JP4479911B2 - Driving method, exposure method, exposure apparatus, and device manufacturing method - Google Patents

Driving method, exposure method, exposure apparatus, and device manufacturing method Download PDF

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JP4479911B2
JP4479911B2 JP2005518009A JP2005518009A JP4479911B2 JP 4479911 B2 JP4479911 B2 JP 4479911B2 JP 2005518009 A JP2005518009 A JP 2005518009A JP 2005518009 A JP2005518009 A JP 2005518009A JP 4479911 B2 JP4479911 B2 JP 4479911B2
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stage
movement information
wafer
moving body
step
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JPWO2005078777A1 (en
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剛之 水谷
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株式会社ニコン
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70216Systems for imaging mask onto workpiece
    • G03F7/70341Immersion
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70691Handling of masks or wafers
    • G03F7/70716Stages
    • G03F7/70725Stages control

Description

  The present invention relates to a driving method, an exposure method and an exposure apparatus, and a device manufacturing method. More specifically, the present invention relates to a driving method for driving a moving body in contact with a liquid, and a stage is driven using the driving method. The present invention relates to an exposure method and an exposure apparatus for irradiating an object on a stage with exposure light via a liquid, and a device manufacturing method including a lithography process using the exposure method and the exposure apparatus.

  In a photolithographic process for forming a fine pattern of an electronic device such as a semiconductor element (CPU, DRAM, etc.), a liquid crystal display element, an imaging element (CCD, etc.), or a thin film magnetic head, patterns to be formed are 4-5. A reticle (or photomask, etc.) pattern as a mask formed by proportional enlargement about double is applied to a wafer (or glass plate, etc.) as an object to be exposed using a projection exposure apparatus of a batch exposure method or a scanning exposure method. A reduction transfer method is used.

  In recent years, miniaturization of semiconductor elements has progressed, and a projection exposure apparatus with higher resolution has been demanded. It is known that the resolution (resolution) of a projection exposure apparatus is proportional to the exposure wavelength (exposure light wavelength) and inversely proportional to the numerical aperture (NA) of the projection optical system. However, if the exposure wavelength is shortened and the numerical aperture (NA) is increased (larger NA) in order to increase the resolution, the depth of focus becomes narrower.

  Therefore, recently, among the techniques for improving the resolution, a liquid having a refractive index higher than that of air (for example, the space between the optical member installed on the most image plane side (wafer side) of the projection optical system (projection lens) and the wafer (for example, The immersion exposure method filled with pure water is attracting attention, and the development of immersion exposure apparatuses is being actively conducted. This is because according to the immersion exposure method, the exposure wavelength can be substantially shortened and the depth of focus can be increased (widened) compared to the air.

  Further, the immersion exposure method is applied when exposure light used in a conventional exposure apparatus, for example, i-line with a wavelength of 365 nm, KrF excimer laser light with a wavelength of 248 nm, or ArF excimer laser light with a wavelength of 193 nm is used as exposure light. Development of immersion exposure technology using these exposure wavelengths is in progress.

As the immersion exposure apparatus, mainly the following a. ~ C. Three types have been proposed.
a. Local immersion type in which liquid is locally filled only between the projection optical system and the wafer (for example, see Patent Document 1)
b. A wafer immersion type in which a wafer is installed in a bathtub and the liquid is filled in the bathtub (for example, see Patent Document 2).
c. A wafer stage immersion type in which a wafer stage is installed in a bathtub and the liquid is filled in the bathtub (see, for example, Patent Document 3)
In any type of immersion exposure apparatus described above, the projection optical system and the wafer are separated when no liquid is present. However, by immersion, at least the end portion of the projection optical system on the wafer side and the wafer come into contact with each other through water, and a frictional force is generated between the projection optical system and the liquid and between the liquid and the wafer. . Due to these frictional forces, the position control accuracy of the wafer (wafer stage on which the wafer is placed) with respect to the projection optical system is lowered, and as a result, the transfer accuracy of the fine pattern transferred onto the wafer may be lowered.

  The magnitude of the frictional force between the projection optical system and the liquid and between the liquid and the wafer depends on the pressure of the liquid and the surface tension of the liquid. For example, the pressure of the liquid is determined by the flow rate and flow rate of the liquid. For example, considering the case where pure water (water) is used as the liquid, when the wafer stage moves, a flow of water corresponding to the moving direction and moving speed is generated. This flow is caused by the fact that water, which is an incompressible viscous fluid and Newtonian fluid for which Newton's law of law is established, receives a shear force due to the relative displacement between the wafer surface and the lower surface of the projection optical system. It becomes a laminar Couette flow. That is, the moving speed of the wafer stage (relative speed of the wafer stage with respect to the projection optical system) determines the flow rate of water and thus the pressure of water.

  The surface tension of the liquid varies depending on the type and temperature of the liquid, and has a predetermined relationship with the contact angle of the liquid with respect to the substance in contact with the liquid. Therefore, depending on the surface condition of the substance in contact with the liquid, the type of resist applied to the wafer, and the type of coating layer applied on the resist, the surface tension of the liquid, and therefore the distance between the projection optical system and the liquid. And the frictional force between the liquid and the wafer depends.

  As described above, there are various parameters that determine the frictional force between the projection optical system and the liquid and between the liquid and the wafer. Further, when the wafer stage moves, the position of the projection optical system viewed from the wafer stage changes. That is, the position where the frictional force generated between the wafer and the liquid is applied to the wafer changes with time. As described above, in the immersion exposure apparatus, the number of parameters affecting the position controllability of the wafer stage is very large, and it is extremely difficult to calculate correction information for accurately correcting the position control error.

  Therefore, when the liquid immersion method is applied, it is an issue to improve the position controllability of the wafer stage.

International Publication No. 99/49504 Pamphlet JP-A-10-303114 JP-A-6-124873

  The present invention has been made under the circumstances described above. From the first viewpoint, the present invention is a driving method for driving a moving body, in which a liquid immersion area is not formed on the moving body. A first acquisition step of acquiring first movement information of the moving body when the moving body is moved so that a predetermined target action is performed in a state; an immersion region is formed on the moving body; A second acquisition step of acquiring second movement information of the moving body when the moving body is moved so that the predetermined target motion is performed in the second state; and the first movement information and the And a control step of controlling the movement of the moving body based on the second movement information.

  Here, the “movement information” is information on a physical quantity that changes in accordance with the movement of the moving body. For example, information on the movement trajectory (position change) of the moving body, information on speed change, information on acceleration change, and jerk change. Including at least one piece of information.

  According to this, since the moving body is moved so that the same target action is performed both when the first movement information is acquired and when the second movement information is acquired, the first movement information and the second movement The difference from the information is the difference between the first state and the second state, that is, the moving state when the liquid immersion area is not formed on the moving body, and the liquid immersion area is formed on the moving body. The information reflects the difference from the movement state in the case as it is. Therefore, by controlling the movement of the moving body based on the first movement information and the second movement information, the moving body is controlled so as not to cause an error due to the presence or absence of the liquid immersion area on the moving body. Is possible. That is, the position controllability of the moving body can be improved.

  In this case, in the control process, based on the first movement information and the second movement information, the movement state of the moving body in the second state is corrected based on the first movement information acquired in the first state. The mobile body may be controlled, or the mobile body may be controlled so that the movement state of the mobile body in the first state is corrected based on the second movement information acquired in the second state. good.

  From a second viewpoint, the present invention is a driving method for driving a moving body, and a predetermined target operation is performed in a first state in which an immersion area is not formed on the first moving body. A first acquisition step of acquiring first movement information of the first moving body when the first moving body is moved as described above; a liquid immersion region formed on the second moving body; A second acquisition step of acquiring second movement information of the second moving body when the second moving body is moved so that the predetermined target motion is performed in the state of 2; And a control step of controlling movement of at least one of the first moving body and the second moving body based on movement information and the second movement information.

  According to this, the first moving body and the second moving body are arranged so that the same target action is performed when acquiring the first movement information and when acquiring the second movement information. Therefore, the difference between the first movement information and the second movement information is the difference between the first state and the second state, that is, when the liquid immersion area is not formed on the first moving body. The information directly reflects the difference between the moving state and the moving state when the liquid immersion area is formed on the second moving body. Therefore, by controlling the movement of at least one of the first moving body and the second moving body based on the first movement information and the second movement information, it is caused by the presence or absence of the liquid immersion area. Thus, it is possible to control at least one of the first moving body and the second moving body so that no error occurs. That is, the position controllability of at least one of the first moving body and the second moving body can be improved.

  According to a third aspect of the present invention, the stage is moved so that a predetermined target operation is performed in a first state where no immersion area is formed on the stage, and the stage of the stage at that time is moved. A first acquisition step of acquiring one movement information; and in a second state in which an immersion area is formed on the stage, the stage is moved so that the predetermined target operation is performed, A second acquisition step of acquiring second movement information of the stage; and the movement of the stage is controlled based on the first movement information and the second movement information, and is held on the stage via the liquid. An exposure step of irradiating the object with exposure light.

  According to this, the stage is moved so that the same target motion is performed both when the first movement information is acquired in the first acquisition step and when the second movement information is acquired in the second acquisition step. Therefore, the difference between the first movement information and the second movement information is the difference between the first state and the second state, that is, the movement state when the liquid immersion area is not formed on the stage and the stage. The information directly reflects the difference between the movement state and the liquid immersion area. Therefore, in the exposure process, the stage is controlled based on the first movement information and the second movement information, so that the error is not caused by the presence or absence of the liquid immersion area on the stage. It becomes possible to do. Therefore, it is possible to form a pattern by irradiating exposure light to a desired position on the object.

  According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, the first stage is moved so that a predetermined target operation is performed in the first state in which the liquid immersion area is not formed on the first stage. A first acquisition step of acquiring first movement information of the first stage; and a second state in which the predetermined target operation is performed in a second state in which an immersion area is formed on the second stage. A second acquisition step of moving the stage and acquiring the second movement information of the second stage at that time; and the second movement information on which the object is placed based on the first movement information and the second movement information An exposure step of controlling exposure of at least one of the first stage and the second stage to irradiate the object with exposure light via a liquid.

  According to this, the first stage and the first stage so that the same target action is performed in the acquisition of the first movement information in the first acquisition process and in the acquisition of the second movement information in the second acquisition process. Since the second stage is moved, the difference between the first movement information and the second movement information is the difference between the first state and the second state, that is, the liquid immersion area on the first stage. This information directly reflects the difference between the moving state when it is not formed and the moving state when the liquid immersion region is formed on the second stage. Accordingly, in the exposure process, the movement of at least one of the first stage and the second stage is controlled based on the first movement information and the second movement information, thereby causing the presence or absence of the liquid immersion area. It is possible to control at least one of the first stage and the second stage so that no error occurs. That is, the position controllability of at least one of the first stage and the second stage can be improved. Therefore, it is possible to form a pattern by irradiating exposure light to a desired position on the object.

  According to a fifth aspect of the present invention, there is provided an exposure apparatus for transferring a pattern formed on a mask onto an object via a projection optical system and a liquid, wherein the mask is placed and moved in at least one axial direction. A possible mask stage; a stage on which the object is placed and which can be moved two-dimensionally within a predetermined range including the projection area of the pattern by the projection optical system; and when the stage faces the projection optical system An immersion apparatus that forms an immersion area between the projection optical system and the stage; and a predetermined target operation is performed in a first state where no immersion area is formed on the stage. A first acquisition device configured to move the stage and acquire first movement information of the stage at that time; and in a second state in which an immersion area is formed on the stage, the predetermined target operation is performed. I A second acquisition device that moves the stage as described above and acquires second movement information of the stage at that time; based on the first movement information and the second movement information, the mask stage and the stage; And a control device that controls at least one of the movements.

  According to this, the stage is moved so that the same target motion is performed both when the first acquisition information is acquired by the first acquisition device and when the second acquisition information is acquired by the second acquisition device. Therefore, the difference between the first movement information and the second movement information is the difference between the first state and the second state, that is, the movement state when the liquid immersion area is not formed on the stage and the stage. The information directly reflects the difference between the movement state and the liquid immersion area. Therefore, the control device controls the stage so as not to cause an error due to the presence or absence of the liquid immersion area on the stage by controlling the movement of the stage based on the first movement information and the second movement information. It becomes possible to do. In addition, since the pattern formed on the mask on the mask stage is transferred to the object on the stage via the projection optical system and the liquid, in order to improve the pattern transfer accuracy, a mask stage (mask) is used. The positional relationship with the stage (object) is important. Therefore, the control device controls the movement of the mask stage or the mask stage and the stage based on the first movement information and the second movement information, and the mask and the object caused by the difference in movement state It is possible to correct the positional relationship error. Therefore, the pattern transfer accuracy can be improved.

