JP4644568B2 - Drill - Google Patents

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JP4644568B2
JP4644568B2 JP2005255049A JP2005255049A JP4644568B2 JP 4644568 B2 JP4644568 B2 JP 4644568B2 JP 2005255049 A JP2005255049 A JP 2005255049A JP 2005255049 A JP2005255049 A JP 2005255049A JP 4644568 B2 JP4644568 B2 JP 4644568B2
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blade
cutting
drill
guide pad
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JP2007061999A (en
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誠 酒井
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ユニタック株式会社
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本発明は、穿孔深さ/孔径比の大きい加工に好適なドリルに関する。   The present invention relates to a drill suitable for machining with a large drilling depth / hole diameter ratio.
現在主流のドリルは、刃先研磨式とチップ交換式とに大別される。そして、一般的な刃先研磨式ドリルは、尖頭角約110〜150°で工具1回転当たり2枚の切刃を有するが、バランスカットつまり両切刃の切削抵抗が打ち消し合うような加工状態とする上で、両切刃が同一の径方向に並ぶ形になっている。一方、一般的なチップ交換式ドリルは、切削ヘッド部に一径方向に沿って取り付けられた3枚以上のスローアウェイチップが互いに一部重複する形で切削半径の一定幅を分担し、協働して工具1回転当たり1枚の切刃を構成するようになっており、切刃が摩耗してもチップ交換で対応できる上、該チップ自体を四角形、三角形、六角形等の回転対称形として複数の切刃部を設けることにより、その回転変位によって同じチップで2回又は3回の切刃更新を行えるという利点がある。   Currently, the mainstream drills are roughly classified into a blade edge type and a tip exchange type. A general cutting edge grinding drill has a cutting angle of about 110 to 150 ° and has two cutting edges per rotation of the tool. However, the cutting state of the balance cutting, that is, the cutting resistance of both cutting edges cancels each other. Above, the two cutting edges are arranged in the same radial direction. On the other hand, a general tip exchange type drill shares a certain width of the cutting radius in a form in which three or more throwaway tips attached to the cutting head portion along one radial direction partially overlap each other and cooperate. In addition, one cutting blade is configured per one rotation of the tool, and even if the cutting blade is worn, it can be dealt with by exchanging the tip, and the tip itself has a rotationally symmetric shape such as a square, a triangle, a hexagon, etc. By providing a plurality of cutting edge portions, there is an advantage that the cutting edge can be updated twice or three times with the same tip due to the rotational displacement.
ところが、従来のチップ交換式ドリルにあっては、チップ配列の径方向の中心を境とした両側の切削抵抗がバランスするように、各スローアウェイチップの大きさ及び形状と配置を設定しているが、3枚以上のチップの切削抵抗を厳密にバランスさせるのは理論的にも困難である上、ドリル本体及びスローアウェイチップの加工精度に限界がある。従って、従来のチップ交換式ドリルによる加工では、前記両側の切削抵抗が多少アンバランスになることは不可避であり、その不均衡さよる負荷をシャンク部の剛性で吸収しながら切削してゆく形になっている。   However, in the conventional tip exchange type drill, the size, shape and arrangement of each throw-away tip are set so that the cutting resistances on both sides with the radial center of the tip arrangement as a boundary are balanced. However, it is theoretically difficult to precisely balance the cutting forces of three or more chips, and there is a limit to the processing accuracy of the drill body and the throw-away tip. Therefore, it is unavoidable that the cutting resistance on both sides is somewhat unbalanced in the conventional tip exchange drill, and cutting is performed while absorbing the load due to the unbalance by the rigidity of the shank. It has become.
しかしながら、ドリルのシャンク部は長く細いほど当然に剛性が低下するから、深く孔径の小さい穿孔では、吸収しきれない前記負荷によってドリルの振れを生じ、加工精度が悪化することになる。このため、従来においては、一般的に最大穿孔深さ(L)/切削孔径(D)の比L/Dが4以上となる加工は、チップ交換式ドリルでは困難であるとされていた。   However, as the shank portion of the drill becomes longer and thinner, the rigidity naturally decreases. Therefore, in drilling with a deep and small hole diameter, the swing of the drill occurs due to the load that cannot be absorbed, and the machining accuracy deteriorates. For this reason, in the past, it has been considered that machining with a maximum drilling depth (L) / cutting hole diameter (D) ratio L / D of 4 or more is difficult with a tip-exchange drill.
本発明は、上述の情況に鑑み、穿孔深さ/孔径比の大きい加工でも高い加工精度が得られるドリルを提供することを目的としている。   In view of the above circumstances, an object of the present invention is to provide a drill capable of obtaining high machining accuracy even in machining with a large drilling depth / hole diameter ratio.
