JP4729358B2 - Rotation angle sensor - Google Patents

Rotation angle sensor Download PDF

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JP4729358B2
JP4729358B2 JP2005226015A JP2005226015A JP4729358B2 JP 4729358 B2 JP4729358 B2 JP 4729358B2 JP 2005226015 A JP2005226015 A JP 2005226015A JP 2005226015 A JP2005226015 A JP 2005226015A JP 4729358 B2 JP4729358 B2 JP 4729358B2
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magnet
axis
magnetic flux
flux density
magnetic
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JP2007040850A (en
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勲 五月女
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旭化成エレクトロニクス株式会社
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In the present invention, a rotation angle is set by a magnetic sensing section having a magnetoelectric transducer that senses two mutually perpendicular magnetic flux densities from a rotating magnetic field generated by rotation of a disk-shaped or ring-shaped magnet magnetized in a radial direction. The present invention relates to a desired rotation angle sensor.

  There is known an angle sensor in which a magnetoelectric conversion element is placed in the vicinity of the center of a disk magnet magnetized in the radial direction, and an angle is obtained from a change in magnetic flux density due to rotation of the magnet.

  FIG. 1 is a diagram for explaining such an angle sensor system.

  A magnetoelectric transducer 2 is packaged and placed under the rotating disk magnet 1.

  The disc magnet 1 magnetized in the radial direction is parallel to the lower substrate 3 and creates a spatially uniform magnetic field near the center of the disc.

  As the magnetoelectric conversion element 2, for example, a magnetoresistive element (MR element) is in practical use.

  FIG. 2 shows an example of the magnetosensitive part pattern of the MR element. The magnitude of the magnetic flux density caused by the magnet rotation is detected by a rectangular wave pattern 4 in the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction. 5 is a pad. This pattern 4 having the longitudinal direction in the axial direction utilizes the fact that the resistance value largely changes depending on the magnitude of the magnetic field applied in the axial direction. The magnetic sensitive part is made of a thin film metal and is miniaturized.

  In addition, there is a method of obtaining an angle by using a magnetic converging plate and changing the direction of magnetic flux density to a direction perpendicular to the disk magnet surface to sense the magnetic field (see Patent Document 1).

  Fig. 3 shows Fig. 2 of Patent Document 1. Hall elements (X1a to Y2b) are arranged in the vicinity of the circumference of the magnetic converging plate 6 having a diameter of several hundreds of micrometers placed near the center of the disc magnet, thereby constituting a magnetic sensing part. That is, a pair of Hall elements indicated by X1a and X1b and a pair of Hall elements indicated by X2a and X2b are arranged in the X-axis direction, and a pair of Hall elements indicated by Y1a and Y1b and Y2a, A pair of Hall elements indicated by Y2b is arranged. These Hall elements (X1a to Y2b) are formed on silicon by an IC process. The magnetosensitive direction is a direction orthogonal to the silicon surface. The fact that the horizontal magnetic field from the outside is bent in the direction of the magnetic sensitive surface of the Hall elements (X1a to Y2b) on the silicon by the effect of the converging plate 6 is utilized. In FIG. 3, 7 indicates the direction of the magnetic field. Hall element pairs placed in the X-axis and Y-axis Y directions sense the magnetic flux densities in the X-axis and Y-axis directions, respectively, convert them into voltages, and the magnetic flux density is obtained by a signal processing unit provided on silicon. The rotation angle is obtained from the ratio. The sum of the outputs of the Hall elements (X1a to Y2b) installed at the symmetrical position of the magnetic flux converging plate 6 is used, and the value of this sum approximates the magnetic flux density near the center of the magnetic flux converging plate. An IC chip configuration having the above-described magnetic sensing unit and signal processing unit on one silicon is realized, and a small angle sensor can be configured with the arrangement shown in FIG.

  FIG. 4 shows the principle of angle calculation by the angle sensor having the above configuration.

  4A shows the relationship between the X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis three-axis orthogonal coordinate system and the disk magnet 8. The magnet 8 includes an XY plane formed by the X-axis and the Y-axis. It is assumed that the magnetoelectric transducers 9x and 9y that rotate on parallel surfaces (the magnet 8 rotates around the Z axis) and feel the magnetic flux density in the X axis and Y axis directions are ideally at the center of the disc magnet 8. To do. Further, the angle formed by the magnetic moment 8A of the magnet 8 magnetized in the radial direction and the X-axis direction is defined as θ ((b) of FIG. 4).