  According to a sixth aspect of the present invention, there is provided an exposure apparatus for transferring a pattern formed on a mask onto an object via a projection optical system and a liquid, wherein the mask is placed and moved in at least one axial direction. Possible mask stages; a first stage and a second stage on which the object is placed and which can be two-dimensionally moved independently of each other within each moving area including the projection area of the pattern by the projection optical system; An immersion apparatus that forms an immersion area between the stage and the projection optical system when one of the first and second stages faces the projection optical system; on the first stage; In the first state where the liquid immersion area is not formed, the first stage is moved so that a predetermined target operation is performed, the first movement information of the first stage at that time is acquired, and the first stage In the second state in which the liquid immersion area is formed on the stage, the second stage is moved so that the predetermined target operation is performed, and second movement information of the second stage at that time is acquired. An acquisition device; and a control device that controls movement of at least one of the mask stage, the first stage, and the second stage during the pattern transfer based on the first movement information and the second movement information. This is a second exposure apparatus.

  According to this, the first stage and the second stage are configured so that the same target action is performed by the acquisition device when acquiring the first movement information and when acquiring the second movement information, respectively. The difference between the first movement information and the second movement information is the difference between the first state and the second state, that is, when the liquid immersion area is not formed on the first stage. The information directly reflects the difference between the moving state and the moving state when the liquid immersion area is formed on the second stage. Therefore, the control device controls the movement of at least one of the first stage and the second stage based on the first movement information and the second movement information, thereby causing the presence or absence of the liquid immersion area. It is possible to control at least one of the first stage and the second stage so that no error occurs. That is, the position controllability of at least one of the first stage and the second stage can be improved. Also in the second exposure apparatus, similarly to the first exposure apparatus described above, the control device can control the mask stage or the mask stage and the first and second movement information based on the first movement information and the second movement information. By controlling the movement of one of the second stages, it is possible to correct an error in the positional relationship between the mask and the object due to the difference in the movement state. Therefore, the pattern transfer accuracy can be improved.

  Also, in the lithography process, by performing either the first or second exposure method of the present invention, a fine pattern can be formed on the object with high accuracy, and the yield of highly integrated microdevices is improved. Thus, the productivity can be improved. Therefore, from another viewpoint, the present invention can be said to be a device manufacturing method including a lithography process for executing either the first exposure apparatus or the second exposure apparatus of the present invention.

  In the lithography process, the device pattern is transferred onto the object via the projection optical system and the liquid using either the first exposure apparatus or the second exposure apparatus of the present invention, so that the fine pattern is formed on the object. Transfer can be performed with high accuracy, and the yield of highly integrated microdevices can be improved and the productivity thereof can be improved. Therefore, from another viewpoint, the present invention is a device manufacturing method including a step of transferring a device pattern onto an object through a liquid using either the first exposure apparatus or the second exposure apparatus of the present invention. It can be said that there is.

It is a figure which shows schematic structure of the exposure apparatus of 1st Embodiment. It is a perspective view which shows the wafer stage of FIG. It is a flowchart which shows the process algorithm of CPU in a main controller at the time of performing the process of a series of exposure processes with respect to the wafer of several lots. It is a flowchart which shows the specific example of the subroutine of step 106 of FIG. It is a figure which shows an example of the target track | orbit of a wafer stage. It is a figure which shows the time change (target value) of the speed of the wafer stage corresponding to FIG. 5 (A). It is a figure which shows the thrust (command value) corresponding to FIG. 5 (B). It is a figure which shows the drive current value corresponding to FIG.5 (C). It is a figure which shows the actual movement locus | trajectory in the non-immersion state of a wafer stage when the drive current I of FIG.5 (D) is given as a command value to a Y linear motor. It is a figure which shows the actual drive current used with the Y linear motor corresponding to FIG. 6 (A). It is a figure which shows the actual movement locus | trajectory in the liquid immersion state of a wafer stage when a Y linear motor is driven with the drive current of FIG.6 (B). It is a figure which shows the information of the difference of FIG. 6 (A) and FIG. It is a figure which shows the structure of the principal part of the exposure apparatus of 2nd Embodiment. It is a flowchart for demonstrating embodiment of the device manufacturing method of this invention. It is a flowchart which shows the specific example of step 204 of FIG.

<< First Embodiment >>
Hereinafter, a first embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS.

  FIG. 1 shows a schematic configuration of an exposure apparatus 100 of the first embodiment to which the driving method of the present invention is applied. The exposure apparatus 100 is a step-and-scan projection exposure apparatus (scanning stepper (also called a scanner)). In this exposure apparatus 100, immersion exposure is performed as described later.

  The exposure apparatus 100 includes a light source 1 and an illumination unit 10, and includes an illumination system that illuminates the reticle R with illumination light (exposure light) IL, a reticle stage RST as a mask stage that holds the reticle R as a mask, and a projection unit PU. , A wafer stage WST on which a wafer W as an object is placed, a body BD on which the reticle stage RST and the projection unit PU are mounted, a control system thereof, and the like.

  As the light source 1, an ArF excimer laser light source having an output wavelength of 193 nm is used here as an example. The light source 1 is connected to one end of an illumination system housing 10a constituting the illumination unit 10 via a light transmission optical system (beam line) 2 including an optical system for adjusting an optical axis called a beam matching unit. Yes. The light source 1 is actually installed in a service room with a low degree of cleanness different from a clean room in which an exposure apparatus main body including the illumination unit 10, the projection unit PU, and the body BD is installed, or in a utility space under the clean room floor. ing.

  The illumination unit 10 includes an illumination system housing 10a that isolates the interior from the outside, and an illumination optical system housed in the interior. The illumination optical system includes, for example, an illuminance uniformizing optical system including an optical integrator, a beam splitter as disclosed in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2001-313250 and US Patent Application Publication No. 2003/0025890 corresponding thereto. , A relay lens, a variable ND filter, a reticle blind, etc. (all not shown). In addition, the illumination optical system may be configured in the same manner as the illumination optical system disclosed in, for example, Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 6-349701 and US Pat. No. 5,534,970 corresponding thereto.

  In this illumination optical system, a slit-shaped illumination area defined by a reticle blind on a reticle R on which a circuit pattern or the like is drawn is illuminated with illumination light (exposure light) IL with a substantially uniform illuminance. Here, a fly-eye lens, a rod integrator (an internal reflection type integrator), a diffractive optical element, or the like can be used as the optical integrator. To the extent permitted by national legislation in the designated country (or selected selected country) designated in this international application, this specification is incorporated herein by reference to the disclosures in the above published publications and the corresponding US patents or published US patent application specifications. As part of the description.

  The reticle stage RST is placed on a reticle base RB provided above a top plate 36 of a second column 34, which will be described later, via a clearance of about several μm, for example, by an air bearing (not shown) provided on the bottom surface thereof. Supported by levitation. On reticle stage RST, reticle R is fixed by, for example, vacuum suction (or electrostatic suction). Here, the reticle stage RST is two-dimensionally (X-axis direction, Y-axis direction, and the like) in an XY plane perpendicular to the optical axis AX of the projection optical system PL described later by a reticle stage drive unit 12 including a linear motor or the like. It can be finely driven in the rotation direction (θz direction) around the Z axis orthogonal to the XY plane, and can be driven on the reticle base RB at a scanning speed specified in the Y axis direction.

  Here, actually, reticle stage RST includes a reticle coarse movement stage that can be driven in a predetermined stroke range in the Y-axis direction on reticle base RB by a linear motor, and at least three voice coils with respect to reticle coarse movement stage. A reticle fine movement stage that can be finely driven in the X-axis direction, the Y-axis direction, and the θz direction by an actuator such as a motor is configured. In FIG. 1, the reticle stage RST is shown as a single stage. Therefore, also in the following description, the reticle stage RST can be finely driven in the X-axis direction, the Y-axis direction, and the θz direction by the reticle stage driving unit 12 as described above, and can be scanned and driven in the Y-axis direction. It will be described as a stage.

  Reticle stage RST has a movement stroke in the Y-axis direction that allows the entire surface of reticle R to cross at least optical axis AX of projection optical system PL. In the case of this embodiment, the mover of the linear motor described above is attached to one side and the other side (left side and right side in FIG. 1) of the reticle stage RST in the X-axis direction, and corresponds to each of these movers. The stators to be supported are respectively supported by support members (not shown) provided separately from the body BD. For this reason, the reaction force that acts on the stator of the linear motor when the reticle stage RST is driven is transmitted (released) to the floor surface of the clean room via these support members. The reticle stage drive unit 12 includes an actuator such as a linear motor or a voice coil motor as described above, but is shown as a simple block in FIG. 1 for convenience of illustration.

  In this embodiment, the reaction force canceling mechanism having a reaction frame structure that releases the reaction force via a support member provided separately from the body BD is adopted. However, the reaction force is canceled when the reticle stage RST moves. A countermass structure reaction force canceling mechanism using a momentum conservation law may be employed.

  The position of the reticle stage RST in the stage moving surface is always detected by a reticle laser interferometer (hereinafter referred to as “reticle interferometer”) 16 via a movable mirror 15 with a resolution of about 0.5 to 1 nm, for example. Yes. In this case, position measurement is performed with reference to the fixed mirror 14 fixed to the side surface of the lens barrel 40 constituting the projection unit PU. Here, actually, on the reticle stage RST, a moving mirror having a reflecting surface orthogonal to the Y-axis direction and a moving mirror having a reflecting surface orthogonal to the X-axis direction are provided, corresponding to these moving mirrors. A reticle Y interferometer and a reticle X interferometer are provided, and a corresponding fixed mirror for X-direction position measurement and a fixed mirror for Y-direction position measurement are also provided. These are typically shown as a movable mirror 15, a reticle interferometer 16, and a fixed mirror 14. For example, the end surface of the reticle stage RST may be mirror-finished to form a reflecting surface (corresponding to the reflecting surface of the movable mirror 15). Further, at least one corner cube type mirror (for example, a retroreflector) is used instead of the reflecting surface extending in the X-axis direction used for detecting the position of the reticle stage RST in the scanning direction (Y-axis direction in the present embodiment). Also good. Here, one of the reticle Y interferometer and the reticle X interferometer, for example, the reticle Y interferometer is a two-axis interferometer having two measurement axes, and the reticle stage RST is based on the measurement value of the reticle Y interferometer. In addition to the Y position, rotation in the θz direction, which is the rotation direction around the Z axis, can also be measured.

  The measurement value of reticle interferometer 16 is sent to main controller 20, and main controller 20 calculates the position of reticle stage RST in the X, Y, and θz directions based on the measurement value of reticle interferometer 16, Based on the position of the reticle stage RST, the reticle stage RST is driven and controlled via the reticle stage drive unit 12.

  Above the reticle R, although not shown, for simultaneously observing the reticle mark on the reticle R and the corresponding reference mark on the reference mark plate on the wafer stage WST via the projection optical system PL. A pair of reticle alignment detection systems composed of a TTR (Through The Reticle) alignment system using light having an exposure wavelength is provided at a predetermined distance in the X-axis direction. As these reticle alignment detection systems, for example, those having the same structure as those disclosed in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 7-176468 and US Pat. No. 5,646,413 corresponding thereto are used. To the extent permitted by national legislation in the designated country (or selected selected country) designated in this international application, the disclosures in the above publications and corresponding US patents are incorporated herein by reference.

  The projection unit PU is held by the first column 32 constituting the body BD below the reticle stage RST in FIG. Here, the configuration of the body BD will be described.

  The body BD includes a first column 32 installed on a base BS placed horizontally on the floor surface of the clean room, and a second column 34 fixed to the upper surface of the first column 32. The first column 32 includes a plurality of, for example, three leg portions 39 (however, the leg portions on the back side in FIG. 1 are not shown), and the upper end surfaces of these leg portions 39 are connected to the lower end surfaces thereof. And a lens barrel surface plate 38 that constitutes the ceiling of the first column 32. The lens barrel surface plate 38 is supported substantially horizontally by a plurality of legs 39 in this case.

