a liquid crystal cell 60, a polarizing element 50 disposed on the viewing side of the liquid crystal cell 60, and a polarizing element 50 ′ disposed on the backlight side of the liquid crystal cell 60. In the illustrated example, both of the polarizing elements 50 and 50 ′ are the polarizing elements of the present invention, as described in the above items A to F. That is, the polarizing element 50 includes the polarizer 10, the first optical element 20, the second optical element 30, and the third optical element 40 in order from the viewing side. The polarizing element 50 ′ includes, in order from the backlight side, a polarizer 10 ′, a first optical element 20 ′, a second optical element 30 ′, and a third optical element 40 ′. Polarizers 10 and 10 'are typically arranged such that their absorption axes are orthogonal to each other. The liquid crystal cell 60 has a pair of glass substrates 66 and 67 and a liquid crystal layer 65 as a display medium disposed between the substrates. One glass substrate 67 (active matrix substrate) has an active element 68 (typically a TFT) for controlling the electro-optical characteristics of the liquid crystal, a scanning line for supplying a gate signal to the active element, and a signal for supplying a source signal. Lines are provided (both not shown). On the other glass substrate 66 (color filter substrate), a colored layer 61 as a color filter, a light shielding layer 62 (also referred to as a black matrix), and an ITO layer 63 are provided. The distance (cell gap) between the two glass substrates is controlled by the spacer 64. For example, an alignment film (not shown) made of polyimide is provided on the side of the glass substrates 66 and 67 in contact with the liquid crystal layer. Further, a protective film 80 is provided on the outer side of one polarizer 10, and an antireflection film 90 is further provided on the outer side of the protective film. A protective film 80 ′ is also provided outside the other polarizer 10 ′, and a brightness enhancement film 100 is provided outside the protective film. The liquid crystal display device 200 is provided with a backlight unit including a prism sheet 110, a light guide plate 120, and a lamp 130 in addition to the liquid crystal panel 70 described above.

  FIG. 9 is a schematic perspective view illustrating an alignment state of liquid crystal molecules in a bend nematic (OCB) mode liquid crystal cell. The OCB mode is a display mode in which the liquid crystal layer 65 is configured by an orientation called a bend orientation. As shown in FIG. 9 (c), the bend alignment has a substantially parallel angle (alignment angle) when the alignment of nematic liquid crystal molecules is in the vicinity of the substrate, and the alignment plane increases toward the center of the liquid crystal layer. An alignment state that exhibits an angle perpendicular to the liquid crystal layer, gradually changes so as to be aligned with the opposing substrate surface as the distance from the center of the liquid crystal layer, and does not have a twisted structure throughout the liquid crystal layer. Such a bend orientation is formed as follows. As shown in FIG. 9A, in a state where no electric field or the like is applied (initial state), the liquid crystal molecules are substantially homogeneously aligned. However, the liquid crystal molecules have a pretilt angle, and the pretilt angle near the substrate is different from the pretilt angle near the opposite substrate. When a predetermined bias voltage (typically, 1.5 V to 1.9 V) is applied thereto (when a low voltage is applied), a splay alignment as shown in FIG. A transition to bend orientation as shown can be achieved. When a display voltage (typically 5 V to 7 V) is applied from the bend alignment state (when a high voltage is applied), the liquid crystal molecules rise substantially perpendicular to the substrate surface as shown in FIG. In the normally white display mode, the light that passes through one polarizer and enters the liquid crystal layer in the state of FIG. 9D when a high voltage is applied is compensated by the third optical element 40. It proceeds without changing the polarization direction and is absorbed by the other polarizer. Therefore, a dark state is displayed. When the display voltage is lowered, it can return to the bend alignment and return to the bright display by the alignment regulating force of the rubbing process. In addition, gradation display is possible by changing the display voltage to control the tilt of the liquid crystal molecules to change the transmitted light intensity from the polarizer. Note that a liquid crystal display device having an OCB mode liquid crystal cell can switch the phase transition from the splay alignment state to the bend alignment state at a very high speed, so that the liquid crystal display device in other drive modes such as the TN mode and the IPS mode is used. In comparison, it has a feature of excellent moving image display characteristics.

  The OCB mode liquid crystal cell display mode can be used in either a normally white mode that takes a dark state (black display) when a high voltage is applied or a normally black mode that takes a bright state (white display) when a high voltage is applied. can do. In the present invention, a normally white mode display liquid crystal cell that compensates for a liquid crystal cell when a high voltage is applied (state (d) in FIG. 9) using the third optical element is preferable. This is because when used in a liquid crystal display device, a high contrast ratio is obtained, and the uniformity of black display is excellent.

  The cell gap of the OCB mode liquid crystal cell is preferably 2 μm to 10 μm, more preferably 3 μm to 9 μm, and particularly preferably 4 μm to 8 μm. Within the above range, the response time can be shortened and good display characteristics can be obtained.

