JP4406952B2 - Vibration actuator - Google Patents

Vibration actuator Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4406952B2
JP4406952B2 JP10125499A JP10125499A JP4406952B2 JP 4406952 B2 JP4406952 B2 JP 4406952B2 JP 10125499 A JP10125499 A JP 10125499A JP 10125499 A JP10125499 A JP 10125499A JP 4406952 B2 JP4406952 B2 JP 4406952B2
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Japan
Prior art keywords
vibration
vibrator
elliptical motion
direction
ac voltage
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JP10125499A
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Japanese (ja)
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JP2000295876A (en
Inventor
バンセビッチ ラムティス
忠雄 高木
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株式会社ニコン
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Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a vibration actuator. More specifically, the present invention includes a vibrator that pressurizes and contacts a relative motion member, and the vibrator and the relative motion member are generated by generating an elliptical periodic displacement in the vibrator. The present invention relates to a vibration actuator that generates relative motion between the two.
[0002]
[Prior art]
FIGS. 15A and 15B are explanatory views of the vibrator 1 of this type of vibration actuator proposed by Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 7-241090. FIG. 15A is a top view and FIG. 15B is a side view.
[0003]
As shown in FIGS. 15A and 15B, the vibrator 1 includes an elastic body 2 having a rectangular flat plate shape, a piezoelectric element 3 mounted on one plane of the elastic body 2, and an elastic body. Drive force extraction parts 4a and 4b provided to project on the other plane of the body 2 are provided. The piezoelectric element 3 includes a piezoelectric element 3a to which an A-phase driving signal is input, a piezoelectric element 3b to which a B-phase driving signal whose phase is shifted by (π / 2) from the A-phase driving signal, and vibration. It is divided into a piezoelectric element 3p for detection and a piezoelectric element 3g for grounding. An A-phase drive signal is input to the piezoelectric element 3a from a drive device (not shown), and a B-phase drive signal is input to the piezoelectric element 3b. Then, the vibrator 1 is excited by primary longitudinal vibration and quaternary bending vibration. Therefore, these vibrations are combined, and elliptical motions whose phases are shifted by π are respectively generated in the driving force extraction portions 4a and 4b. As a result, the vibrator 1 generates relative motion with the relative motion member that comes into pressure contact via the driving force extraction portions 4a and 4b.
[0004]
FIG. 16 is a perspective view showing the vibrator 5 of the vibration actuator disclosed in the document “VIBROMOTORS FOR PRECISION MICROROBOTS”. As shown in FIG. 16, the vibrator 5 includes a rectangular flat plate-shaped piezoelectric element 6, driving electrodes 7 a, 7 a ′, 7 b, 7 b ′ mounted on one plane of the piezoelectric element 6, and the other plane. And a grounding electrode 7g mounted on the driving force extracting portions 8a, 8b and 8c. The electrode 7a and the electrode 7a ′ are connected, and the electrode 7b and the electrode 7b ′ are also connected. An A-phase drive signal is input to the electrode 7a from a drive device (not shown), and a B-phase drive signal is input to the electrode 7b. Then, the vibrator 5 is excited with primary longitudinal vibration and secondary bending vibration. For this reason, these vibrations are combined, and elliptical motions are generated in the driving force extraction portions 8a to 8c, respectively, and the relative motion is brought into pressure contact via the driving force extraction portion 8a or the driving force extraction portions 8b and 8c. Relative motion is generated between the members.
[0005]
As described above, each of these vibrators 1 and 5 generates two types of vibrations, and generates a relative motion with a relative motion member that is in pressure contact by an elliptical motion that is a combination of these vibrations. To do. Therefore, it is important to control this elliptical motion to a desired shape.
[0006]
FIG. 17 is a block diagram showing an example of the drive control circuit 9 for these vibration actuators. The drive control circuit 9 will be described using the vibrator 5 shown in FIG. 16 as an example. In FIG. 17, the oscillator 10 oscillates signals having frequencies corresponding to the longitudinal vibration L1 and the bending vibration B2 of the vibrator 5, respectively. The output of the oscillator 10 branches, and one output is amplified by the amplifier 11a and then input to the electrode 7a as an A-phase voltage. The other branched output is shifted to the B phase voltage by (π / 2) from the A phase voltage by the phase shifter 12, and then input to the electrode 7b via the amplifier 11b.
[0007]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
By the way, it is not easy to assemble these vibrators 1 and 5 so that the dimensions of the respective parts coincide with design values with high accuracy and accuracy. When the dimensions of each part deviate slightly from the design value, the ratio of the major axis to the minor axis of the elliptical motion generated by the amplitudes of the longitudinal vibration and bending vibration and the inclination of the axis of the elliptical motion fluctuate. The performances of 1 and 5 vary.
[0008]
In order to eliminate such variations, an attempt to increase the speed of the assembled vibrators 1 and 5 by increasing the input voltage or using the drive control circuit 9 to bring the input frequency closer to the resonance point results in an elliptical shape. Movement is expanded similarly. As a result, not only the amplitude of the longitudinal vibration that vibrates in the direction parallel to the drive direction but also the amplitude of the flexural vibration that vibrates in the direction orthogonal to the drive direction increases. The phenomenon of jumping up and down occurs. For this reason, noise is generated during driving, and the quietness, which is one of the characteristics of the vibration actuator, is impaired.
[0009]
Further, if the input voltage is reduced or the input frequency is moved away from the resonance point by using the drive control circuit 9 to reduce the speed of the assembled vibrators 1 and 5, the elliptical motion is similarly reduced. The Thereby, not only the amplitude of the longitudinal vibration but also the amplitude of the bending vibration is reduced, and the outputs of the vibrators 1 and 5 are lowered.
[0010]
Further, if the axis of the elliptical motion is inclined from a desired angle, the motions of the vibrators 1 and 5 are not efficiently transmitted to the relative motion member. For this reason, speed, force, energy efficiency generated by the vibrators 1 and 5 and loss in control and the like occur, and the performance inherent to the vibrators 1 and 5 cannot be exhibited.