  The lens barrel base plate 38 is formed with a circular opening (not shown) at substantially the center thereof, and the projection unit PU is inserted into the opening from above. The projection unit PU is configured to include a lens barrel 40 and a projection optical system PL including a plurality of optical elements held by the lens barrel 40. The lens barrel 40 of the projection unit PU is provided with a flange FLG at an outer peripheral portion slightly below the center in the height direction, and the projection unit PU is supported by the lens barrel surface plate 38 via the flange FLG. On the upper surface of the lens barrel surface plate 38, the lower ends of a plurality of, for example, three legs 41 (however, the legs on the back side of the drawing in FIG. 1 are not shown) are fixed to positions surrounding the projection unit PU. The top plate 36 is fixed to the upper end surfaces of these legs 41 and is supported horizontally by these legs 41. That is, the second column 34 includes the top plate 36 and the three legs 41 that support the top plate 36.

  The top plate 36 of the second column 34 is formed with an opening serving as a passage for the illumination light IL at the center thereof. The top portion of the top plate 36 on the outer side of the opening is provided with a plurality of anti-vibration units 37 above. A reticle base RB is provided. The anti-vibration unit 37 includes an air damper and an electromagnetic actuator. The air damper insulates high-frequency vibrations, and drives the actuator based on the output of a vibration sensor attached to the reticle base RB. Active / anti-vibration devices are used to control the vibration. These vibration isolation units 37 prevent the vibration generated in the reticle base by the operation of the reticle stage RST from being transmitted to the body BD.

  As the projection optical system PL constituting the projection unit PU, for example, a refractive optical system including a plurality of lenses (lens elements) having a common optical axis AX in the Z-axis direction is used. The projection optical system PL is, for example, both-side telecentric and has a predetermined projection magnification (for example, 1/4 times, 1/5 times, or 1/8). For this reason, when the illumination area of the reticle R is illuminated by the illumination light IL from the illumination system, the illumination light IL that has passed through the reticle R passes through the projection unit PU (projection optical system PL) and the light in the illumination area. A reduced image of the circuit pattern of the reticle R (a reduced image of a part of the circuit pattern) is formed on the wafer W whose surface is coated with a resist (photosensitive agent). Here, the wafer W is a disk-shaped substrate such as a semiconductor (silicon or the like) or SOI (Silicon Insulator), for example, and a resist is coated thereon.

  In the exposure apparatus 100 of the present embodiment, since exposure using a liquid immersion method is performed as will be described later, the reticle side opening increases as the numerical aperture NA substantially increases. For this reason, in a refractive optical system composed only of lenses, it is difficult to satisfy Petzval's condition, and the projection optical system tends to be enlarged. In order to avoid such an increase in the size of the projection optical system, a catadioptric system (catadioptric system) including a mirror and a lens may be used. Further, a reflection system that does not include a refractive element (lens) may be used.

  Further, in the exposure apparatus 100 of the present embodiment, in order to perform exposure using a liquid immersion method, a lens (hereinafter referred to as “tip lens”) that is an optical element closest to the image plane (wafer W side) constituting the projection optical system PL In the vicinity of 91), a liquid supply nozzle 51A and a liquid recovery nozzle 51B constituting a liquid supply / discharge unit 132 as a liquid immersion device are provided.

  One end of a supply pipe (not shown) connected to a liquid supply device (not shown) is connected to the liquid supply nozzle 51A, and one end of a liquid (not shown) is connected to the liquid recovery nozzle 51B. The other end of a recovery pipe (not shown) connected to the recovery device is connected.

  The liquid supply device includes a liquid tank, a pressure pump, a temperature control device, a valve for controlling supply / stop of the liquid to the supply pipe, and the like. As the valve, for example, it is desirable to use a flow rate control valve so that not only the supply / stop of the liquid but also the flow rate can be adjusted. The temperature control device adjusts the temperature of the liquid in the liquid tank to the same temperature as the temperature in the chamber (not shown) in which the exposure apparatus main body is housed. Note that the tank, pressure pump, temperature control device, valve, and the like for supplying the liquid do not have to be all provided in the exposure apparatus 100, but at least a part of the factory or the like where the exposure apparatus 100 is installed. It can be replaced by equipment.

  The liquid recovery apparatus includes a liquid tank, a suction pump, a valve for controlling recovery / stop of the liquid via a recovery pipe, and the like. As the valve, it is desirable to use a flow control valve corresponding to the above-described valve on the liquid supply apparatus side. Note that the tank, the suction pump, and the valve for collecting the liquid do not have to be all provided in the exposure apparatus 100, and at least a part thereof is replaced with equipment such as a factory where the exposure apparatus 100 is installed. You can also.

  Here, as the liquid, ultrapure water (hereinafter simply referred to as “water” unless otherwise required) through which ArF excimer laser light (light having a wavelength of 193 nm) passes is used. Ultrapure water has the advantage that it can be easily obtained in large quantities at a semiconductor manufacturing plant or the like and has no adverse effect on the photoresist, optical lens, etc. on the wafer. In addition, since the ultrapure water has no adverse effect on the environment and the content of impurities is extremely low, an action of cleaning the surface of the wafer and the surface of the tip lens 91 can be expected.

    The refractive index n of water with respect to ArF excimer laser light is approximately 1.44. In this water, the wavelength of the illumination light IL is shortened to 193 nm × 1 / n = about 134 nm.

  Each of the liquid supply device and the liquid recovery device includes a controller, and each controller is controlled by the main controller 20. The controller of the liquid supply device opens a valve connected to the supply pipe at a predetermined opening degree according to an instruction from the main control device 20, and supplies water between the tip lens 91 and the wafer W via the liquid supply nozzle 51A. Supply. At this time, the controller of the liquid recovery apparatus opens the valve connected to the recovery pipe at a predetermined opening degree according to an instruction from the main control apparatus 20, and the front lens 91, the wafer W, and the like via the liquid recovery nozzle 51B. The water is recovered in the liquid recovery device from between. At this time, the main controller 20 always makes the amount of water supplied from the liquid supply nozzle 51A between the front lens 91 and the wafer W equal to the amount of water recovered through the liquid recovery nozzle 51B. In this manner, a command is given to the liquid supply device and the liquid recovery device. Accordingly, a certain amount of water Lq (see FIG. 1) is held between the front lens 91 and the wafer W. In this case, the water Lq held between the tip lens 91 and the wafer W is always replaced.

  As is clear from the above description, the liquid immersion device 132 of this embodiment is configured to include the liquid supply device, the liquid recovery device, the supply tube, the recovery tube, the liquid supply nozzle 51A, the liquid recovery nozzle 51B, and the like. In the case of the local liquid immersion apparatus, when the wafer W is exposed, a liquid immersion region is formed on a part of the wafer W.

  In the above description, in order to simplify the description, one liquid supply nozzle and one liquid recovery nozzle are provided. However, the present invention is not limited to this, for example, International Publication No. 99/49504. It is good also as employ | adopting the structure which has many nozzles so that it may be disclosed by number pamphlet. In short, as long as the liquid can be supplied between the lowermost optical member (front end lens) 91 and the wafer W constituting the projection optical system PL, any configuration may be used. For example, the immersion mechanism disclosed in International Publication No. 2004/053955 pamphlet and the immersion mechanism disclosed in European Patent Publication No. 1420298 can be applied to the exposure apparatus of this embodiment.

  Although not shown, for example, an optical fiber type water leakage sensor is installed outside the liquid immersion area where the water Lq is held, for example, outside the liquid supply nozzle 51A and the liquid recovery nozzle 51B, and the main controller 20 is configured to be able to instantaneously detect the occurrence of water leakage from the liquid immersion area based on the output of the water leakage sensor.

  Wafer stage WST is levitated and supported on the upper surface of stage base 71 disposed horizontally below projection unit PU in a non-contact manner via an air bearing or the like provided on the bottom surface thereof. On wafer stage WST, wafer W is held by vacuum chucking (or electrostatic chucking) via wafer holder 70.

  The stage base 71 is installed on the base BS via a plurality of vibration isolation units 43. Each image stabilization unit 43 is configured in the same manner as the image stabilization unit 37 described above. These vibration isolation units 43 prevent the vibration generated in the stage base 71 due to the operation of the wafer stage WST from being transmitted to the first column 32 via the base BS. Thus, in the present embodiment, the body BD (first column 32) that holds the projection optical system PL and the like and the stage base 71 are vibrationally separated.

  Wafer stage WST is driven with a predetermined stroke in the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction by wafer stage drive unit 24, and in the Z-axis direction (optical axis AX direction of projection optical system PL) and θx direction (rotation about the X-axis). Direction), θy direction (rotation direction around the Y axis), and θz direction (rotation direction around the Z axis). The wafer stage drive unit 24 includes, for example, an X linear motor that drives the wafer stage WST in the X-axis direction, a Y linear motor that drives the wafer stage WST in the Y-axis direction, and includes a plurality of linear motors and voice coil motors. It is configured to include. Each motor constituting the wafer stage drive unit 24 is controlled by the main controller 20.

  The positional information in the XY plane of wafer stage WST is, for example, 0.5 to 1 nm by a wafer laser interferometer (hereinafter referred to as “wafer interferometer”) 18 that irradiates a length measuring beam onto movable mirror 17 fixed on the upper part thereof. It is always detected with a resolution of the order. The wafer interferometer 18 is fixed to the body BD, and the position information of the reflecting surface of the movable mirror 17 based on the reflecting surface of the fixed mirror 28 fixed to the side surface of the lens barrel 40 constituting the projection unit PU is used as the wafer stage. Measured as WST position information.

  Here, on the wafer stage WST, actually, as shown in FIG. 2, the movable mirror 17Y having a reflecting surface orthogonal to the Y-axis direction that is the scanning direction and the X-axis direction that is the non-scanning direction are orthogonal to each other. A movable mirror 17X having a reflecting surface is provided. Correspondingly, a laser interferometer and a fixed mirror are also provided for X-axis direction position measurement and Y-axis direction position measurement, respectively. In FIG. 1, these are typically shown as a movable mirror 17, a wafer interferometer 18, and a fixed mirror 28. For example, the end surface of wafer stage WST may be mirror-finished to form a reflecting surface (corresponding to the reflecting surfaces of movable mirrors 17X and 17Y). The X laser interferometer and the Y laser interferometer are multi-axis interferometers having a plurality of measurement axes. In addition to the X and Y positions of the wafer stage WST, rotation (yawing (rotation in the θz direction)), pitching (θx direction) Rotation) and rolling (rotation in the θy direction)) can also be measured. Therefore, in the following description, it is assumed that the position of wafer stage WST in the X, Y, θz, θy, and θx directions of five degrees of freedom is measured by wafer interferometer 18. The multi-axis interferometer irradiates a laser beam (not shown) installed on the body BD on which the projection unit PU is placed via a reflecting surface installed on the wafer stage WST with an inclination of 45 °, You may make it detect the relative position information regarding the optical axis direction (Z-axis direction) of the projection optical system PL.

  Position information (or speed information) of wafer stage WST is sent to main controller 20, and main controller 20 controls wafer stage WST via wafer stage drive unit 24 based on the position information (or speed information). .

  An XY stage that moves wafer stage WST in an XY two-dimensional plane by a linear motor or a planar motor, and a wafer table mounted on the XY stage via a Z / tilt drive mechanism including a voice coil motor or the like. It may have a hierarchical structure. In this case, the wafer table is driven in the Z-axis direction, θx direction, and θy direction by the Z / tilt driving mechanism. In addition, for example, the wafer stage WST may be a coarse / finely movable stage by allowing the wafer table to be finely moved at least in the X-axis and Y-axis directions with respect to the XY stage.

  As shown in FIG. 2, the wafer holder 70 is positioned on one diagonal line of a square wafer stage WST (wafer table) in a peripheral portion of a region (central circular region) on which the wafer W is placed. A main body portion 70A having a specific shape, in which two corner portions protrude from each other, and the two corner portions located on the other diagonal line have a circular arc shape that is a quarter of a circle that is slightly larger than the aforementioned circular region, and the main body And four auxiliary plates 22a to 22d arranged around a region where the wafer W is placed so as to substantially overlap the portion 70A. The surfaces of these auxiliary plates 22a to 22d are almost the same height as the surface of the wafer W (the difference in height between the two is about 1 mm at the maximum). Although auxiliary plates 22a-22d are partially formed on wafer stage WST, they are formed so as to entirely cover wafer stage WST so that the upper surface of wafer stage WST has substantially the same height (surface). 1) is desirable. In this case, it is preferable that the upper surfaces of the movable mirrors 17X and 17Y are set to have substantially the same height as the auxiliary plate. Further, the surfaces of the auxiliary plates 22a to 22d do not necessarily have the same height as the surface of the wafer W. If the liquid Lq can be satisfactorily maintained on the image plane side of the tip lens 91, the auxiliary plates 22a to 22d are used. There may be a step between the surface of the wafer and the surface of the wafer W.