上記目的を達成するために、本発明の請求項1は、図面の参照符号を付して示せば、切削ヘッド部1aに、切削孔Hの最外周領域C1の切削を担う外側刃部2Aと、この外側刃部2Aとは略径方向反対側に配置して外側から2番目の領域C2の切削を担う中間刃部2Bと、これら外側刃部2A及び中間刃部2Bと略同じ径方向Qに沿って配置して中間刃部2Bよりも内側領域C3の切削を担う少なくとも一つの内側刃部2Cとを備え、外周面に切屑排出溝4A,4Bが形成されたドリルにおいて、前記内側刃部2Cが外側刃部2A及び中間刃部2Bよりも穿孔方向Fの後位に位置し、全面切削状態にある外側刃部2A/中間刃部2Bの切屑除去量比が49/51〜51/49の範囲内にあり、全刃部2A〜2Cの全面切削状態における刃部配置径線(径方向Q)上の片側半径領域と他側半径領域の切屑除去量比が前記範囲外にあり、切削ヘッド部1a外周の少なくとも内側刃部2Cによる切削反力の作用部位に、切削孔H内周に摺接するガイドパッド3Aが取り付けられ、該ガイドパッド3Aは、内側刃部2Cによる切削開始前に、外側刃部2Aにて切削された環状溝部G内に前端部が嵌入するように位置設定されてなることを特徴としている。 In order to achieve the above object, according to claim 1 of the present invention, an outer blade portion 2A for carrying out cutting of the outermost peripheral region C1 of the cutting hole H is provided on the cutting head portion 1a, with reference numerals in the drawings. The outer blade portion 2A is disposed on the substantially opposite side in the radial direction, and the intermediate blade portion 2B responsible for cutting the second region C2 from the outside, and the radial direction Q substantially the same as the outer blade portion 2A and the intermediate blade portion 2B. In the drill in which the chip discharge grooves 4A and 4B are formed on the outer peripheral surface. 2C is located behind the outer blade portion 2A and the intermediate blade portion 2B in the drilling direction F, and the chip removal ratio of the outer blade portion 2A / intermediate blade portion 2B in the entire cutting state is 49/51 to 51/49. The blade arrangement in the entire cutting state of all the blade portions 2A to 2C Yes meridian (radially Q) chip removal amount ratio of one radius region and the other side radial area on the outside of the range, to the site of action of the cutting reaction force by at least an inner edge portion 2C of the cutting head portion 1a periphery, cutting A guide pad 3A that is in sliding contact with the inner periphery of the hole H is attached, and the guide pad 3A is inserted into the annular groove G cut by the outer blade 2A before the cutting by the inner blade 2C is started. It is characterized in that the position is set.
請求項2の発明は、上記請求項1のドリルにおいて、外側刃部2A及び中間刃部2Bと内側刃部2Cが、切削ヘッド部1aに対して着脱可能なスローアウェイチップにて構成されてなるものとしている。   According to a second aspect of the present invention, in the drill according to the first aspect, the outer blade portion 2A, the intermediate blade portion 2B, and the inner blade portion 2C are constituted by a throw-away tip that can be attached to and detached from the cutting head portion 1a. It is supposed to be.
請求項の発明は、上記請求項1又は2のドリルにおいて、最大穿孔深さL/切削孔径Dの比が4以上であるものとしている。 According to a third aspect of the present invention, in the drill according to the first or second aspect , the ratio of maximum drilling depth L / cutting hole diameter D is 4 or more.
請求項の発明は、上記請求項1〜のいずれかのドリルにおいて、内側刃部2Cによる切削反力の作用部位に取り付けられるガイドパッド3Aが、前記内側刃部2Bからドリル回転方向後方側60〜90°の角度範囲の切削ヘッド部1a外周に位置してなるものとしている。 According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, in the drill according to any one of the first to third aspects, the guide pad 3A attached to the site of action of the cutting reaction force by the inner blade portion 2C is rearward in the drill rotation direction from the inner blade portion 2B. It is assumed to be located on the outer periphery of the cutting head portion 1a in an angle range of 60 to 90 °.
請求項の発明は、上記請求項1〜のいずれかのドリルにおいて、前記の内側刃部2Aによる切削反力の作用部位に取り付けられるガイドパッド3Aに加え、その略径方向反対側にもガイドパッド3Bが取付けられてなるものとしている。 The invention according to claim 5 is the drill according to any one of claims 1 to 4 , in addition to the guide pad 3 </ b> A attached to the site of action of the cutting reaction force by the inner blade portion 2 </ b> A, on the substantially opposite side in the radial direction. The guide pad 3B is attached.
請求項の発明は、上記請求項5のドリルにおいて、内側刃部3Cによる切削反力の作用部位とその略径方向反対側取り付けられるガイドパッド3A,3B加え、中間刃部2B側の切削ヘッド部外周位置にもガイドパッド3Cが取付けられてなる構成としている。 The invention of claim 6 is the drill of claim 5 above, in addition to the action site of the cutting reaction force by the inner blade portion 3C and the guide pads 3A and 3B attached to the substantially opposite side in the radial direction, and the cutting on the intermediate blade portion 2B side. A guide pad 3C is also attached to the outer peripheral position of the head portion.
請求項1の発明に係るドリルでは、加工の際、まず切削ヘッド部の径方向両側に配置する外側刃部と中間刃部とが被削材に切り込み、両刃部による切削で環状溝部を形成し、次いで内側刃部による切削反力の作用部位に取り付けられたガイドパッドが該環状溝部に嵌入したのち、このガイドパッドが環状溝部の外側内周に摺接している状態で、該環状溝部の内側に残る円形領域に内側刃部が切り込んで当該円形領域を切削し、以降は前記ガイドパッドの摺接状態で全ての刃部の協働による穿孔が進行してゆく。より詳しくは、外側刃部と中間刃部とで環状溝部を形成する初期段階の切削は両刃部の全面切削状態における切削抵抗が均衡するバランスカットでなされ、次の内側刃部の切り込み開始以降の切削はアンバランスカットとなる。しかしながら、該内側刃部による切削反力がガイドパッドと摺接する切削孔内周面で受け止められ、所謂バニッシング作用により、その摺接部位と内側刃部の切刃との位置関係が常に一定に保たれる。しかして、本発明によれば、内側刃部の切削に伴って刃部配置径線上の両側半径領域の切削抵抗がアンバランスになっても、切削ヘッド部が厳密に振れのない定軸線の回転状態に維持され、もって穿孔深さ/孔径比の大きい加工でも高い加工精度が得られる。 In the drill according to the first aspect of the present invention, at the time of machining, first, the outer blade portion and the intermediate blade portion arranged on both sides in the radial direction of the cutting head portion are cut into the work material, and the annular groove portion is formed by cutting with the two blade portions. Then, after the guide pad attached to the cutting reaction force acting site by the inner blade portion is fitted into the annular groove portion, the guide pad is in sliding contact with the outer periphery of the annular groove portion. The inner blade portion cuts into the remaining circular region and cuts the circular region, and thereafter, the drilling by the cooperation of all the blade portions proceeds in the sliding contact state of the guide pad. More specifically, the initial stage of forming the annular groove portion with the outer blade portion and the intermediate blade portion is performed by a balance cut that balances the cutting resistance in the entire cutting state of both blade portions, and after the next inner blade portion starts to be cut. Cutting is an unbalanced cut. However, the cutting reaction force by the inner blade portion is received by the inner peripheral surface of the cutting hole that is in sliding contact with the guide pad, and the positional relationship between the sliding contact portion and the cutting edge of the inner blade portion is always kept constant by the so-called burnishing action. Be drunk. Thus, according to the present invention, even if the cutting resistance in the both-side radial region on the blade arrangement radial line becomes unbalanced due to the cutting of the inner blade portion, the cutting head portion rotates with a constant axis with no swaying. Thus, high machining accuracy can be obtained even in machining with a large drilling depth / hole diameter ratio.