[0011]
The present invention aims to solve these problems, and can independently control the shape of the elliptical motion generated in the vibrator, that is, the major axis and minor axis of the elliptical motion, and further the inclination angle of the shaft. An object is to provide a vibration actuator.
[0012]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
In the invention of claim 1, Two AC voltages This is a combination of the first vibration and the second vibration by exciting the first vibration and the second vibration that vibrates in a direction intersecting the direction of the first vibration. Having an oscillator that generates elliptical motion; By changing the voltage of at least one of the two AC voltages, Elliptical shape control means for individually controlling the major axis or minor axis in the trajectory of the elliptical motion; By changing the phase of at least one of the two AC voltages, At least one of elliptical axis inclination control means for controlling the inclination of the axis in the locus of elliptical motion, and the vibrator has a rectangular flat plate-shaped main body, and the main body includes four rectangular flat plates. A vibration actuator is provided in which the electromechanical conversion regions that are divided into rectangular electromechanical conversion regions and arranged diagonally are connected to each other.
[0013]
In the invention of claim 2, Two AC voltages This is a combination of the first vibration and the second vibration by exciting the first vibration and the second vibration that vibrates in a direction intersecting the direction of the first vibration. Having an oscillator that generates elliptical motion; By changing the voltage of at least one of the two AC voltages, Amplitude control means for individually controlling the amplitude of the first vibration or the amplitude of the second vibration; By changing the phase of at least one of the two AC voltages, And at least one of phase difference control means for changing a temporal phase difference between the first vibration and the second vibration, and the vibrator has a rectangular plate-shaped main body, The main body is divided into four rectangular flat plate-shaped electromechanical conversion regions, and the electromechanical conversion regions arranged diagonally are connected to each other.
[0014]
According to the invention of claim 3, the first alternating voltage is applied to the vibrator and the third alternating voltage obtained by switching the first alternating voltage or the second alternating voltage is applied to the vibrator. By doing so, the first vibration and the second vibration that vibrates in the direction intersecting the direction of the first vibration are excited, and the vibrator is synthesized with the first vibration and the second vibration. Power input device for generating elliptical motion and Have , At least one of a variable resistor that changes the voltage of the third AC voltage applied to the vibrator, and a variable capacitor that generates a temporal phase lag with respect to the first AC voltage in the third AC voltage; A vibration actuator is provided.
[0015]
According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, there is provided the vibration actuator according to any one of the first to third aspects, further comprising a feedback control means for controlling the elliptical motion based on an amount related to a driving state of the vibrator. It is characterized by providing.
[0017]
further, Claim 5 The invention of claim 1 starts from claim 1. Claim 4 In the vibration actuator described in any one of the above, one of the first vibration and the second vibration is longitudinal vibration, and the other is bending vibration.
[0018]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
(First embodiment)
Embodiments of a vibration actuator according to the present invention will be described below in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings. In the following description, the vibration actuator is an ultrasonic actuator using an ultrasonic vibration region.
[0019]
FIG. 1 is an explanatory view showing an ultrasonic actuator 20 of the present embodiment. As shown in FIG. 1, the ultrasonic actuator 20 of this embodiment includes a vibrator 21, a power input device 32, and a variable resistor 33. Hereinafter, these components will be sequentially described.
[0020]
[Vibrator 21]
FIG. 2 is a perspective view showing the vibrator 21 of the ultrasonic actuator 20 of the present embodiment.
[0021]
As shown in FIG. 2, in the present embodiment, the vibrator disclosed by the above-mentioned document “VIBROMOTORSFOR PRECISION MICROROBOTS” or the like is used. That is, the vibrator 21 has a main body constituted by a piezoelectric element 22 such as PZT configured in a rectangular flat plate shape. The piezoelectric element 22 is polarized in the direction from the front surface side to the back surface side (arrow direction in the figure).
[0022]
Four electrodes 23a, 23b, 23c, and 23d are attached to the surface of the piezoelectric element 22 by appropriate means such as adhesion. Electrode 23a-23d is mutually insulated and arrange | positioned. Of the electrodes 23a to 23d, the electrodes 23a and 23d arranged diagonally are connected by a connecting member 24. Further, the electrodes 23b and 23c arranged diagonally are connected by a connecting member 25.
A single electrode 26 is attached to the entire back surface of the piezoelectric element 22 by appropriate means such as adhesion. The electrode 26 is a grounding electrode.
[0023]
An alternating voltage having a frequency near the resonance frequency of the vibrator 21 is applied to the A terminal formed on the electrode 23a by a known oscillator (not shown) with respect to the vibrator 21 as an A-phase drive signal. An AC voltage having the same frequency and voltage as the A phase drive signal and having a phase difference of (π / 2) is applied to the B terminal formed on the electrode 23b as the B phase drive signal. Then, the vibrator 21 is excited with a primary longitudinal vibration L1 that vibrates in the X-axis direction and a secondary bending vibration B2 that vibrates in the Y-axis direction. FIG. 3 is an explanatory diagram showing a displacement example of the vibrator 21 when the longitudinal vibration L1 and the bending vibration B2 are generated.
[0024]
The longitudinal vibration L1 and the bending vibration B2 generated in the vibrator 21 are combined, and an elliptical motion is generated in the vibrator 21. FIG. 4 is an explanatory view showing the elliptical motion generated in the vibrator 21. As shown in FIG. 4, the vibrator 21 includes a point D (a position substantially at the center of the side surface 21a) on the side surface 21a parallel to the Y direction, and points E and F (bending vibration B2) on the side surface 21b parallel to the X direction. Ellipse motion occurs at each position.
[0025]
A sliding material made of ceramics or plastic material is attached to the point D or the points E and F, and a relative motion member (not shown) is brought into pressure contact via the point D or the points E and F. FIG. 5 is an explanatory diagram illustrating an example of a state in which the vibrator 21 and the relative motion member 30 are in pressure contact. As shown in FIG. 5, sliding members 27 a and 27 b are attached to points E and F of the vibrator 21, and the vibrator 21 is moved via the sliding members 27 a and 27 b by the spring force generated by the pressurizing member 28. Then, the bearings 29a and 29b are brought into pressure contact with the surface of the relative motion member 30 supported linearly in the direction of a double arrow.