The nematic liquid crystal used in the OCB mode liquid crystal cell preferably has a positive dielectric anisotropy. Specific examples of nematic liquid crystals having positive dielectric anisotropy include those described in JP-A-9-176645. A commercially available nematic liquid crystal may be used as it is. Examples of the commercially available nematic liquid crystal include a product name “ZLI-4535” and a product name “ZLI-1132” manufactured by Merck. The difference between the ordinary light refractive index (no) and the extraordinary light refractive index (ne) of the nematic liquid crystal, that is, the birefringence (Δn LC ) is appropriately selected depending on the response speed, transmittance, etc. of the liquid crystal. Is 0.05-0.30, more preferably 0.10-0.30, and still more preferably 0.12-0.30.

  The pretilt angle of the nematic liquid crystal used in the OCB mode liquid crystal cell is preferably 1 ° to 20 °, more preferably 2 ° to 15 °, and particularly preferably 3 ° to 10 °. Within the above range, the response time can be shortened and good display characteristics can be obtained.

  In the OCB mode liquid crystal cell, Re [590] when a low voltage is applied (state (c) in FIG. 9) is preferably 100 nm to 400 nm, more preferably 130 nm to 350 nm, and particularly preferably 260 nm. ~ 300 nm. Rth [590] is preferably −200 nm to −600 nm, more preferably −240 nm to −480 nm, and particularly preferably −280 nm to −360 nm.

  In the OCB mode liquid crystal cell, Re [590] when a high voltage is applied (state (d) in FIG. 9) is preferably 50 nm to 150 nm, more preferably 65 nm to 125 nm, and particularly preferably 80 nm. ~ 100 nm. Rth [590] is preferably −300 nm to −1200 nm, more preferably −450 nm to −1000 nm, and particularly preferably −600 nm to −800 nm.

The present invention will be further described using the following examples and comparative examples. In addition, this invention is not limited only to these Examples. In addition, each analysis method used for the Example is as follows.
(1) Measuring method of moisture content of polarizer:
Using a Karl Fischer moisture meter [product name “MKA-610” manufactured by Kyoto Electronics Industry Co., Ltd.], a sample cut into a size of 10 mm × 30 mm was placed in a heating furnace at 150 ° C. ± 1 ° C., and nitrogen gas (200 ml / min. ) Was bubbled into the titration cell solution and measured.
(2) Measuring method of single transmittance, polarization degree, and Δab value of polarizer:
Using a spectrophotometer [product name “DOT-3” manufactured by Murakami Color Research Laboratory Co., Ltd.], it was measured in a 23 ° C. room.
(3) Measuring method of refractive index of film:
Using an Abbe refractometer [manufactured by Atago Co., Ltd., product name “DR-4”], measurement was performed with light having a wavelength of 589 nm in a 23 ° C. room.
(4) Measuring method of phase difference value:
Using a phase difference meter based on the parallel Nicol rotation method (product name “KOBRA21-ADH” manufactured by Oji Scientific Instruments Co., Ltd.), measurement was performed with light having a wavelength of 590 nm in a room at 23 ° C.
(5) Measuring method of light transmittance:
Using a UV-visible spectrophotometer [manufactured by JASCO Corporation, product name “V-560”], it was measured with light having a wavelength of 590 nm in a 23 ° C. room.
(6) Measuring method of photoelastic coefficient:
Using a spectroscopic ellipsometer [product name “M-220” manufactured by JASCO Corporation], applying a stress (5N to 10N) to a sample of size 2 cm × 10 cm with a light of wavelength 590 nm in a room at 23 ° C. The phase difference value was measured and obtained from the slope of the function of stress and phase difference value.
(7) Measuring method of molecular weight of polycarbonate:
Polystyrene was calculated as a standard sample by the gel permeation chromatograph (GPC) method. Specifically, it measured with the following apparatuses, instruments, and conditions.
-Sample: The sample was dissolved in an eluent to prepare a 0.1 wt% solution.-Pretreatment: allowed to stand for 8 hours and filtered through a 0.45 µm membrane filter-Analyzer: "HLC-8120GPC manufactured by Tosoh Corporation""
Column: TSKgel Super HM-H / H4000 / H3000 / H2000
-Eluent: Tetrahydrofuran-Flow rate: 0.6 ml / min.
・ Detector: RI (differential refractometer)
-Column temperature: 40 ° C
・ Inflow volume: 20μl
(8) Method for measuring molecular weight of polyimide:
Polyethylene oxide was calculated as a standard sample by a gel permeation chromatograph (GPC) method. Specifically, it measured with the following apparatuses, instruments, and conditions.
-Sample: The sample was dissolved in the eluent to prepare a 0.1 wt% solution.-Pretreatment: allowed to stand for 8 hours and filtered through a 0.45 µm membrane filter-Analyzer: "HLC-8020GPC" manufactured by Tosoh Corporation "
Column: GMHXL + GMHXL + G2500HXL
Column size: 7.8mmΦ × 30cm each (total 90cm)
・ Eluent:
Dimethylformamide solution (10 ml of lithium bromide and 10 mM phosphoric acid added with dimethylformamide to make up to 1 L)
-Flow rate: 0.8 ml / min.
・ Detector: RI (differential refractometer)
-Column temperature: 40 ° C
・ Inflow volume: 100 μl
(9) Measuring method of imidation rate:
Using a 1 H-NMR apparatus [manufactured by JEOL Ltd., product name “LA400”], the peak integrated intensity derived from polyamic acid NH near 11 ppm is X, and 7.0 to 8.5 ppm of polyamic acid and polyimide aroma. The peak integrated intensity derived from the group was defined as Y, and it was determined by the formula: A (%) = ((Y-6X) / Y) × 100.
(10) Thickness measurement method:
When the thickness was less than 10 μm, measurement was performed using a thin film spectrophotometer [manufactured by Otsuka Electronics Co., Ltd., “instant multiphotometry system MCPD-2000”]. When the thickness was 10 μm or more, it was measured using a digital micrometer [manufactured by Anritsu Co., Ltd., product name “K-351C type”].
(11) Measuring method of shrinkage rate of shrink film:
It was determined according to the heat shrinkage rate A method of JIS Z 1712-1997 (however, the heating temperature was 140 ° C. instead of 120 ° C., and a weight of 3 g was added to the test piece). Specifically, five test pieces each having a width of 20 mm and a length of 150 mm were taken from the vertical (MD) and horizontal (TD) directions, and a test piece with a mark at a distance of about 100 mm at the center was prepared. did. The test piece is suspended vertically in an air circulating thermostat maintained at 140 ° C. ± 3 ° C. with a load of 3 g, heated for 15 minutes, taken out, and left in the standard state (room temperature) for 30 minutes. Then, using a caliper stipulated in JIS B 7507, the distance between the standards was measured, and the average value of the five measured values was obtained. S (%) = [(distance between standards before heating (mm) -Distance between standard after heating (mm) / Distance between standard before heating (mm)] x 100, S (MD) and S (TD) were calculated.
(12) Measuring method of contrast ratio of liquid crystal display device:
A white image and a black image are displayed on the liquid crystal display device, and the Y value of the XYZ display system in the azimuth angle 45 ° direction and the polar angle 60 ° direction of the display screen is measured using the product name “EZ Contrast 160D” manufactured by ELDIM. did. Then, the contrast ratio “YW / YB” in the oblique direction was calculated from the Y value (YW) in the white image and the Y value (YB) in the black image. The azimuth angle 45 ° represents an azimuth rotated 45 ° counterclockwise when the long side of the panel is 0 °. Further, the polar angle of 60 ° represents an orientation viewed obliquely by 60 ° when the vertical direction is 0 ° with respect to the panel.
(13) Measuring method of color shift amount of liquid crystal display device:
A black image was displayed on the liquid crystal display device, and the hue, a value, and b value in all directions (360 °) in the polar angle 60 ° direction were measured using a product name “EZ Contrast 160D” manufactured by ELDIM. Omnidirectional a value at a polar angle of 60 ° directions, the average value of b values, respectively, a ave. Value, b ave. The a value and the b value at a polar angle of 60 ° and an azimuth angle of 45 ° were set to a 45 ° value and b 45 ° value, respectively. The color shift amount (Δab value) in the oblique direction was calculated from the following formula: {(a 45 ° −a ave. ) 2 + (b 45 ° −b ave. ) 2 } 1/2 . The azimuth angle 45 ° represents an azimuth rotated 45 ° counterclockwise when the long side of the panel is 0 °. Further, the polar angle of 60 ° represents an orientation viewed obliquely by 60 ° when the vertical direction is 0 ° with respect to the panel.

