JP4375733B2 - Steel pipe placing method - Google Patents

Steel pipe placing method Download PDF

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JP4375733B2
JP4375733B2 JP2004164351A JP2004164351A JP4375733B2 JP 4375733 B2 JP4375733 B2 JP 4375733B2 JP 2004164351 A JP2004164351 A JP 2004164351A JP 2004164351 A JP2004164351 A JP 2004164351A JP 4375733 B2 JP4375733 B2 JP 4375733B2
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steel pipe
tunnel
base
ground
placing
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JP2005344346A (en
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一俊 奥津
靖宏 玉井
慶正 蓼沼
謙一郎 駒井
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日本国土開発株式会社
独立行政法人鉄道建設・運輸施設整備支援機構
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本発明は、トンネル外周の地山を補強してその崩落を防止し、また、トンネルの沈下や変形を抑制する鋼管打設工法に関する。   The present invention relates to a steel pipe placing construction method that reinforces a natural ground on the outer periphery of a tunnel to prevent its collapse and suppresses settlement and deformation of the tunnel.

従来、トンネル工事において、アーチ支保工の脚部を補強しその沈下を防止する工法として、たとえば特開2000−73697号公報(特許文献1)に記載されたものが知られている。   2. Description of the Related Art Conventionally, in tunnel construction, a method described in, for example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2000-73697 (Patent Document 1) is known as a method for reinforcing a leg portion of an arch support work and preventing its settlement.

この工法では、予めアーチ支保工に支保脚部補強部材たる鋼管(レッグパイル)の頭部を受入する受け金具を固設しておき、そのアーチ支保工を設置した後、上記受け金具の開口を通じ専用機械によりトンネル側方の地山に斜め下方に向けて穿孔する。
そして、その穿孔した孔内に鋼管を配置するとともに、該鋼管よりセメントミルクを注入し、鋼管内および該鋼管外面と孔内壁の隙間に充填し、さらに、鋼管頭部の外面と受け金具の上記開口内面との隙間に高強度モルタルを充填する。 Then, a steel pipe is arranged in the perforated hole, cement milk is injected from the steel pipe, and the inside of the steel pipe and the gap between the outer surface of the steel pipe and the inner wall of the hole are filled, and further, the outer surface of the steel pipe head and the above-mentioned bracket. Fill the gap with the inner surface of the opening with high-strength mortar. In this construction method, a receiving metal fitting for receiving the head of a steel pipe (leg pile), which is a supporting leg reinforcement member, is fixed to the arch support work in advance, and after the arch support work is installed, Drill in the ground on the side of the tunnel diagonally downward using a special machine. In this construction method, a receiving metal fitting for receiving the head of a steel pipe (leg pile), which is a supporting leg reinforcement member, is fixed to the arch support work in advance, and after the arch support work is installed, Drill in the ground on the side of the tunnel diagonally downward using a special machine.
And while arrange | positioning a steel pipe in the drilled hole, inject | pour cement milk from this steel pipe, it fills the clearance gap between the inside of a steel pipe and this steel pipe outer surface, and a hole inner wall, Furthermore, the outer surface of a steel pipe head, and the above-mentioned of a receiving metal fitting Fill the gap with the inner surface of the opening with high strength mortar. And while arrange | positioning a steel pipe in the drilled hole, inject | pour cement milk from this steel pipe, it fills the clearance gap between the inside of a steel pipe and this steel pipe outer surface, and a hole inner wall, further, the outer surface of a steel pipe head, and the above-mentioned of a receiving metal fitting Fill the gap with the inner surface of the opening with high strength mortar.

充填された上記セメントミルクおよび高強度モルタルが所要の硬化期間をおいた後に固結することにより、アーチ支保工に加わる地山の荷重を上記鋼管に伝達させ、アーチ支保工の沈下を抑制することができる。 By filling the cement milk and high-strength mortar filled after the required curing period, the load of the natural ground applied to the arch support work is transmitted to the steel pipe, and the settlement of the arch support work is suppressed. Can do.

特開2000−73697号公報JP 2000-73697 A

また、支保部材等としてロックボルトを打設する工法においても、一般に、油圧ジャンボ等で穿孔した孔内にロックボルトを配置したのち、その孔内に注入充填したモルタル等を固結させることで、上記ロックボルトを地山に定着し、周辺地山の補強や地山変位の抑制等を図っている。   Also, in the construction method of placing a lock bolt as a support member or the like, generally, after placing the lock bolt in a hole drilled with a hydraulic jumbo or the like, the mortar injected and filled in the hole is consolidated, The above-mentioned rock bolt is fixed to the natural ground to reinforce the surrounding natural ground and suppress the natural ground displacement.

しかし、上記いずれの工法も、モルタル等の注入材の注入作業に多大な時間を要し、その分だけ工期を長引かせるものであり、しかも注入の後、その注入材が固結するまで所要の硬化期間が必要で、注入材が固結するまでの間に生ずる地山の変位を抑えることができなかった。   However, any of the above methods requires a lot of time for the injection work of the injection material such as mortar, and prolongs the work period by that much, and it is necessary until the injection material solidifies after the injection. A hardening period was required, and the displacement of the natural ground that occurred before the injection material solidified could not be suppressed.

この点、急硬性のセメントや樹脂系材料を注入材として用い、より早期に固結させることも考えられるが、そのような注入材は非常に高価であり施工コストが上昇してしまう。 In this respect, it is conceivable to use rapid-hardening cement or resin-based material as an injection material and solidify earlier, but such an injection material is very expensive and increases the construction cost.