[0026]
Then, the vibrator 21 generates a linear relative motion in any of the left and right directions with respect to the relative motion member 30 due to the elliptical motion generated at the points E and F. In order to reverse the relative motion direction, a two-phase AC voltage may be connected in reverse.
[0027]
Since the vibrator 21 is already known from the literature “VIBROMOTORS FOR PRECISION MICROROBOTS” and the like, further explanation regarding the vibrator 21 is omitted.
[0028]
[Power input device 32]
As shown in FIG. 1, the power input device 32 of this embodiment includes an oscillator 34 and a switch 35.
From the oscillator 34, the first AC voltage φ 1 And the second AC voltage φ 2 Are output. These two-phase AC voltage φ 1 , Φ 2 Have a phase difference of (π / 2) from each other.
[0029]
AC voltage φ 2 Is applied to the terminal 35 a of the switch 35. On the other hand, AC voltage φ 1 Are applied to the terminal 35b of the switch 35 and the electrode 23b attached to the vibrator 21, respectively. Both terminals 35c and 35f of the switch 35 are connected to an electrode 23a attached to the vibrator 21 via a variable resistor 33 described later.
[0030]
The terminals 35a and 35b of the switch 35 are linked with respect to the connection. That is, when the switch 35 is tilted upward as shown by a solid line in FIG. 1, the terminal 35a and the terminal 35c are connected, and the terminal 35b and the terminal 35e are connected. When the switch 35 is tilted downward as shown by a broken line in FIG. 1, the terminal 35a and the terminal 35d are connected, and the terminal 35b and the terminal 35f are connected.
[0031]
Therefore, when the switch 35 is tilted to the upper side, the power input device 32 applies the second AC voltage φ to the electrodes 23a and 23d of the vibrator 21. 2 Is applied, and the first AC voltage φ is applied to the electrodes 23b and 23c of the vibrator 21. 1 Apply. Further, when the switch 35 is switched to the lower side, the first AC voltage φ is applied to the electrodes 23a and 23d of the vibrator 21. 1 And the first AC voltage φ is also applied to the electrodes 23b and 23c of the vibrator 21. 1 Apply.
[0032]
[Variable resistor 33]
In the present embodiment, the variable resistor 33 is provided between the terminals 35 c and 35 f of the switch 35 and the electrode 23 a of the vibrator 21. The variable resistor 33 may be any resistor that can freely change the resistance value, and is not limited to a specific type. As such a variable resistor 33, for example, a known potentiometer can be used.
[0033]
In this embodiment, by changing the resistance value of the variable resistor 33, the AC voltage φ applied from the terminals 35c and 35f of the switch 35 to the electrode 23a of the vibrator 21 is changed. 1 Or AC voltage φ 2 The voltage of can be changed freely.
[0034]
The ultrasonic actuator 20 of the present embodiment is configured as described above. Next, the operation of the ultrasonic actuator 20 will be described.
FIG. 6 is an explanatory diagram showing that the shape of the elliptical motion generated in the vibrator 21 is controlled by the ultrasonic actuator 20 of the present embodiment.
[0035]
When the switch 35 is tilted upward as shown by the solid line in FIG. 1, if the resistance value R of the variable resistor 33 is set sufficiently large as shown in FIG. 2 Is applied to the electrodes 23 b and 23 c of the vibrator 21. At this time, the vibrator 21 has a first vibration that vibrates substantially in parallel with the X direction (primary longitudinal vibration L1) and a second direction different from the first direction. That is, the second vibration (second-order bending vibration B2) that vibrates substantially in parallel with the Y direction orthogonal to the X direction is generated at the same time. The longitudinal vibration L1 and the bending vibration B2 are combined, and elliptical motion is generated in the driving force extraction portions 27a and 27b provided at the points E and F of the vibrator 21, respectively. This elliptical motion has a locus indicated by reference numeral 36a in FIG.
[0036]
From this state, when the resistance value R of the variable resistor 33 is gradually reduced, the AC voltage φ applied to the electrodes 23b and 23c. 2 The AC voltage φ applied to the electrodes 23a and 23d is not changed. 1 Gradually increases. For this reason, the elliptical motion generated at points E and F is reduced only by the amplitude of the first vibration (primary longitudinal vibration L1) that gradually vibrates in the X direction, as indicated by reference numerals 36b and 36c in FIG. And it becomes the shape crushed in the X direction.
[0037]
When the resistance value of the variable resistor 33 becomes sufficiently small, the AC voltage φ 1 Is applied to the electrodes 23a and 23d and the AC voltage φ 1 AC voltage φ with the same frequency and voltage and different phase by (π / 2) 2 Is applied to the electrodes 23b and 23c. For this reason, the elliptical motion generated at points E and F has a linear shape with only bending vibration, as indicated by reference numeral 36d in FIG.
[0038]
On the other hand, when the switch 35 is tilted downward as shown by a broken line in FIG. 1, if the resistance value R of the variable resistor 33 is set sufficiently large as shown in FIG. 2 Is applied to the electrodes 23b and 23c. For this reason, elliptical motion having a locus indicated by reference numeral 36a in FIG.
[0039]
From this state, when the resistance value R of the variable resistor 33 is gradually reduced, the AC voltage φ applied to the electrodes 23b and 23c. 2 The AC voltage φ applied to the electrodes 23a and 23d is not changed. 2 Gradually increases. For this reason, the elliptical motion generated at the points E and F is reduced only by the amplitude of the second vibration (second-order bending vibration B2) that gradually vibrates in the Y direction, as indicated by reference numerals 36e and 36f in FIG. And it becomes the shape crushed in the Y direction.
[0040]
When the resistance value of the variable resistor 33 becomes sufficiently small, the AC voltage φ 2 Is applied to the electrodes 23a and 23d and the electrodes 23b and 23c. For this reason, the elliptical motion generated at points E and F has a linear shape with only longitudinal vibration, as indicated by reference numeral 36g in FIG.
[0041]
As described above, according to the ultrasonic actuator 20 of the present embodiment, the shape of the elliptical motion generated in the vibrator 21 by switching the switch 35 and changing the resistance value R of the variable resistor 33 is shown in FIG. As indicated by reference numerals 36a to 36g, it can be freely changed.
