JP4547714B2 - Projection optical system, exposure apparatus, and exposure method - Google Patents

Projection optical system, exposure apparatus, and exposure method Download PDF

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JP4547714B2
JP4547714B2 JP2004149697A JP2004149697A JP4547714B2 JP 4547714 B2 JP4547714 B2 JP 4547714B2 JP 2004149697 A JP2004149697 A JP 2004149697A JP 2004149697 A JP2004149697 A JP 2004149697A JP 4547714 B2 JP4547714 B2 JP 4547714B2
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surface
optical system
mask
photosensitive substrate
projection optical
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JP2005331694A (en
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仁志 畑田
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株式会社ニコン
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  The present invention relates to a projection optical system, an exposure apparatus, and an exposure method, and in particular, moves a mask and a photosensitive substrate to a projection system including a plurality of catadioptric projection optical units while moving the mask pattern to the photosensitive substrate. The present invention relates to a projection optical unit suitable for a multi-scanning projection exposure apparatus that performs projection exposure.

  In recent years, liquid crystal display panels are frequently used as display elements for personal computers and televisions. The liquid crystal display panel is manufactured by patterning a transparent thin film electrode on a plate into a desired shape by a photolithography technique. As an apparatus for this photolithography process, a projection exposure apparatus that projects and exposes an original pattern formed on a mask onto a photoresist layer on a plate through a projection optical system is used.

  Recently, there is an increasing demand for a liquid crystal display panel having a large area, and in accordance with this demand, it is desired to expand the exposure area in this type of projection exposure apparatus. In order to enlarge the exposure area, a so-called multi-scanning projection exposure apparatus has been proposed. In a multi-scanning projection exposure apparatus, a mask pattern is projected and exposed on a plate while moving the mask and the plate with respect to a plurality of projection optical units.

As this type of projection optical unit, a catadioptric projection optical unit that is well achromatic with respect to g-line, h-line, and i-line is known (see, for example, Patent Document 1). In this projection optical unit, two image forming optical systems are arranged in series to form an equal-magnification erect image.
JP 2000-39557 A

  In the projection optical unit (projection optical system) composed of the two imaging optical systems as described above, due to manufacturing errors and assembly errors of the optical members, rotationally symmetric astigmatism and astigmatic difference on the optical axis (Hereinafter referred to as “on-axis astigmatic difference”) may occur. In this case, for example, a lens arranged in the vicinity of the concave reflecting mirror in the projection optical unit, that is, in the vicinity of the pupil plane is moved in the optical axis direction, thereby correcting rotationally symmetric astigmatism while substantially suppressing side effects. be able to. However, according to the conventional technology, the axial astigmatic difference cannot be corrected well while substantially suppressing the side effects according to a simple configuration.

  The present invention has been made in view of the above-mentioned problems, and can be mounted on, for example, a multi-scanning projection exposure apparatus, and corrects on-axis astigmatism favorably while substantially suppressing side effects according to a simple configuration. An object of the present invention is to provide a projection optical system capable of performing the above.

  In addition, the present invention uses a projection optical system capable of satisfactorily correcting on-axis astigmatism while substantially suppressing side effects according to a simple configuration, and exposing a fine pattern of a mask with high accuracy. An object of the present invention is to provide an exposure apparatus and an exposure method that can be used.

In order to solve the above problems, in the first embodiment of the present invention, in the projection optical system for forming the image of the first surface on the second surface,
A first imaging optical system for forming an intermediate image of the first surface; and a second imaging optical system for forming a final image on the second surface based on a light beam from the intermediate image. Prepared,
A first optical surface and a second optical surface which are disposed substantially apart from the first surface and the second surface and are rotatable relative to the optical axis of the projection optical system;
The first optical surface and the second optical surface are each formed in a toric surface shape having different power in a direction orthogonal to each other, and a projection optical system is provided.

  In the second embodiment of the present invention, an illumination system for illuminating the mask set on the first surface and an image of the pattern formed on the mask are formed on the photosensitive substrate set on the second surface. An exposure apparatus is provided that includes the projection optical system according to the first embodiment.

  In the third embodiment of the present invention, the photosensitive substrate is configured such that the mask set on the first surface is illuminated and the pattern formed on the mask is set on the second surface via the projection optical system of the first embodiment. Provided is an exposure method characterized by performing projection exposure on top.

  In the projection optical system of the present invention, for example, the first optical member formed with the toric surface-shaped first optical surface and the second optical member formed with the toric surface-shaped second optical surface are independently formed around the optical axis. By rotating, that is, a first optical surface and a second optical surface which are arranged substantially away from the object surface (first surface) and the image surface (second surface) and have different curvatures in the sagittal direction and the meridional direction. By relatively rotating around the optical axis, it is possible to satisfactorily correct the on-axis astigmatism while substantially suppressing side effects according to a simple configuration.

  Further, in the exposure apparatus and the exposure method of the present invention, for example, by using a projection optical system capable of satisfactorily correcting the on-axis astigmatism while substantially suppressing side effects according to a simple configuration, a fine pattern of the mask is formed. High-precision exposure can be performed, and as a result, a high-precision liquid crystal display element or the like can be manufactured as a good microdevice.

Embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
FIG. 1 is a perspective view schematically showing the overall configuration of an exposure apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention. In the present embodiment, the present invention is applied to a multi-scanning projection exposure apparatus that projects and exposes a mask pattern onto a plate while moving the mask and the plate relative to a projection system composed of a plurality of catadioptric projection optical units. is doing.

  In other words, in this embodiment, the projection optical system of the present invention is applied to each projection optical unit of the multi-scanning projection exposure apparatus. In FIG. 1, the X axis is set along the direction (scanning direction) in which the mask on which a predetermined circuit pattern is formed and the plate coated with the resist are moved. Further, the Y axis is set along the direction orthogonal to the X axis in the plane of the mask, and the Z axis is set along the normal direction of the plate.