請求項2の発明によれば、チップ交換式ドリルとして、穿孔深さ/孔径比の大きい加工を高精度で行えるものが提供される。   According to invention of Claim 2, what can perform a process with a large drilling depth / hole diameter ratio with high precision as a chip | tip exchange type drill is provided.
請求項の発明によれば、上記ドリルとして、穿孔深さ/孔径比が4以上となる穿孔加工を高精度で行えるものが提供される。 According to invention of Claim 3 , what can perform the drilling process by which a drilling depth / hole diameter ratio will be 4 or more as said drill can be provided with high precision.
請求項の発明に係るドリルによれば、内側刃部による切削反力の作用部位に取り付けられるガイドパッドが切削ヘッド部外周の特定位置にあるため、該切削反力を切削孔内周面に確実に受け止めさせることができるから、穿孔深さ/孔径比の大きい加工をより高精度で行える。 According to the drill of the fourth aspect of the present invention, since the guide pad attached to the site of action of the cutting reaction force by the inner blade portion is at a specific position on the outer periphery of the cutting head portion, the cutting reaction force is applied to the inner peripheral surface of the cutting hole. Since it can be reliably received, machining with a large drilling depth / hole diameter ratio can be performed with higher accuracy.
請求項の発明に係るドリルによれば、内側刃部による切削反力の作用部位に加え、その略径方向反対側にもガイドパッドが取付けられているから、径方向両側からのバニッシング作用によって切削ヘッド部がより厳密に振れのない回転状態に保持され、加工精度が更に向上する。 According to the drill of the fifth aspect of the present invention, the guide pad is also attached to the substantially opposite side in the radial direction in addition to the action part of the cutting reaction force by the inner blade portion. The cutting head portion is held in a rotational state without vibration more strictly, and the processing accuracy is further improved.
請求項の発明に係るドリルによれば、周方向3箇所のガイドパッドに基づく3方向からのバニッシング作用により、切削ヘッド部が更に安定した回転状態に保持され、加工精度がより一層向上する。 According to the drill of the sixth aspect of the present invention, the cutting head portion is held in a more stable rotational state by the burnishing action from the three directions based on the three guide pads in the circumferential direction, and the machining accuracy is further improved.
以下、本発明のドリルについて、図面を参照して具体的に説明する。図1〜図3は本発明の一実施形態に係る3チップタイプの油孔付きチップ交換式ドリルを示し、図4は同ドリルの切刃とガイドパッドの位置関係、図5〜図7は同ドリルによる加工状態を示す。   Hereinafter, the drill of this invention is demonstrated concretely with reference to drawings. 1 to 3 show a three-chip type oil-holed tip exchange drill according to an embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 4 shows the positional relationship between the cutting edge of the drill and a guide pad, and FIGS. The processing state by a drill is shown.
図1〜図3に示す油孔付きチップ交換式ドリルは、シャンク部11及びドライバ部12を一体化したドリル本体1の先端部分である切削ヘッド部1aに、スローアウェイチップからなる外側、中間、内側の3つの刃部2A〜2Cと、3つのガイドパッド3A〜3Cとがねじ止めされてなる。   1 to FIG. 3 shows a tip exchange drill with an oil hole, the cutting head portion 1a, which is a tip portion of a drill body 1 in which the shank portion 11 and the driver portion 12 are integrated, on the outer side, middle portion, The inner three blade portions 2A to 2C and the three guide pads 3A to 3C are screwed.
このドリル本体1には、シャンク部11の基端部を除く外周面に、互いに径方向に対向しつつ緩い螺旋状をなす2本の切屑排出溝4A,4Bが形成され、また切削ヘッド部1aの手前からドライバ部12の後端にわたって軸線方向に沿うクーラント供給孔5が形成されている。そして、切削ヘッド部1aの前端面10には、一方の対向する2象限(1/4円)に、両切屑排出溝4A,4Bが互いの片側面4a,4bを略同一径方向に沿わせるように各々略V字形に開放すると共に、他方の対向する2象限の各々内側部と外側部とに、クーラント供給孔5から分岐したクーラント放出口5aが開口している。   In the drill body 1, two chip discharge grooves 4A and 4B are formed on the outer peripheral surface excluding the base end portion of the shank portion 11 so as to be loosely spiraled while facing each other in the radial direction, and the cutting head portion 1a. A coolant supply hole 5 is formed along the axial direction from the front side to the rear end of the driver portion 12. And in the front end surface 10 of the cutting head part 1a, both the chip discharge grooves 4A and 4B have the one side surfaces 4a and 4b along substantially the same radial direction in one opposing two quadrants (1/4 circle). In this way, each is opened in a substantially V shape, and a coolant discharge port 5a branched from the coolant supply hole 5 is opened in each of the inner and outer portions of the other two opposite quadrants.