[Reference Example 1]
Preparation of Polarizer Polymer film (average polymerization degree 2400, saponification degree 99.9 mol%) [trade name “9P75R” manufactured by Kuraray Co., Ltd.] mainly composed of 75 μm thick polyvinyl alcohol film as iodine and potassium iodide In the blended dyeing bath (30 ° C. ± 3 ° C.), the film was uniaxially stretched 2.5 times while dyeing using a roll stretching machine. Next, uniaxial stretching was performed in an aqueous solution containing boric acid and potassium iodide so as to be 6 times the original length of polyvinyl alcohol while performing a crosslinking reaction. The obtained film was dried in an air circulation type constant temperature oven at 50 ° C. ± 1 ° C. for 30 minutes to obtain a polarizer (width 1300 mm) having a moisture content of 26% and a thickness of 28 μm. The polarizer A had a degree of polarization of 99.91% and a transmittance of 44.0% (23 ° C./wavelength 440 nm).

[Reference Example 2]
Preparation of λ / 2 plate (Nz coefficient 0.25) used for the first optical element Highly composed mainly of polycarbonate obtained by a conventional method using bisphenol A as an aromatic dihydric phenol component and phosgene as a carbonate precursor. Biaxially stretched polypropylene film [trade name “Trephan” (thickness 60 μm) manufactured by Toray Industries, Inc.] on both sides of the molecular film [trade name “Elmec R film” (thickness 74 μm, width 1300 mm) manufactured by Kaneka Corporation] It bonded together through the acrylic adhesive layer (thickness 15 micrometers). Thereafter, the film is held in the longitudinal direction with a roll stretching machine and stretched 1.041 times in an air circulation type thermostatic oven at 150 ° C. ± 1 ° C. (measured at a distance of 3 cm from the film back surface) Film A was produced. The properties of the obtained retardation film A are shown in Table 1 below together with the film properties of Reference Examples 3 to 8 described later.