  The exposure apparatus of this embodiment includes an illumination system IL for uniformly illuminating a mask M supported in parallel to the XY plane via a mask holder (not shown) on a mask stage (not shown) MS. . Referring to FIG. 1, the illumination system IL includes a light source 1 made of, for example, an ultrahigh pressure mercury lamp. The light source 1 is positioned at the first focal position of an elliptical mirror 2 having a reflecting surface made of a spheroid. Therefore, the illumination light beam emitted from the light source 1 forms a light source image at the second focal position of the elliptical mirror 2 via the reflecting mirror (plane mirror) 3. A shutter (not shown) is disposed at the second focal position.

  The divergent light beam from the light source image formed at the second focal position of the elliptical mirror 2 is imaged again via the relay lens system 4. In the vicinity of the pupil plane of the relay lens system 4, a wavelength selection filter (not shown) that transmits only a light beam in a desired wavelength region is disposed. In the wavelength selection filter, g-line (436 nm) light, h-line (405 nm), and i-line (365 nm) light are simultaneously selected as exposure light. In the wavelength selection filter, for example, g-line light and h-line light can be simultaneously selected, and h-line light and i-line light can be simultaneously selected. It is also possible to select only light.

  An incident end 5 a of the light guide 5 is disposed in the vicinity of a position where a light source image is formed by the relay lens system 4. The light guide 5 is a random light guide fiber formed by bundling a large number of fiber strands at random, and includes the same number of incident ends 5a as the number of light sources 1 (one in FIG. 1) and the projection system PL. The same number of exit ends 5b to 5f as the number of projection optical units (five in FIG. 1) are provided. Thus, the light incident on the incident end 5a of the light guide 5 propagates through the inside thereof, and then is emitted from the five exit ends 5b to 5f.

  The divergent light beam emitted from the exit end 5b of the light guide 5 is converted into a substantially parallel light beam by a collimator lens (not shown), and then enters a fly-eye integrator (optical integrator) 6b. The fly-eye integrator 6b is configured by arranging a large number of positive lens elements vertically and horizontally and densely so that the central axis extends along the optical axis AX. Therefore, the light beam incident on the fly-eye integrator 6b is wavefront-divided by a large number of lens elements, and a secondary light source consisting of the same number of light source images as the number of lens elements is formed on the rear focal plane (ie, near the exit surface). To do.

  That is, a substantial surface light source composed of a large number of light source images is formed on the rear focal plane of the fly-eye integrator 6b. The optical integrators (6b to 6f) are not limited to fly-eye integrators, but are diffractive optical elements, micro fly-eye lenses composed of a collection of micro lens elements, or internal reflection type rod integrators ( You may employ | adopt the structure containing a hollow pipe or a light pipe, a rod-shaped glass rod, etc.).

  The light beam from the secondary light source is limited by an aperture stop (not shown) disposed in the vicinity of the rear focal plane of the fly-eye integrator 6b, and then enters the condenser lens system 7b. The aperture stop is arranged at a position optically conjugate with the pupil plane of the corresponding projection optical unit PL1, and has a variable aperture for defining a range of a secondary light source that contributes to illumination. The aperture stop changes the aperture diameter of the variable aperture, thereby determining an σ value (on the pupil plane relative to the aperture diameter of the pupil plane of each of the projection optical units PL1 to PL5 constituting the projection system PL). Of the secondary light source image) is set to a desired value.

  The light flux through the condenser lens system 7b illuminates the mask M on which a predetermined transfer pattern is formed in a superimposed manner. Similarly, divergent light beams emitted from the other exit ends 5c to 5f of the light guide 5 are also used for each collimator lens, fly-eye integrators 6c to 6f (reference numerals are not shown), each aperture stop, and condenser lens system 7c. The masks M are illuminated in a superimposed manner through ˜7f (reference numerals not shown). That is, the illumination system IL illuminates a plurality of trapezoidal regions (the field region of the projection optical unit) arranged in the Y direction on the mask M (a total of five in FIG. 1).

  In the above example, in the illumination system IL, the illumination light from one light source 1 is equally divided into five illumination lights via the light guide 5, but is limited to the number of light sources and the number of projection optical units. Various modifications are possible without this. That is, if necessary, two or more light sources are provided, and the illumination light from these two or more light sources is equally divided into a required number (the number of projection optical units) of illumination light through a light guide with good randomness. You can also In this case, the light guide has the same number of incident ends as the number of light sources, and has the same number of exit ends as the number of projection optical units.

  The light from each illumination area on the mask M is a projection system PL including a plurality (five in total in FIG. 1) of projection optical units PL1 to PL5 arranged along the Y direction so as to correspond to each illumination area. Is incident on. Here, the configuration of each of the projection optical units PL1 to PL5 is the same. The configuration of the projection optical unit according to this embodiment will be specifically described below.

  FIG. 2 is a diagram schematically showing the configuration of the projection optical unit according to the present embodiment. As shown in FIG. 2, the projection optical unit of this embodiment (typically, the projection optical unit PL1 or the like) forms a primary image (intermediate image) of the mask pattern based on the light from the mask M, as shown in FIG. The image optical system K1 and a second image-forming optical system K2 that forms an erect image (secondary image) of the same size as the mask pattern on the plate P based on the light from the primary image. Here, the first imaging optical system K1 and the second imaging optical system K2 have basically the same configuration. In addition, in the vicinity of the primary image formation position (intermediate image plane) of the mask pattern, there are a field area (illumination area) of the projection optical unit on the mask M and a projection area (exposure area) of the projection optical unit on the plate P. A field stop FS to be defined is provided. If the illumination system IL includes an illumination field stop and an illumination area on the mask M is defined by the illumination field stop, the illumination field stop FS can be omitted.

  The first imaging optical system K1 is obliquely arranged at an angle of 45 ° with respect to the mask surface (XY plane) so as to reflect light incident along the −Z direction from the mask M in the −X direction. A first right-angle prism P1 having a reflecting surface P1a is provided. The first imaging optical system K1 includes, in order from the first right-angle prism P1 side, a first refractive optical system S1 and a first concave reflecting mirror M1 having a concave surface directed to the first right-angle prism P1 side. . Here, the first refractive optical system S1 includes five lenses L11 to L15 arranged in a reciprocating optical path formed by the first concave reflecting mirror M1.