切削ヘッド部1aの前端面10に臨む切屑排出溝4Aの片側面4aには、ヘッド外周側と中心側とにチップ座6a,6cが凹設され、チップ座6aには外側刃部2Aのスローアウェイチップが直接にねじ止めされると共に、チップ座6cには内側刃部2Cのスローアウェイチップが支持部材21に保持された状態でねじ止めされている。また、同様に切屑排出溝4Bの片側面4bにはチップ座6bが凹設され、このチップ座6bに中間刃部2Bのスローアウェイチップが直接にねじ止めされている。そして、これら外側刃部2Aと中間刃部2B及び内側刃部2Cは、図2に示すように切刃20が略同一径方向Qに沿うように配置している。   On one side surface 4a of the chip discharge groove 4A facing the front end surface 10 of the cutting head portion 1a, chip seats 6a and 6c are recessed in the head outer peripheral side and the center side, and the tip seat 6a has a throw of the outer blade portion 2A. While the away tip is directly screwed, the throw away tip of the inner blade portion 2C is screwed to the tip seat 6c while being held by the support member 21. Similarly, a chip seat 6b is recessed in one side surface 4b of the chip discharge groove 4B, and a throw-away tip of the intermediate blade portion 2B is directly screwed to the chip seat 6b. And these outer blade part 2A, the intermediate blade part 2B, and the inner blade part 2C are arrange | positioned so that the cutting blade 20 may follow the substantially same radial direction Q, as shown in FIG.
切削ヘッド部1aの前端面10は中央側が周辺側より低い凹陥部10aとなっており、内側刃部2Cを取り付けたチップ座6cは該凹陥部10aに位置している。しかして、穿孔方向を前方として、外側刃部2Aの頂端が最前端(最高位)に位置し、それより僅かに後位(低位)に中間刃部2Bの頂端が位置し、より後位(低位)に内側刃部2Cの頂端が位置する。   The front end face 10 of the cutting head part 1a is a recessed part 10a whose center side is lower than the peripheral side, and the tip seat 6c to which the inner blade part 2C is attached is located in the recessed part 10a. Thus, with the drilling direction as the front, the top end of the outer blade 2A is positioned at the foremost end (highest position), and the top end of the intermediate blade 2B is positioned slightly rearward (lower position) than that, and the rear end ( The top end of the inner blade portion 2C is located at the lower position.
外側刃部2A及び中間刃部2Bのスローアウェイチップは、共に正面視略平行四辺形の厚板状をなし、その対向2辺に切刃20を設けているため、取付姿勢を180度回転変位することにより、同じチップを新切刃として2回使用できる。一方、内側刃部2Cのスローアウェイチップは、正三角形の角部を斜めに切除した形の六角形で、周縁全体に切刃を設けており、鈍角の山形部を穿孔方向に向ける取付姿勢とするため、その120度の回転変位によって同じチップを新切刃として3回使用できる。   The throwaway tips of the outer blade portion 2A and the intermediate blade portion 2B are both thick plates with a substantially parallelogram when viewed from the front, and the cutting blades 20 are provided on the opposite two sides. By doing so, the same chip can be used twice as a new cutting edge. On the other hand, the throw-away tip of the inner blade portion 2C is a hexagonal shape in which a corner portion of an equilateral triangle is cut obliquely, a cutting blade is provided on the entire periphery, and an installation posture in which an obtuse angle portion is directed in the drilling direction. Therefore, the same tip can be used three times as a new cutting edge by the rotational displacement of 120 degrees.
しかして、これら刃部2A〜2Cの切削側つまり穿孔方向に臨む側の切刃20は、外側刃部2Aでは内側に高く傾斜する一方、中間刃部2B及び内側刃部2Cでは内側に低く傾斜している。また、これら刃部2A〜2Cのスローアウェイチップは超硬材製であり、そのサイズは図示の如く外側刃部2A<中間刃部2B<内側刃部2Cとなっている。   Accordingly, the cutting edge 20 on the cutting side of these blade parts 2A to 2C, that is, the side facing the drilling direction, is inclined high inward in the outer blade part 2A, while it is inclined low inward in the intermediate blade part 2B and the inner blade part 2C. is doing. Further, the throwaway tips of these blade portions 2A to 2C are made of cemented carbide, and the size thereof is such that the outer blade portion 2A <intermediate blade portion 2B <inner blade portion 2C as shown in the figure.