[0042]
Therefore, in the ultrasonic actuator 20 of the present embodiment, when it is desired to increase the driving speed, the switch 35 is tilted downward and the resistance value R is set to be small so that the vibration in the direction orthogonal to the driving direction, that is, It is possible to prevent the amplitude of the bending vibration B2 from increasing. Therefore, it is possible to increase only the amplitude in the driving direction of the elliptical motion without increasing the amplitude in the direction orthogonal to the driving direction of the elliptical motion. For this reason, even if the driving speed is increased, noise due to the phenomenon that the vibrator 21 jumps relative to the relative motion member does not occur.
[0043]
In order to reduce the driving speed, the switch 35 is tilted upward and the resistance value R is set small to prevent the vibration in the direction perpendicular to the driving direction, that is, the amplitude of the bending vibration B2 from decreasing. it can. Therefore, it is possible to reduce only the amplitude in the driving direction of the elliptical motion without reducing the amplitude in the direction orthogonal to the driving direction of the elliptical motion. For this reason, even if the driving speed is decreased, the output of the vibrator 21 does not decrease.
[0044]
Furthermore, when there are few opportunities to change the driving speed, the switching of the switch 35 and the resistance value R of the variable resistor 33 are optimally set according to the use environment of the vibrator 21, thereby causing performance variations. A small number of ultrasonic actuators can be mass-produced with a high production yield.
[0045]
(Second Embodiment)
Next, an ultrasonic actuator according to the second embodiment will be described. In the following description of each embodiment, only portions that are different from the above-described first embodiment will be described, and the same portions will be denoted by the same reference numerals in the drawings, and redundant description will be omitted. .
[0046]
FIG. 7 is an explanatory diagram showing the ultrasonic actuator 20-1 of the present embodiment. As shown in FIG. 7, the ultrasonic actuator 20-1 according to the present embodiment includes a transducer 21-1, a power input device 32-1, and a variable resistor 33. Hereinafter, with respect to these components, portions different from the first embodiment will be sequentially described.
[0047]
[Vibrator 21-1]
The vibrator 21-1 of this embodiment is different from the vibrator 21 of the first embodiment in that an electrode attached to the back surface of the vibrator 21-1 is attached to the surface of the vibrator 21-1. Similarly to the electrodes 23a to 23d, the electrode is divided into four electrodes 26a to 26d and the electrodes arranged diagonally are connected, that is, the electrodes 26a and 26c are connected and the electrode 26b is connected. , 26d are connected.
The rest is the same as the vibrator 21 of the first embodiment.
[0048]
[Power Input Device 32-1]
The reason why the power input device 32-1 of this embodiment is different from the power input device 32 of the first embodiment is mainly to correspond to the provision of the electrodes 26a to 26d on the back surface side of the vibrator 21-1. It is a change.
The power input device 32-1 of this embodiment includes an oscillator 34 and a switch 37.
[0049]
From the terminals 34a and 34b of the oscillator 34, the AC voltage φ 1 Are output respectively.
The terminal 34 a of the oscillator 34 is connected to the electrode 23 a on the surface side of the vibrator 21-1 and the terminal 37 b of the switch 37 via the variable resistor 33. On the other hand, the terminal 34 b of the oscillator 34 is connected to the electrode 26 a on the back surface side of the vibrator 21-1 and the terminal 37 a of the switch 37.
[0050]
Both the terminal 37c and the terminal 37f of the switch 37 are connected to the electrode 23b on the surface side of the vibrator 21-1. Further, the terminal 37d and the terminal 37e of the switch 37 are both connected to the electrode 26b on the back surface side of the vibrator 21-1.
[0051]
The terminal 37a and the terminal 37b of the switch 37 are linked in connection. Therefore, when the switch 37 is tilted upward as shown by a solid line in FIG. 7, the terminal 37a and the terminal 37c are connected, and the terminal 37b and the terminal 37e are connected. When the switch 37 is tilted downward as shown by a broken line in FIG. 7, the terminal 37a and the terminal 37d are connected, and the terminal 37b and the terminal 37f are connected.
[0052]
Accordingly, when the switch 37 is tilted upward, the power input device 32-1 is opposite between the electrode 23a and the electrode 26a of the vibrator 21-1 and between the electrode 23b and the electrode 26b. Orientation AC voltage φ 1 Are applied respectively. Thereby, the AC voltage φ applied between the electrodes 23a and 26a and between the electrodes 23d and 26d, respectively. 1 And AC voltage φ applied between the electrodes 23b and 26b and between the electrodes 23c and 26c, respectively. 1 Are opposite to each other.
[0053]
Further, when the power input device 32-1 switches the switch 37 and tilts it downward, the power input device 32-1 is the same between the electrode 23a and the electrode 26a of the vibrator 21 and between the electrode 23b and the electrode 26b. Orientation AC voltage φ 1 Are applied respectively. Thereby, the AC voltage φ applied between the electrodes 23a and 26a and between the electrodes 23d and 26d, respectively. 1 And AC voltage φ applied between the electrodes 23b and 26b and between the electrodes 23c and 26c, respectively. 1 Are in the same direction.
[0054]
[Variable resistor 33]
In the present embodiment, the variable resistor 33 is provided between the terminal 34 a of the oscillator 34 and the terminal 37 b of the switch 37. In the present embodiment, the AC voltage φ applied from the terminal 34 a of the oscillator 34 to the terminal 37 b of the switch 37 by changing the resistance value of the variable resistor 33. 1 The voltage of can be changed freely.
[0055]
The ultrasonic actuator 20-1 of the present embodiment is configured as described above. Next, the operation of the ultrasonic actuator 20-1 will be described.
FIG. 8 is an explanatory diagram showing that the elliptical motion generated in the transducer 21-1 is controlled by the ultrasonic actuator 20-1 of the present embodiment.