  Specifically, the first refractive optical system S1 includes, in order from the first right-angle prism P1 side, a biconvex lens L11, a negative meniscus lens L12 having a concave surface facing the first right-angle prism P1 side, a biconvex lens L13, The lens includes a concave lens L14 and a positive meniscus lens lens L15 having a concave surface facing the first right-angle prism P1. The first refractive optical system S1 and the first concave reflecting mirror M1 are disposed along an optical axis AX1 extending in the X direction, and constitute a first catadioptric optical system as a whole. The light incident on the first right-angle prism P1 along the + X direction from the first catadioptric optical system is -Z by the second reflecting surface P1b obliquely provided at an angle of 45 ° with respect to the mask surface (XY plane). Reflected in the direction.

  On the other hand, the second imaging optical system K2 reflects light incident along the −Z direction from the second reflecting surface P1b of the first right-angle prism P1 with respect to the plate surface (XY plane) so as to reflect in the −X direction. A second right-angle prism P2 having a first reflecting surface P2a inclined at an angle of 45 ° is provided. The second imaging optical system K2 includes, in order from the second right-angle prism P2 side, a second refractive optical system S2 and a second concave reflecting mirror M2 having a concave surface directed to the second right-angle prism P2 side. . Here, the second refractive optical system S2 includes five lenses L21 to L25 arranged in a round-trip optical path formed by the second concave reflecting mirror M2.

  Specifically, the second refractive optical system S2 includes, in order from the second right-angle prism P2 side, a biconvex lens L21, a negative meniscus lens L22 having a concave surface facing the second right-angle prism P2, a biconvex lens L23, The lens includes a concave lens L24 and a positive meniscus lens lens L25 having a concave surface facing the second right-angle prism P2. The second refractive optical system S2 and the second concave reflecting mirror M2 are disposed along the optical axis AX2 extending in the X direction, and constitute a second catadioptric optical system as a whole. The light incident on the second right-angle prism P2 along the + X direction from the second catadioptric optical system is − by the second reflecting surface P2b obliquely provided at an angle of 45 ° with respect to the plate surface (XY plane surface). Reflected in the Z direction and reaches the plate P set at the final image plane.

  In the optical path between the mask M and the first right-angle prism P1, a focus adjustment member 21 including a pair of wedge-shaped declination prisms 21a and 21b is disposed. The pair of declination prisms 21a and 21b are set to have a wedge-shaped cross-sectional shape complementary to each other in the XZ plane in the reference state. The second deflection prism 21b is configured to be capable of reciprocating along the X direction. Therefore, by reciprocating the second declination prism 21b along the X direction, the optical path length between the mask M and the first reflecting surface P1a of the first right-angle prism P1 changes, and as a result, the first imaging optics. The formation position of the mask pattern image formed via the system K1 and the second imaging optical system K2 moves in the Z direction.

  As a result, the focus adjustment member 21 can adjust the distance between the object image points of the projection optical unit, that is, focus adjustment by moving the second declination prism 21b in the X direction. Note that the focus adjusting member 21 can be configured such that, for example, the opposite side (left side in FIG. 2) of the first declination prism 21a can reciprocate in the Z direction. In this case, only the dimension in the X direction of the mask pattern image formed via the first imaging optical system K1 and the second imaging optical system K2 changes due to the rotation of the first deflection prism 21a around the Y axis. . Thus, the focus adjusting member 21 adjusts only the magnification in the X direction of the projection optical unit by rotating around the Y axis of the first declination prism 21a (tilt of the first declination prism 21a), that is, anisotropic. Magnification adjustment can be performed.

  An image shift member 22 including a pair of parallel flat plates 22a and 22b is disposed in the optical path between the focus adjustment member 21 and the first right-angle prism P1. The pair of parallel flat plates 22a and 22b are set so that each optical plane is parallel to the XY plane in the reference state. The first parallel flat plate 22a is configured to be rotatable about the X axis, and the second parallel flat plate 22b is configured to be rotatable about the Y axis. Accordingly, the position of the mask pattern image formed via the first imaging optical system K1 and the second imaging optical system K2 moves in the Y direction by the rotation of the first plane-parallel plate 22a around the X axis (image). shift.

  Similarly, the position of the mask pattern image formed via the first imaging optical system K1 and the second imaging optical system K2 moves in the X direction by the rotation of the second plane parallel plate 22b around the Y axis ( Image shift). Thus, in the image shift member 22, the first imaging optical system K1 and the second imaging are combined by a combination of the rotation of the first parallel plane plate 22a around the X axis and the rotation of the second plane parallel plate 22b around the Y axis. The formation position of the mask pattern image formed via the optical system K2 can be moved two-dimensionally in the XY plane, that is, the image formation position of the projection optical unit can be shifted two-dimensionally.

  On the other hand, in the optical path between the second right-angle prism P2 and the plate P, a magnification adjusting member 23 including three lens components 23a to 23c is disposed. The magnification adjusting member 23 is composed of, for example, a negative lens 23a, a positive lens 23b, and a negative lens 23c sequentially from the second right-angle prism P2 side. Here, each lens component 23a-23c is comprised so that relative movement is possible along an optical axis direction (Z direction). Therefore, in the magnification adjusting member 23, a mask pattern image formed via the first imaging optical system K1 and the second imaging optical system K2 by the relative movement of the lens components 23a to 23c along the optical axis direction. Can be changed isotropically in the XY plane, that is, the isotropic magnification of the projection optical unit can be adjusted.

  The basic operation of the projection optical unit according to this embodiment will be described below. As described above, the pattern formed on the mask M is illuminated with substantially uniform illuminance by the illumination light (exposure light) from the illumination system IL. The light traveling in the −Z direction from the mask pattern formed in each illumination area on the mask M passes through the focus adjustment member 21 and the image shift member 22, and the first imaging optical system K <b> 1 of each projection optical unit. And is deflected by 90 ° by the first reflecting surface P1a of the first right-angle prism P1.