また、孔を穿孔する際にその孔周辺の地山を乱してしまうことが避けられず、乱された地山は後工程の薬液注入によっても十分に補強できないという問題もあった。
この点については、鋼管膨張型などの摩擦定着方式の芯材を用いることも考えられるが、対象地山によっては、穿孔の際に乱される地山の範囲が、芯材を膨張させることができる範囲より大きいことも考えられ、事実、ほとんど効果があがらなかった事例もある。 Regarding this point, it is conceivable to use a friction fixing type core material such as a steel pipe expansion type, but depending on the target ground, the range of the ground disturbed at the time of drilling may expand the core material. It may be larger than possible, and in fact, there are cases where there was almost no effect. In addition, when the hole is drilled, it is inevitable that the natural ground around the hole is disturbed, and the disturbed natural ground cannot be sufficiently reinforced by subsequent chemical injection. In addition, when the hole is drilled, it is inevitable that the natural ground around the hole is disturbed, and the disturbed natural ground cannot be sufficiently reinforced by subsequent chemical injection.
In this regard, it may be possible to use a friction fixing type core material such as a steel pipe expansion type, but depending on the target natural ground, the range of natural ground disturbed during drilling may cause the core material to expand. It may be larger than possible, and in fact, there were cases where it was hardly effective. In this regard, it may be possible to use a friction fixing type core material such as a steel pipe expansion type, but depending on the target natural ground, the range of natural ground disturbed during drilling may cause the core material to expand. It may. be larger than possible, and in fact, there were cases where it was hardly effective.

さらに、対象地山(特に砂層)によっては、注入材の注入を行っても的確な補強ができないことがあり、また湧水の量や圧によって補強が不十分になってしまう場合もある。   Furthermore, depending on the target ground (especially sand layer), even if the injection material is injected, accurate reinforcement may not be possible, and reinforcement may be insufficient due to the amount or pressure of the spring water.

その他、特にインバート部に下方に向けてロックボルトを打設する場合には、予め穿孔した孔内の土砂を完全に排出することが困難で、そこに注入した注入材は残留土砂と混在する状態となってしまうため、固結させたときに必ずしも十分な強度が得られなかった。   In addition, it is difficult to completely discharge the sediment in the hole drilled in advance, especially when the lock bolt is driven downward in the invert part, and the injected material injected there is mixed with the residual sediment Therefore, sufficient strength was not always obtained when consolidated.

そこで本発明は、上記の問題点を解決し、周囲の地山を乱すことなく、短時間でかつ低コストで施工でき、また硬化期間をおくことなく施工完了と同時に地山補強等の効果を得ることのできる鋼管打設工法を提供することを目的とする。   Therefore, the present invention solves the above-mentioned problems, can be constructed in a short time and at a low cost without disturbing the surrounding natural ground, and has the effect of reinforcing natural ground at the same time as the completion of construction without leaving a curing period. It aims at providing the steel pipe placing construction method which can be obtained.

本発明に係る鋼管打設工法は、トンネル外周の地山の所要位置に、基端を打撃および/または押圧することにより両端開口の鋼管を打設し、当該鋼管の基端をアーチ支保工間に横架した横架杆に溶接等することによりトンネル内壁に固定して、支保部材,支保脚部補強部材,またはインバート部補強部材とすることを特徴とする。The steel pipe placing method according to the present invention is such that a steel pipe having openings at both ends is driven by hitting and / or pressing a base end at a required position of a natural ground around a tunnel, and the base end of the steel pipe is placed between arch supports. It is fixed to the inner wall of the tunnel by welding or the like to a horizontal frame that is horizontally mounted to form a supporting member, a supporting leg reinforcing member, or an inverted portion reinforcing member.

本発明において、上記打設は、先端をトンネル内壁面に対向させた鋼管の基端を、汎用機械を用いて打撃および/または押圧することにより行うことを特徴とすることができる。In the present invention, the placing may be performed by striking and / or pressing the base end of the steel pipe whose tip is opposed to the inner wall surface of the tunnel using a general-purpose machine.

また、本発明において、外周面に鋼線を螺旋状に巻回した状態で固着している上記鋼管を打設することを特徴とすることができる。Moreover, in this invention, the said steel pipe fixed in the state which wound the steel wire helically on the outer peripheral surface can be driven.

本発明によれば、従来のように削孔を行ったり注入材を用いたりすることなく、トンネル外周の地山の所要位置に、基端を打撃および/または押圧することにより鋼管を打設するので、周囲の地山を乱さず、短時間でかつ低コストで施工でき、また硬化期間をおくことなく施工完了と同時に地山補強等の効果を得ることができる。   According to the present invention, a steel pipe is driven by hitting and / or pressing a base end at a required position of a natural ground on the outer periphery of a tunnel without drilling or using an injection material as in the prior art. Therefore, it is possible to perform construction in a short time and at a low cost without disturbing the surrounding natural ground, and it is possible to obtain effects such as natural ground reinforcement simultaneously with the completion of the construction without leaving a curing period.

トンネル外周の地山の所要位置に、基端を打撃および/または押圧することにより鋼管a(a′,h)を打設して、これを支保部材,支保脚部補強部材,またはインバート部補強部材とする。   A steel pipe a (a ', h) is struck by hitting and / or pressing the base end at a required position on the ground around the tunnel, and this is reinforced with a support member, support leg reinforcement member, or invert part reinforcement. A member.