ガイドパッド3A〜3Cは、鋼材製で略帯板状のパッド支持体31上に、その長手方向両側部に超硬材製で蒲鉾形のパッド本体32,32をロウ付けした同じ寸法形状のものからなり、切削ヘッド部1aの外周面に設けた軸方向に長い取付凹部7に嵌合して、パッド支持体31の中央部でねじ止めすることにより、パッド本体32,32が外側刃部2Aの側方突出量に対応して切削ヘッド部1aの周面より僅かに突出した状態で、軸心方向Oについて同じ位置に固定されている。そのうち、ガイドパッド3Aは、切削ヘッド部1aの外周面における内側刃部2Cによる切削反力の作用部位、つまり内側刃部2Cからドリル回転方向後方側60〜90°の角度範囲に配置している。また、ガイドパッド3Bはガイドパッド3Aと径方向で対向する位置、ガイドパッド3Cは刃部3A〜3Cが沿う径方向Qにおける中間刃部2B側の外周位置、に各々配置している。   The guide pads 3A to 3C are of the same size and shape with braided pad bodies 32, 32 made of cemented carbide on both sides in the longitudinal direction on a pad support 31 made of steel and substantially strip-shaped. The pad main bodies 32, 32 are fitted to the axially long mounting recess 7 provided on the outer peripheral surface of the cutting head portion 1 a and screwed at the center portion of the pad support 31, so that the pad main bodies 32, 32 are outside blade portions 2 A. The axial center direction O is fixed at the same position in a state of slightly projecting from the peripheral surface of the cutting head portion 1a corresponding to the lateral projection amount. Among them, the guide pad 3A is disposed in an area where the reaction force of the cutting force by the inner blade portion 2C on the outer peripheral surface of the cutting head portion 1a, that is, an angle range of 60 to 90 ° rearward in the drill rotation direction from the inner blade portion 2C. . The guide pad 3B is disposed at a position facing the guide pad 3A in the radial direction, and the guide pad 3C is disposed at the outer peripheral position on the intermediate blade portion 2B side in the radial direction Q along which the blade portions 3A to 3C are aligned.
そして、穿孔方向Fを前方として、これらガイドパッド3A〜3Cの前端3aは、外側刃部2Aの切削側に臨んで傾斜した切刃20の下端と、中間刃部2Bの切削側に臨んで傾斜した切刃20の下端との間に位置している。 The front ends 3a of the guide pads 3A to 3C are inclined with the lower end of the cutting blade 20 inclined toward the cutting side of the outer blade 2A and the cutting side of the intermediate blade 2B with the drilling direction F as the front. It is located between the lower ends of the cutting blades 20.
図4に、刃部2A〜2Cとガイドパッド3Aの位置関係を示す。ただし、本図では、中間刃部2Bを外側刃部2A及び内側刃部2Cと並べて示すと共に、これら刃部2A〜2Cとは中心線Oを挟む反対側にガイドパッド3Aを示している。図中、Fは穿孔方向、φは切削径、C1は外側刃部2Aによる切削幅、C2は中間刃部2Bのみが担う切削幅、C3は内側刃部2Cのみが担う切削幅であり、φ=2(C1+C2+C3)、C1<C2<C3である。しかして、切削ヘッド部1aにおける径方向Qの両側に配置する外側刃部2Aと中間刃部2Bは、切削抵抗が略等しいバランスカット、つまり切屑除去量比として49/51〜51/49の範囲内になるように、切削幅C1,C2が設定されている。 FIG. 4 shows the positional relationship between the blade portions 2A to 2C and the guide pad 3A. However, in this view, along with showing side by side intermediate blade portion 2B and the outer edge portion 2A and an inner blade portion 2C, it illustrates the guide pads 3A on the opposite side sandwiching the center line O from these blade portions 2A-2C. In the figure, F is the drilling direction, φ is the cutting diameter, C1 is the cutting width by the outer blade portion 2A, C2 is the cutting width that only the intermediate blade portion 2B bears, C3 is the cutting width that only the inner blade portion 2C bears, φ = 2 (C1 + C2 + C3), C1 <C2 <C3. Therefore, the outer blade portion 2A and the intermediate blade portion 2B arranged on both sides of the cutting head portion 1a in the radial direction Q have a balance cut with substantially equal cutting resistance, that is, a range of 49/51 to 51/49 as a chip removal amount ratio. Cutting widths C1 and C2 are set so as to be inside.
図中のS1〜S6は、刃部3A〜3Cの位置関係による穿孔加工開始からの各切削段階を示す。即ち、第一段階S1は外側刃部2Aによる切削開始、第二段階S2は中間刃部2Bによる切削開始、第三段階S3は外側刃部2Aの全面切削開始、第四段階S4は中間刃部2Bの全面切削開始、第五段階S5は内側刃部2Cによる切削開始、第六段階S6は内側刃部2Cの全面切削開始となる。なお、ガイドパッド3A(3B,3C)の前端3aの位置Pは、第三段階S3と第四段階S4との間になる。ここで、具体的な寸法関係を例示すれば、切削径φ=68mmにおいて、C1=7.732mm、C2=11.768mm、C3=14.500mm、S1−S2=0.200mm、S1−S3=1.836mm、S1−S4=3.614mm、S1−S5=7.224mm、S1−S6=10.456mm、S1−P=2.224mmといった具合である。   S1 to S6 in the figure indicate each cutting stage from the start of drilling according to the positional relationship between the blade portions 3A to 3C. That is, the first stage S1 starts cutting by the outer blade part 2A, the second stage S2 starts cutting by the intermediate blade part 2B, the third stage S3 starts cutting the entire surface of the outer blade part 2A, and the fourth stage S4 is the intermediate blade part. The entire cutting of 2B is started, the fifth step S5 is the cutting start by the inner blade part 2C, and the sixth step S6 is the entire cutting of the inner blade part 2C. The position P of the front end 3a of the guide pad 3A (3B, 3C) is between the third stage S3 and the fourth stage S4. Here, as an example of a specific dimensional relationship, at a cutting diameter φ = 68 mm, C1 = 7.732 mm, C2 = 11.768 mm, C3 = 14.500 mm, S1-S2 = 0.200 mm, S1-S3 = For example, 1.836 mm, S1-S4 = 3.614 mm, S1-S5 = 7.224 mm, S1-S6 = 10.456 mm, S1-P = 2.224 mm.