  The biaxially stretched polypropylene film used in this example had a shrinkage rate at 140 ° C. of 5.7% in the MD direction and 7.6% in the TD direction. The acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive uses isononyl acrylate (weight average molecular weight = 550,000) synthesized by solution polymerization as a base polymer, and a polyisocyanate compound cross-linking agent [Nippon Polyurethane (100% by weight). A product obtained by mixing 3 parts by weight of a trade name “Coronate L” manufactured by Co., Ltd. and 10 parts by weight of a catalyst [trade name “OL-1” manufactured by Tokyo Fine Chemical Co., Ltd.] was used.

[Reference Example 3]
Preparation of λ / 2 plate (Nz coefficient 0.75) used for first optical element A polymer film having a thickness before stretching of 69 μm was used, and the draw ratio was changed to 1.056 times instead of 1.041 times. Except for the above, a retardation film B was produced in the same manner as in Reference Example 2. The properties of the obtained retardation film B are as shown in Table 1 above.

[Reference Example 4]
Preparation of λ / 2 plate (Nz coefficient 0.5) used for second optical element Polymer film containing styrene resin (weight average molecular weight 1,300) and polycarbonate resin (weight average molecular weight 60,000) [( A biaxially stretched polypropylene film was bonded to both sides of a trade name “ELMEC PF film” (thickness 55 μm, width 1300 mm)] manufactured by Kaneka Corporation via an acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive layer (thickness 15 μm). Thereafter, the film is held in the longitudinal direction with a roll stretching machine and stretched 1.29 times in an air circulation type thermostatic oven at 147 ° C. ± 1 ° C. (measured at a distance of 3 cm from the back of the film). Film C was produced. The properties of the obtained retardation film C are as shown in Table 1 above. The same biaxially stretched polypropylene film and acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive as in Reference Example 2 were used.

[Reference Example 5]
Preparation of λ / 4 plate (Nz coefficient 0.5) used for the second optical element Reference was made except that the stretching temperature was 141 ° C. instead of 147 ° C. and the stretching ratio was 1.10 times instead of 1.29 times. A retardation film D was produced in the same manner as in Example 4. The properties of the obtained retardation film D are as shown in Table 1 above.

[Reference Example 6]
Preparation of λ / 4 plate (Nz coefficient of 1.0) A polymer film mainly composed of norbornene resin [trade name “Arton” (thickness: 100 μm, width: 1300 mm) manufactured by JSR Corporation] While maintaining the longitudinal direction, the film was uniaxially stretched 1.35 times in an air circulation type thermostatic oven at 170 ° C. ± 1 ° C. (measured at a distance of 3 cm from the film back surface) to prepare a retardation film E. The properties of the obtained retardation film E are as shown in Table 1 above.

[Reference Example 7]
Preparation of polyimide film used for third optical element 2,2′-bis (3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride [manufactured by Clariant Co., Ltd.] is used as a tetracarboxylic dianhydride, and a diamine is used. Using 2,2-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4′-diaminobiphenyl as the following, a polyimide having a repeating structure of the following formula (1) was obtained according to a conventional method. The polyimide had a polymerization average molecular weight (Mw) of 124,000 and an imidation ratio of 99.9%. 17.7 parts by weight of the polyimide was dissolved in 100 parts by weight of methyl isobutyl ketone to prepare a 15% by weight polyimide solution. This polyimide solution was applied in one direction on a triacetyl cellulose film [trade name “Fujitack UZ” (thickness 80 μm, width 1300 mm) manufactured by Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.] (coating width 1240 mm), and 135 ° C. ± 1 ° C. In an air-circulating constant temperature oven (measured at a distance of 3 cm from the back of the film) for 5 minutes. Subsequently, while heating in a 150 ° C. ± 1 ° C. air circulation type thermostatic oven using a tenter stretching machine, the laminate of the polyimide film and the triacetyl cellulose film was fixed in the width direction by 1. The film was uniaxially stretched at 09 times, and then subjected to relaxation treatment at 0.97 times in the width direction. The triacetyl cellulose film was peeled off to prepare a retardation film F made of polyimide. The properties of the obtained retardation film F are as shown in Table 1 above.

[Reference Example 8]
Production of Polycarbonate Film A polymer film composed mainly of a polycarbonate-based resin [trade name “POCALON” (thickness: 112 μm, width: 1300 mm) manufactured by Teijin Ltd.] is maintained at 160 ° C. with the roll stretching machine holding the longitudinal direction of the film. The film was stretched 1.14 times in an air-circulating constant temperature oven of ± 1 ° C. (temperature measured at a distance of 3 cm from the back of the film). Then, fix the longitudinal direction of the film with a tenter stretching machine, and uniaxially stretch 1.20 times in the width direction in an air circulating thermostatic oven at 169 ° C ± 1 ° C (measured temperature at a distance of 3 cm from the back of the film) Thereafter, relaxation treatment was performed at 0.97 times in the width direction, and a retardation film G was obtained. The properties of the obtained retardation film G are as shown in Table 1 above.