  The light reflected in the −X direction by the first reflecting surface P1a of the first right-angle prism P1 reaches the first concave reflecting mirror M1 via the first refractive optical system S1. The light reflected by the first concave reflecting mirror M1 is incident on the second reflecting surface P1b of the first right-angle prism P1 along the + X direction again through the first refractive optical system S1. The light that is deflected by 90 ° on the second reflecting surface P1b of the first right-angle prism P1 and travels along the −Z direction forms a primary image of the mask pattern in the vicinity of the field stop FS. The lateral magnification in the X direction of the primary image is approximately +1 times, and the lateral magnification in the Y direction is approximately -1.

  The light traveling along the −Z direction from the primary image of the mask pattern enters the second imaging optical system K2, and is deflected by 90 ° by the first reflecting surface P2a of the second right-angle prism P2. The light reflected in the −X direction by the second right-angle prism P2 reaches the second concave reflecting mirror M2 via the second refractive optical system S2. The light reflected by the second concave reflecting mirror M2 enters the second reflecting surface P2b of the second right-angle prism P2 along the + X direction again through the second refractive optical system S2.

  The light that has been deflected by 90 ° at the second reflecting surface P2b of the second right-angle prism P2 and traveled along the −Z direction passes through the magnification adjusting member 23 to form a second mask pattern on the corresponding exposure region on the plate P. The next image is formed. Here, the lateral magnification in the X direction and the lateral magnification in the Y direction of the secondary image are both +1 times. In other words, the mask pattern image formed on the plate P through each projection optical unit is an equal-magnification erect image, and each projection optical unit constitutes an equal-magnification erect system. Each projection optical unit is a substantially telecentric optical system on both the mask M side and the plate P side.

  In this way, the light passing through the projection system PL composed of the plurality of projection optical units PL1 to PL5 is masked on the plate P supported in parallel to the XY plane via the plate holder on the plate stage (not shown) PS. A pattern image is formed. That is, as described above, each of the projection optical units PL1 to PL5 is configured as an equal-magnification erecting system. Therefore, a plurality of projection optical units PL1 to PL5 arranged in the Y direction so as to correspond to each illumination area on the plate P that is a photosensitive substrate. In the trapezoidal exposure area, an erect image that is the same size as the mask pattern is formed.

  Incidentally, the mask stage MS is provided with a scanning drive system (not shown) having a long stroke for moving the stage along the X direction which is the scanning direction. In addition, a pair of alignment drive systems (not shown) are provided for moving the mask stage MS by a minute amount along the Y direction which is the scanning orthogonal direction and rotating the mask stage MS by a minute amount around the Z axis. The position coordinate of the mask stage MS is measured by a laser interferometer MIF using a moving mirror and the position is controlled.

  A similar drive system is also provided in the plate stage PS. That is, a scanning drive system (not shown) having a long stroke for moving the plate stage PS along the X direction which is the scanning direction, and the plate stage PS is moved by a minute amount along the Y direction which is the scanning orthogonal direction. In addition, a pair of alignment drive systems (not shown) are provided for rotating the Z axis by a minute amount. The position coordinate of the plate stage PS is measured by a laser interferometer PIF using a moving mirror, and the position is controlled.

  Further, as a means for relatively aligning the mask M and the plate P along the XY plane, a pair of alignment systems AL is disposed above the mask M. As the alignment system AL, for example, an alignment system in which a relative position between a mask alignment mark formed on the mask M and a plate alignment mark formed on the plate P is obtained by image processing can be used.

  Thus, the mask M and the plate P are integrated with each other in the projection system PL including the plurality of projection optical units PL1 to PL5 by the action of the scanning drive system on the mask stage MS side and the scanning drive system on the plate stage PS side. By moving along the direction (X direction), the entire pattern area on the mask P is transferred (scanned exposure) to the entire exposure area on the plate P. The shape and arrangement of the plurality of trapezoidal exposure areas, and the shape and arrangement of the plurality of trapezoidal illumination areas, are described in detail in, for example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 7-183212, etc. Is omitted.

  As described above, in each projection optical unit, due to manufacturing errors or assembly errors of optical members, rotationally symmetric astigmatism or astigmatism on the optical axis (hereinafter referred to as “axial astigmatism”). ) May occur. Here, when normal rotationally symmetric astigmatism occurs, as shown in FIG. 3A, the difference along the optical axis AX between the sagittal image plane S and the meridional image plane M is the optical axis. 0 on AX (sagittal image plane S, meridional image plane M, and ideal image plane IP coincide on optical axis AX), but rotationally symmetric with respect to optical axis AX as it moves away from optical axis AX. Become bigger.

  On the other hand, when an axial astigmatic difference (center astigmatism) has occurred, as shown in FIG. 3B, the optical axis AX between the sagittal image plane S and the meridional image plane M that are separated from the ideal image plane IP. The difference along the line is almost constant without depending on the distance (image height) from the optical axis AX. In this case, for example, in the projection optical unit shown in FIG. 2, the lens (L15 or L25) in the vicinity of the concave reflecting mirror (M1 or M2) disposed on the pupil surface or in the vicinity thereof is moved in the optical axis direction, thereby causing side effects. The normal rotationally symmetric astigmatism can be corrected (adjusted) while substantially suppressing the above.

  However, according to the conventional technology, the axial astigmatic difference cannot be corrected well while substantially suppressing the side effects according to a simple configuration. Therefore, in the present embodiment, a first optical surface R1 and a second optical surface R2 that are disposed substantially away from the mask M and the plate P and are relatively rotatable around the optical axis are introduced. Here, the first optical surface R1 and the second optical surface R2 are each formed in a toric surface shape having different powers in the orthogonal direction.

  Specifically, as shown in FIG. 4, in the first imaging optical system K1, the lens L15 adjacent to the first concave reflecting mirror M1 disposed at or near the pupil surface can be rotated around the optical axis AX1. The surface of the lens L15 on the first concave reflecting mirror M1 side is formed as a toric surface as the first optical surface R1. In addition, in the second imaging optical system K2, a lens L25 adjacent to the second concave reflecting mirror M2 disposed at or near the pupil plane is configured to be rotatable around the optical axis AX2, and the second concave reflecting of the lens L25 is configured. The surface on the mirror M2 side is formed as a toric surface as the second optical surface R2.