  Here, as shown in FIG. 2, a gap D exists between each of the auxiliary plates 22 a to 22 d and the wafer W, and the dimension of the gap D is a value of about 0.1 to 0.4. It is set to become. Further, the wafer W has a notch (V-shaped notch) in a part thereof, but the dimension of this notch is smaller than the gap D and is about 1 mm, so that the illustration is omitted.

  In addition, the auxiliary plate 22a is formed with a rectangular opening in plan view (viewed from above) in a part thereof, and the reference mark plate FM is fitted in the opening. The surface of the reference mark plate FM is flush with the auxiliary plate 22a (same surface). On the surface of the reference mark plate FM, a plurality of pairs of reticle alignment first reference marks and a plurality of second reference marks (off-axis (not shown)) each paired with each pair of first reference marks. ) Type alignment system (off-axis alignment system) baseline measurement reference mark) and the like. Here, “form a set” means a positional relationship between a pair of first reference marks and a second reference mark that forms a pair, and another pair of first reference marks and a second reference that forms a pair with the first reference mark. The positional relationship with the mark means that they are in the same relationship. In the case of the present embodiment, each of the pair of first reference marks is detected by the pair of reticle alignment detection systems described above, and simultaneously with the pair of first reference marks by an off-axis alignment system (not shown). It is possible to detect the second fiducial mark forming A reference mark plate having the same configuration as the reference mark plate FM is disclosed in, for example, Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 7-176468 and US Pat. No. 5,646,413 corresponding thereto.

  Although not shown, an off-axis alignment system is provided in the vicinity of the projection unit PU. As this off-axis alignment system, for example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2001-257157 and the corresponding US Patent Application Publication No. 2001/0023918, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 8-213306 and the corresponding US Patent. An image of a target mark, which is disclosed in US Pat. No. 5,783,833, etc., is irradiated on a target mark with a broadband detection light beam that does not sensitize the resist on the wafer, and is imaged on the light receiving surface by reflected light from the target mark An image processing type FIA (Field Image Alignment) type alignment sensor that captures an image of an index (not shown) using an imaging device (CCD) or the like and outputs the imaged signals is used. Based on the output of the off-axis alignment system, it is possible to measure the positions of the reference mark on the reference mark plate FM and the alignment mark on the wafer in the X and Y two-dimensional directions. To the extent permitted by national legislation in the designated country (or selected selected country) designated in this international application, this specification is incorporated herein by reference to the disclosures in the above published publications and the corresponding US patents or published US patent application specifications. As part of the description.

  The exposure apparatus 100 of the present embodiment further includes an irradiation system and a light receiving system (both not shown), for example, disclosed in JP-A-6-283403 and US Pat. No. 5,448,332 corresponding thereto. An oblique incidence type multi-point focal position detection system similar to that described above is provided. In this case, for example, the irradiation system is suspended and supported below the lens barrel base plate 38 on the −X side of the liquid supply nozzle 51A, and the light receiving system is suspended below the lens barrel base plate 38 on the + X side of the liquid recovery nozzle 51B. It is supported by lowering. That is, the irradiation system, the light receiving system, and the projection unit PU are attached to the same member (lens barrel surface plate 38), and the positional relationship between them is maintained constant.

  The irradiation system has a light source that is controlled to be turned on and off by the main controller 20, and a light beam for forming images of a large number of pinholes or slits toward the imaging surface of the projection optical system PL is applied to the wafer surface on the optical axis. Irradiate with respect to AX from an oblique direction. On the other hand, the reflected light beam reflected by the wafer surface is received by the light receiving element in the light receiving system and converted into an electric signal (defocus signal). This defocus signal (defocus signal) is supplied to the main controller 20. The main controller 20 calculates the Z position of the surface of the wafer W, the rotation in the θx direction, and the rotation in the θy direction based on a defocus signal (defocus signal), for example, an S curve signal, at the time of scanning exposure described later. Based on the calculation result, the illumination light IL is controlled by controlling the movement of the wafer stage WST in the Z-axis direction and the two-dimensional tilt (that is, rotation in the θx and θy directions) via the wafer stage driving unit 24. Autofocusing (automatic focusing) and autoleveling are performed so that the imaging plane of the projection optical system PL substantially matches the surface of the wafer W within the irradiation region (region conjugate to the illumination region described above). As long as the national laws of the designated country (or selected selected country) designated in this international application allow, the disclosure in the above publications and the corresponding US patents will be used as part of this description. To do.

  The control system is mainly configured by a main controller 20 in FIG. The main controller 20 includes a so-called microcomputer (or workstation) including a CPU (Central Processing Unit), ROM (Read Only Memory), RAM (Random Access Memory), etc. To control. The main controller 20 is provided with a memory 21.

  Next, the processing algorithm of the CPU in the main controller 20 is used for the processing operation of a series of exposure processes for a plurality of lots (one lot is, for example, 25 or 50) wafers performed by the exposure apparatus of the present embodiment. A description will be given along the flowchart of FIG. 3 and with reference to other drawings as appropriate. Here, it is assumed that, for wafers in the same lot, for example, the type of resist or coat is not changed, and reticle exchange is performed for each lot.

  First, in step 102, a wafer loader (not shown) is used to place an unexposed wafer W to be exposed next on wafer stage WST, and the count value of the counter indicating the wafer number in the exposure target lot. n is initialized to “1” (n ← 1).

  In the next step 104, a used reticle placed on the reticle stage RST is replaced with a reticle R used for exposure from now on using a reticle loader (not shown). If the used reticle is not placed on the reticle stage RST, the reticle used for the next exposure is simply loaded on the reticle stage RST.

  In the next step 106, the routine proceeds to a subroutine for reticle alignment and baseline measurement.

  In the subroutine of step 106, first, in step 152 of FIG. 4, reticle stage RST and wafer stage WST are moved to their respective reference positions. Here, the reference position of reticle stage RST refers to the position of reticle stage RST where the approximate center of the irradiation region of illumination light IL by the illumination system coincides with the approximate center of reticle R. Further, the reference position of wafer stage WST is set at the projection position by the projection optical system PL of the predetermined pair of reticle alignment marks formed on reticle R on reticle stage RST at the reference position. It refers to the position where the pair of first reference marks on the reference mark plate FM corresponding to the mark is located. In this step 152, the reticle stage RST is moved via the reticle stage drive unit 12 based on the measurement value of the reticle interferometer 16, and at the same time, via the wafer stage drive unit 24 based on the measurement value of the wafer interferometer 18. Wafer stage WST is moved.

  In the next step 154, the controller of the liquid supply apparatus is instructed to start supplying water, and the controller of the liquid recovery apparatus is instructed to start collecting water. Thereby, water supply is started from the liquid supply nozzle 51A by the liquid supply device, and after a predetermined time has elapsed, the gap between the front lens 91 and the reference mark plate FM surface is filled with the supplied water, and the gap Water that is about to leak out from the water is recovered by the liquid recovery device via the liquid recovery nozzle 51B. In this case, while the reticle alignment is performed based on an instruction from the main controller 20, the flow rate of water supplied per unit time and the flow rate of recovered water are controlled by the controllers of the liquid supply device and the liquid recovery device, respectively. So that the opening of each valve of the water supply / drainage system is adjusted. Accordingly, a constant amount of water is always held between the front lens 91 and the reference mark plate FM. In this case, since the gap between the tip lens 91 and the reference mark plate FM is about 1 to 3 mm, water is held between the tip lens 91 and the reference mark plate FM by the surface tension. Almost no leakage occurs outside the projection unit PU.

  As described above, after a predetermined time has elapsed since the start of water supply, when the gap between the front lens 91 and the surface of the reference mark plate FM is filled with the supplied water, in step 156, on the reference mark plate FM. A relative position between a predetermined pair of first reference marks and a pair of reticle alignment marks on the reticle R corresponding to the predetermined pair of first reference marks is detected using the above-described pair of reticle alignment detection systems. At the same time, the second reference mark on the reference mark plate FM is detected using the alignment system, and the relative position between the detection center of the alignment system and the second reference mark is detected.

  In the next step 158, wafer stage WST and reticle stage RST are stepped in the opposite directions along the Y-axis direction by a predetermined distance, respectively, and another pair of first reference marks on reference mark plate FM and The relative position with another pair of reticle alignment marks on the reticle R corresponding to the first reference mark is detected using the above-described pair of reticle alignment detection systems, and at the same time on the reference mark plate FM using the alignment system. The relative position of the other second reference mark to the detection center of the alignment system is detected. Further, subsequently, in the same manner as described above, a relative pair of another pair of first reference marks on the reference mark plate FM and another pair of reticle alignment marks on the reticle R corresponding to the first reference mark are relative to each other. The position and the detection center and relative position of the alignment system of another second reference mark on the reference mark plate FM may be further measured.

  In the next step 162, information on the relative position between the at least two pairs of the first reference marks obtained as described above and the corresponding reticle alignment marks, and the XY plane of the reticle stage RST at the time of each measurement The wafer stage defined by the reticle stage coordinate system defined by the measurement axis of the reticle interferometer 16 and the measurement axis of the wafer interferometer 18 by using the positional information of the wafer stage WST and the position information in the XY plane of the wafer stage WST. The relationship with the coordinate system is obtained and stored in a memory such as a RAM (not shown). Thereby, reticle alignment is completed. In scanning exposure described later, scanning exposure is performed by synchronously scanning the reticle stage RST and the wafer stage WST in the Y-axis direction of the wafer stage coordinate system. In this case, the reticle stage coordinate system and the wafer stage coordinate system are used. Based on the relationship, the reticle stage RST is scanned.

  In the next step 164, for example, a predetermined pair of first reference marks and a pair of reticle alignment on the reticle R, which are simultaneously measured when both stages RST and WST are located at a predetermined reference position. Based on the information on the relative position with respect to the mark and the relative position between the detection center of the alignment system and the second reference mark, the baseline of the alignment system, that is, the projection center of the reticle pattern and the detection center (index center) of the alignment system Distance (positional relationship) is calculated, and the calculation result is stored in a memory such as a RAM.

  When the reticle alignment and the baseline measurement of the alignment system are completed in this way, the process proceeds to step 166, and all the water on the reference mark plate FM is collected. Specifically, the controller of the liquid supply apparatus is instructed to stop water supply while the reference mark plate FM remains directly under the projection unit PU. At this time, since the recovery of water through the liquid recovery nozzle 51B by the liquid recovery device is continued, the water on the reference mark plate FM is recovered almost completely by the liquid recovery device after a predetermined time has elapsed.

  Thereafter, the processing of the subroutine of FIG. 4 is terminated, and the process returns to step 112 of the main routine of FIG.

  In step 112, the wafer W loaded on wafer stage WST is subjected to wafer alignment, for example, EGA disclosed in Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 61-44429 and US Pat. No. 4,780,617 corresponding thereto. (Enhanced global alignment) is performed, and the alignment mark on the wafer W is detected by an alignment system (not shown) in the absence of water, and the arrangement coordinates of each shot area on the wafer W, that is, the wafer stage coordinate system The position coordinates of the center of each shot area above are calculated and stored in a memory such as a RAM (not shown). As long as the national laws of the designated country (or selected selected country) designated in this international application allow, the above publications and corresponding disclosures in US patents are incorporated as a part of this description. .

  If it is not desired to wet the wafer W before performing wafer alignment, for example, a non-exposure wafer (dummy wafer) having a contact angle of water Lq that is substantially the same as the surface of the wafer W is loaded on the wafer stage WST instead of the wafer W. Then, reticle alignment and base line measurement (step 106) may be performed, and the wafer W to be exposed next after step 106 may be placed on the wafer stage WST. As described above, by placing wafer W (or non-exposed wafer) on wafer stage WST at the time of reticle alignment or baseline measurement, water is placed on the area on wafer holder 70 where wafer W is placed. Intrusion can be prevented.