上記構成の油孔付きチップ交換式ドリルによる穿孔加工について、図4と図5〜図7を参照して説明する。なお、ガイドパッド3Aについて、図5〜図7では作用が判り易いように内側刃部2Cの径方向反対側に図示しているが、実際は図2に示すように内側刃部2Cからドリル回転方向後方側60〜90°に配置しているものである。   With reference to FIGS. 4 and 5 to 7, a description will be given of the drilling process using the oil hole-equipped tip exchange drill having the above configuration. 5 to 7, the guide pad 3A is illustrated on the opposite side in the radial direction of the inner blade portion 2C so that the operation can be easily understood. However, as shown in FIG. It arrange | positions at 60-90 degrees of back sides.
穿孔加工においては、まず図5に示すように、被削材Wに対して、切削ヘッド部1aの外側刃部2Aが切り込み、続いて中間刃部2Bが切り込むが、後位(低位)にある内側刃部2Cが被削材Wに達するまでの間、つまり既述の第一段階S1から第五段階S5に至るまでの間は、外側及び中間の刃部2A,2Bによる切削で被削材Wの表面に環状溝部Gが形成されることになる。そして、第三段階S3からは、外側刃部2Aの全面切削により、当該環状溝部Gの外側内周が被削材Wの表面に対して垂直な環状壁面になるが、図6に示すように、この第三段階S3から中間刃部2Bが全面切削を開始する第四段階S4に至る間に、ガイドパッド3Aの前端3aが環状溝部Gに嵌入し、そのパッド本体32の表面が該環状溝部Gの外側内周の環状壁面に摺接する。   In the drilling process, first, as shown in FIG. 5, the outer blade 2A of the cutting head portion 1a is cut into the work material W, and then the intermediate blade 2B is cut, but at the rear (low) position. Until the inner cutting edge 2C reaches the work material W, that is, from the first stage S1 to the fifth stage S5, the work material is cut by the outer and intermediate blade parts 2A and 2B. An annular groove portion G is formed on the surface of W. From the third stage S3, the outer peripheral edge of the annular groove G becomes an annular wall surface perpendicular to the surface of the work material W by cutting the entire outer blade 2A. As shown in FIG. The front end 3a of the guide pad 3A is fitted into the annular groove G during the period from the third stage S3 to the fourth stage S4 when the intermediate blade portion 2B starts cutting the entire surface, and the surface of the pad main body 32 is the annular groove portion. Glidably contacts the annular wall surface on the outer periphery of G.
第四段階S4から第五段階S5へ至るまでの間は、径方向Qの両側に配置する外側刃部2Aと中間刃部2Bとが共に全面切削を行うため、予め切屑除去量比として設定したとおり、両刃部2A,2Bの切削抵抗が均衡したバランスカットの状態で、安定した高精度の切削加工が進行する。また、第一段階S1から第四段階S4までの間は、全体としての切削抵抗が小さく、且つ極めて短い時間内に進行するから、シャンク部11の剛性によって切削バランスが充分に保持される。   During the period from the fourth stage S4 to the fifth stage S5, the outer blade part 2A and the intermediate blade part 2B arranged on both sides in the radial direction Q both perform the entire surface cutting, and thus the chip removal amount ratio was set in advance. As described above, stable high-accuracy cutting proceeds in a balanced cut state in which the cutting resistances of the two blade portions 2A and 2B are balanced. Further, since the cutting resistance as a whole is small and proceeds within a very short time from the first stage S1 to the fourth stage S4, the cutting balance is sufficiently maintained by the rigidity of the shank portion 11.
第五段階S5に至ると、図7に示すように、被削材Wの環状溝部Gの内側に凸部として残る円形領域Mに内側刃部2Cが切り込み、この円形領域Mを鈍角円錐状に切削してゆくが、これに伴い、外側刃部2A及び内側刃部2Cのある一側半径部分と、中間刃部2Bのある他側半径部分との切削抵抗に大きな差異を生じ、アンバランスカットの状態になる。そして、このアンバランスカットの状態は、内側刃部2Cによる全面切削が開始する第六段階S6までより顕著になってゆき、第六段階S6より以降は加工終了まで続くことになる。   When the fifth stage S5 is reached, as shown in FIG. 7, the inner blade portion 2C cuts into a circular region M remaining as a convex portion inside the annular groove G of the work material W, and this circular region M is obtusely conical. Along with this, there is a large difference in cutting resistance between the one side radius portion with the outer blade portion 2A and the inner blade portion 2C and the other side radius portion with the intermediate blade portion 2B, and an unbalance cut It becomes the state of. This unbalanced cut state becomes more prominent until the sixth stage S6 where the entire cutting by the inner blade portion 2C starts, and continues from the sixth stage S6 until the end of machining.
しかるに、内側刃部2Cによる切削開始前にガイドパッド3Aが環状溝部Gに嵌入し、その外側内周の環状壁面にパッド本体32の表面が摺接しており、その摺接位置が図2の如く内側刃部2Cによる切削反力の作用部位になるため、アンバランスカットに伴う不均衡な力がガイドパッド3Aを介して環状溝部Gの環状壁面で受け止められ、所謂バニッシング作用によってガイドパッド3Aの摺接部位と内側刃部2Cの切刃20との位置関係が常に一定に保たれる。従って、アンバランスカットの状態であっても、切削ヘッド部1aは厳密に振れのない定軸線の回転状態に維持され、穿孔深さ/孔径比が4以上と大きい場合でも高い加工精度が得られる。   However, before the start of cutting by the inner blade portion 2C, the guide pad 3A is fitted into the annular groove portion G, and the surface of the pad main body 32 is in sliding contact with the annular inner peripheral wall surface, and the sliding contact position is as shown in FIG. Since it becomes an action site of the cutting reaction force by the inner blade portion 2C, an unbalanced force due to the unbalanced cut is received by the annular wall surface of the annular groove portion G via the guide pad 3A, and the sliding of the guide pad 3A by the so-called burnishing action. The positional relationship between the contact portion and the cutting blade 20 of the inner blade portion 2C is always kept constant. Therefore, even in the unbalanced cut state, the cutting head portion 1a is maintained in a rotational state of a constant axis that is strictly free of vibration, and high machining accuracy can be obtained even when the drilling depth / hole diameter ratio is as large as 4 or more. .