Near the center of the disc magnet 8, a spatially uniform magnetic flux density is generated parallel to the disc magnet surface. The magnetic flux density also rotates with the rotation around the Z axis, and the components of the magnetic flux density in the X-axis and Y-axis directions are Bx and By (hereinafter also referred to as magnetic flux density components Bx and By). Therefore,
Bx = M1 * cos (Θ)
By = M2 * sin (Θ)
Θ = atan (By / Bx) = atan (M2 / M1 * By / Bx)
If M1≈M2,
Θ = atan (By / Bx)
It becomes.

  M1 and M2, which are the absolute amplitudes of changes due to rotation of the magnetic flux density components Bx and By, depend on the spatial position of the magnetoelectric transducer in the X-axis direction and Y-axis direction, and take almost the same value near the center. The angle θ can be calculated by a simple formula θ = atan (By / Bx).

However, when the magnetoelectric transducers are arranged off the center, M1 and M2 do not have the same size, and the above-described equation of θ increases the error. In other words,
θ = atan (M2 / M1 * By / Bx)
However, in order to execute this formula, it is necessary to know the value of M2 / M1 in advance, and the angle sensor becomes complicated.

  Note that in the calculation of the angle θ with an actual angle sensor, the calculation is performed using the amount obtained by converting the magnetic flux density component into a voltage by the Hall element. However, for the sake of simplicity, the amount converted into this voltage is simply referred to as the magnetic flux density component below. Will be described and explained.

WO 03/081182

  In the above rotation angle sensor, the magnetic sensing part and the signal processing part are housed in one package and are very miniaturized. However, if the rotational angle sensor is not near the center of the disk magnet, the angle error becomes large.

  However, depending on the environment in which the angle sensor is used, there are cases where the magnetic sensitive part has to be placed at a location far away from the center of the disk.

  Further, in applications where the rotation axis passes through the center of the magnet, the magnetic sensitive part is greatly deviated from the center. Therefore, if the rotation angle sensor that performs the simple signal processing described above is used as it is, the angle error becomes very large.

  Accordingly, the present invention has been made to solve the above-described problems, and a magnetic sensing portion having magnetoelectric conversion elements arranged in proximity to each other, which senses two magnetic flux density components orthogonal to each other, has a circular shape. Even in an environment where it is installed at a position greatly deviated from the center of the plate magnet, or when a ring magnet is used because the rotating shaft passes through the center, the above-mentioned simple signal processing remains as it is and the angle error is small. An object is to provide a rotation angle sensor.

The present invention comprises a disk-shaped or ring-shaped magnet magnetized in the radial direction, and a magnetic sensing part installed at a spatial point above the surface of the magnet, wherein the magnetic sensing part is the magnet The magnetic flux density of the spatial point due to the rotation of the magnet has two magnetoelectric conversion elements that respectively sense the biaxial components Bx and By that are parallel to the magnet surface and perpendicular to each other. In the rotation angle sensor for obtaining the change of the two from the output values of the two magnetoelectric transducers, the centers of the magnetosensitive surfaces of the magnetosensitive portions are arranged at the same position, and the magnetoelectric transducer has the space point. , Located outside the center of the magnet and inside the periphery , and arranged at a position where the absolute values of changes in the components Bx and By due to the rotation of the magnet at the spatial point are equal. To do.

According to the present invention, in a rotation angle sensor having a simple structure designed to detect a rotation angle by installing a magnetoelectric conversion element in the center of a disc magnet, the magnetoelectric conversion element is placed at a position off the center. However, a rotational angle sensor with a simple structure can be configured by selecting an appropriate spatial position for the ring magnet and installing the magnetoelectric transducer, thereby effectively suppressing the angle measurement error. A small rotation angle sensor can be provided.

FIG. 5 is an explanatory diagram of the embodiment. 5A shows the relationship between the X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis three-axis orthogonal coordinate system and the ring magnet 10. The ring magnet 10 is a samarium-cobalt bonded magnet having an inner diameter of 4 mm and an outer diameter. The diameter is 12 mm and the thickness is 2 mm. The penetrating shaft 11 serving as the rotating shaft in the figure is 3 mm in diameter and made of SUS.