[0056]
When the switch 37 is tilted upward as shown by the solid line in FIG. 7, if the resistance value R of the variable resistor 33 is set to be sufficiently large as shown in FIG. 8, it is mainly between the electrode 23a and the electrode 26a. The AC voltage φ between the electrode 23d and the electrode 26d 1 Are applied respectively. At this time, the vibrator 21-1 has a first vibration that vibrates substantially in parallel with the X direction (primary longitudinal vibration L <b> 1) and a second that is different from the first direction. , That is, a second vibration (second-order bending vibration B2) that vibrates substantially parallel to the Y direction orthogonal to the X direction. The longitudinal vibration L1 and the bending vibration B2 are combined to generate an elliptical motion at the driving force extraction portions 27a and 27b provided at points E and F (see FIG. 5) of the vibrator 21-1. This elliptical motion has a locus indicated by reference numeral 38a in FIG.
[0057]
From this state, when the resistance value R of the variable resistor 33 is gradually decreased, the AC voltage φ applied between the electrode 23a and the electrode 26a and between the electrode 23d and the electrode 26d, respectively. 1 Is not changed, but the AC voltage φ applied between the electrode 23b and the electrode 26b and between the electrode 23c and the electrode 26c, respectively. 1 The voltage increases gradually. For this reason, the elliptical motion generated at the points E and F decreases the amplitude of the first vibration (primary longitudinal vibration L1) gradually oscillating in the X direction as indicated by reference numerals 38b and 38c in FIG. The shape is crushed in the X direction.
[0058]
When the resistance value of the variable resistor 33 becomes sufficiently small, the AC voltage φ 1 Is applied between the electrodes 23a and 26a, between the electrodes 23b and 26b, between the electrodes 23c and 26c, and between the electrodes 23d and 26d. For this reason, the elliptical motion generated at the points E and F has a linear shape with only bending vibration, as indicated by reference numeral 38d in FIG.
[0059]
On the other hand, when the switch 37 is tilted downward as shown by the broken line in FIG. 7, if the resistance value R of the variable resistor 33 is set sufficiently large as shown in FIG. 1 Is applied between the electrodes 23a and 26a and between the electrodes 23d and 26d. For this reason, elliptical motion as indicated by reference numeral 38a in FIG.
[0060]
From this state, when the resistance value R of the variable resistor 33 is gradually reduced, the AC voltage φ applied between the electrodes 23a and 26a and between the electrodes 23d and 26d, respectively. 1 Of the AC voltage φ applied between the electrodes 23b and 26b and between the electrodes 23c and 26c, respectively. 1 The voltage increases gradually. For this reason, the elliptical motion generated at the points E and F decreases the amplitude of the second vibration (second-order bending vibration B2) that gradually vibrates in the Y direction as indicated by reference numerals 38e and 38f in FIG. The shape is crushed in the Y direction.
[0061]
When the resistance value of the variable resistor 33 becomes sufficiently small, the AC voltage φ 1 Is applied between the electrodes 23a and 26a, between the electrodes 23b and 26b, between the electrodes 23c and 26c, and between the electrodes 23d and 26d. For this reason, the elliptical motion generated at the points E and F has a linear shape with only longitudinal vibration, as indicated by reference numeral 38g in FIG.
[0062]
As described above, according to the ultrasonic actuator 20-1 of the present embodiment, the shape of the elliptical motion generated in the vibrator 21-1 is changed by switching the switch 37 and changing the resistance value R of the variable resistor 33. As shown in the trajectories 38a to 38g in FIG.
[0063]
Therefore, in the ultrasonic actuator 20-1 of the present embodiment, when it is desired to increase the driving speed, the switch 37 is moved downward and the resistance value R is set to be small so that the vibration in the direction orthogonal to the driving direction is obtained. That is, it is possible to prevent the amplitude of the bending vibration B2 from increasing. Therefore, it is possible to increase only the amplitude in the driving direction of the elliptical motion without increasing the amplitude in the direction orthogonal to the driving direction of the elliptical motion. For this reason, even if the driving speed is increased, noise due to a phenomenon in which the vibrator 21-1 jumps relative to the relative motion member does not occur.
[0064]
Further, when it is desired to reduce the driving speed, the vibration in the direction orthogonal to the driving direction, that is, the amplitude of the bending vibration B2 is prevented from decreasing by tilting the switch 37 upward and setting the resistance value R small. it can. Therefore, it is possible to reduce only the amplitude in the driving direction of the elliptical motion without reducing the amplitude in the direction orthogonal to the driving direction of the elliptical motion. For this reason, even if the driving speed is decreased, the output of the vibrator 21-1 does not decrease.
[0065]
Further, when there is little opportunity to change the driving speed, the switching of the switch 37 and the resistance value R of the variable resistor 33 are optimally set according to the use environment of the vibrator 21-1, thereby improving the performance. Ultrasonic actuators with little variation can be mass-produced with a high production yield.
[0066]
(Third embodiment)
FIG. 9 is an explanatory diagram showing the ultrasonic actuator 20-2 of the present embodiment. As shown in FIG. 9, the ultrasonic actuator 20-2 of the present embodiment is different from the ultrasonic actuator 20 of the first embodiment in that a variable capacitor 40 is provided instead of the variable resistor 33. The rest is almost the same as the configuration of FIG.
The variable capacitor 40 is not limited to a specific type as long as the capacitance can be freely changed.
[0067]
The ultrasonic actuator 20-2 of the present embodiment is configured as described above. Next, the operation of the ultrasonic actuator 20-2 will be described.
FIG. 10 is an explanatory diagram showing that the elliptical motion generated in the vibrator 21 is controlled by the ultrasonic actuator 20-2 of the present embodiment.
[0068]
As shown in FIG. 10, it is assumed that an elliptical motion generated at points E and F of the vibrator 21 occurs due to a manufacturing error in a state where the axis is inclined as indicated by reference numeral 41a.
In the ultrasonic actuator 20-2 of the present embodiment, when the switch 35 is tilted upward as shown by the solid line, if the capacitance C of the variable capacitor 40 is set sufficiently small, the action of the variable capacitor 40 is small. The trajectory of the elliptical motion at the points E and F remains tilted as shown by reference numeral 41a.