  When the above EGA (wafer alignment) is completed, the process proceeds to the next step 114, where it is determined whether or not the count value n of the counter is 1, so that the wafer W to be exposed is the wafer at the head of the lot. Determine whether or not. If this determination is affirmative, that is, if the wafer W is the first wafer in the lot, the process proceeds to step 116.

  In step 116, wafer stage WST is driven in a step-and-scan manner in accordance with the same target trajectory as when exposure is performed on a plurality of shot areas on the wafer of the lot, and the first movement information of wafer stage WST at that time The data of the movement trajectory as (data1) is measured using the wafer interferometer 18 and is synchronized with the sampling clock in parallel with the measurement data being stored in the memory 21 at the sampling clock interval of the wafer interferometer 18. As a control parameter data (data2), a profile of a current value supplied to a linear motor that drives wafer stage WST in the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction is recorded and stored in a memory. Here, “according to the same target trajectory as when performing exposure on the wafer” means “the positional relationship between the wafer stage WST and the projection optical system (and the liquid immersion area) on the wafer stage WST, the speed of the wafer stage WST, This means that a condition is set such that the acceleration and the like are the same as those at the time of exposure, and based on the target trajectory of the wafer stage according to this condition setting.

  The data1 and data2 are discrete data. Therefore, the data1 and data2 are stored in the memory 21 as tabular data (table data).

  The main controller 20 performs function fitting on these data1 and data2 to obtain approximate functions (complementary functions), and stores data1 and data2 in the memory 21 in the form of the approximate functions. good.

  Of course, the driving of wafer stage WST in this step 116 is based on the above target trajectory and calculates the necessary thrust (a function of time) and further the target current value (a function of time) for the linear motor corresponding to this thrust. This is performed by driving the X linear motor and the Y linear motor inside the wafer stage driving unit 24 based on the target current value.

  Further, the first movement information (data 1) of wafer stage WST is not limited to the data of movement locus (ie, position time change curve) of wafer stage WST itself, but is a speed time change curve and acceleration time change curve. Any kind of data may be used as long as it can be converted into movement trajectory data. The control parameter data (data2) is not limited to the current value profile itself, and may be data such as a thrust profile as long as the data can be converted into a current value profile.

  Here, the operation in step 116 will be described in further detail. As a premise, in actual exposure of the wafer W, the acceleration time for the reticle stage RST and the wafer stage WST to be accelerated to their respective target scanning speeds is T1, the synchronous settling time for both the stages RST and WST is T2, and the exposure time. Is T3, the constant speed overscan time after the exposure is T4 (= T2), and the deceleration time is T5 (= T1) (see FIG. 5B).

  First, main controller 20 monitors the measurement value of wafer interferometer 18 based on the wafer alignment result in step 112 and the above-described baseline measurement result, and performs the first shot on wafer W (the first shot). Wafer stage WST is moved to the scanning start position (acceleration start position) for exposure of the (shot area). Next, as can be seen from FIG. 5B in which the horizontal axis indicates time (t), the main controller 20 determines the change (target value) in the Y-axis direction velocity Vy of the wafer stage WST based on the target trajectory. When the acceleration of wafer stage WST in the Y-axis direction is started and time T1 has elapsed from the start of acceleration and wafer stage WST reaches the target scanning speed, main controller 20 moves at a constant speed for a time (T2 + T3 + T4). Thereafter, the vehicle decelerates for a time T5. In the following, the above series of acceleration, constant speed, and deceleration movement operations will be referred to as a scanning operation. FIG. 5A shows a target trajectory (time change of position Py) in the Y-axis direction of wafer stage WST corresponding to the time change (target value) of speed in FIG. 5B.

  In this step 116, the main control device 20 calculates the time change (target value) of the speed Vy shown in FIG. 5B based on the target trajectory of FIG. A command value (a function of time) of the thrust F shown in FIG. 5C is calculated based on the time change, and further, based on the command value of this thrust, the drive current value I (shown in FIG. 5D) Command value of a function of time) is calculated. The main controller 20 applies the drive current value I to the Y linear motor, so that the scanning operation for the first shot on the wafer W is performed.

  When the above scanning operation is completed, main controller 20 moves wafer stage WST stepwise in the X-axis and Y-axis directions via wafer stage drive unit 24, so that a second shot (second shot) on wafer W is obtained. Move to the acceleration start position for exposure of the area.

  Next, main controller 20 performs the same scanning operation of wafer stage WST as described above. In the present embodiment, since a so-called alternate scan method is employed, the moving direction of wafer stage WST at this time is opposite to that in the first shot.

  Thereafter, in this manner, the scanning operation and the step moving operation of wafer stage WST are alternately repeated until the scanning operation for the Mth shot area (M is the total number of shots on wafer W) is completed. Is called. That is, in this way, the step and scan operation of wafer stage WST is performed based on the target trajectory.

  Main controller 20 continuously writes measurement values of wafer interferometer 18 in memory 21 during the step-and-scan operation of wafer stage WST. As a result, the measurement values of the X and Y interferometers of the wafer interferometer 18 are written in the memory 21 at the sampling clock intervals of those interferometers. The main controller 20 also supplies the drive current values given from the respective drivers to the X linear motor and Y linear motor constituting the wafer stage drive unit 24 by the X interferometer of the wafer interferometer 18 and the Y interferometer. Write to the memory 21 in synchronization with the sampling clock. That is, in this way, data (data 1) of the actual movement stage of the wafer stage WST during the step-and-scan operation of the wafer stage WST, and the linear motor that drives the wafer stage WST in the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction. A profile (data2) of the current value supplied to is stored in the memory 21.

  Returning to FIG. 3, in the next step 118, the supply and recovery of water are started in the same manner as in the above-mentioned step 154, and between the front lens 91 and the wafer holder 70 of the projection optical system PL (ie, the front lens 91 and the wafer). (Or between the auxiliary plate) and supply water. In the present embodiment, the flow rate of water supplied per unit time and the recovered water are controlled by the controllers of the liquid supply device and the liquid recovery device thereafter until the exposure processing of the wafer W in step 126 is completed. The opening degree of each valve of the water supply / drainage system is adjusted so that the flow rate is substantially the same.

  On the other hand, if the determination in step 114 is negative, that is, if the wafer W to be exposed is the second and subsequent wafers in the lot, step 116 is skipped and the process proceeds to step 118.

  In the next step 120, it is determined again whether or not the count value n of the counter is 1. If the wafer W is the first wafer in the lot and the determination here is affirmed, the process proceeds to step 122.

  In step 122, the current value profile (data 2) stored in the memory 21 in step 116 is extracted, and the driving current according to the current value profile (data 2) is converted into an X linear motor that constitutes the wafer stage driving unit 24. The wafer stage WST is applied to the Y linear motor to perform the step-and-scan operation in the liquid immersion state in the same manner as in step 116. At this time, as in step 116, the X interferometer of the wafer interferometer 18 is used. The measurement values of the Y interferometers are written into the memory 21 at the sampling clock intervals of those interferometers. In this manner, the movement locus data of wafer stage WST is stored in memory 21 as second movement information (data 3) of actual wafer stage WST under the immersion state during step-and-scan operation of wafer stage WST. To remember. The data of the movement trajectory is discrete data. Therefore, main controller 20 obtains an approximate function (complementary function) by performing function fitting on the data of the movement locus, and stores the data in the form of the approximate function in memory 21 as data3. good.

  Further, if the second movement information (data 3) of wafer stage WST is the same type of data as the first movement information (data 1) described above, the movement trajectory of wafer stage WST (that is, the time variation curve of the position) data. Not limited to this, any kind of data that can be converted into movement trajectory data such as a time change curve of speed and a time change curve of acceleration may be used.

  In the next step 124, the data (data1) of the movement locus of the wafer stage WST in the non-immersion state stored in the memory 21 in the above step 116 and the immersion state data stored in the memory 21 in the above step 122 are stored. The difference from the movement locus data (data 3) of wafer stage WST is calculated, and the amount of decrease in position controllability (position controllability correction information) due to the presence of liquid is obtained based on this difference. The position controllability correction information may be a correction amount of a current value given to the X linear motor or the Y linear motor, or may be a correction value of a thrust command value that is a basis for calculating the current value. Further, it may be a correction value of wafer stage movement information which is a basis for calculating the thrust command value. Here, the correction value of the movement information includes correction values such as a position target value, a speed target value, and an acceleration target value in the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction.

  In the above description, the data1, data2, and data3 are acquired not only during the scanning of the wafer stage WST but also during the step movement. However, the present invention is not limited to this. Data2 and data3 may be acquired.

  Thereafter, the process proceeds to step 126 described later.

  On the other hand, if the determination in step 120 is negative, that is, if the wafer W to be exposed is the second and subsequent wafers in the lot, steps 122 and 124 are skipped and the process proceeds to step 126.

  Here, an example of the processing of steps 116, 122, and 124 executed by the main controller 20 when the count value n = 1 will be described.

  For example, consider a case where wafer stage WST is driven in the Y-axis direction in step 116 along the target trajectory in FIG.

  In step 116, based on the target trajectory of FIG. 5A, a command value of the drive current value I (function of time) as shown in FIG. A current value I is given to the Y linear motor.

  As a result, the actual movement locus Py = f (t) of wafer stage WST as shown in FIG. 6A is obtained as data1 as the measurement result of step 116, as shown in FIG. 6B. It is assumed that a current profile I = g (t) obtained as data2.

  In this case, in step 122, current value profile I = g (t) in FIG. 6B is applied to the Y linear motor, and wafer stage WST is driven in the liquid immersion state. As a result, it is assumed that an actual movement locus Py = f ′ (t) of wafer stage WST as shown in FIG. 7 is obtained as data3.

  In this case, in step 124, as shown in FIG. 8, f (t) −f ′ (t) is the data (data1) of the movement locus of wafer stage WST in the non-immersion state and the immersion state. It is calculated as a difference from the data (data 3) of the movement locus of wafer stage WST below. This f (t) −f ′ (t) is information itself indicating the amount of decrease (error amount) in the position controllability of wafer stage WST due to the immersion state. Therefore, in step 124, the above-described position controllability correction information is calculated by calculation based on the difference f (t) -f '(t).

  Returning to FIG. 3, in step 126, the wafer W is exposed by the step-and-scan method while adjusting the position of at least one of reticle stage RST and wafer stage WST during scanning exposure in consideration of the correction information described above. To do. In step 126, the following operations are generally performed as in a normal scanning stepper.

  First, based on the above-described wafer alignment result and baseline measurement result, the measurement value of the wafer interferometer 18 is monitored, and the scan start position (acceleration start position) for the first shot exposure on the wafer W is set. Wafer stage WST is moved.

  When the movement of wafer stage WST (wafer W) to the acceleration start position is completed, acceleration for relative scanning in the Y-axis direction between reticle stage RST and wafer stage WST is started. When the above-described time T1 elapses from the start of acceleration, both stages RST and WST almost reach their target scanning speeds, and when time T2 elapses, reticle stage RST and wafer stage WST reach a constant speed synchronization state. The pattern area of the reticle R starts to be illuminated by the illumination light IL, and scanning exposure is started.

  Prior to this, light emission of the light source 1 is started. However, since the reticle blind in the illumination unit 10 is driven by the main controller 20 in synchronization with the reticle stage RST, the illumination light IL is emitted from the reticle R. Irradiation outside the pattern area is prevented, and unnecessary exposure is prevented.

  Then, different areas of the pattern area of the reticle R are sequentially illuminated with the illumination light IL, and when the time T3 has elapsed from the start of the exposure, the illumination of the entire pattern area is completed, whereby the first shot on the wafer W is scanned. The exposure is completed, and the pattern of the reticle R is reduced and transferred to the first shot on the wafer W through the projection optical system PL and water.

  Here, during the time T4 from the end of the first shot scanning exposure, the reticle stage RST and wafer stage WST perform overscanning while maintaining the same speed as during scanning exposure, and then decelerate. Both stages RST and WST are stopped when time T5 has elapsed from the start of deceleration. Thereby, the relative movement of both stages RST and WST for the first shot exposure on the wafer W is completed.

  Here, main controller 20 performs relative movement between reticle stage RST and wafer stage WST while adjusting the position of wafer stage WST in consideration of the previously calculated correction information.