[Reference Example 9]
Production of OCB Mode Liquid Crystal Cell Polysilicon TFTs, scanning lines, signal lines, and pixel electrodes were formed on a glass substrate, and an active matrix substrate having 480 vertical pixels and 640 × 3 horizontal pixels was produced. Next, a color filter composed of three primary colors (R (red), G (green), B (blue)) corresponding to each pixel electrode of the active matrix substrate, and a color filter of each color are provided on another glass substrate. A black matrix formed so as to be divided was formed, and an ITO electrode was formed thereon to produce a color filter substrate. A polyimide film [trade name “SE-5111” (pretilt angle: 9.5 °) manufactured by Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd.] as an alignment film was applied on the two substrates to a thickness of 80 nm and dried. Next, the surface of the polyimide film was rubbed in one direction with a rayon rubbing cloth in parallel to the scanning line.

Next, spherical fine particles having a diameter of 6.6 μm were dispersed as a spacer on the active matrix substrate at a density of 80 particles / mm 2 . An epoxy resin adhesive [trade name “XN-21” manufactured by Mitsui Toatsu Chemical Co., Ltd.] is applied to the periphery of the effective display area of the color filter substrate by screen printing except for the opening for liquid crystal injection. Coated. After that, the active matrix substrate and the color filter substrate are overlapped with the alignment films facing each other and the rubbing directions are parallel to each other, and heated and bonded while applying pressure, and an empty cell having a cell gap of 6.6 μm. Was made.

  To this empty cell, a nematic liquid crystal having a positive dielectric anisotropy [trade name “ZLI1132” (Δn = 0.14) manufactured by Merck & Co., Ltd.] and a chiral agent [trade name “S811” manufactured by Merck & Co., Ltd.] Injection was performed by a vacuum injection method, and after injection, the liquid crystal injection port was sealed with an ultraviolet curable resin [UV-1000 manufactured by Sony Chemical Co., Ltd.] to produce an OCB mode liquid crystal cell. When a high voltage was applied to this liquid crystal cell (6 V), Re [590] was 90 nm, and Rth [590] was −670 nm.

  One side of the polarizer produced in Reference Example 1 was coated with a curable adhesive [manufactured by Nippon Synthetic Chemical Co., Ltd., trade name “Gosefimer Z200” as a first optical element as a first optical element. The retardation film A produced in Reference Example 2 was laminated so that its slow axis was parallel to the absorption axis of the polarizer (0 ° ± 0.5 °), and dried to be bonded (adhesive layer) Thickness of 0.05 μm).

  Next, the angle α formed between the slow axis of the retardation film C produced in Reference Example 4 on the surface of the retardation film A and the absorption axis of the polarizer is the direction of the absorption axis of the polarizer. Was attached via an acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive (20 μm) so that the angle became 0 ° counterclockwise to 84 °. Next, on the surface of the retardation film C, the retardation film C ′ produced in Reference Example 4 (having the same characteristics as the retardation film C) has a slow axis and an absorption axis of the polarizer. The angle β formed was attached via an acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive (20 μm) so that the absorption axis direction of the polarizer was 0 ° and was 57 ° counterclockwise. Next, on the surface of the retardation film C ′, the angle γ between the retardation axis of the retardation film D produced in Reference Example 5 and the absorption axis of the polarizer is the absorption axis of the polarizer. The film was attached via an acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive (20 μm) so as to be 171 ° counterclockwise (that is, 9 ° clockwise) with the direction being 0 °. The laminate of the above retardation films C, C ′, and D was used as the second optical element.

  Next, the retardation film F produced in Reference Example 7 as a third optical element is formed on the surface of the retardation film D, and the slow axis thereof is perpendicular to the absorption axis of the polarizer (90 ° ± 0.5 °). ) Was attached via an acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive (20 μm). In addition, on the surface of the polarizer on which the optical element is not adhered, a curable adhesive mainly composed of polyvinyl alcohol [trade name “Goseifamer Z200” manufactured by Nippon Synthetic Chemical Co., Ltd.] A triacetyl cellulose film [trade name “Fujitack UZ” (80 μm)] manufactured by Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.] was laminated, dried and adhered (adhesive layer thickness 0.05 μm). The configuration of the polarizing element A thus produced is the same as that of the polarizing element 50 in FIG.

  In place of the retardation film B instead of the retardation film A as the first optical element, except that the slow axis of the retardation film B is adhered so as to be parallel to the absorption axis of the polarizer, Each optical film was stuck in the same manner as in Example 1. The configuration of the polarizing element B manufactured as described above is the same as that of the polarizing element 50 ′ in FIG. 10.

  On the viewing side of the OCB mode liquid crystal cell produced in Reference Example 9, the polarizing element A produced in Example 1 was placed on the acrylic side so that the slow axis of the third optical element was perpendicular to the rubbing direction of the liquid crystal cell. It sticked through a system adhesive (20 μm). Further, on the backlight side of the liquid crystal cell, the polarizing element B produced in Example 2 was prepared so that the slow axis of the third optical element was orthogonal to the rubbing direction of the liquid crystal cell, and the acrylic adhesive (20 μm The liquid crystal panel A as shown in FIG. 10 was produced. The liquid crystal panel A was combined with a backlight unit to produce a liquid crystal display device A. The contrast ratio in all directions and the color shift amount in the oblique direction of the liquid crystal display device A were measured in a dark room at 23 ° C. The results are shown in Table 2 together with the results of Comparative Example 3 described later.