なお、本実施形態では、第四段階S4から第五段階S5へ至る間に、ガイドパッド3Aと同時に、その径方向反対側に位置するガイドパッド3Bと、刃部2A〜2Cに沿う径方向Qの中間刃部2B側にあるガイドパッド3Cも、前端3aが環状溝部Gに嵌入し、同様にパッド本体32の表面が該環状溝部Gの外側内周の環状壁面に摺接することから、周方向3箇所のガイドパッド3A〜3Cに基づく3方向からのバニッシング作用により、切削ヘッド部1aが更に安定した回転状態に保持され、加工精度がより一層向上する。   In the present embodiment, during the period from the fourth stage S4 to the fifth stage S5, the guide pad 3A and the guide pad 3B located on the opposite side in the radial direction and the radial direction Q along the blade portions 2A to 2C are provided. As for the guide pad 3C on the intermediate blade portion 2B side, the front end 3a is fitted into the annular groove portion G, and similarly, the surface of the pad main body 32 is in sliding contact with the annular inner peripheral wall surface of the annular groove portion G. By the burnishing action from three directions based on the three guide pads 3A to 3C, the cutting head portion 1a is held in a more stable rotating state, and the processing accuracy is further improved.
上記実施形態のドリルは外側刃部2A及び中間刃部2Bと内側刃部2Cの3つの刃部を有しているが、本発明を適用するドリルは、切削孔Hの最外周領域の切削を担う外側刃部と、この外側刃部とは略径方向反対側に配置して外側から2番目の領域の切削を担う中間刃部と、これら外側刃部及び中間刃部と略同じ径方向に沿って配置して中間刃部よりも内側領域の切削を担う少なくとも一つの内側刃部とを備え、外周面に切屑排出溝が形成されたものであればよく、複数の内側刃部を備えていてもよい。すなわち、同じ径方向に沿って配置する刃部の総数が4つの場合の内側刃部は2つ、同総数が5つの場合は内側刃部は3つとなる。   The drill according to the above embodiment has three blade portions of the outer blade portion 2A, the intermediate blade portion 2B, and the inner blade portion 2C, but the drill to which the present invention is applied cuts the outermost peripheral region of the cutting hole H. The outer blade portion that bears, the intermediate blade portion that is disposed on the substantially opposite side in the radial direction and responsible for cutting the second region from the outside, and in the substantially same radial direction as these outer blade portion and the intermediate blade portion As long as it has at least one inner blade portion that is disposed along the inner blade portion and performs cutting of the inner region from the intermediate blade portion, and a chip discharge groove is formed on the outer peripheral surface, and includes a plurality of inner blade portions. May be. That is, when the total number of blade portions arranged along the same radial direction is four, there are two inner blade portions, and when the total number is five, there are three inner blade portions.
また、上記実施形態では各刃部が取付姿勢を変えて3回使用できるスローアウェイチップからなるチップ交換式ドリルを例示したが、本発明は、各刃部が1回又は2回使用のスローアウェイチップからなるチップ交換式ドリルにも適用できることは無論のこと、各刃部が切削ヘッド部に一体形成されたドリルにも適用可能である。   Moreover, in the said embodiment, although each chip | tip part changed the attachment attitude | position and illustrated the tip-exchange-type drill which consists of a throw away tip which can be used 3 times, this invention throws away each blade part once or twice. Needless to say, the present invention can also be applied to a tip exchange drill made of a tip, and can also be applied to a drill in which each blade portion is integrally formed with a cutting head portion.
本発明の一実施形態に係るドリルの側面図である。It is a side view of a drill concerning one embodiment of the present invention. 同ドリルの切削ヘッド部の正面図である。It is a front view of the cutting head part of the drill. 同ドリルの切削ヘッド部の側面図である。It is a side view of the cutting head part of the drill. 同ドリルの刃部とガイドパッドの位置関係を示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows the positional relationship of the blade part and guide pad of the drill. 同ドリルによる穿孔加工の初期段階を示す縦断側面図である。It is a vertical side view which shows the initial stage of the drilling process by the drill. 同穿孔加工の次の段階を示す縦断側面図である。It is a vertical side view which shows the next step of the said drilling process. 同穿孔加工のアンバランスカット状態を示す縦断側面図である。It is a vertical side view which shows the unbalance cut state of the said drilling process.