  Further, during the scanning exposure described above, since it is necessary to perform exposure in a state where the illumination area on the wafer W coincides as much as possible with the imaging surface of the projection optical system PL, it is based on the output of the focus position detection system described above. Auto focus and auto leveling are executed by the main controller 20.

  Thus, when the scanning exposure for the first shot on the wafer W is completed, the main controller 20 steps the wafer stage WST in the X-axis direction (and Y-axis direction) via the wafer stage drive unit 24. It is moved to the acceleration start position for exposure of the second shot (second shot area) on the wafer W. During step shot shot between the first shot and the second shot, main controller 20 moves wafer stage WST while adjusting the position of wafer stage WST in consideration of the previously calculated correction information. Alternatively, the wafer stage may be moved without considering the correction information.

  Next, under the control of the main controller 20, scanning exposure similar to that described above is performed on the second shot on the wafer W, and the pattern of the reticle R is passed to the second shot via the projection optical system PL and water. Is transcribed. In the case of the present embodiment, since a so-called alternate scanning method is adopted, the scanning direction (movement direction) of reticle stage RST and wafer stage WST is opposite to that of the first shot during the exposure of this second shot. Become.

  Thereafter, similarly, the scanning exposure of the mth (m is 2, 3,...) Shot area on the wafer W and the stepping operation for the exposure of the (m + 1) th shot area are repeatedly executed. The pattern of the reticle R is sequentially transferred to all exposure target shot areas on the wafer W.

  In this way, the liquid immersion exposure for the n-th (here, the first) wafer W in the lot is completed, and a plurality of shot areas in which the pattern of the reticle R is transferred are formed on the wafer W. Is done.

  In the next step 127, as in step 166 described above, after all the water on the wafer W has been collected, the process proceeds to step 128, where the count value n of the counter described above is N (N is one lot of wafers). It is determined whether or not the exposure of all the wafers in the lot has been completed by determining whether or not the total number). If this determination is negative, the routine proceeds to step 130, the count value n is incremented by 1 (n ← n + 1), and the routine proceeds to step 134.

  In step 134, using an unshown wafer loader, the exposed wafer W placed on wafer stage WST is replaced with an unexposed wafer to be exposed next.

  Next, in step 112, EGA is executed, the arrangement coordinates of each shot area on the wafer are calculated, and stored in a memory such as a RAM (not shown).

  In the next step 114, it is determined whether or not the count value n of the above-mentioned counter is 1. Since n = 2, the determination here is denied and the routine proceeds to step 118.

  In step 118, water supply and recovery are started in the same manner as in step 154 described above, and between the front lens 91 of the projection optical system PL and the wafer holder 70 (that is, between the front lens 91 and the wafer or auxiliary plate). Supply and hold water. Thereafter, water is held between the tip lens 91 and the wafer holder 70 until the exposure processing of the wafer W in step 126 is completed.

  In the next step 120, it is determined again whether or not the count value n of the counter described above is 1. However, since n = 2, the determination here is denied and the routine proceeds to step 126. In step 126, the n-th sheet in the lot is adjusted by the step-and-scan method while adjusting the position of at least one of reticle stage RST and wafer stage WST during scanning exposure in consideration of the correction information described above. Exposure of the first (here, second) wafer is performed.

  In the next step 127, after all the water on the wafer W has been collected, the process proceeds to step 128, where it is determined whether or not the count value n of the counter described above is N or more. It is determined whether or not the exposure has been completed. In this case, since n = 2, the determination here is denied, and after incrementing the count value n by 1 in step 130, the process proceeds to step 134, and thereafter, until the determination in step 128 is affirmed, step 134 is performed. → 112 → 114 → 118 → 120 → 126 → 127 → 128 → 130 Loop processing (including judgment) is repeated. As a result, a series of exposure processes for the third and subsequent wafers in the lot are sequentially performed.

  When a series of exposure processes for the last wafer in the lot is completed, the determination in step 128 is affirmed, and the process proceeds to step 132 to determine whether the process should be terminated. Here, during the processing of the lot, when the exposure end command is input from the operator and the end of the exposure is instructed, or when the processing for the wafers of the lot of the lot number specified in advance has been completed, the processing ends. If the power condition is satisfied, the series of processing of this routine is terminated.

  On the other hand, if the condition to be terminated is not satisfied in step 132, the process returns to step 102 and the processes in and after step 102 are repeated, so that the process for the wafer of the next lot is performed using the next reticle. Perform in the same way.

  Thereafter, until the determination in step 132 is affirmed, the wafers of the lots subsequent to the next lot are processed.

  As is clear from the above description, in the present embodiment, the first acquisition device, the second acquisition device, and the control device are realized by the main control device 20, more specifically, mainly by the CPU and the software program. ing. That is, the wafer stage is moved so that a predetermined target operation is performed in the first state in which the immersion area is not formed on wafer stage WST by the processing of step 116 performed by the CPU, and the wafer stage at that time A first acquisition device that acquires the first movement information (movement trajectory, that is, position change information) of WST through the wafer interferometer 18 is realized, and the liquid is immersed on the wafer stage by the process of step 122 performed by the CPU. In the second state in which the region is formed, the stage is moved so that the predetermined target operation is performed, and the second movement information (movement trajectory, that is, position change information) of wafer stage WST at that time is used as the wafer. A second acquisition device that acquires via the interferometer 18 is realized.

  Further, by the processing of step 124 performed by the CPU, based on the first movement information and the second movement information, a wafer stage control error due to the presence of the liquid immersion area on the wafer stage is corrected. A correction information generation apparatus for generating correction information is realized, and at least one of the movement of the reticle stage and the wafer stage is performed based on the first movement information and the second movement information by the processing of step 126 performed by the CPU. A control device for controlling is realized.

  As described above, according to the exposure apparatus 100 of the present embodiment, the main control apparatus 20 also obtains the first movement information (data1) in the above-described step 116, and the second movement information in the above-described step 122. When acquiring (data3), wafer stage WST is moved so that the same target operation is performed based on data (data2) of the same control parameter, that is, a current value profile. For this reason, the difference between the first movement information and the second movement information is the difference between the first state and the second state where the movement information is acquired, that is, an immersion region is formed on wafer stage WST. The information directly reflects the difference between the movement state when it is not performed and the movement state when the liquid immersion region is formed on wafer stage WST.

  Accordingly, when exposure is performed in step 126, main controller 20 controls the movement of wafer stage WST based on the first movement information (data1) and the second movement information (data3). Wafer stage WST can be controlled so as not to cause an error due to the presence or absence of a liquid immersion area on stage WST. In this case, for example, control of wafer stage WST at the time of exposure is performed in consideration of the correction information calculated based on the difference between the first movement information and the second movement information in step 124.

  In addition, the exposure apparatus 100 of the present embodiment moves a pattern formed on the reticle R by synchronously moving the reticle stage RST holding the reticle R and the wafer stage WST in the Y-axis direction via the projection optical system PL and water. Transfer to the wafer on wafer stage WST. Therefore, main controller 20 controls the movement of reticle stage RST based on the first movement information (data1) and the second movement information (data3), or the movement between reticle stage RST and wafer stage WST. By controlling this, it is possible to correct an error in the positional relationship between the reticle and the wafer due to the difference in the movement state. Therefore, the pattern transfer accuracy can be improved.

  In addition, immersion exposure enables exposure with high resolution and a greater depth of focus than in the air. In this respect as well, the pattern of the reticle R can be accurately transferred onto the wafer. As a result, a fine pattern transfer of about 70 to 100 nm can be realized.

  In the above embodiment, as apparent from the flowchart of FIG. 3, the above-described measurement operation of data1, data2, and data3 has been described immediately before the exposure of the wafer at the head of the lot. Recently, there are many cases in which a lot of 25 wafers are divided one after another in the middle of the process to make various products. Therefore, the measurement operation of data1, data2, and data3 described above is performed immediately before each wafer exposure. You may make it do. This can be easily realized, for example, by omitting the determination steps of steps 114 and 120 in the flowchart of FIG. In addition, for example, by changing the determination contents of the determination steps of Steps 114 and 120 to whether or not the remainder of (k + n) / k is 1, once for k (k is an integer of 2 or more) The measurement operation of data1, data2, and data3 may be performed immediately before the exposure of the wafer at the ratio.

  In the above embodiment, a case is described in which only movement information in the XY in-plane direction obtained based on the measurement value of the wafer interferometer 18 is acquired as the first movement information (data 1) and the second movement information (data 3). However, the present invention is not limited to this. That is, in the above-described steps 116 and 122, the output of the multipoint focal position detection system described above is acquired in synchronization with the acquisition of the measurement value of the wafer interferometer 18, and the Z-axis direction calculated from the acquired output, Information on the change in position and orientation of wafer stage WST in at least one of the θx direction and the θy direction is included in the first movement information and the second movement information in addition to the information on the X axis direction and the Y axis direction. May be included. In this way, it is possible to correct a control error related to at least one of the Z-axis direction, the θx direction, and the θy direction due to the presence of the liquid immersion region on wafer stage WST. In this case, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2001-510577 and US Patent No. 6,020,964 corresponding thereto, Japanese Patent Application No. 2001-513267 and US Patent No. 6,208,407 corresponding thereto, or Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. An interferometer such as that disclosed in Japanese Patent No. 2000-323404 and US Pat. No. 6,674,510 corresponding thereto is used in place of or together with the focal position detection system. Also good. To the extent permitted by national legislation in the designated country (or selected selected country) designated in this international application, the disclosures in the above publications and corresponding US patents are incorporated herein by reference.

  In the above embodiment, the second movement information when the liquid immersion area is formed on wafer stage WST and the first movement information when the liquid immersion area is not formed on wafer stage WST are: Although the case of acquiring at the same frequency has been described, the behavior of the stage when the immersion region is not formed on the wafer stage WST is not changed if the change over time can be ignored. Therefore, the first movement information of the wafer stage may be acquired in advance and stored in the memory 21 for each of a plurality of target trajectories expected to be used. In this case, it is only necessary to acquire the second movement information immediately before the exposure, so that the throughput can be further improved.

  In the above embodiment, the first acquisition device, the second acquisition device, and the control device are realized by the main control device 20, more specifically, the CPU and the software program. Of course, a part may be constituted by other hardware. In the above-described embodiment, the case where the main controller 20 also serves as a stage controller, an exposure controller, and the like has been described. However, these controllers may be separately provided under the main controller 20.

  In the above embodiment, when the second movement information (data 3) is acquired in step 122, wafer stage WST is operated based on the current value (data 2) as the control parameter acquired in step 116. However, when operating the wafer stage WST, if the target current value (control parameter) is supplied to the wafer stage driving unit 24, the step 116 is also performed when the second movement information is acquired in the step 122. Wafer stage WST may be operated based on the target current value (target control parameter) used in step S2.

  In steps 116 and 122, when the first movement information and the second movement information are acquired, the reticle R may be moved in the same manner as when the wafer W is actually exposed.

<< Second Embodiment >>
Next, a second embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. Here, the same reference numerals are used for the same or equivalent components as those in the first embodiment described above, and the description thereof is omitted. FIG. 9 shows the configuration of the main part of the exposure apparatus 100 ′ of the second embodiment.

  As shown in FIG. 9, in exposure apparatus 100 ′, wafer stage WST1 and wafer stage WST2 are levitated and supported on stage base 71 via air bearings (not shown) provided on the respective bottom surfaces. Yes.

  Wafer stages WST1 and WST2 are configured similarly to wafer stage WST described above. One wafer stage WST1 is driven by the wafer stage drive unit 24 in the direction of six degrees of freedom in the same manner as the wafer stage WST described above. On wafer stage WST1, wafer W1 as an object (for example, the first wafer in the lot (first wafer in the lot)) is held by suction through wafer holder. The position of wafer stage WST1 in the direction of five degrees of freedom of X, Y, θz, θy, and θx is measured by wafer interferometer 18 via moving mirror 17.

  The other wafer stage WST2 is driven in a 6-degree-of-freedom direction by the wafer stage drive unit 124 having the same configuration as the wafer stage drive unit 24, similarly to the wafer stage WST described above. On wafer stage WST2, wafer W2 as an object (for example, the second wafer in the lot) is held by suction through wafer holder 70. The position of wafer stage WST2 in the five-degree-of-freedom direction of X, Y, θz, θy, and θx is measured by wafer interferometer 118 via moving mirror 117.

  The measurement value of the wafer interferometer 118 is supplied to the main controller 20 as with the wafer interferometer 18.