[Comparative Example 1]
One side of the polarizer produced in Reference Example 1 was coated with a curable adhesive [manufactured by Nippon Synthetic Chemical Co., Ltd., trade name “Gosefimer Z200” as a first optical element as a first optical element. The retardation film E produced in Reference Example 6 was laminated such that its slow axis formed an angle of 45 ° with the absorption axis of the polarizer, and dried and adhered (adhesive layer thickness 0.05 μm). . Next, on the surface of the retardation film E, the retardation film G produced in Reference Example 8 is passed through an acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive (20 μm) so that its slow axis is parallel to the absorption axis of the polarizer. Sticked. In this way, a polarizing element X as shown in FIG. 11 was produced.

[Comparative Example 2]
One side of the polarizer produced in Reference Example 1 was coated with a curable adhesive [manufactured by Nippon Synthetic Chemical Co., Ltd., trade name “Gosefimer Z200” as a first optical element as a first optical element. The retardation film E ′ produced in Reference Example 6 (having the same characteristics as the retardation film E) is laminated so that its slow axis forms an angle of 135 ° with the absorption axis of the polarizer, and dried. (Adhesive layer thickness 0.05 μm). In this way, a polarizing element Y as shown in FIG. 11 was produced.

[Comparative Example 3]
The polarizing element X produced in Comparative Example 1 is placed on the viewing side of the OCB mode liquid crystal cell produced in Reference Example 9 so that the slow axis of the retardation film G is perpendicular to the rubbing direction of the liquid crystal cell. It sticked through a system adhesive (20 μm). Further, on the backlight side of the liquid crystal cell, the polarizing element Y produced in Comparative Example 2 was disposed so that the slow axes of the retardation films E and E ′ were orthogonal to each other and above and below the liquid crystal cell. A liquid crystal panel X as shown in FIG. 11 was prepared by adhering with an acrylic adhesive (20 μm) so that the absorption axes of the polarizers were orthogonal to each other. The liquid crystal panel X was combined with a backlight unit to produce a liquid crystal display device X. The contrast ratio in all directions and the color shift amount in the oblique direction of the liquid crystal display device X were measured in a dark room at 23 ° C. The results are shown in Table 2 above.

[Evaluation]
As shown in Example 3, the liquid crystal display device A in which the polarizing elements (Examples 1 and 2) of the present invention are respectively laminated on both surfaces of an OCB mode liquid crystal cell is a conventional technique shown in Comparative Example 1. Compared with the manufactured liquid crystal display device X, the contrast ratio could be significantly increased in all directions. Furthermore, the amount of color shift in the oblique direction could be significantly reduced. The effect of the present invention was extremely superior. Factors that have produced such a great effect are: (1) the adverse effect caused by the optical rotation of liquid crystal molecules in the bend alignment state, and circularly polarized linearly polarized light from both the front and diagonal directions, regardless of the angle. (2) It was possible to prevent the polarization degree of the polarizer from decreasing in an oblique direction by using a predetermined λ / 2 plate, and ( 3) By using a material having a large birefringence in the thickness direction for the retardation film for compensating the liquid crystal cell in the bend alignment state, and reducing the thickness of the film, the variation of the retardation value and the angle of the slow axis is reduced. It is thought that it was possible to do.

  The liquid crystal panel of the present invention can be used in liquid crystal display devices such as personal computers, liquid crystal televisions, mobile phones, and personal digital assistants (PDAs), and image display devices such as projectors and projection televisions. In addition, the polarizing element of the present invention is suitably used for a liquid crystal display device and particularly suitably for a liquid crystal television.

It is a schematic sectional drawing of the polarizing element by preferable embodiment of this invention. In a preferred embodiment of the liquid crystal panel of the present invention, an outline explaining the relationship among the absorption axis of the polarizer, the slow axis of the first optical element, the slow axis of the second optical element, and the slow axis of the third optical element. It is a perspective view. In one embodiment of the 2nd optical element, it is a schematic perspective view explaining the relation between the absorption axis of a polarizer, and the slow axis of the 2nd optical element. In another embodiment of a 2nd optical element, it is a schematic perspective view explaining the relationship between the absorption axis of a polarizer, and the slow axis of a 2nd optical element. In another embodiment of a 2nd optical element, it is a schematic perspective view explaining the relationship between the absorption axis of a polarizer, and the slow axis of a 2nd optical element. It is a typical conceptual diagram explaining the method of canceling the phase difference value of a liquid crystal cell using a 3rd optical element. In preferred embodiment of a 3rd optical element, it is a schematic perspective view explaining the relationship between the slow axis of a 3rd optical element, and the rubbing direction of a liquid crystal cell. 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a liquid crystal display device according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention. It is a schematic perspective view explaining the orientation state of the liquid crystal molecule in the liquid crystal cell of a bend nematic (OCB) mode. It is a schematic perspective view explaining the structure of the liquid crystal panel obtained by the Example of this invention. It is a schematic perspective view explaining the structure of the liquid crystal panel obtained by the comparative example.