[0069]
In this state, when the capacitance C of the variable capacitor 40 is gradually increased, the AC voltage φ input from the terminal 35c or the terminal 35f of the switch 35 to the electrodes 23a and 23d. 1 Or AC voltage φ 2 AC voltage φ input to the electrodes 23b and 23c 2 The phase delay with respect to is gradually increased. For this reason, the trajectory of the elliptical motion at the points E and F is changed in the inclination of the shaft as indicated by reference numerals 41b and 41c, and the inclination of the shaft gradually approaches the orthogonal direction.
[0070]
Further, when the capacitance C of the variable capacitor 40 is sufficiently increased, the AC voltage φ output from the oscillator 34 is increased. 1 Is phase shifted by (π / 2) by the variable capacitor 40. For this reason, a phase difference of about π occurs between the AC voltage applied to the electrodes 23a and 23d of the vibrator 21 and the AC voltage applied to the electrodes 23b and 23c. As a result, the elliptical motion generated at points E and F of the vibrator 21 has a linear shape with only the bending vibration B2 as indicated by reference numeral 41d in FIG.
[0071]
On the other hand, when the switch 35 is tilted downward as shown by a broken line, if the capacitance C of the variable capacitor 40 is set sufficiently small, the action of the variable capacitor 40 is small, and the locus of elliptical motion at points E and F is thus small. , The axis remains inclined as indicated by reference numeral 41a.
[0072]
In this state, when the capacitance C of the variable capacitor 40 is gradually increased, the AC voltage φ input from the terminal 35f of the switch 35 to the electrodes 23a and 23c. 2 AC voltage φ input to the electrodes 23b and 23c 2 The phase delay with respect to is gradually increased. For this reason, the trajectory of the elliptical motion at the points E and F is changed in the inclination of the shaft as indicated by the trajectories 41e and 41f, and the inclination of the shaft gradually approaches the horizontal direction.
[0073]
Further, when the capacitance C of the variable capacitor 40 is sufficiently increased, the AC voltage φ output from the oscillator 34 is increased. 2 Among these, the AC voltage input to the variable capacitor 40 is phase-shifted by (π / 2) by the variable capacitor 40. For this reason, the phase difference between the AC voltage applied to the electrodes 23a and 23d of the vibrator 21 and the AC voltage applied to the electrodes 23b and 23c is substantially zero. In other words, the electrodes 21a to 21d of the vibrator 21 have an AC voltage φ of substantially the same phase. 1 Is applied. As a result, the elliptical motion generated at points E and F of the vibrator 21 has a linear shape with only the vertical vibration L1 as indicated by reference numeral 41g in FIG.
[0074]
As described above, according to the present embodiment, the shape of the elliptical motion generated in the vibrator 21 by the switching of the switch 35 and the change of the capacitance C of the variable capacitor 40 is represented by reference numerals 41a to 41g in FIG. It can be changed freely. For this reason, for example, even if the locus of the elliptical motion generated at the points E and F of the vibrator 21 occurs in a state where the axis is inclined due to a manufacturing error, the inclination of the axis of the elliptical motion at the points E and F is designed. Can be changed as desired.
[0075]
(Fourth embodiment)
FIG. 11 is an explanatory diagram showing the configuration of the ultrasonic actuator of the present embodiment. As shown in the figure, in this embodiment, the control device 42 is added to the ultrasonic actuator 20 of the first embodiment to form the ultrasonic actuator 20-3, so that the switching of the switch 35 and the variable resistor 33 are performed. Setting and AC voltage φ 1 , Φ 2 The frequency setting is automatically performed.
[0076]
In FIG. 11, the instruction speed v is input from the speed instruction means 43 to the CPU 42 which is a control device. The CPU 42 supplies the AC voltage φ to the oscillator 34 based on the input instruction speed v. 1 , Φ 2 The frequency setting instruction, the switching instruction to the switch 35, and the resistance value R instruction to the variable resistor 33 are output.
[0077]
FIG. 12 is a graph showing an example of an output program for various instructions stored in the CPU 42. The CPU 42 receives a low instruction speed v from the speed instruction means 43. 1 Is input, based on the graph illustrated in FIG. 12, a high frequency f away from the resonance frequency of the ultrasonic actuator 20. 1 AC voltage φ 1 , Φ 2 The switch 35 is instructed to switch to the upper side, and the resistance value R is further reduced. 1 To the variable resistor 33. On the other hand, the CPU 42 receives a high instruction speed v from the speed instruction means 43. Four Is input, based on this graph, a low frequency f close to the resonance frequency of the ultrasonic actuator 20 is obtained. Four AC voltage φ 1 , Φ 2 The switch 35 is instructed to switch to the lower side, and the higher resistance value R Four To the variable resistor 33.
[0078]
In the ultrasonic actuator 20-3 shown in FIG. 11, the scale 44 is attached to the relative motion member 30. The movement of the scale 44 accompanying the driving of the ultrasonic actuator 20-3 is read by the encoder 45, and this value is input to the CPU.
[0079]
The CPU 42 differentiates this value input in time series from the encoder 45 and processes it into speed information. In the CPU 42, the AC voltage φ from the oscillator 34 is minimized so as to minimize the deviation between the instruction speed v input from the speed instruction means 43 and the speed information. 1 , Φ 2 Further fine-tune the frequency setting value.
[0080]
The speed of this ultrasonic actuator 20-3 is reduced to a small speed v. 0 (<V 1 12), as shown in FIG. 12, the switch 35 is tilted upward by a control signal from the CPU 42, and the resistance value of the variable resistor 33 is a small value R. 0 And the AC voltage φ 1 , Φ 2 Has a high frequency f 0 Set to As a result, the elliptical motion generated at points E and F becomes a linear shape with only bending vibration, as indicated by reference numeral 36d in FIG. 0 It becomes.
[0081]
Next, the speed of the ultrasonic actuator 20-3 is set to the speed v. 1 12, the resistance value of the variable resistor 33 is set to the value R while the switch 35 is tilted upward by the control signal from the CPU 42 as shown in FIG. Three Value R greater than 1 To AC voltage φ 1 , Φ 2 The frequency of the value f 0 Smaller value f 1 Changed to Thereby, the elliptical motion generated at the points E and F increases the amplitude of the second vibration (second-order bending vibration B2) that vibrates in the X direction, as indicated by reference numeral 36c or reference numeral 36b in FIG. Speed is v 1 To rise.