  Here, for example, an aspherical surface corresponding to a 2θ component of a Zernike aspherical surface can be used as a toric surface having different power in the orthogonal direction. Hereinafter, basic matters regarding the Zernike aspheric surface will be described. In general, a Zernike aspheric surface can be represented by a Zernike polynomial. In the Zernike polynomial expression, polar coordinates are used as the coordinate system, and Zernike cylindrical functions are used as the orthogonal function system. First, polar coordinates are defined on the aspheric surface, and the aspheric shape is represented as M (ρ, θ). Here, ρ is a standardized half-body in which the radius of the aspheric surface is normalized to 1, and θ is a radial angle of polar coordinates.

Next, the aspherical shape M (ρ, θ) is developed as shown in the following equation (1) using Zernike's cylindrical function system Z n (ρ, θ).
M (ρ, θ) = ΣC n Z n (ρ, θ)
= C 1 · Z 1 (ρ, θ) + C 2 · Z 2 (ρ, θ)
・ ・ ・ ・ + C n・ Z n (ρ, θ) (1)
Here, C n is an expansion coefficient. Hereinafter, of the Zernike cylindrical function system Z n (ρ, θ), the cylindrical function systems Z 1 to Z 36 according to the first to 36th terms are as follows.

n: Z n (ρ, θ)
1: 1
2: ρcosθ
3: ρsinθ
4: 2ρ 2 -1
5: ρ 2 cos 2θ
6: ρ 2 sin2θ
7: (3ρ 2 −2) ρ cos θ
8: (3ρ 2 −2) ρsinθ
9: 6ρ 4 -6ρ 2 +1
10: ρ 3 cos 3θ
11: ρ 3 sin 3θ
12: (4ρ 2 -3) ρ 2 cos 2θ
13: (4ρ 2 -3) ρ 2 sin 2θ
14: (10ρ 4 −12ρ 2 +3) ρ cos θ
15: (10ρ 4 −12ρ 2 +3) ρsin θ
16: 20ρ 6 −30ρ 4 + 12ρ 2 −1
17: ρ 4 cos 4θ
18: ρ 4 sin4θ
19: (5ρ 2 -4) ρ 3 cos 3θ
20: (5ρ 2 -4) ρ 3 sin 3θ
21: (15ρ 4 −20ρ 2 +6) ρ 2 cos 2θ
22: (15ρ 4 −20ρ 2 +6) ρ 2 sin 2θ
23: (35ρ 6 −60ρ 4 + 30ρ 2 −4) ρcos θ
24: (35ρ 6 -60ρ 4 + 30ρ 2 -4) ρsinθ
25: 70ρ 8 −140ρ 6 + 90ρ 4 −20ρ 2 +1
26: ρ 5 cos 5θ
27: ρ 5 sin 5θ
28: (6ρ 2 -5) ρ 4 cos4θ
29: (6ρ 2 -5) ρ 4 sin4θ
30: (21ρ 4 −30ρ 2 +10) ρ 3 cos 3θ
31: (21ρ 4 −30ρ 2 +10) ρ 3 sin 3θ
32: (56ρ 6 −104ρ 4 + 60ρ 2 −10) ρ 2 cos 2θ
33: (56ρ 6 −104ρ 4 + 60ρ 2 −10) ρ 2 sin 2θ
34: (126ρ 8 −280ρ 6 + 210ρ 4 −60ρ 2 +5) ρcos θ
35: (126ρ 8 −280ρ 6 + 210ρ 4 −60ρ 2 +5) ρsin θ
36: 252ρ 10 −630ρ 8 + 560ρ 6 −210ρ 4 + 30ρ 2 −1

In the Zernike polynomial, when an aspheric surface defined by the expansion coefficient C n according to the n-th term and the cylindrical function system Z n is expressed as the n-th term aspheric surface, the fifth aspheric surface (or sin 2θ (or cos 2θ)) is included. 6-term aspheric surface) is an aspheric surface corresponding to the 2θ component of the Zernike aspheric surface. If appropriate, for example, an aspherical surface corresponding to the 3θ component of the Zernike aspherical surface or an aspherical surface corresponding to the 4θ component can be used as the toric surface having different power in the orthogonal direction. Here, the tenth term aspheric surface (or eleventh term aspheric surface) including sin 3θ (or cos 3θ) is an aspheric surface corresponding to the 3θ component of the Zernike aspheric surface, and the seventeenth term aspheric surface including sin 4θ (or cos 4θ). (Or the 18th term aspherical surface) is an aspherical surface corresponding to the 4θ component of the Zernike aspherical surface.

  Thus, in the projection optical unit of the present embodiment, the lens L15 having the toric surface-like first optical surface R1 and the lens L25 having the toric surface-like second optical surface R2 are independently formed around the optical axis. By rotating, that is, the first optical surface R1 and the second optical surface R2 which are arranged substantially away from the mask M and the plate P and have different curvatures in the sagittal direction and the meridional direction are relatively around the optical axis. By rotating, the astigmatic difference on the axis can be favorably corrected while substantially suppressing side effects according to a simple configuration.

  In particular, in the present embodiment, the first optical surface R1 is disposed in the vicinity of the pupil plane in the optical path of the first imaging optical system K1, and the second optical plane R2 is the pupil in the optical path of the second imaging optical system K2. In other words, since the first optical surface R1 and the second optical surface R2 are far away from the mask M and the plate P, in other words, the first optical surface R1 and the second optical surface R2 are separated from each other. Correction of on-axis astigmatism can be efficiently performed by relative rotation. Further, since the distance between the first optical surface R1 and the pupil plane of the first imaging optical system K1 is set equal to the distance between the second optical surface R2 and the pupil plane of the second imaging optical system K2, the axis Side effects associated with the correction of the upper astigmatism can be satisfactorily suppressed.

  Further, in the exposure apparatus of the present embodiment, since a plurality of projection optical units PL1 to PL5 that can satisfactorily correct on-axis astigmatism while substantially suppressing side effects according to a simple configuration are used, g It is possible to expose a fine pattern of a mask with high accuracy with high throughput using exposure light in a wide wavelength range including a line, h line, and i line. The correction of the axial astigmatism may be performed when the projection optical unit is alone before being mounted on the exposure apparatus, or may be performed after being mounted on the exposure apparatus. However, when correcting the axial astigmatism after being mounted on the exposure apparatus, it is preferable to include a mechanism for performing relative rotation between the first optical surface R1 and the second optical surface R2 from the outside.