Explanation of symbols

200 Liquid crystal display device 10 Polarizer 20 First optical element 30 Second optical element 40 Third optical element 50 Polarizing element 60 Liquid crystal cell 65 Liquid crystal layer 70 Liquid crystal panel




Claims (14)

  1. A polarizer, a first optical element that satisfies the following formulas (1) and (2), a second optical element that satisfies the following formulas (3) and (4), and the following formulas (5) and (6): A polarizing element for a liquid crystal cell in a bend nematic mode , wherein the first optical element has an Nz coefficient of 0.75 ± 0.05 or 0.25 ± 0.05.
    200 nm ≦ Re [590] ≦ 350 nm (1)
    Re [590]> Rth [590] (2)
    70 nm ≦ Re [590] ≦ 210 nm (3)
    Re [590]> Rth [590] (4)
    Re [590]> 0 nm (5)
    Re [590] <Rth [590] (6)
    [However, Re [590] and Rth [590] are the retardation value in the film plane and the retardation value in the thickness direction, respectively, measured with light having a wavelength of 590 nm at 23 ° C. ]
  2.   The polarizing element according to claim 1, wherein the slow axis of the first optical element and the absorption axis of the polarizer are arranged so as to be substantially parallel or orthogonal to each other.
  3.   The polarizing element according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the first optical element is composed of a single retardation film.
  4.   The polarizing element as described in any one of Claims 1-3 whose Nz coefficient of a said 2nd optical element is 0.20-0.80.
  5.   The second optical element is composed of one retardation film, and the angle formed between the slow axis of the retardation film and the absorption axis of the polarizer is 45 ± 2.0 °. The polarizing element according to any one of claims 1 to 4.
  6. The second optical element is composed of a laminate of a first retardation film and a second retardation film, and an angle formed by a slow axis of the first retardation film and an absorption axis of the polarizer. Is α, and β is the angle between the slow axis of the second retardation film and the absorption axis of the polarizer, α and β satisfy the relationship of the following formula (7): The polarizing element according to any one of 4:
    2α + 40 ° <β <2α + 50 ° (7).
  7.   The polarizing element according to claim 6, wherein the angle α is 15 ° to 20 ° or 70 ° to 75 ° clockwise or counterclockwise with respect to the absorption axis.
  8. The second optical element is composed of a laminate of a third retardation film, a fourth retardation film, and a fifth retardation film, and the slow axis of the third retardation film and the polarizer Is the angle between the absorption axis of the fourth retardation film and β is the angle between the retardation axis of the fourth retardation film and the absorption axis of the polarizer, and the retardation axis of the fifth retardation film is the polarizer. The polarizing element according to claim 1, wherein α, β, and γ satisfy the relationship of the following formula (8), where γ is an angle formed by the absorption axis:
    2 (β−α) + 40 ° <γ <2 (β−α) + 50 ° (8).
  9.   The angle α is 81 ° to 87 ° clockwise or counterclockwise with respect to the absorption axis, and the angle β is 52 ° to 62 ° clockwise or counterclockwise with respect to the absorption axis. The polarizing element according to claim 8.
  10.   The polarizing element as described in any one of Claims 1-9 whose Nz coefficient of a said 3rd optical element is 2-14.
  11.   The polarizing element according to any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein the third optical element is a stretched film of a polymer film containing polyimide as a main component.
  12. A liquid crystal panel comprising the polarizing element according to claim 1 and a bend nematic mode liquid crystal cell.
  13. The liquid crystal panel according to claim 12 , wherein a slow axis of the third optical element is orthogonal to a rubbing direction of the liquid crystal cell.
  14. A liquid crystal display device comprising the liquid crystal panel according to claim 12 .

JP2005293808A 2005-10-06 2005-10-06 Polarizing element, liquid crystal panel, and liquid crystal display device Expired - Fee Related JP4731269B2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2005293808A JP4731269B2 (en) 2005-10-06 2005-10-06 Polarizing element, liquid crystal panel, and liquid crystal display device

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2005293808A JP4731269B2 (en) 2005-10-06 2005-10-06 Polarizing element, liquid crystal panel, and liquid crystal display device

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
JP2007102016A JP2007102016A (en) 2007-04-19
JP4731269B2 true JP4731269B2 (en) 2011-07-20

Family

ID=38029012

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
JP2005293808A Expired - Fee Related JP4731269B2 (en) 2005-10-06 2005-10-06 Polarizing element, liquid crystal panel, and liquid crystal display device

Country Status (1)

Country Link
JP (1) JP4731269B2 (en)

Families Citing this family (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2009276753A (en) * 2008-04-14 2009-11-26 Sumitomo Chemical Co Ltd Retardation film, elliptical polarizer, liquid crystal display, and method of fabricating elliptical polarizer
JP2012252085A (en) * 2011-06-01 2012-12-20 Nitto Denko Corp Liquid crystal panel and liquid crystal display device
JP2015172740A (en) * 2014-02-18 2015-10-01 日東電工株式会社 Laminate and image display device