[0082]
Next, the speed of the ultrasonic actuator 20-3 is set to the speed v. 2 12, the resistance value of the variable resistor 33 is set to the value R while the switch 35 is tilted upward by the control signal from the CPU 42, as shown in FIG. 1 Value R greater than 2 To AC voltage φ 1 , Φ 2 Is the frequency f 1 Lower value f 2 Or the switch 35 is switched to the lower side and turned down, and the resistance value of the variable resistor 33 is the value R. 1 Value R greater than 2 To AC voltage φ 1 , Φ 2 Is the frequency f 1 Lower value f 2 Changed to Thereby, the elliptical motion generated at the points E and F has an elliptical shape as indicated by reference numeral 36a in FIG.
[0083]
Next, the speed of the ultrasonic actuator 20-3 is set to the speed v. Three 12, the resistance value of the variable resistor 33 is set to the value R while the switch 35 is tilted down by the control signal from the CPU 42 as shown in FIG. 2 Smaller value R Three To AC voltage φ 1 , Φ 2 Is the frequency f 2 Lower value f Three Changed to Thereby, the elliptical motion generated at the points E and F increases the amplitude of the first vibration (primary longitudinal vibration L1) gradually oscillating in the Y direction as indicated by reference numeral 36e or reference numeral 36f in FIG. And it becomes the shape crushed in the Y direction. This makes the speed v Three To rise.
[0084]
Further, the speed of the ultrasonic actuator 20-3 is changed to the speed v. Four 12, the resistance value of the variable resistor 33 is set to the value R while the switch 35 is tilted down by the control signal from the CPU 42 as shown in FIG. Three Smaller value R Four To AC voltage φ 1 , Φ 2 Is the frequency f Three Lower value f Four Changed to As a result, the elliptical motion generated at points E and F has a linear shape with only longitudinal vibration, as indicated by reference numeral 36g in FIG.
[0085]
Thus, according to the ultrasonic actuator 20-3 of the present embodiment, the switching of the switch 35, the setting of the variable resistor 33, and the AC voltage φ are controlled by the control signal from the CPU 42. 1 , Φ 2 Is automatically set, and the speed of the ultrasonic actuator 20-3 is freely changed.
[0086]
(Deformation)
In the description of each embodiment, the case where the vibration actuator is an ultrasonic actuator using an ultrasonic vibration region is taken as an example. However, the present invention is not limited to this form, and can be applied in the same manner as long as it is a vibration actuator using a vibration region other than the ultrasonic wave.
[0087]
In the description of each embodiment, a vibration actuator including a rectangular flat plate-like vibrator that generates primary longitudinal vibration and secondary bending vibration disclosed in the document “VIBROMOTORS FOR PRECISION MICROROBOTS” is used. However, the present invention is not limited to the vibration actuator including the vibrator of this form, and the first vibration that vibrates in the first direction and the second vibration that vibrates in the second direction different from the first direction. The present invention is equally applied to a vibration actuator including a vibrator that excites vibration and generates an elliptical motion that is a combination of the first vibration and the second vibration. For example, the present invention is also applied to a vibration actuator including a rectangular flat plate-shaped vibrator that generates primary longitudinal vibration and fourth-order bending vibration, which is disclosed in Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 7-241090.
[0088]
In the description of each embodiment, the case where the driving force extraction portions 27 a and 27 b are provided at the points E and F of the vibrators 21 and 21-1 is taken as an example. However, the present invention is not limited to this form, and the driving force extraction portion 27c may be provided at the point D (see FIG. 4) of the vibrators 21 and 21-1. FIG. 13 is an explanatory view showing this configuration, and the relative motion member 30 can be linearly moved in the left-right direction by the elliptical motion generated in the driving force extracting portion 27c.
[0089]
In the description of each embodiment, the case where the relative motion member 30 is linearly moved is taken as an example. However, the present invention is not limited to this form, and the relative motion member can be rotated. FIG. 14 is an explanatory view showing this embodiment. The relative motion member 30-1 is rotatably supported, and the driving force extracting portion 27c can be brought into pressure contact with the outer peripheral surface of the relative motion member 30-1. That's fine.
[0090]
In the third embodiment, the variable capacitor 40 is provided in the ultrasonic actuator 20 of the first embodiment. However, a variable capacitor is used instead of the variable resistor 33 in the ultrasonic actuator 20-1 of the second embodiment. By providing 40, the inclination of the axis of the elliptical motion can be adjusted as in the third embodiment.
[0091]
Further, by arranging the variable resistor 33 in the first embodiment or the second embodiment and the variable capacitor 40 in the third embodiment in series, the shape adjustment of the elliptical motion according to the first embodiment or the second embodiment. And the inclination adjustment of the axis of the elliptical motion according to the third embodiment can be performed together.
[0092]
Furthermore, in the fourth embodiment, the control device 42 is added to the ultrasonic actuator 20 of the first embodiment. However, the fourth embodiment can be achieved by adding the control device 42 to the ultrasonic actuator 20-1 of the second embodiment. Similarly to the embodiment, the switching of the switch 37, the setting of the variable resistor 33, and the setting of the frequency of the AC voltage φ can be automatically performed.
[0093]
【The invention's effect】
As described in detail above, claims 1 to Claim 5 According to this invention, the shape of the elliptical motion generated in the vibrator of the vibration actuator, that is, the major axis and minor axis of the elliptical motion, and further the tilt angle of the shaft can be controlled independently. For this reason, according to the vibration actuator according to the present invention, various performances are deteriorated due to generation of noise at high speed, lack of force at low speed, and inappropriate inclination of the axis of elliptical motion. Both are eliminated, and the performance of the vibration actuator can be improved.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is an explanatory diagram illustrating an ultrasonic actuator according to a first embodiment.
FIG. 2 is a perspective view showing a vibrator of the ultrasonic actuator according to the first embodiment.
FIG. 3 is an explanatory diagram showing an example of displacement when longitudinal vibration and bending vibration are generated in the vibrator of the ultrasonic actuator according to the first embodiment.