本発明鋼管打設工法は、トンネル外周(上方,側方および下方)の地山の所要位置に、所要本数の鋼管a…,a′…を打撃および/または押圧することにより打設し、支保部材,支保脚部補強部材,またはインバート部補強部材とするもので(図1)、以下、本工法を砂層主体の地山でのトンネル工事において採用する実施例について詳しく説明する。   The steel pipe placing method of the present invention is constructed by placing and / or pressing a required number of steel pipes a ..., a '... at a required position on a natural ground on the outer periphery (upper, side and lower) of the tunnel. A member, a supporting leg reinforcing member, or an inverted reinforcing member (FIG. 1) will be described in detail below with respect to an embodiment in which the present construction method is employed in tunnel construction mainly in sand layers.

上記鋼管a…は、所要の剛性を有する外径65mm,肉厚4.2mm,長さ2.75mの細長円筒形のもので、その基端の長さ30mmの部分の外面にはネジ溝1が切られている(図2)。   The steel pipe a is of an elongated cylindrical shape having a required rigidity of an outer diameter of 65 mm, a wall thickness of 4.2 mm, and a length of 2.75 m, and a thread groove 1 is formed on the outer surface of the base end portion having a length of 30 mm. Is cut off (FIG. 2).

b…は、方形の基板2の一側面の中央に椀形部3を突出形成した固定金具(本発明に係る固定部材の一例に相当する。)で、その他側面の中央には上記鋼管aのネジ溝1に螺合するネジ溝4を有する凹部5を形成している。
したがって、この固定金具b…は、上記鋼管a…のネジ溝1にネジ溝4を螺合させることにより、凹部5内に該鋼管a…の基端を受入した状態で、該鋼管a…に取り付けられるようになっている。 Therefore, the fixing bracket b ... is made into the steel pipe a ... In a state where the base end of the steel pipe a ... is received in the recess 5 by screwing the screw groove 4 into the screw groove 1 of the steel pipe a ... It is designed to be attached. b ... is a fixing bracket (corresponding to an example of the fixing member according to the present invention) in which a hook-shaped portion 3 is formed protruding from the center of one side surface of the square substrate 2, and the steel pipe a is at the center of the other side surface . A recess 5 having a thread groove 4 that is screwed into the thread groove 1 is formed. b ... is a fixing bracket (corresponding to an example of the fixing member according to the present invention) in which a hook-shaped portion 3 is formed forms from the center of one side surface of the square substrate 2, and the steel pipe a is at the center of the other side surface . A recess 5 having a thread groove 4 that is screwed into the thread groove 1 is formed.
Accordingly, the fixing metal fittings b are connected to the steel pipes a with the base ends of the steel pipes a received in the recesses 5 by screwing the screw grooves 4 into the screw grooves 1 of the steel pipes a. It can be attached. Accordingly, the fixing metal fittings b are connected to the steel pipes a with the base ends of the steel pipes a received in the recesses 5 by screwing the screw grooves 4 into the screw grooves 1 of the steel pipes a. It can be attached.

まず、上記鋼管a…をトンネル外周の地山に打設してこれを支保部材とする方法について図3〜5を参照しながら説明する。   First, a method of placing the steel pipes a on the ground around the tunnel and using it as a supporting member will be described with reference to FIGS.

(1)トンネルを所要距離掘削し、アーチ支保工cを設置するとともに、吹付けコンクリートdを施工した段階において、まず、図3に示したように上記鋼管aを、坑内に配置した油圧ジャンボのガイドシェル11上に装着する。   (1) When excavating the tunnel for the required distance, installing the arch support c and constructing the shotcrete d, first, as shown in FIG. 3, the steel pipe a is a hydraulic jumbo placed in the mine. Mount on the guide shell 11.

上記ガイドシェル11は油圧ジャンボのブーム(図示しない)によって移動自在に支持されている。12はそのガイドシェル11上に装着された上記鋼管aを支持するためのセントライザー、13はその鋼管aの基端に装着した治具である。   The guide shell 11 is movably supported by a boom (not shown) of a hydraulic jumbo. 12 is a center riser for supporting the steel pipe a mounted on the guide shell 11, and 13 is a jig mounted on the base end of the steel pipe a.

14は上記治具13を介して上記鋼管aに打撃力,回転力を伝達するドリフタである。このドリフタ14は、上記ガイドシェル11上を前後に摺動自在に設置されており、これを前進させることで、上記治具13を介して鋼管aを押圧することができるようにもなっている。   A drifter 14 transmits a striking force and a rotational force to the steel pipe a through the jig 13. The drifter 14 is installed on the guide shell 11 so as to be slidable back and forth, and the steel pipe a can be pressed through the jig 13 by advancing it. .

(2)続いて、上記ブームを駆動して、ガイドシェル11を打込み予定位置付近に移動し所要の方向(たとえば斜め上方)に向け、これに装着している鋼管aの先端をトンネル内壁面(吹付けコンクリートd)に対向させる(図3(a))。   (2) Subsequently, the boom is driven, the guide shell 11 is moved to the vicinity of the expected driving position and directed in a required direction (for example, obliquely upward), and the tip of the steel pipe a attached thereto is moved to the inner wall surface of the tunnel ( It faces the shotcrete d) (FIG. 3 (a)).

(3)次に、ドリフタ14を駆動し、鋼管の基端を打撃および/または押圧することにより、上記鋼管aをトンネル外周の地山に打設し(図3(b))、基端のネジ溝1の部分のみが坑内に突出した状態とする。   (3) Next, by driving the drifter 14 and hitting and / or pressing the proximal end of the steel pipe, the steel pipe a is driven on the ground around the tunnel (FIG. 3 (b)), Only the portion of the thread groove 1 is projected into the pit.