  In the above-described embodiment, the surface on the first concave reflecting mirror M1 side of the lens L15 in the first imaging optical system K1 is the first optical surface R1, and corresponds to the lens L15 in the second imaging optical system K2. The surface of the lens L25 on the second concave reflecting mirror M2 side is the second optical surface R2. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and the surface of the lens L15 in the first imaging optical system K1 on the first right-angle prism P1 side, any one surface of the lens L14, or any one surface of the lens L13 is used. The first optical surface R1, the surface on the second right-angle prism P2 side of the lens L25 in the second imaging optical system K2, the one surface of the lens L24, or one surface of the lens L23 is the second. It can also be the optical surface R2. Furthermore, the first optical surface R1 can be provided on the reflecting surface of the first concave reflecting mirror M1, and the second optical surface R2 can be provided on the reflecting surface of the second concave reflecting mirror M2.

  In the above-described embodiment, the first optical surface R1 is disposed in the optical path of the first imaging optical system K1, and the second optical surface R2 is disposed in the optical path of the second imaging optical system K2. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and the first optical surface R1 and the second optical surface R2 are in the optical path of one of the first imaging optical system K1 and the second imaging optical system K2. A modification in which both are arranged is also possible. For example, when both the first optical surface R1 and the second optical surface R2 are arranged in the optical path of the first imaging optical system K1, as shown in FIG. 5, for example, on the first concave reflecting mirror M1 side of the lens L14. The surface is preferably the first optical surface R1, and the surface of the lens L15 on the first right-angle prism P1 side is preferably the second optical surface R2.

  In this way, by arranging the first optical surface R1 and the second optical surface R2 so as to face each other, side effects associated with correction of the on-axis astigmatic difference can be satisfactorily suppressed. However, without being limited to the arrangement shown in FIG. 5, for example, the surface on the first right-angle prism P1 side of the lens L14 is the first optical surface R1, and the surface on the first concave reflecting mirror M1 side of the lens L15 is the second optical surface. It can also be the surface R2. Further, in general, two relatively rotatable surfaces appropriately selected from the optical surfaces of the lenses L13 to L15 and the reflecting surface of the first concave reflecting mirror M1, for example, are defined as the first optical surface R1 and the second optical surface R2. It can be. These points are the same when both the first optical surface R1 and the second optical surface R2 are arranged in the optical path of the second imaging optical system K2.

  In the above-described embodiment, the first image-forming optical system K1 and the second image-forming optical system K2 have basically the same configuration, but the present invention is not limited to this. The present invention can also be applied to a projection optical unit including an imaging optical system. In the above-described embodiment, the projection optical unit forms an erect image that is the same size as the pattern of the mask M on the plate P. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and the magnification of the projection optical unit, the attitude of the image, and the like. Various modifications are possible for.

  By the way, in this embodiment, when the optical member provided with the first optical surface R1 or the second optical surface R2 is rotated around the optical axis, the optical member is inclined (tilted) with respect to the optical axis. Eccentric aberrations are likely to occur due to decentering (tilting, shifting, etc.) of the optical member by moving (shifting) in the direction perpendicular to the optical axis. Therefore, in order to satisfactorily suppress the occurrence of decentration aberration associated with the correction of the axial astigmatism, the lens having the smallest power in the lens group closest to the first concave reflecting mirror M1 (L14 and L15 in this embodiment). It is preferable to form the first optical surface R1 on the lens having the smallest power in the lens group closest to the second concave reflecting mirror M2 (L24 and L25 in this embodiment). .

  In the present embodiment, when a mask M having a large dimension in the scanning orthogonal direction, that is, the Y direction orthogonal to the scanning direction (X direction) is used, the mask M is relatively large along the Y direction as shown in FIG. Bending, and the influence of this bending cannot be ignored. In this case, for example, when paying attention to the projection optical unit PL3 arranged in the center, the distance between the object image points is set to the design value (between the object image points set without assuming the deflection of the mask M) by the center deflection amount DF3 of the mask M. Distance). Therefore, in the projection optical unit PL3, it is necessary to perform focus adjustment in order to compensate for the influence of the deflection component of the corresponding mask M. Similarly, in other projection optical units, it is necessary to perform focus adjustment to compensate for the influence of the deflection component of the corresponding mask M as necessary.

  Further, for example, when attention is paid to the projection optical unit PL1 (or PL5) disposed at the end, the pattern surface of the mask is inclined along the Y direction as indicated by the straight line DL1 due to the deflection of the mask M. Also, the mask pattern image formed on the surface is inclined (image surface inclination) along the Y direction. Therefore, in the projection optical unit PL1 (or PL5), it is necessary to perform image plane inclination correction in order to compensate for the influence of the inclination component of the corresponding mask M. Similarly, in other projection optical units, it is necessary to perform image plane inclination correction to compensate for the influence of the inclination component of the corresponding mask M as necessary.

  As a focus adjustment method in each projection optical unit, for example, the first right-angle prism P1 is moved in the + X direction by a movement amount corresponding to about ½ of the deflection amount of the corresponding mask M (first concave reflection along the optical axis AX1). A method of moving to the opposite side of the mirror M1 (see FIG. 2) can be used. However, in this method, there is a case where C-shaped distortion (nonlinear magnification error in which the magnification error changes in a C shape with respect to the change in image height) is generated by the movement of the first right-angle prism P1 in the X direction. When such C-shaped distortion occurs, a specific lens (for example, the lens L15) in the first imaging optical system K1 and a corresponding specific lens (for example, the lens L25) in the second imaging optical system K2. ) Is moved in the optical axis direction and in the opposite direction by the same movement amount to correct the C-shaped distortion.

  Further, as a focus adjustment method in each projection optical unit, the first right-angle prism P1 is moved in the + X direction (to the side opposite to the first concave reflecting mirror M1 along the optical axis AX1 so as not to generate C-shaped distortion: FIG. 2), and the second rectangular prism P2 is moved in the −X direction by the amount of movement different from the amount of movement of the first rectangular prism P1 (to the second concave reflecting mirror M2 side along the optical axis AX2): FIG. The method of moving can be used.