  Further, the wafer stage drive unit 124 is controlled by the main controller 20 in the same manner as the wafer stage drive unit 24.

  An off-axis alignment system (not shown) is provided at a predetermined interval in a direction that forms an angle of 45 degrees with respect to the X-axis and Y-axis directions around the projection unit PU. In this case, wafer stages WST1 and WST2 can be two-dimensionally moved independently from each other within each moving region including a pattern projection region (region conjugate to the aforementioned slit-shaped illumination region) by projection optical system PL. Both are configured to be able to move below the off-axis alignment system.

  The structure of the other parts is the same as that of the exposure apparatus 100 of the first embodiment described above.

  In the exposure apparatus 100 ′ of the second embodiment, the liquid immersion area is not formed on the wafer stage WST2, and the liquid immersion area is formed on the wafer stage WST1, in the state shown in FIG. Main controller 20 applies the same current value (thrust value) to the linear motors constituting wafer stage drive units 24 and 124, respectively, based on the same target trajectory as during exposure, and drives both stages WST1 and WST2. At the same time, the first movement information (corresponding to data1 described above) of wafer stage WST2 is measured via interferometer 118 and stored in memory 21 in the same manner as in step 116 described above, and at the same time as in step 122 described above. Then, the second movement information (corresponding to data3 described above) of wafer stage WST1 is measured via interferometer 18 and stored in memory 21.

  For example, when performing exposure of wafer W1 on wafer stage WST1, main controller 20 determines reticle stage RST based on the first movement information and the second movement information, as in step 126 described above. The pattern of the reticle R is transferred to a plurality of shot areas on the wafer W1 by a step-and-scan method while adjusting at least one position with respect to the wafer stage WST1.

  For example, when performing exposure of wafer W2 on wafer stage WST2, main controller 20 determines reticle stage RST based on the first movement information and the second movement information, as in step 126 described above. The pattern of the reticle R is transferred to a plurality of shot areas on the wafer W2 by a step-and-scan method while adjusting at least one position with respect to the wafer stage WST2.

  In this case, main controller 20 makes the wafer resulting from the presence of the liquid immersion area on wafer stage WST1 based on the first movement information and the second movement information in the same manner as in step 124 described above. When creating correction information for correcting the control error of the stage WST1, and transferring the pattern of the reticle R to the plurality of shot areas on the wafer W1 by the step-and-scan method in consideration of the correction information In addition, the movement of at least one of reticle stage RST and wafer stage WST1 may be controlled.

  Similarly, when transferring pattern of reticle R to a plurality of shot areas on wafer W2 by a step-and-scan method, main controller 20 takes into account the above correction information and takes into account reticle stage RST and wafer. The movement of at least one of the stage WST2 may be controlled. The reason is as follows.

  In the case of the second embodiment, since wafer stages WST1 and WST2 have the same configuration, a liquid immersion area is not formed on wafer stage WST2, but a liquid immersion area is formed on wafer stage WST1. 9. The first movement information of wafer stage WST2 and the second movement information of wafer stage WST1 obtained in the state 9 and the liquid immersion area is not formed on wafer stage WST1, but the liquid immersion area is formed on wafer stage WST2. The movement information of wafer stage WST1 and the movement information of wafer stage WST2 obtained in the formed state are considered to be not significantly different as long as the thrust value (drive current value) for the linear motor is the same. It is expected that equivalent results can be obtained by using the above correction information in the latter state in the same way as the former state. This is because that.

  As is clear from the above description, in the second embodiment, the main control device 20 constitutes at least a part of each of the acquisition device, the correction information creation device, and the control device.

  According to the second embodiment described above, the same effect as that of the first embodiment described above can be obtained, the first movement information of the wafer stage WST1 (or wafer stage WST2) described above, the wafer stage WST2 (or Since a series of operations for acquiring the second movement information of wafer stage WST1) can be performed in parallel, throughput can be improved.

  In the second embodiment, a wafer on one wafer stage is used in the same manner as the exposure apparatus disclosed in, for example, Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 10-214783 and US Pat. No. 6,341,007 corresponding thereto. In this respect, the throughput is improved by performing the exposure operation on the wafer, the wafer exchange on the other wafer stage side, and the wafer alignment operation in parallel. To the extent permitted by national legislation in the designated country (or selected selected country) designated in this international application, the disclosures in the above publications and corresponding US patents are incorporated herein by reference.

  The driving method of the two wafer stages described in the second embodiment is a switching method disclosed in, for example, Japanese translations of PCT publication No. 2000-511704 and US Pat. No. 6,262,796 corresponding thereto. The present invention can also be suitably applied to a twin wafer stage type exposure apparatus.

  In the second embodiment, the acquisition of the first movement information (corresponding to the data1 described above) of the wafer stage WST2 in a state where the liquid immersion area is not formed on the wafer stage WST2, and the wafer stage WST1 Although the case where the acquisition of the second movement information of wafer stage WST1 in the state where the liquid immersion area is formed is performed in parallel has been described, the present invention is not limited to this, and both stages WST1, If WST2 is driven, a state in which an immersion area is formed on wafer stage WST1 after acquisition of the first movement information of wafer stage WST2 in a state in which no immersion area is formed on wafer stage WST2 The second movement information of wafer stage WST1 may be acquired. Even in such a case, as in the second embodiment, when the wafer on the wafer stage WST1 (or wafer stage WST2) is exposed, the main controller 20 performs the first movement information and the second movement. Based on the information, the pattern of reticle R is transferred to a plurality of shot areas on the wafer by a step-and-scan method while adjusting the position of at least one of reticle stage RST and wafer stage WST1 (or wafer stage WST2). By doing so, it becomes possible to transfer a pattern with high accuracy in which the influence of the control error of the wafer stage due to the presence of the liquid immersion area is corrected.

  Even in this case, the main controller 20 corrects a control error of the wafer stage due to the presence of the liquid immersion area on the wafer stage based on the first movement information and the second movement information. Correction information may be created, and movement of at least one of reticle stage RST and wafer stage may be controlled in consideration of the correction information.

  Also in the second embodiment, the movement information of the stage when the immersion area is not formed on the wafer stage is acquired in advance for each of a plurality of target trajectories expected to be used, and the memory 21 may be stored, and just before the exposure, only movement information in a state where the liquid immersion area is formed on the wafer stage may be acquired.

  In the first and second embodiments, the case where the present invention is applied to a local liquid immersion type exposure apparatus is illustrated. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and the present invention may be a wafer liquid immersion type. It is possible to apply.

  In the first and second embodiments, the first movement information is obtained by moving wafer stage WST in the same manner as when performing exposure on a plurality of shot areas on one wafer W (W1, W2). The second movement information is acquired, and a plurality of shot areas on the wafer W are sequentially exposed while performing position control of at least one of the wafer stage WST and the reticle stage RST based on the information. For example, the first movement information and the second movement information are acquired while moving the wafer stage WST as in the case of exposing one shot area of the wafer W, and based on the information, the wafer stage WST and the reticle stage RST are moved. A plurality of shot areas on the wafer W may be sequentially exposed while performing at least one position control.

  Similarly, the first movement information and the second movement information are acquired for a part of the shot areas on the wafer W, and each information is averaged, and based on the averaged first and second movement information. Thus, a plurality of shot areas on the wafer W may be sequentially exposed while controlling the position of at least one of the wafer stage WST and the reticle stage RST.

  In the first and second embodiments described above, the first movement information and the second movement information of the wafer stage WST are measured while paying attention to the exposure of the wafer W. When the measurement is performed using the sensor on wafer stage WST, the first movement information and the second movement information are acquired by operating wafer stage WST, and when the measurement is performed, the first movement information and the second movement information are obtained. Based on the movement information, position control of at least one of wafer stage WST and reticle stage RST may be performed. Furthermore, when the measurement operation is performed in a state where water Lq is not supplied onto wafer stage WST, water is transferred onto wafer stage WST based on the first movement information and the second movement information acquired previously. Position control of at least one of wafer stage WST and reticle stage RST may be performed in a state where Lq is not supplied.

  In addition to the stage that holds the wafer, the exposure apparatus may include a measurement stage that is mounted with a measurement member or sensor and moves on the image plane side of the projection optical system. In this case, as with the stage holding the wafer, the first movement information and the second movement information are acquired for the measurement stage, and the movement of the measurement stage is controlled based on the first movement information and the second movement information. You may make it do. An exposure apparatus equipped with a measurement stage is disclosed in, for example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2000-164504 and US application No. 09 / 593,800 corresponding thereto. To the extent permitted by the laws of the selected country), the disclosures in the above publications and corresponding US applications are incorporated herein by reference.

The light source of the exposure apparatus of each of the embodiments is not limited to the ArF excimer laser, but is a KrF excimer laser (output wavelength 248 nm), F 2 laser (output wavelength 157 nm), Ar 2 laser (output wavelength 126 nm), Kr 2 laser. It is also possible to use a pulse laser light source (output wavelength: 146 nm) or an ultrahigh pressure mercury lamp that emits a bright line such as g-line (wavelength 436 nm) or i-line (wavelength 365 nm). A harmonic generator of a YAG laser or the like can also be used. In addition, a single-wavelength laser beam in the infrared region or visible region oscillated from a DFB semiconductor laser or fiber laser is amplified by, for example, a fiber amplifier doped with erbium (or both erbium and ytterbium), and a nonlinear optical crystal You may use the harmonic which wavelength-converted into ultraviolet light using. Further, the projection optical system may be not only a reduction system but also an equal magnification and an enlargement system.

In each of the above embodiments, ultrapure water (water) is used as the liquid, but the present invention is not limited to this. As the liquid, a safe liquid that is chemically stable and has a high transmittance of the illumination light IL, such as a fluorine-based inert liquid, may be used. As this fluorinated inert liquid, for example, Fluorinert (trade name of 3M, USA) can be used. This fluorine-based inert liquid is also excellent in terms of cooling effect. In addition, a liquid that is transmissive to the illumination light IL and has a refractive index as high as possible, and that is stable with respect to the projection optical system and the photoresist applied to the wafer surface (for example, cedar oil) is used. You can also. Further, when using an F 2 laser as a light source, fomblin oil may be selected.

  In each of the above embodiments, the recovered liquid may be reused. In this case, a filter that removes impurities from the recovered liquid may be provided in the liquid recovery device, the recovery pipe, or the like. desirable.

  In each of the above-described embodiments, the optical element closest to the image plane of the projection optical system PL is the tip lens 91. However, the optical element is not limited to the lens, but the optical element of the projection optical system PL. It may be an optical plate (parallel plane plate or the like) used for adjusting characteristics such as aberrations (spherical aberration, coma aberration, etc.), or a simple cover glass. The optical element closest to the image plane of the projection optical system PL (the tip lens 91 in the above embodiment) is a liquid (above-mentioned) due to scattering particles generated from the resist by irradiation of the illumination light IL or adhesion of impurities in the liquid. In the embodiment, the surface may be contaminated by contact with water. For this reason, the optical element may be fixed to the lowermost part of the lens barrel 40 so as to be detachable (replaceable), and may be periodically replaced.

  In such a case, if the optical element in contact with the liquid is the lens 91, the cost of the replacement part is high, and the time required for the replacement becomes long. This increases the maintenance cost (running cost) and decreases the throughput. Invite. Therefore, the optical element that comes into contact with the liquid may be a plane parallel plate that is cheaper than the lens 91, for example.

  Further, in the exposure apparatus to which the above-described immersion method is applied, the wafer W is exposed by filling the optical path space on the exit side of the tip lens 91 of the projection optical system PL with liquid (pure water). As disclosed in Japanese Patent Publication No. 2004/019128, the optical path space on the incident side of the tip lens 91 of the projection optical system PL may be filled with liquid (pure water).

  In each of the above embodiments, the range in which the liquid (water) flows may be set so as to cover the entire projection area of the reticle pattern image (irradiation area of the illumination light IL), and the size thereof is arbitrary. Although it is good, in controlling the flow velocity, flow rate, etc., it is desirable to make the range as small as possible by making it slightly larger than the irradiation region.

  In each of the above embodiments, the case where the present invention is applied to a scanning exposure apparatus such as a step-and-scan method has been described. However, the scope of the present invention is of course not limited thereto. That is, the present invention can be suitably applied to a step-and-repeat reduction projection exposure apparatus.