  The same result is obtained when only the ring magnet 11 without the through shaft 11 is provided.

  The data shown in FIGS. 6 to 12 shown below are the results when the through shaft 11 is not provided.

  The sensor (magnetoelectric conversion element) 12X and the sensor (magnetoelectric conversion element) 12Y are sensitive to magnetic flux density components in the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction, respectively, and are represented as boxes showing magnetically sensitive surfaces in the figure. 10A indicates the direction of the magnetic moment ((b) of FIG. 5). The magnetic sensitive surfaces of the sensor 12X and sensor 12Y may not completely coincide with the X axis and the Y axis.

  The sensors 12X and 12Y have magnetic sensitive surfaces at substantially the same spatial position (X, Z).

  Magnetic flux density component Bx (X-axis direction component), By (Y) when this sensor is at X = 2.0mm (distance from the magnet center, inside the ring magnet), Z = 1.0mm (1mm upward from the magnet surface) FIG. 6 shows the rotation of the magnet in the axial direction component.

  The horizontal axis in FIG. 6 is the rotation angle, and the amplitude of the magnetic flux density component Bx becomes the largest at an angle of 0 degrees (when the magnetic moment of the magnet is in the + X-axis direction) and 180 degrees. At this time, the magnetic flux density component By becomes zero.

  When the rotation angle is 90 degrees and the magnetic moment of the magnet faces the + Y axis, the amplitude of the magnetic flux density component By becomes the largest. However, this amplitude value is smaller than that of the magnetic flux density component Bx.

  If the sensor 12Y is on the Y axis at the same position as the sensor 12X from the center, the amplitude value of the magnetic flux density component By at the angle of 90 degrees is the same as the magnetic flux density component Bx. Since 12Y is at the same position as the sensor 12X, that is, at a position away from the center in the X-axis direction, the magnetic flux density component By has a small value. The difference in the peak value between the magnetic flux density component Bx and the magnetic flux density component By causes the angle error in the calculation of the angle θ described above.

  7 and 8 show the rotation angle and magnetic flux density component of the ring magnet at each position when the sensor position is moved along the X axis from the inside (X = 2.0mm) to the outside (X = 6.0mm) of the ring magnet. Shows the relationship between Bx and By.

  FIG. 7 shows the case of the magnetic flux density component Bx, and the amplitude value increases from X = 2 (mm) to the center of the ring and further decreases outside. This corresponds to the fact that the magnetic flux density is directed in the Z-axis direction and the X-axis direction component becomes zero at the ring edge portion of the magnet.

  FIG. 8 shows the case of the magnetic flux density component By, which takes an amplitude peak value near the ring edge portion and then decreases.

  FIG. 9 shows changes due to differences in the X-axis position of these magnetic flux density component peak values. Near X = 5.3 (mm), the peak values of the magnetic flux density component Bx and the magnetic flux density component By coincide with each other. At this sensor position, M1 = M2 is established, and the angle θ can be obtained by the above simple calculation.

  The peak value of the magnetic flux density component Bx takes a large value near the center of the ring magnet and becomes zero near the magnet edge. In addition, since the peak value of the magnetic flux density component By increases toward the ring edge, there are places where the peak values of the magnetic flux density components Bx and By intersect near the edge.

  Figure 10 shows the X axis position determined at Z = 1.0 mm, the magnet rotated, the angle θ from the magnetic flux density components Bx and By, θ = atan (By / Bx), and the error from the reference angle. is there. There is a large angle error near the inside and near the edge of the ring magnet, but the angle error becomes small near X = 5.3 (mm) inside the edge.

  The X-axis positions of the sensors 12X and Y where the angle error θ decreases are dependent on the Z value (a value indicating how far the sensors 12X and Y are positioned from the magnet surface (unit: mm)), and the Z value increases. Inside the magnet. Also, the angle error tends to be small.

  FIG. 11 shows the X-axis dependence of the magnetic flux density component Bx and By peak values when Z = 2.0. Compared to the case of Z = 1.0mm, there is an intersection of magnetic flux density inside.

  FIG. 12 shows the relationship between the angle error and the Z value, and the angle error decreases as the Z value increases.