(4)そして、その突出した基端部分のネジ溝1に、凹部5のネジ溝4を螺合させて上記固定金具bを取り付けることにより、該鋼管aの基端をトンネル内壁(吹付けコンクリートd)に固定する(図4,5)。   (4) Then, the fixing groove b is attached by screwing the screw groove 4 of the recess 5 into the screw groove 1 of the protruding base end portion, so that the base end of the steel pipe a is connected to the inner wall of the tunnel (sprayed concrete). d) (FIGS. 4 and 5).

上記固定金具bはトンネル内壁面に基板2を一致させ、凹部5内に鋼管aの基端を受入し、坑内側に椀形部3を突出させた状態となっているので、後工程で設置される防水シートに損傷を与えてしまうようなことがない。   The fixing metal b is in a state in which the base plate 2 is made to coincide with the inner wall surface of the tunnel, the base end of the steel pipe a is received in the recess 5, and the hook-shaped part 3 protrudes to the inner side of the well. There will be no damage to the waterproof sheet.

上記のようにして打設された支保部材たる鋼管a(以下、「支保パイル」という。)は、基端を除くほぼ全長を地山に埋設させるとともに、固定金具bにより基端をトンネル内壁に固定した状態となり、支保部材としての内圧効果を発揮しトンネルの変形を防止するものである。また、トンネル外周の地山のせん断補強効果を奏する。   The steel pipe a (hereinafter referred to as “support pile”), which is a support member placed as described above, is embedded in the ground with almost the entire length excluding the base end, and the base end is fixed to the tunnel inner wall by the fixing bracket b. It becomes a fixed state, exhibits the internal pressure effect as a support member, and prevents deformation of the tunnel. In addition, there is a shear reinforcement effect on the ground around the tunnel.

上記と同様の手順で、所要本数の支保パイルを、トンネル外周の地山へ放射状に打設した後、覆工コンクリートeの打設等が行われる(図1参照)。   In the same procedure as described above, the required number of support piles are radially cast on the ground around the tunnel, and then the lining concrete e is cast (see FIG. 1).

なお、図1では支保パイルを、トンネルの左右に3本ずつ斜め上方に向けて打設した状態を示してあるが、その打設する本数および方向は地山の性質等により適宜決定することができるものである。   Although FIG. 1 shows a state where three support piles are placed diagonally upward on the left and right of the tunnel, the number and direction of placement of the support piles can be determined as appropriate depending on the nature of the natural ground. It can be done.

次に、鋼管をトンネル側方の地山に打設してこれを支保脚部補強部材とする方法について図6,7を参照しながら説明する。   Next, a method of placing a steel pipe on a ground mountain on the side of the tunnel and using it as a support leg reinforcing member will be described with reference to FIGS.

この場合、上記鋼管aと同じく外径65mm,肉厚4.2mm,長さ2.75mではあるが、それと異なり上記ネジ溝1を有していない鋼管a′…を、上記と同様の油圧ジャンボを用いて、たとえば以下のようにして打設する。   In this case, the outer diameter is 65 mm, the wall thickness is 4.2 mm, and the length is 2.75 m, which is the same as that of the steel pipe a. For example, it is placed as follows.

(1)トンネルを所要距離掘削し、アーチ支保工cを設置した段階において、油圧ジャンボのガイドシェル11上に上記鋼管a′を装着する。   (1) Excavate the tunnel for a required distance, and install the steel pipe a 'on the guide shell 11 of the hydraulic jumbo at the stage where the arch support c is installed.

(2)油圧ジャンボのブームを駆動して、上記ガイドシェル11を打込み予定位置付近に移動して水平にし、鋼管a′の先端をトンネルの一側の内壁面15に対向させる。   (2) The hydraulic jumbo boom is driven, the guide shell 11 is moved to the vicinity of the expected driving position and leveled, and the tip of the steel pipe a 'is opposed to the inner wall surface 15 on one side of the tunnel.

(3)ドリフタ14を駆動し、鋼管a′の基端を打撃および/または押圧することにより、上記鋼管a′をトンネル側方の地山に水平に打設し(図6(a))、基端部分所要長さが坑内に突出した状態とする。   (3) By driving the drifter 14 and hitting and / or pressing the base end of the steel pipe a ′, the steel pipe a ′ is horizontally placed on the ground on the side of the tunnel (FIG. 6 (a)), Assume that the required length of the base end part protrudes into the mine.

(4)次に、油圧ジャンボのガイドシェル11上に他の鋼管a′を装着し、ブームを駆動して、鋼管a′を斜め下方に向けるとともに、その鋼管a′の先端を、既に水平に打設した鋼管a′の坑内に突出している基端部分の至近位置において、トンネル内壁面15に対向させる。   (4) Next, another steel pipe a ′ is mounted on the guide shell 11 of the hydraulic jumbo, the boom is driven, the steel pipe a ′ is directed obliquely downward, and the tip of the steel pipe a ′ is already leveled. It is made to oppose the tunnel inner wall surface 15 in the nearest position of the base end part which protrudes in the pit of the cast steel pipe a '.

(5)ドリフタ14を駆動し、その打撃力および/または押圧力により、上記鋼管a′をトンネル側方の地山に、斜め下方に向けて打設し(図6(b))、上記水平に打設した鋼管a′の場合と同じく、基端部分所要長さが坑内に突出した状態とする。これにより、両鋼管a′,a′の基端部分がトンネル軸方向前後に並んで坑内に突出した状態となる。   (5) The drifter 14 is driven, and the steel pipe a ′ is driven diagonally downward on the ground on the side of the tunnel by its striking force and / or pressing force (FIG. 6 (b)). As in the case of the steel pipe a ′ placed in the base, the required length of the base end portion protrudes into the pit. Thereby, the base end part of both steel pipes a 'and a' will be in the state which protruded in the pit along with the tunnel axial direction back and forth.