FIG. 4 is an explanatory diagram showing elliptical motion generated in the transducer of the ultrasonic actuator according to the first embodiment.
FIG. 5 is an explanatory diagram illustrating an example of a state where the transducer of the ultrasonic actuator and the relative motion member are in pressure contact with each other in the first embodiment.
FIG. 6 is an explanatory diagram showing that the shape of elliptical motion generated in the vibrator is controlled by the ultrasonic actuator according to the first embodiment.
FIG. 7 is an explanatory diagram showing an ultrasonic actuator according to a second embodiment.
FIG. 8 is an explanatory diagram showing that the elliptical motion generated in the vibrator is controlled by the ultrasonic actuator according to the second embodiment.
FIG. 9 is an explanatory diagram showing an ultrasonic actuator according to a third embodiment.
FIG. 10 is an explanatory diagram showing that the elliptical motion generated in the vibrator is controlled by the ultrasonic actuator according to the third embodiment.
FIG. 11 is an explanatory diagram showing a configuration of an ultrasonic actuator according to a fourth embodiment.
12 is a graph showing an example of an output program for various instructions stored in a CPU in the ultrasonic actuator of the fourth embodiment. FIG.
FIG. 13 is an explanatory view showing a configuration of a modified ultrasonic actuator.
FIG. 14 is an explanatory view showing a configuration of a modified ultrasonic actuator.
FIGS. 15A and 15B are explanatory views of a vibrator of a vibration actuator proposed by Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 7-241090, in which FIG. 15A is a top view and FIG. 15B is a side view.
FIG. 16 is a perspective view showing a vibrator of a vibration actuator disclosed in the document “VIBROMOTORS FOR PRECISION MICROROBOTS”.
FIG. 17 is a block diagram illustrating an example of a drive control circuit of a conventional vibration actuator.
[Explanation of symbols]
20 Vibration actuator
21 vibrator
23a-23d electrode
32 Power input device
33 Variable resistor
35 switch
40 variable capacitors
44 scale (feedback control means)
45 Encoder (Feedback control means)
φ 1 , Φ 2 AC voltage

Claims (5)

  1. When the two AC signals are input, the first vibration and the second vibration that vibrates in the direction intersecting the direction of the first vibration are excited, and the first vibration and the second vibration are excited. Has an oscillator that generates elliptical motion, which is a combination with the vibration of
    By changing the voltage of at least one of the two AC voltages, the elliptical shape control means for individually controlling the major axis or the minor axis in the trajectory of the elliptical motion, and the two AC voltages At least one of elliptical axis inclination control means for controlling the inclination of the axis in the locus of the elliptical motion by changing the phase of at least one of the AC voltages of
    The vibrator has a rectangular flat plate-shaped main body, the main body is divided into four rectangular flat plate-shaped electromechanical conversion regions, and the electromechanical conversion regions arranged diagonally are connected to each other. A characteristic vibration actuator.
  2. By inputting two AC voltages , the first vibration and the second vibration that vibrates in a direction intersecting the direction of the first vibration are excited, and the first vibration and the second vibration are excited. Has an oscillator that generates elliptical motion, which is a combination with the vibration of
    Amplitude control means for individually controlling the amplitude of the first vibration or the amplitude of the second vibration by changing the voltage of the AC voltage of at least one of the two AC voltages ; At least one of phase difference control means for changing a temporal phase difference between the first vibration and the second vibration by changing a phase of at least one of the AC voltages. In addition,
    The vibrator has a rectangular flat plate-shaped main body, the main body is divided into four rectangular flat plate-shaped electromechanical conversion regions, and the electromechanical conversion regions arranged diagonally are connected to each other. A characteristic vibration actuator.
  3. A vibrator,
    By applying a first alternating voltage to the vibrator and applying a third alternating voltage obtained by switching the first alternating voltage or the second alternating voltage, the first vibration, To excite a second vibration that vibrates in a direction that intersects the direction of the first vibration, and to cause the vibrator to generate an elliptical motion that is a combination of the first vibration and the second vibration. and a power input device,
    A variable resistor that changes a voltage of the third AC voltage applied to the vibrator; and a variable capacitor that generates a time phase delay in the third AC voltage with respect to the first AC voltage. A vibration actuator comprising at least one.
  4. The vibration actuator according to any one of claims 1 to 3, further comprising feedback control means for controlling the elliptical motion based on an amount related to a driving state of the vibrator. .
  5. The one of the first vibration and the second vibration is longitudinal vibration, and the other is bending vibration, and is described in any one of claims 1 to 4. Vibration actuator.
JP10125499A 1999-04-08 1999-04-08 Vibration actuator Expired - Lifetime JP4406952B2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP10125499A JP4406952B2 (en) 1999-04-08 1999-04-08 Vibration actuator

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP10125499A JP4406952B2 (en) 1999-04-08 1999-04-08 Vibration actuator

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JP4406952B2 true JP4406952B2 (en) 2010-02-03

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8587181B2 (en) 2010-09-02 2013-11-19 Tamron Co., Ltd. Piezo-electric actuator drive circuit and piezo-electric actuator device furnished with same

Families Citing this family (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE60220498T2 (en) 2001-03-27 2007-09-20 Seiko Epson Corp. Control unit for piezoelectric actuator
US20050082950A1 (en) * 2003-08-13 2005-04-21 Seiko Epson Corporation Piezoelectric actuator module, motor module and apparatus
CN101213733B (en) 2006-01-23 2011-03-02 松下电器产业株式会社 Piezoelectric element and ultrasonic actuator
WO2009072302A1 (en) 2007-12-06 2009-06-11 Panasonic Corporation Ultrasonic actuator
JP5179918B2 (en) * 2008-03-27 2013-04-10 太平洋セメント株式会社 Ultrasonic motor device
JP2010124592A (en) * 2008-11-19 2010-06-03 Konica Minolta Opto Inc Drive device, imaging device, and mobile terminal

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8587181B2 (en) 2010-09-02 2013-11-19 Tamron Co., Ltd. Piezo-electric actuator drive circuit and piezo-electric actuator device furnished with same

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