  It is also possible to use a type of exposure apparatus that does not have a projection optical system, such as a proximity type exposure apparatus or a two-beam interference type exposure apparatus that exposes a wafer by forming interference fringes on the wafer.

  The use of the exposure apparatus is not limited to the exposure apparatus for semiconductor manufacturing, but for example, an exposure apparatus for liquid crystal that transfers a liquid crystal display element pattern to a square glass plate, an organic EL, a thin film magnetic head, an image sensor (CCD, etc.), micromachines, DNA chips and the like can also be widely applied to exposure apparatuses. Further, in order to manufacture reticles or masks used in not only microdevices such as semiconductor elements but also light exposure apparatuses, EUV exposure apparatuses, X-ray exposure apparatuses, electron beam exposure apparatuses, etc., glass substrates or silicon wafers, etc. The present invention can also be applied to an exposure apparatus that transfers a circuit pattern.

<Device manufacturing method>
Next, an embodiment of a device manufacturing method using the exposure apparatus of each of the above embodiments in a lithography process will be described.

  FIG. 10 shows a flowchart of a manufacturing example of a device (a semiconductor chip such as an IC or LSI, a liquid crystal panel, a CCD, a thin film magnetic head, a micromachine, etc.). As shown in FIG. 10, first, in step 201 (design step), device function / performance design (for example, circuit design of a semiconductor device) is performed, and pattern design for realizing the function is performed. Subsequently, in step 202 (mask manufacturing step), a mask on which the designed circuit pattern is formed is manufactured. On the other hand, in step 203 (wafer manufacturing step), a wafer is manufactured using a material such as silicon.

  Next, in step 204 (wafer processing step), using the mask and wafer prepared in steps 201 to 203, an actual circuit or the like is formed on the wafer by lithography or the like as will be described later. Next, in step 205 (device assembly step), device assembly is performed using the wafer processed in step 204. Step 205 includes processes such as a dicing process, a bonding process, and a packaging process (chip encapsulation) as necessary.

  Finally, in step 206 (inspection step), inspections such as an operation confirmation test and durability test of the device created in step 205 are performed. After these steps, the device is completed and shipped.

  FIG. 11 shows a detailed flow example of step 204 in the semiconductor device. In FIG. 11, in step 211 (oxidation step), the surface of the wafer is oxidized. In step 212 (CVD step), an insulating film is formed on the wafer surface. In step 213 (electrode formation step), an electrode is formed on the wafer by vapor deposition. In step 214 (ion implantation step), ions are implanted into the wafer. Each of the above-described steps 211 to 214 constitutes a pre-processing process at each stage of wafer processing, and is selected and executed according to a necessary process at each stage.

  At each stage of the wafer process, when the above pre-process is completed, the post-process is executed as follows. In this post-processing process, first, in step 215 (resist formation step), a photosensitive agent is applied to the wafer. Subsequently, in step 216 (exposure step), the circuit pattern (device pattern) of the mask is transferred to the wafer by the exposure apparatus of each of the above embodiments. Next, in step 217 (development step), the exposed wafer is developed, and in step 218 (etching step), the exposed member other than the portion where the resist remains is removed by etching. In step 219 (resist removal step), the resist that has become unnecessary after the etching is removed.

  By repeatedly performing these pre-processing steps and post-processing steps, multiple circuit patterns are formed on the wafer.

  If the device manufacturing method of this embodiment described above is used, the device pattern is transferred onto the wafer via the liquid using the exposure apparatus and the exposure method of each of the above embodiments in the exposure step (step 216). Therefore, high-throughput and high-precision exposure can be realized over a long period of time, and the productivity (including yield) of highly integrated microdevices on which fine patterns are formed can be improved. Thereby, effects such as cost reduction of the manufactured microdevice can be expected.

  As described above, the driving method of the present invention is suitable for driving the first stage and the second stage. The exposure method and exposure apparatus of the present invention are suitable for supplying a liquid onto an object such as a wafer and exposing the object with an energy beam through the liquid. The device manufacturing method of the present invention is suitable for manufacturing micro devices.

Claims (23)

  1. A driving method for driving a moving body,
    First information for acquiring first movement information of the moving body when the moving body is moved so that a predetermined target operation is performed in a first state where no liquid immersion area is formed on the moving body. An acquisition process;
    In the second state in which the liquid immersion area is formed on the moving body, the second moving information of the moving body is acquired when the moving body is moved so that the predetermined target operation is performed. 2 acquisition steps;
    And a control step of controlling movement of the movable body based on the first movement information and the second movement information.
  2. The driving method according to claim 1,
    In the control step, based on the first movement information and the second movement information, the movement state of the moving body in the second state is corrected based on the first movement information acquired in the first state. A driving method comprising controlling a moving body as described above.
  3. The driving method according to claim 1,
    In the control step, the moving body is controlled such that the moving state of the moving body in the first state is corrected based on the second movement information acquired in the second state. Driving method.
  4. The driving method according to claim 1,
    A correction information creating step of creating correction information for correcting a control error of the moving body due to the presence of an immersion area on the moving body based on the first movement information and the second movement information; , Further comprising a driving method.
  5. The driving method according to claim 1,
    The first acquisition step includes a step of acquiring control parameters used in the moving body when the moving body is moved so that the predetermined target operation is performed,
    A driving method characterized in that when the second movement information is acquired in the second acquisition step, the moving body is moved based on the used control parameter.
  6. The driving method according to claim 5, wherein
    The moving body is driven by a linear motor,
    The control parameter includes at least one of a thrust value for the linear motor and a drive current value for driving the linear motor.
  7. A driving method for driving a moving body,
    In the first state where the liquid immersion area is not formed on the first moving body, the first moving body is moved when the first moving body is moved so that a predetermined target operation is performed. 1st acquisition process of acquiring 1 movement information;
    In the second state in which the liquid immersion area is formed on the second moving body, the second moving body is moved when the second moving body is moved so that the predetermined target operation is performed. A second acquisition step of acquiring second movement information;
    And a control step of controlling movement of at least one of the first moving body and the second moving body based on the first movement information and the second movement information.
  8. The driving method according to claim 7,
    Based on the first movement information and the second movement information, a correction for correcting a control error of the moving body due to the presence of the liquid immersion area on the first moving body or the second moving body A driving method further comprising a correction information creating step for creating information.
  9. The driving method according to claim 7,
    The driving method, wherein the first acquisition step and the second acquisition step are performed in parallel.
  10. In the driving method according to any one of claims 1 to 9,
    The driving method, wherein the first movement information and the second movement information are measured by a laser interferometer.
  11. A first acquisition step of moving the stage so that a predetermined target operation is performed in a first state where no immersion area is formed on the stage, and acquiring first movement information of the stage at that time; ;
    In the second state in which the liquid immersion area is formed on the stage, the stage is moved so that the predetermined target operation is performed, and second acquisition information of the stage at that time is acquired. Process and;
    An exposure step of controlling the movement of the stage based on the first movement information and the second movement information to irradiate exposure light onto an object held on the stage via a liquid. Exposure method.
  12. In the first state where the liquid immersion area is not formed on the first stage, the first stage is moved so that a predetermined target operation is performed, and the first movement information of the first stage at that time is acquired. A first acquisition step;
    In the second state where the liquid immersion area is formed on the second stage, the second stage is moved so that the predetermined target operation is performed, and second movement information of the second stage at that time is obtained. A second acquisition step to acquire;
    Based on the first movement information and the second movement information, the movement of at least one of the first stage and the second stage on which the object is placed is controlled to expose exposure light on the object via the liquid. An exposure method comprising: an exposure step of irradiating.
  13.   A device manufacturing method including a lithography process for executing the exposure method according to claim 11.
  14. An exposure apparatus for transferring a pattern formed on a mask onto an object via a projection optical system and a liquid,
    A mask stage on which the mask is mounted and movable in at least one axial direction;
    A stage on which the object is placed and which can move two-dimensionally within a predetermined range including the projection area of the pattern by the projection optical system;
    An immersion apparatus that forms an immersion area between the projection optical system and the stage when the stage faces the projection optical system;
    A first acquisition device that moves the stage so that a predetermined target operation is performed in a first state where no liquid immersion area is formed on the stage, and acquires first movement information of the stage at that time When;
    In the second state in which the liquid immersion area is formed on the stage, the stage is moved so that the predetermined target operation is performed, and second acquisition information of the stage at that time is acquired. With the device;
    An exposure apparatus comprising: a control device that controls movement of at least one of the mask stage and the stage based on the first movement information and the second movement information.
  15. The exposure apparatus according to claim 14, wherein
    A correction information creating apparatus for creating correction information for correcting a control error of the stage caused by the presence of the liquid immersion area on the stage based on the first movement information and the second movement information; An exposure apparatus provided.
  16. The exposure apparatus according to claim 14, wherein
    The first acquisition device acquires a control parameter used in the stage when the stage is moved so that the predetermined target motion is performed,
    The exposure apparatus, wherein the second acquisition apparatus moves the stage based on the used control parameter when acquiring the second movement information.
  17. The exposure apparatus according to claim 16, wherein
    The stage is driven by a linear motor,
    The exposure apparatus, wherein the control parameter includes at least one of a thrust value for the linear motor and a drive current value for driving the linear motor.
  18. The exposure apparatus according to claim 14, wherein
    A laser interferometer for measuring the position of the stage;
    The exposure apparatus, wherein the first and second acquisition apparatuses acquire the first and second movement information via the laser interferometer, respectively.
  19. An exposure apparatus for transferring a pattern formed on a mask onto an object via a projection optical system and a liquid,
    A mask stage on which the mask is mounted and movable in at least one axial direction;
    A first stage and a second stage on which the object is placed and capable of two-dimensional movement independently of each other within a moving area including a projection area of the pattern by the projection optical system;
    An immersion apparatus that forms an immersion area between the stage and the projection optical system when any of the first and second stages faces the projection optical system;
    In the first state where no liquid immersion area is formed on the first stage, the first stage is moved so that a predetermined target operation is performed, and first movement information of the first stage at that time is obtained. In addition, the second stage is moved so that the predetermined target operation is performed in the second state in which the liquid immersion area is formed on the second stage, and the second stage at that time is moved. An acquisition device for acquiring second movement information;
    An exposure apparatus comprising: a control device that controls at least one movement of the mask stage, the first stage, and the second stage during the pattern transfer based on the first movement information and the second movement information.
  20. The exposure apparatus according to claim 19,
    Based on the first movement information and the second movement information, a stage control error caused by the presence of the liquid immersion area on one of the first stage and the second stage is corrected. An exposure apparatus further comprising a correction information creating apparatus for creating correction information for the purpose.
  21. The exposure apparatus according to claim 19,
    The exposure apparatus is characterized in that the acquisition of the first movement information and the acquisition of the second movement information are performed in parallel.
  22. The exposure apparatus according to claim 19,
    A first laser interferometer for measuring the position of the first stage;
    A second laser interferometer for measuring the position of the second stage;
    The acquisition apparatus acquires the first movement information using the first laser interferometer and acquires the second movement information using the second laser interferometer. .
  23.   23. A device manufacturing method including a lithography step of transferring a device pattern onto an object through a projection optical system and a liquid using the exposure apparatus according to any one of claims 14 to 22.
JP2005518009A 2004-02-18 2005-02-15 Driving method, exposure method, exposure apparatus, and device manufacturing method Expired - Fee Related JP4479911B2 (en)

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JP2004040683 2004-02-18
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JP3870207B2 (en) * 2004-08-05 2007-01-17 キヤノン株式会社 Immersion exposure apparatus and device manufacturing method
KR20070115859A (en) * 2005-03-18 2007-12-06 가부시키가이샤 니콘 Exposure method, exposure apparatus, device manufacturing method and exposure apparatus evaluating method
EP3043208B1 (en) * 2006-01-19 2017-05-31 Nikon Corporation Exposure apparatus, exposure method and device manufacturing method
US7230676B1 (en) * 2006-03-13 2007-06-12 Asml Netherlands B.V. Lithographic apparatus and device manufacturing method
US8675171B2 (en) 2006-08-31 2014-03-18 Nikon Corporation Movable body drive system and movable body drive method, pattern formation apparatus and method, exposure apparatus and method, device manufacturing method, and decision-making method
EP2221669A3 (en) 2009-02-19 2011-02-09 ASML Netherlands B.V. A lithographic apparatus, a method of controlling the apparatus and a device manufacturing method

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