(6)続いて、それらの突出した基端部分の上に、アーチ支保工c,cの設置間隔と同じ長さの等辺山形鋼等の横架杆fを、トンネル内壁面15に沿わせて、鋼管a′,a′の基端部分に乗載する。
そして、その横架杆fの両端をアーチ支保工c,cに溶接するとともに、鋼管a′,a′の基端部分を該横架杆fに溶接する(図7(b)(c))。
(6) Then, on the protruding base end portion, a horizontal fence の such as an equilateral angle iron having the same length as the installation interval of the arch supports c, c is placed along the inner wall surface 15 of the tunnel. The steel pipes a ′ and a ′ are mounted on the base end portions.
Then, both ends of the horizontal rod f are welded to the arch supports c and c, and the base end portions of the steel pipes a ′ and a ′ are welded to the horizontal rod f (FIGS. 7B and 7C). . Then, both ends of the horizontal rod f are welded to the arch supports c and c, and the base end portions of the steel pipes a ′ and a ′ are welded to the horizontal rod f (FIGS. 7B and 7C).

上記水平に打設された支保脚部補強部材たる鋼管a′(以下、「サイドパイル」という。)および斜め下方に向けて打設された同じく支保脚部補強部材たる鋼管a′(以下、「フットパイル」という。)は、基端を除くほぼ全長を地山に埋設させるとともに、基端をアーチ支保工c,cに溶接した横架杆に固定し、アーチ支保工c,cと一体化した状態となるので、該アーチ支保工c,cの沈下や水平変位を抑制し、また、トンネルの変形を抑制することができるものである。   The steel pipe a ′ (hereinafter referred to as “side pile”) which is a horizontally-supported support leg reinforcing member and the steel pipe a ′ (hereinafter referred to as “side pile”) which is also provided obliquely downward. "Footpile") is embedded in the ground with almost the entire length excluding the base end, and the base end is fixed to a horizontal frame welded to the arch support c, c, and integrated with the arch support c, c Thus, the arch support works c, c can be prevented from sinking and horizontal displacement, and tunnel deformation can be suppressed.

より詳細には、上記サイドパイルをアーチ支保工c,cに固定していることにより、掘削の際に緩んだ地山の側方移動や斜め下方への滑動を抑制し、地山を補強することができる。
また、上記フットパイルは、その打設方向が、斜め下外方を向くアーチ支保工c,cからの荷重軸線とほぼ一致するので、該アーチ支保工c,cの沈下を抑制する効果が大きい。
More specifically, the side piles are fixed to the arch supports c and c, thereby suppressing the lateral movement of the loose natural ground during excavation and the sliding downward obliquely, thereby reinforcing the natural ground. be able to.
In addition, the foot pile has a great effect of suppressing the settlement of the arch supports c, c because the direction of placement is substantially coincident with the load axis from the arch supports c, c facing obliquely downward and outward. . In addition, the foot pile has a great effect of suppressing the settlement of the arch supports c, c because the direction of placement is substantially coincident with the load axis from the arch supports c, c facing obliquely downward and outward.

上記と同様の手順でトンネルの他側の地山にもサイドパイルおよびフットパイルを打設することができる。 Side piles and foot piles can be placed on the ground on the other side of the tunnel in the same manner as described above.

その後、吹き付けコンクリートdを施工し、これにより上記サイドパイルおよびフットパイルの基端部分および横架杆fを埋設状態にするとともに、さらに、覆工コンクリートeの打設等が行われる(図1参照)。   After that, sprayed concrete d is applied, whereby the base end portions of the side pile and the foot pile and the horizontal frame f are buried, and further, lining concrete e is placed (see FIG. 1). ).

なお、必ずしもサイドパイルおよびフットパイルを共に打設する必要はなく、たとえばサイドパイルのみを打設しフットパイルは省略することもでき、また、その逆も可能である。さらに、サイドパイルおよびフットパイルそれぞれの本数も適宜変更できる。   Note that it is not always necessary to drive both the side pile and the foot pile. For example, only the side pile can be driven and the foot pile can be omitted, and vice versa. Further, the number of side piles and foot piles can be appropriately changed.

続いて、上記鋼管a…を、トンネル下方の地山に打設してこれをインバート部補強部材とする方法について説明する。 Next, a method of placing the steel pipes a on a natural ground below the tunnel and using it as an invert portion reinforcing member will be described.

この場合、支保部材として打設したものと同一の、ネジ溝1を有する上記鋼管aを、上記と同様の油圧ジャンボにより、たとえば以下のようにして打設する。 In this case, the steel pipe a having the same thread groove 1 as the supporting member is driven by the same hydraulic jumbo as described above, for example, as follows.

(1)トンネルを所要距離掘削し、アーチ支保工cを設置した段階で(地山が膨張性地山であるような場合には、必要に応じ、吹付けコンクリート(図示しない)を施工した段階で)、油圧ジャンボのガイドシェル11上に上記鋼管aを装着する。   (1) After excavating the tunnel for the required distance and installing the arch support c (when the natural ground is an expansive natural ground, the stage where spray concrete (not shown) is constructed as necessary And) the steel pipe a is mounted on the guide shell 11 of the hydraulic jumbo.

(2)油圧ジャンボのブームを駆動して、上記ガイドシェル11を打込み予定位置付近に移動し下方または斜め下方に向け、鋼管aの先端をトンネル内壁面に対向させる。   (2) Drive the boom of the hydraulic jumbo, move the guide shell 11 to the vicinity of the expected driving position, and turn it downward or diagonally downward, so that the tip of the steel pipe a faces the inner wall surface of the tunnel.