  The angle error in this figure was determined by the following procedure. That is, the Z value is fixed, the magnet is rotated at one X-axis position, and the maximum angle error is obtained. When the X-axis position is changed, the X-axis position at which the maximum angle error at each position is minimized, and the angle error is an angle error for one Z value.

  FIG. 13 shows changes in the magnetic flux density component when the SUS shaft penetrates through the center of the magnet. In the examples, M2 is the case with the shaft, M1 is the case without the shaft, and mx and my correspond to the magnetic flux density components Bx and By, respectively.

  It can be seen that the magnetic flux density component Bx is greatly influenced inside the ring magnet with and without the shaft. There is relatively little influence near the ring edge.

  FIG. 14 is a diagram comparing angle errors with and without a shaft. When M2 has a shaft, M1 has no shaft. When there is a shaft, the angle error is larger than when the shaft is not inside. The tendency to obtain the minimum angle error near X = 4.8 (mm) is the same as when there is no shaft.

  The X position that takes the minimum value is slightly affected by the shaft.

  As described above, it has been described that a place where the absolute values of the amplitude values of the magnetic flux density components Bx and By are present in the vicinity of the magnet edge. It was also explained that this position also depends on the Z value.

  Increasing the Z value has the demerits of decreasing the size of the magnetic flux density component itself (detection amount of the sensor) and increasing the size of the sensor itself. A decrease in the magnitude of the magnetic flux density component itself reduces the signal S / N.

  Also, the X-axis position and Z-axis position where the angle error is minimized vary depending on the thickness and size of the magnet.

  Hereinafter, a configuration example of an angle sensor in consideration of these characteristics will be described.

  A magnet that takes into account the size (Z-axis direction thickness) of the magnetic sensing part that incorporates sensors X and Y, which are magnetoelectric transducers, or the IC package that incorporates the magnetic sensing part, the external shape of the angle sensor, and the required angular error. Determine the Z value from the surface to the magnetosensitive part. Normally, a magnetic sensing part attached to a substrate or an IC package is installed at a position facing the magnet surface. This substrate is supported so that it can be moved parallel to the XY axis plane of the magnet surface.

  Next, the X value is provisionally determined. Set the magnetosensitive part on the X axis from the ring edge of the magnet to the inside in the radial direction, and rotate the magnet to find the maximum angle error. The magnet rotation system has an encoder, and the magnet rotates according to the reference rotation angle. The angle is calculated from the magnetosensitive element output by atan (By / Bx), and the angle error is obtained by taking the difference from the reference rotation angle.

  Further, the magnetic sensing part is moved inward to determine the angle error. An X-axis position where the angle error is minimum with respect to the X-axis position is adopted.

  By the above operation, the optimum Z value and X value are obtained, and the angle sensor is manufactured based on this information.

  FIG. 15 shows an assembly example of the angle sensor. The magnet 13 is embedded in the rotating body support portion 14, and the rotating shaft 15 from below is inserted into the rotating body support portion 14 and rotates. The sensor substrate 16 is fixed to the housing 17 side. On the magnet surface side of the sensor substrate 16, a magnetic sensitive part (a magnetic sensitive part incorporating the sensors X and Y that are magnetoelectric transducers, or a magnetic sensitive part is incorporated at the position of the Z value and X value determined above. IC package).

  In the above description, an MR thin film with a pattern generated as a magnetic sensing portion and a silicon Hall element using a magnetic current collecting plate are taken as examples. However, two Hall elements are made perpendicular to each other on a substrate. A configuration in which the sensor center is as close as possible may be used.