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2002296424A (en) * 2000-12-18 2002-10-09 Nippon Kayaku Co Ltd Optical film, polarizing film and method for improving visibility angle of polarizing film
JP2003029039A (en) * 2001-07-17 2003-01-29 Nitto Denko Corp Circularly polarizing plate and liquid crystal display device
JP2003207782A (en) * 2002-01-11 2003-07-25 Yasufumi Iimura Vertically aligned liquid crystal display device
JP2005099476A (en) * 2003-09-25 2005-04-14 Nitto Denko Corp Optical film and image display apparatus

Family Cites Families (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP4187616B2 (en) * 2002-09-06 2008-11-26 大日本印刷株式会社 Laminated retardation optical element, manufacturing method thereof, and liquid crystal display device
AU2003275983A1 (en) * 2002-10-18 2004-05-04 Merck Patent Gmbh Compensated liquid crystal display of the bend mode
JP4155917B2 (en) * 2002-12-19 2008-09-24 日東電工株式会社 Birefringent optical film, elliptically polarizing plate using the same, and liquid crystal display using the same
JP3603897B2 (en) * 2003-04-07 2004-12-22 セイコーエプソン株式会社 Transflective liquid crystal device and electronic equipment

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2002296424A (en) * 2000-12-18 2002-10-09 Nippon Kayaku Co Ltd Optical film, polarizing film and method for improving visibility angle of polarizing film
JP2003029039A (en) * 2001-07-17 2003-01-29 Nitto Denko Corp Circularly polarizing plate and liquid crystal display device
JP2003207782A (en) * 2002-01-11 2003-07-25 Yasufumi Iimura Vertically aligned liquid crystal display device
JP2005099476A (en) * 2003-09-25 2005-04-14 Nitto Denko Corp Optical film and image display apparatus

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
JP2007102016A (en) 2007-04-19

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CA2434069C (en) Liquid crystal display device and use of retardation film therefor
CN100390581C (en) Polarizing plate, method of producing a polarizing plate, and liquid crystal panel, TV, and apparatus all using the same
JP4044485B2 (en) Optical film, method for producing the same, and polarizing plate using the same
JP2004326089A (en) Laminated phase difference layer, its manufacturing method and liquid crystal display device using phase difference layer
US7625612B2 (en) Retardation film, polarizing element, liquid crystal panel, and liquid crystal apparatus
US20070279553A1 (en) Liquid Crystal Panel, Liquid Crystal Television, and Liquid Crystal Display Apparatus
CN100426082C (en) Liquid crystal panel and liquid crystal display apparatus
JP4489594B2 (en) Display with compensation film
US7361390B2 (en) Liquid crystal panel and liquid crystal display apparatus
KR101214416B1 (en) liquid crystal panel and liquid crystal display device
KR100734796B1 (en) Retardation film and method of producing the same, and optical film, liquid crystal panel, and liquid crystal display apparatus all using the retardation film
US6937310B2 (en) Compensation films for LCDs
KR100971106B1 (en) Liquid crystal panel and liquid crystal display apparatus
KR100530975B1 (en) Liquid crystal display apparatus
JP4236098B2 (en) Birefringent optical film
US20050270458A1 (en) Multilayer optical compensation film, liquid crystal display, and process
CA2678211A1 (en) Optical film and polarizing film using the same, and method for improving view angle of the polarizing film
EP0854376B1 (en) Optical film
US20120003400A1 (en) Laminate optical body, optical film, liquid crystal display apparatus using said optical film, and method for producing laminate optical body
CN1954244B (en) Polarizing element, liquid crystal panel, liquid crystal television, and liquid crystal display device
KR100831918B1 (en) Liquid crystal panel, liquid crystal television, and liquid crystal display device
JP2006126777A5 (en)
KR100997821B1 (en) Liquid crystal panel comprising liquid crystal cell having multicap structure, and liquid crystal display
US7619706B2 (en) Liquid crystal panel, liquid crystal television, and liquid crystal display apparatus
CN101063769B (en) Liquid crystal display device

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
A621 Written request for application examination

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A621

Effective date: 20071018

A977 Report on retrieval

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A971007

Effective date: 20100303

A131 Notification of reasons for refusal

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A131

Effective date: 20100317

A521 Written amendment

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A523

Effective date: 20100512

A131 Notification of reasons for refusal

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A131

Effective date: 20110105

A521 Written amendment

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A523

Effective date: 20110228

A01 Written decision to grant a patent or to grant a registration (utility model)

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A01

Effective date: 20110406

A01 Written decision to grant a patent or to grant a registration (utility model)

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A01

R150 Certificate of patent or registration of utility model

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: R150

FPAY Renewal fee payment (event date is renewal date of database)

Free format text: PAYMENT UNTIL: 20140428

Year of fee payment: 3

A61 First payment of annual fees (during grant procedure)

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A61

Effective date: 20110419

LAPS Cancellation because of no payment of annual fees