(3)ドリフタ14を駆動し、鋼管aの基端を打撃および/または押圧することにより、上記鋼管aを地山に打設し、基端のネジ溝1の部分のみが坑内に突出した状態とする。   (3) Driving the drifter 14 and striking and / or pressing the base end of the steel pipe a to place the steel pipe a on the ground, and only the thread groove 1 at the base end protrudes into the pit And

(4)最後に、その突出しているネジ溝1に、凹部5のネジ溝4を螺合させて上記固定金具bを取り付け、該鋼管aをトンネル内壁に固定する。   (4) Finally, the threaded groove 4 of the recessed part 5 is screwed into the projecting threaded groove 1 to attach the fixing bracket b, and the steel pipe a is secured to the inner wall of the tunnel.

トンネル下方の地山に打設された上記インバート補強部材たる鋼管a(以下、「インバートパイル」という。)は、基端を除くほぼ全長を地山に埋設させるとともに、基端をトンネル内壁に固定した状態となるので、インバート部の変位を抑制することができるものである。   The steel pipe a (hereinafter referred to as “invert pile”), which is an invert reinforcing member placed in the ground below the tunnel, is embedded in the ground with almost the entire length except the base end, and the base end is fixed to the tunnel inner wall. Therefore, the displacement of the invert part can be suppressed.

上記と同様の手順で、所要本数のインバートパイルを、トンネル下方の地山へ放射状に打ち込み、その後インバートコンクリートgの打設等が行われる(図1参照)。   In the same procedure as described above, the required number of invert piles are driven radially into the ground below the tunnel, and then invert concrete g is placed (see FIG. 1).

なお、図1ではインバートパイルを、4本打設した状態を示してあるが、その打設する本数および方向は地山の性質等により適宜決定することができるものである。 Although FIG. 1 shows a state in which four invert piles are laid, the number and direction of the laid piles can be determined as appropriate depending on the nature of the natural ground.

以上述べたところから明らかなように、本鋼管打設工法では、注入材を用いないので、従来のように注入作業に時間を割いたり注入材の硬化を待つ必要がなく、工期を短縮することができる。
また、注入材を用いる場合と異なり、施工完了と同時に地山の補強、トンネルの沈下や変形の抑制等の効果が期待できる。 In addition, unlike the case of using an injection material, effects such as reinforcement of the ground and suppression of subsidence and deformation of the tunnel can be expected at the same time as the construction is completed. As is clear from the above, this steel pipe placing method does not use an injection material, so there is no need to spend time on the injection work or wait for the injection material to harden as in the past, and shorten the construction period. Can do. As is clear from the above, this steel pipe placing method does not use an injection material, so there is no need to spend time on the injection work or wait for the injection material to harden as in the past, and shorten the construction period. Can do.
In addition, unlike the case of using an injection material, effects such as reinforcement of natural ground, subsidence of tunnels and suppression of deformation can be expected upon completion of construction. In addition, unlike the case of using an injection material, effects such as reinforcement of natural ground, subsidence of tunnels and suppression of deformation can be expected upon completion of construction.

さらに、鋼管aの打込み前に削孔を行わないので、周囲の地山を乱し、その強度を弱めてしまうようなことがなく、むしろ、鋼管a,a′の打設時に加えられる打撃の振動により、周辺地山を締め固めることができるものである。
この締め固め効果により、鋼管a,a′と地山との間には大きな摩擦抵抗力が働くので、上記の地山の補強、トンネルの沈下や変形の抑制等の効果が従来よりも高い。
Furthermore, since no drilling is performed before the steel pipe a is driven, the surrounding ground is not disturbed and the strength thereof is not weakened. Rather, the impact applied when the steel pipes a and a ′ are driven. The surrounding ground can be compacted by vibration.
Due to this compaction effect, a large frictional resistance force acts between the steel pipes a, a ′ and the natural ground, so that the effects such as reinforcement of the natural ground, suppression of subsidence and deformation of the tunnel are higher than before. Due to this compaction effect, a large frictional resistance force acts between the steel pipes a, a ′ and the natural ground, so that the effects such as reinforcement of the natural ground, suppression of subsidence and deformation of the tunnel are higher than before.

上記の作業は、専用機械を用いずとも、トンネル施工で汎用される油圧ジャンボを用いて行えるから、低コストで施工できる。 The above work can be performed at low cost because it can be performed using a hydraulic jumbo that is widely used in tunnel construction without using a dedicated machine.

なお、図1には、上記で説明した(i)支保パイル、(ii)サイドパイル・フットパイル、および(iii)インバートパイルの全てを打設した状態を示したが、必ずしも全てを打設する必要はなく、周辺地山の性質に応じ必要なものを適宜打設すればよいものである。   Although FIG. 1 shows a state in which all of (i) supporting pile, (ii) side pile / foot pile, and (iii) invert pile described above are placed, all are necessarily placed. It is not necessary, and what is necessary may be appropriately set according to the nature of the surrounding natural ground.