1 ドリル
1a 切削ヘッド部
10 先端面
11 シャンク部 2A 外側刃部
2B 中間刃部
2C 内側刃部
20 切刃
3A〜3C ガイドパッド
4A,4B 切屑排出溝
F 穿孔方向
G 環状溝部
H 切削孔
O 軸心
Q 径方向
W 被削材

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Drill 1a Cutting head part 10 Tip surface 11 Shank part 2A Outer blade part 2B Intermediate blade part 2C Inner blade part 20 Cutting blade 3A-3C Guide pad 4A, 4B Chip discharge groove F Drilling direction G Annular groove part H Cutting hole O Axle Q Radial direction W Work material

Claims (6)

  1. 切削ヘッド部に、切削孔の最外周領域の切削を担う外側刃部と、この外側刃部とは略径方向反対側に配置して外側から2番目の領域の切削を担う中間刃部と、これら外側刃部及び中間刃部と略同じ径方向に沿って配置して中間刃部よりも内側領域の切削を担う少なくとも一つの内側刃部とを備え、外周面に切屑排出溝が形成されたドリルにおいて、
    前記内側刃部が外側刃部及び中間刃部よりも穿孔方向の後位に位置し、
    全面切削状態にある外側刃部/中間刃部の切屑除去量比が49/51〜51/49の範囲内にあり、全刃部の全面切削状態における刃部配置径線上の片側半径領域と他側半径領域の切屑除去量比が前記範囲外にあり、
    切削ヘッド部外周の少なくとも内側刃部による切削反力の作用部位に、切削孔内周に摺接するガイドパッドが取り付けられ、
    該ガイドパッドは、内側刃部による切削開始前に、外側刃部にて切削された環状溝部内に前端部が嵌入するように位置設定されてなることを特徴とするドリル。
    An outer blade portion responsible for cutting the outermost peripheral region of the cutting hole in the cutting head portion, an intermediate blade portion responsible for cutting the second region from the outside by disposing the outer blade portion substantially on the opposite side in the radial direction, The outer blade portion and the intermediate blade portion are arranged along substantially the same radial direction and are provided with at least one inner blade portion responsible for cutting the inner region of the intermediate blade portion, and a chip discharge groove is formed on the outer peripheral surface. In the drill,
    The inner blade portion is located at the rear of the drilling direction than the outer blade portion and the intermediate blade portion,
    The chip removal ratio of the outer cutting edge / intermediate cutting edge in the entire cutting state is in the range of 49/51 to 51/49, and the one-side radius region on the cutting edge arrangement radial line in the entire cutting state of the entire cutting edge and others The chip removal ratio in the side radius region is outside the above range,
    A guide pad that is slidably contacted with the inner periphery of the cutting hole is attached to the site of action of the cutting reaction force by at least the inner blade portion of the outer periphery of the cutting head portion
    The drill is characterized in that the guide pad is positioned so that the front end portion is inserted into the annular groove portion cut by the outer blade portion before starting the cutting by the inner blade portion.
  2. 外側刃部及び中間刃部と内側刃部が、切削ヘッド部に対して着脱可能なスローアウェイチップにて構成されてなる請求項1記載のドリル。   The drill according to claim 1, wherein the outer blade portion, the intermediate blade portion, and the inner blade portion are constituted by a throw-away tip that can be attached to and detached from the cutting head portion.
  3. 最大穿孔深さ/切削孔径の比が4以上である請求項1又は2に記載のドリル。 The drill according to claim 1 or 2 , wherein a ratio of maximum drilling depth / cutting hole diameter is 4 or more.
  4. 前記の内側刃部による切削反力の作用部位に取り付けられるガイドパッドが、前記内側刃部からドリル回転方向後方側60〜90°の角度範囲の切削ヘッド部外周に位置してなる請求項1〜のいずれかに記載のドリル。 The guide pad attached to the site | part of the reaction force of the cutting reaction force by the said inner blade part is located in the outer periphery of the cutting head part of the angle range of 60-90 degrees of the drill rotation direction back side from the said inner blade part. The drill according to any one of 3 above.
  5. 前記の内側刃部による切削反力の作用部位に取り付けられるガイドパッドに加え、その略径方向反対側にもガイドパッドが取付けられてなる請求項1〜のいずれかに記載のドリル。 The drill according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein a guide pad is also attached to a substantially opposite side in the radial direction in addition to the guide pad attached to the site of action of the cutting reaction force by the inner blade portion.
  6. 前記の内側刃部による切削反力の作用部位とその略径方向反対側に取り付けられるガイドパッドに加え、中間刃部側の切削ヘッド部外周位置にもガイドパッドが取付けられてなる請求項記載のドリル。
    In addition to the guide pad is attached to the cutting site of action of the reaction force and its substantially radially opposite by said inner edge portion, formed by the guide pad is attached to the cutting head portion outer peripheral position of the intermediate blade portion side claim 5, wherein Drill.
JP2005255049A 2005-09-02 2005-09-02 Drill Expired - Fee Related JP4644568B2 (en)

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Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS5197881A (en) * 1975-01-20 1976-08-28
JPS5973215A (en) * 1982-10-18 1984-04-25 Nippon Yakin:Kk Drill, particularly drill for deep-hole boring
JPS63267108A (en) * 1987-04-21 1988-11-04 Mitsubishi Metal Corp Drill for deep hole drilling
JPH0219418U (en) * 1988-07-26 1990-02-08
JPH069813U (en) * 1992-05-01 1994-02-08 住友電気工業株式会社 Drill
JPH0671014U (en) * 1993-03-10 1994-10-04 東芝タンガロイ株式会社 Throw-away drill
JP2004160625A (en) * 2002-11-15 2004-06-10 Yunitakku Kk Deep hole cutting tool

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS5197881A (en) * 1975-01-20 1976-08-28
JPS5973215A (en) * 1982-10-18 1984-04-25 Nippon Yakin:Kk Drill, particularly drill for deep-hole boring
JPS63267108A (en) * 1987-04-21 1988-11-04 Mitsubishi Metal Corp Drill for deep hole drilling
JPH0219418U (en) * 1988-07-26 1990-02-08
JPH069813U (en) * 1992-05-01 1994-02-08 住友電気工業株式会社 Drill
JPH0671014U (en) * 1993-03-10 1994-10-04 東芝タンガロイ株式会社 Throw-away drill
JP2004160625A (en) * 2002-11-15 2004-06-10 Yunitakku Kk Deep hole cutting tool

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