  On the other hand, as a method of correcting the image plane tilt in each projection optical unit, a method of rotating the first right-angle prism P1 around the optical axis AX1 can be used. Specifically, in this method, the inclination angle of the mask M along the Y direction matches the inclination direction of the ridge line of the first right-angle prism P1, and the inclination angle of the ridge line of the first right-angle prism P1 is the mask M. The first right-angle prism P1 is rotated around the optical axis AX1 so as to be approximately ½ of the inclination angle of the first angle.

  Further, due to the deflection along the Y direction of the mask M, the Y direction (scanning orthogonal direction) magnification of each projection optical unit is slightly smaller than the design value (a magnification set without assuming the deflection of the mask M). However, the magnification in the X direction (scanning direction) of each projection optical unit does not change without being affected by the deflection of the mask M in the Y direction. In other words, due to the deflection along the Y direction of the mask M, a magnification difference occurs in each projection optical unit between the Y direction (scanning orthogonal direction) and the X direction (scanning direction).

  In this case, the above-described magnification difference can be corrected by adjusting only the magnification in the X direction by the tilt of the first declination prism 21a in the focus adjustment member 21, that is, performing anisotropic magnification adjustment. At this time, an axial astigmatic difference is generated due to the tilt of the first declination prism 21a in the focus adjusting member 21, and this axial astigmatic difference is the first optical surface R1 and the second optical surface according to the present invention. Good correction is achieved by relative rotation with the surface R2.

  The exposure apparatus according to the present embodiment is assembled by electrically, mechanically, or optically coupling the optical members and the stages in the present embodiment shown in FIG. 1 so as to achieve the functions described above. be able to. Then, the illumination system IL illuminates the mask (reticle) (illumination process), and the photosensitive substrate is scanned and exposed with a transfer pattern formed on the mask using the projection system PL including the projection optical units PL1 to PL5 ( By the exposure step, a micro device (semiconductor element, imaging element, liquid crystal display element, thin film magnetic head, etc.) can be manufactured. FIG. 7 shows an example of a technique for obtaining a semiconductor device as a micro device by forming a predetermined circuit pattern on a wafer or the like as a photosensitive substrate using the exposure apparatus of this embodiment shown in FIG. This will be described with reference to a flowchart.

  First, in step 301 of FIG. 7, a metal film is deposited on one lot of wafers. In the next step 302, a photoresist is applied on the metal film on the one lot of wafers. Thereafter, in step 303, using the exposure apparatus of the above-described embodiment, the image of the pattern on the mask is sequentially exposed to each shot area on the wafer of one lot via the projection optical system (projection optical unit). Transcribed. Thereafter, in step 304, the photoresist on the one lot of wafers is developed, and in step 305, the resist pattern is etched on the one lot of wafers to form a pattern on the mask. Corresponding circuit patterns are formed in each shot area on each wafer. Thereafter, a device pattern such as a semiconductor element is manufactured by forming a circuit pattern of an upper layer. According to the semiconductor device manufacturing method described above, a semiconductor device having an extremely fine circuit pattern can be obtained with high throughput.

  In the exposure apparatus of the above-described embodiment, a liquid crystal display element as a micro device can be obtained by forming a predetermined pattern (circuit pattern, electrode pattern, etc.) on a plate (glass substrate). Hereinafter, an example of the technique at this time will be described with reference to the flowchart of FIG. In FIG. 8, in the pattern formation process 401, a so-called photolithography process is performed in which the exposure pattern of the above-described embodiment is used to transfer and expose the mask pattern onto a photosensitive substrate (such as a glass substrate coated with a resist). . By this photolithography process, a predetermined pattern including a large number of electrodes and the like is formed on the photosensitive substrate. Thereafter, the exposed substrate undergoes steps such as a developing step, an etching step, and a resist stripping step, whereby a predetermined pattern is formed on the substrate, and the process proceeds to the next color filter forming step 402.

  Next, in the color filter forming step 402, a large number of sets of three dots corresponding to R (Red), G (Green), and B (Blue) are arranged in a matrix or three of R, G, and B A color filter is formed by arranging a plurality of stripe filter sets in the horizontal scanning line direction. Then, after the color filter forming step 402, a cell assembly step 403 is executed. In the cell assembly step 403, a liquid crystal panel (liquid crystal cell) is assembled using the substrate having the predetermined pattern obtained in the pattern formation step 401, the color filter obtained in the color filter formation step 402, and the like.

  In the cell assembly step 403, for example, liquid crystal is injected between the substrate having the predetermined pattern obtained in the pattern formation step 401 and the color filter obtained in the color filter formation step 402, and a liquid crystal panel (liquid crystal cell) is obtained. ). Thereafter, in a module assembling step 404, components such as an electric circuit and a backlight for performing a display operation of the assembled liquid crystal panel (liquid crystal cell) are attached to complete a liquid crystal display element. According to the above-described method for manufacturing a liquid crystal display element, a liquid crystal display element having an extremely fine circuit pattern can be obtained with high throughput.

  In the above-described embodiment, an ultrahigh pressure mercury lamp is used as the light source, but the present invention is not limited to this, and other appropriate light sources can be used. That is, in the present invention, the exposure wavelength is not particularly limited to g-line, h-line, i-line and the like.

  In the above-described embodiment, the present invention will be described by taking a multi-scanning projection exposure apparatus that performs scanning exposure while moving a mask and a photosensitive substrate with respect to a projection system composed of a plurality of projection optical units. Yes. However, the present invention can also be applied to a projection exposure apparatus that performs batch exposure without moving a mask and a photosensitive substrate with respect to a projection system composed of a plurality of projection optical units. Furthermore, the present invention is applied to a scanning projection exposure apparatus that performs scanning exposure while moving a mask and a photosensitive substrate with respect to a projection system that includes a single projection optical unit, and a projection system that includes a single projection optical unit. The present invention can also be applied to a projection exposure apparatus that performs batch exposure without moving the mask and the photosensitive substrate.