上記各鋼管a,a′の長さは、上記に示したものに限られず、周辺地山の性質に応じ、たとえばトンネル外周の地山の緩み範囲の外方にまで達する長さにするなど、適宜変更されるもので、2本以上の鋼管を継ぎ足して用いることもできる。
トンネル外周の地山の緩み範囲は、試験施工として、ジャンボの打撃圧メータを確認しながら鋼管a,a′の打込みを行い、打撃圧が上昇したときに打ち込まれている長さを確認すること、あるいは、事前に数値解析等を行うことによって知ることができるので、その結果により鋼管a,a′の長さを決定すればよい。
同様に、該鋼管a,a′の径や肉厚も適宜変更することができ、また、円筒形の鋼管でなく角筒形の鋼管を用いてもよい。 Similarly, the diameter and wall thickness of the steel pipes a and a'can be changed as appropriate, and a square tubular steel pipe may be used instead of the cylindrical steel pipe. The lengths of the steel pipes a and a ′ are not limited to those shown above, and depending on the nature of the surrounding natural ground, for example, the length reaching the outside of the loose area of the natural ground around the tunnel, It changes suitably and can also add and use two or more steel pipes. The lengths of the steel pipes a and a ′ are not limited to those shown above, and depending on the nature of the surrounding natural ground, for example, the length reaching the outside of the loose area of ​​the natural ground around the tunnel, It changes suitably and can also add and use two or more steel pipes.
As for the loose range of the ground around the tunnel, as a test construction, check the jumbo impact pressure meter while driving the steel pipes a and a 'and confirm the length of the impact when the impact pressure increases. Alternatively, the length can be determined by performing numerical analysis or the like in advance, and the length of the steel pipes a and a ′ may be determined based on the result. As for the loose range of the ground around the tunnel, as a test construction, check the jumbo impact pressure meter while driving the steel pipes a and a'and confirm the length of the impact when the impact pressure increases. Alternatively, the length can be determined by performing numerical analysis or the like in advance, and the length of the steel pipes a and a ′ may be determined based on the result.
Similarly, the diameters and wall thicknesses of the steel pipes a and a ′ can be changed as appropriate, and square cylindrical steel pipes may be used instead of cylindrical steel pipes. Similarly, the diameters and wall thicknesses of the steel pipes a and a ′ can be changed as appropriate, and square cylindrical steel pipes may be used instead of cylindrical steel pipes.

また、対象地山が礫混じり土砂や軟岩等からなる場合には、鋼管a,a′の打設が困難な場合も考えられる。このようなときには、鋼管a,a′の先端にビットを装着するようにしてもよい。
また、補助的に、鋼管a,a′の内径よりも小さい径のビットを、該鋼管a,a′内に挿通したロッドの先端に取り付け、これで補助穿孔を行いながら打設を行ってもよい。 Further, as an auxiliary, a bit having a diameter smaller than the inner diameter of the steel pipes a, a'is attached to the tip of the rod inserted into the steel pipes a, a', and the casting is performed while performing the auxiliary drilling. Good. 上記ビットの径は鋼管a,a′の内径よりも小さいので、補助穿孔によって周辺の地山を乱してしまうことはない。 Since the diameter of the bit is smaller than the inner diameter of the steel pipes a and a', the auxiliary drilling does not disturb the surrounding ground. In addition, when the target ground is made of earth and sand, soft rock, etc. mixed with gravel, it may be difficult to place the steel pipes a and a ′. In such a case, a bit may be attached to the tips of the steel pipes a and a ′. In addition, when the target ground is made of earth and sand, soft rock, etc. mixed with gravel, it may be difficult to place the steel pipes a and a ′. In such a case, a bit may be attached to the tips of the steel pipes a and a ′.
In addition, a bit having a diameter smaller than the inner diameter of the steel pipes a and a ′ may be attached to the tip of the rod inserted into the steel pipes a and a ′, and driving may be performed while performing auxiliary drilling. Good. Since the diameter of the bit is smaller than the inner diameter of the steel pipes a and a ', the surrounding natural ground is not disturbed by the auxiliary drilling. In addition, a bit having a diameter smaller than the inner diameter of the steel pipes a and a ′ may be attached to the tip of the rod inserted into the steel pipes a and a ′, and driving may be performed while performing auxiliary drilling. Good. Since the diameter of the bit is smaller than the inner diameter of the steel pipes a and a', the surrounding natural ground is not disturbed by the auxiliary drilling.

以下、粘性土主体の地山でのトンネル工事において本発明鋼管打設工法を採用する実施例について説明する。 Hereinafter, the Example which employ | adopts the steel pipe placement method of this invention in the tunnel construction in the natural ground mainly of viscous soil is described.

hは、所要の剛性を有する外径65mm,肉厚4.2mm,長さ2.75mの細長円筒形の鋼管本体の外周面に、直径9mmの鋼線16を螺旋状に巻回した状態で固着してなる鋼線付きの鋼管で、その基端の30mmの部分にはネジ溝17が切られている(図8)。
なお、上記鋼線16の直径は適宜変更できるものである。
h is a state in which a steel wire 16 having a diameter of 9 mm is spirally wound around the outer peripheral surface of an elongated cylindrical steel pipe body having an outer diameter of 65 mm, a wall thickness of 4.2 mm, and a length of 2.75 m. The steel pipe with a steel wire is fixed, and a screw groove 17 is cut in a portion of the base end of 30 mm (FIG. 8).
In addition, the diameter of the said steel wire 16 can be changed suitably.

トンネル外周の地山が粘性土を主体としている場合には、砂層の場合のように振動による締め固め効果が期待できないが、その反面、打設される鋼管との間に所要の粘着力を期待でき、その粘着力が摩擦抵抗力となることから、地山に接する表面積を広くし摩擦抵抗を大きくした上記鋼線付きの鋼管hを用いる。   When the ground around the tunnel is mainly made of cohesive soil, the compaction effect due to vibration cannot be expected as in the case of sand layer, but on the other hand, the required adhesive strength between the cast steel pipe is expected. Since the adhesive force becomes a frictional resistance force, the steel pipe h with the steel wire having a large surface area in contact with the ground and increasing the frictional resistance is used.