It is a figure explaining the system of an angle sensor. It is a figure which shows an example of the magnetosensitive part pattern of MR element. It is a figure which shows Fig2 of patent document 1. FIG. It is a figure which shows the angle calculation principle by the conventional angle sensor. It is explanatory drawing of this invention Example. It is a figure which shows the rotation angle dependence of a magnetic flux density component. It is a figure which shows the X-axis position dependence of the magnetic flux density component Bx. It is a figure which shows the X-axis position dependence of magnetic flux density component By. It is a figure which shows the X-axis position dependence of magnetic flux density peak value. It is a figure which shows the X-axis position dependence of an angle error. It is a figure which shows the X-axis position dependence (Z = 2.0) of a magnetic flux density peak value. It is a figure which shows the Z-axis position dependence of an angle error. It is a figure which shows the change by rotating shaft insertion of magnetic flux density component Bx and By peak value. It is a figure which shows the difference by the shaft insertion of an angle error. It is a figure which shows the example of a rotation angle sensor assembly.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Disc magnet 2 Package containing magnetoelectric transducer 3 Substrate 4 Magnetoresistive element pattern 5 Pad 6 Magnetic converging plate 7 Hall element portion 8 Ring magnet 8A Direction of magnetic moment 9x, 9y Magnetoelectric transducer 10 Ring magnet 11 Through shaft 12x X-axis direction sensor 12y Y-axis direction sensor 13 Magnet 14 Rotating body support 15 Rotating shaft 16 Sensor substrate 17 Housing

Claims (1)

  1. A disk-shaped or ring-shaped magnet magnetized in the radial direction; and a magnetic sensing part installed at a spatial point above the surface of the magnet, wherein the magnetic sensing part is a magnetic flux density generated by the magnet. Two magnetoelectric transducers that respectively sense the biaxial components Bx and By that are parallel to the surface of the magnet and orthogonal to each other, and the change in the magnetic flux density at the spatial point due to the rotation of the magnet In the rotation angle sensor obtained from the output values of the two magnetoelectric transducers,
    The center of each magnetic sensing surface of the magnetic sensing part is arranged at the same position,
    In the magnetoelectric conversion element, the spatial point is other than the center of the magnet and inside the periphery, and the absolute values of the amplitudes of changes of the components Bx and By due to the rotation of the magnet at the spatial point are equal. A rotation angle sensor arranged at a position.
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US8115479B2 (en) 2006-11-21 2012-02-14 Hitachi Metals, Ltd. Rotation-angle-detecting apparatus, rotating machine, and rotation-angle-detecting method
JP5131537B2 (en) * 2007-04-25 2013-01-30 アイシン精機株式会社 Angle detector
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JP2010078366A (en) * 2008-09-24 2010-04-08 Aisin Seiki Co Ltd Angle detecting apparatus
JP5386714B2 (en) * 2008-11-21 2014-01-15 日立金属株式会社 Rotation angle detector
JP2010286401A (en) * 2009-06-12 2010-12-24 Asahi Kasei Electronics Co Ltd Position detector
JP5231365B2 (en) * 2009-09-08 2013-07-10 Ntn株式会社 Rotation angle detection sensor
JP5293724B2 (en) 2010-11-02 2013-09-18 アイシン精機株式会社 Angle detector
JP2012098190A (en) * 2010-11-03 2012-05-24 Aisin Seiki Co Ltd Rectilinear displacement detector
JP5801566B2 (en) * 2011-02-15 2015-10-28 株式会社ミクニ Rotation angle detector
JP2013002835A (en) * 2011-06-13 2013-01-07 Asahi Kasei Electronics Co Ltd Rotation angle detecting device
JP6243602B2 (en) * 2012-03-22 2017-12-06 旭化成エレクトロニクス株式会社 Magnetic field direction measuring device and rotation angle measuring device
CN103915233B (en) * 2013-01-05 2017-02-08 江苏多维科技有限公司 Permanent magnet suitable for magnetic angle encoder
JP6034813B2 (en) * 2013-02-12 2016-11-30 旭化成エレクトロニクス株式会社 Rotation angle measuring device
JP6190157B2 (en) * 2013-05-16 2017-08-30 アズビル株式会社 Rotation angle detector
JP2017090288A (en) * 2015-11-12 2017-05-25 川崎重工業株式会社 Change drum rotational position detector and motorcycle
KR102032463B1 (en) * 2017-11-16 2019-11-27 한양대학교 산학협력단 Apparatus for measuring steering angle of vehicle

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JP2005326291A (en) * 2004-05-14 2005-11-24 Denso Corp Rotation angle detection device

Patent Citations (2)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH09508214A (en) * 1994-11-22 1997-08-19 ローベルト ボツシユ ゲゼルシヤフト ミツト ベシユレンクテル ハフツング Non-contact rotation angle detection device for rotatable members
JP2005326291A (en) * 2004-05-14 2005-11-24 Denso Corp Rotation angle detection device

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