  In the above embodiments, an example in which a mask having a predetermined light-shielding pattern formed on a transparent substrate is used as a mask. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and a DMD (digital mirror micro device) or a liquid crystal is used. It is also possible to use a pattern display element using an element or the like as a mask. Furthermore, it goes without saying that the present invention can also use a pattern display device other than the DMD or liquid crystal element as a mask.

1 is a perspective view schematically showing an overall configuration of an exposure apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention. It is a figure which shows schematically the structure of the projection optical unit concerning this embodiment. (A) is a figure which shows the characteristic of normal rotationally symmetric astigmatism, (b) is a figure which shows the characteristic of an axial astigmatism, respectively. It is a figure which shows roughly the characteristic principal part structure of the projection optical unit concerning this embodiment. It is a figure which shows the modification which arrange | positions both the 1st optical surface and the 2nd optical surface in the optical path of the 1st image formation optical system K1. It is a figure explaining the influence of the bending of the mask with respect to each projection optical unit. It is a flowchart of the method at the time of obtaining the semiconductor device as a microdevice by forming a predetermined circuit pattern in the wafer etc. as a photosensitive substrate using the exposure apparatus of this embodiment. It is a flowchart of the method at the time of obtaining the liquid crystal display element as a microdevice by forming a predetermined pattern on a plate using the exposure apparatus of this embodiment.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Light source 2 Elliptical mirror 3 Reflective mirror 4 Relay lens system 5 Light guide 6 Fly eye integrator 7 Condenser lens system M Mask PL Projection system PL1-PL5 Projection optical unit P Plate FS Field stop R1 1st optical surface R2 2nd optical surface S1 First refractive optical system S2 Second refractive optical system M1 First concave reflecting mirror M2 Second concave reflecting mirror K1 First imaging optical system K2 Second imaging optical system

Claims (9)

  1. In the projection optical system for forming an image of the first surface on the second surface ,
    A first imaging optical system for forming a primary image of the first surface, a second imaging optical system for forming a secondary image of the first surface based on light from the primary image on the second surface With
    The first imaging optical system is disposed at a predetermined distance from the first concave reflecting mirror disposed at or near the pupil plane of the first imaging optical system and the pupil plane of the first imaging optical system. A first catadioptric optical system including a first optical surface;
    The second imaging optical system includes a second concave reflecting mirror disposed at or near the pupil plane of the second imaging optical system, and approximately equal to the predetermined distance from the pupil plane of the second imaging optical system. A second catadioptric optical system including a second optical surface disposed at a distance;
    The first optical surface is formed in a toric surface shape having different powers in a direction orthogonal to each other, and is provided to be rotatable around the optical axis of the first catadioptric optical system.
    The projection optical system, wherein the second optical surface is formed in a toric surface shape and is provided to be rotatable around an optical axis of the second catadioptric optical system.
  2. The first optical surface is formed on a lens having the smallest power in the lens group closest to the first concave reflecting mirror,
    2. The projection optical system according to claim 1, wherein the second optical surface is formed as a lens having the smallest power in a lens group closest to the second concave reflecting mirror .
  3. The first optical surface is provided on a reflection surface of the first concave reflecting mirror, and the second optical surface is provided on a reflection surface of the second concave reflecting mirror. The projection optical system described.
  4. 4. The projection optical system according to claim 1, wherein each of the first imaging optical system and the second imaging optical system has a lateral magnification of 1 × . 5.
  5. In an exposure apparatus for transferring a pattern formed on a mask to a photosensitive substrate,
    5. The projection optical system according to claim 1, wherein an image of the pattern of the mask set on the first surface is formed on the photosensitive substrate set on the second surface. 6. An exposure apparatus .
  6. An illumination system for illuminating the mask set on the first surface;
    A mask stage for moving the mask in a predetermined direction with respect to an illumination area on the mask by the illumination system;
    A plate stage for moving the photosensitive substrate in the predetermined direction with respect to an exposure region on the photosensitive substrate corresponding to the illumination region;
    The exposure apparatus according to claim 5, further comprising:
  7. In an exposure method for transferring a pattern formed on a mask to a photosensitive substrate,
    Setting the mask on the first surface;
    Setting the photosensitive substrate on a second surface;
    The image of the pattern of the mask set on the first surface is transferred to the photosensitive substrate set on the second surface via the projection optical system according to any one of claims 1 to 4. Forming,
    An exposure method comprising:
  8. Illuminating the mask set on the first surface;
    Moving the mask in a predetermined direction relative to the illumination area on the mask;
    Moving the photosensitive substrate in the predetermined direction relative to an exposure region on the photosensitive substrate corresponding to the illumination region;
    The exposure method according to claim 7, further comprising:
  9. In a device manufacturing method for forming a microdevice by processing a photosensitive substrate,
    An exposure step of transferring the pattern onto the photosensitive substrate using the exposure apparatus according to claim 5 or 6,
    A processing step of processing the photosensitive substrate to which the pattern is transferred based on the pattern;
    A device manufacturing method comprising:
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JP5935975B2 (en) * 2011-11-14 2016-06-15 株式会社ニコン Optical member position adjusting device, projection optical system, adjusting method thereof, and exposure apparatus
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KR20160084539A (en) 2015-01-05 2016-07-14 (주)그린광학 Reflective mirror for cut-off GHI-line

Citations (3)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH07183190A (en) * 1993-12-22 1995-07-21 Nikon Corp Projection aligner
JP2002329651A (en) * 2001-04-27 2002-11-15 Nikon Corp Aligner, method of manufacturing aligner and method of manufacturing micro-device
WO2003023481A1 (en) * 2001-09-07 2003-03-20 Nikon Corporation Optical system, projection optical system, exposure device having the projection optical system, and method for manufacturing micro device using the exposure device

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH07183190A (en) * 1993-12-22 1995-07-21 Nikon Corp Projection aligner
JP2002329651A (en) * 2001-04-27 2002-11-15 Nikon Corp Aligner, method of manufacturing aligner and method of manufacturing micro-device
WO2003023481A1 (en) * 2001-09-07 2003-03-20 Nikon Corporation Optical system, projection optical system, exposure device having the projection optical system, and method for manufacturing micro device using the exposure device

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