粘性土主体の地山で行われる鋼管打設工法は、上記実施例1で説明した鋼管a(a′)の代わりに鋼線付きの鋼管hを用いる点を異にするだけで、他の点は実施例1で説明したのと同様であるのでその説明を省略する。   The steel pipe placing method carried out in the natural soil mainly composed of cohesive soil is different from the steel pipe a (a ′) described in the first embodiment in that a steel pipe h with a steel wire is used. Since this is the same as that described in the first embodiment, the description thereof is omitted.

上記から明らかなように、本鋼管打設工法は、各種の地質の地山において広く施工することができるものである。 As is apparent from the above, the present steel pipe placing method can be widely applied in various geological grounds.

本発明の実施例1に係る鋼管打設工法により、トンネル外周の地山に複数の鋼管が打設された状態を示した縦断背面図である。 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a longitudinal rear view showing a state in which a plurality of steel pipes are placed on a natural ground on the outer periphery of a tunnel by a steel pipe placing method according to Example 1 of the present invention. 上記鋼管および固定金具の平面図である。 It is a top view of the said steel pipe and a fixing metal fitting. (a),(b)は上記鋼管をトンネル外周の地山に斜め上方に向けて打設する工程を示した図である。 (a), (b) is the figure which showed the process which lays the said steel pipe in the natural ground of a tunnel outer periphery toward diagonally upward. (a)は斜め上方に向けて打設された鋼管を固定金具で固定した状態の拡大背面図、(b)はその側面図、(c)その平面図である。 (a) is an enlarged rear view of a state where a steel pipe placed obliquely upward is fixed with a fixing bracket, (b) is a side view thereof, and (c) is a plan view thereof. 図4(a)の要部拡大図である。 It is a principal part enlarged view of Fig.4 (a). (a)は鋼管を地山に水平に打設する工程を、(b)は斜め下方に向けて打設する工程を示した図である。 (a) is a diagram showing a step of placing a steel pipe horizontally on a natural ground, and (b) is a diagram showing a step of placing the steel pipe obliquely downward. (a)は水平に打設された鋼管および斜め下方に向けて打設された鋼管を、横架杆に溶接した状態の拡大背面図、(b)はその側面図、(c)はその平面図である。 (a) is an enlarged rear view of a steel pipe placed horizontally and a steel pipe placed obliquely downward, and welded to a horizontal frame, (b) is a side view thereof, and (c) is a plane view thereof. FIG. 本発明の実施例2に係る鋼管打設工法で用いられる、鋼線を巻回した鋼管および固定金具を示した平面図である。 It is the top view which showed the steel pipe around which the steel wire was wound, and a fixing bracket used with the steel pipe placement method which concerns on Example 2 of this invention.

符号の説明Explanation of symbols

a,a′ 鋼管
b 固定金具
c アーチ支保工
d 吹付けコンクリート
e 覆工コンクリート
f 横架杆
h 鋼線付き鋼管
1 ネジ溝
2 基板
3 椀形部
4 ネジ溝
5 凹部
11 ガイドシェル
12 セントライザー
13 治具
14 ドリフタ
15 トンネル内壁面
16 鋼線
17 ネジ溝
a, a ′ Steel pipe b Fixing bracket c Arch support d Shotcrete e Covered concrete f Horizontal steel h Steel pipe with steel wire 1 Thread groove 2 Substrate 3 Saddle 4 Screw groove 5 Recess 11 Guide shell 12 Centrizer 13 Jig 14 Drifter 15 Tunnel inner wall surface 16 Steel wire 17 Thread groove

Claims (3)

  1. トンネル外周の地山の所要位置に、基端を打撃および/または押圧することにより両端開口の鋼管を打設し、当該鋼管の基端をアーチ支保工間に横架した横架杆に溶接等することによりトンネル内壁に固定して、支保部材,支保脚部補強部材,またはインバート部補強部材とすることを特徴とする鋼管打設工法。   Strike and / or press the base end at the required position on the outer periphery of the tunnel to place a steel pipe with both ends open, and weld the base end of the steel pipe to a horizontal frame that is placed horizontally between the arch supports. A steel pipe placing method characterized in that the steel pipe is fixed to the inner wall of the tunnel to form a supporting member, a supporting leg reinforcing member, or an inverted reinforcing member.
  2. 上記打設は、先端をトンネル内壁面に対向させた鋼管の基端を、汎用機械を用いて打撃および/または押圧することにより行うことを特徴とする請求項1に記載の鋼管打設工法。 2. The steel pipe placing method according to claim 1, wherein the placing is performed by hitting and / or pressing a base end of a steel pipe having a distal end opposed to a tunnel inner wall surface using a general-purpose machine.
  3. 外周面に鋼線を螺旋状に巻回した状態で固着している上記鋼管を打設することを特徴とする請求項1または請求項2に記載の鋼管打設工法。 The steel pipe placing method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the steel pipe fixed to the outer peripheral surface in a state where a steel wire is spirally wound is cast.
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KR101283672B1 (en) * 2012-09-18 2013-07-08 주식회사 성우사면 Non open cut method using the lifting device
CN103967506A (en) * 2014-04-16 2014-08-06 中钢集团马鞍山矿山研究院有限公司 Curtain grouting technology for ore body roof karst fracture development and strong water-rich ore deposit
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CN104265322A (en) * 2014-09-23 2015-01-07 山东科技大学 Control method of asymmetric deformation of deep mine roadway surrounding rock
CN106979024A (en) * 2017-04-27 2017-07-25 中铁十局集团第四工程有限公司 A kind of construction method of fixed tunnel bracing members and lock pin
CN106979024B (en) * 2017-04-27 2019-02-01 中铁十一局集团第四工程有限公司 A kind of construction method of fixed tunnel bracing members and lock foot

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