JP4373376B2 - Alignment method, lithographic apparatus, device manufacturing method, and alignment tool - Google Patents

Alignment method, lithographic apparatus, device manufacturing method, and alignment tool Download PDF

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JP4373376B2
JP4373376B2 JP2005199495A JP2005199495A JP4373376B2 JP 4373376 B2 JP4373376 B2 JP 4373376B2 JP 2005199495 A JP2005199495 A JP 2005199495A JP 2005199495 A JP2005199495 A JP 2005199495A JP 4373376 B2 JP4373376 B2 JP 4373376B2
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substrate
alignment
mark
image
substrate mark
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JP2006024944A (en
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ロフ ジョエリ
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エーエスエムエル ネザーランズ ビー.ブイ.
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F9/00Registration or positioning of originals, masks, frames, photographic sheets or textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. automatically
    • G03F9/70Registration or positioning of originals, masks, frames, photographic sheets or textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. automatically for microlithography
    • G03F9/7073Alignment marks and their environment
    • G03F9/7084Position of mark on substrate, i.e. position in (x, y, z) of mark, e.g. buried or resist covered mark, mark on rearside, at the substrate edge, in the circuit area, latent image mark, marks in plural levels
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F9/00Registration or positioning of originals, masks, frames, photographic sheets or textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. automatically
    • G03F9/70Registration or positioning of originals, masks, frames, photographic sheets or textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. automatically for microlithography
    • G03F9/7003Alignment type or strategy, e.g. leveling, global alignment
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F9/00Registration or positioning of originals, masks, frames, photographic sheets or textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. automatically
    • G03F9/70Registration or positioning of originals, masks, frames, photographic sheets or textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. automatically for microlithography
    • G03F9/7003Alignment type or strategy, e.g. leveling, global alignment
    • G03F9/7007Alignment other than original with workpiece
    • G03F9/7015Reference, i.e. alignment of original or workpiece with respect to a reference not on the original or workpiece

Description

  The present invention relates to an alignment apparatus and method, and more particularly to an alignment apparatus and method applied to lithography.

  A lithographic apparatus is a machine that can be used to apply a desired pattern to a target portion of a substrate. A lithographic apparatus can be used, for example, in the manufacture of integrated circuits (ICs). In this situation, a patterning structure such as a mask can be used to generate a circuit pattern corresponding to an individual layer of the IC, which can be applied to a substrate having a layer of radiation sensitive material (resist) (eg, silicon. The target portion (eg, part of a die, or part containing one or more dies) can be imaged. In general, a single substrate will contain a network of adjacent target portions that are successively exposed. In a known lithographic apparatus, a pattern is scanned in a given direction ("scanning" direction) by a so-called stepper, a projection beam, which irradiates each target portion by exposing the entire pattern to one target portion at a time. There are so-called scanners that simultaneously irradiate each target portion by synchronously scanning the substrate parallel or antiparallel to this direction.

  In this specification, reference is made in particular to the use of a lithographic apparatus in IC manufacturing, but the lithographic apparatus described herein includes integrated optics, magnetic domain memory guidance and detection patterns, liquid crystal displays (LCDs), thin film magnetic heads, etc. It should be understood that it has other applications, such as In the context of such alternative applications, the terms “wafer” or “die” as used herein can be considered to be synonymous with the more general terms “substrate” or “target portion”, respectively. Those skilled in the art should understand. The substrate referred to herein can be processed before or after exposure, for example, with a track (typically a tool that applies a layer of resist to the substrate and develops the resist after exposure), or a measurement or inspection tool. Where applicable, the disclosure herein can be applied to such and other substrate processing tools. Further, a substrate can be processed more than once, for example to produce a multi-layer IC, so the term “substrate” as used herein refers to a substrate that already contains multiple processed layers. is there.

  As used herein, the terms “radiation” and “beam” refer to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (eg, radiation at wavelengths 365, 248, 193, 157 or 126 nm), extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation (eg, at wavelengths of 5-20 nm). Radiation) and all types of electromagnetic radiation, including ion beams, particle beams such as electron beams.

  As used herein, the term “patterning structure” is broadly interpreted to refer to a structure that can be used for the purpose of applying a pattern to a cross section of a projection beam, for example, to generate a pattern on a target portion of a substrate. There must be. Note that the pattern imparted to the projection beam does not necessarily match the desired pattern of the target portion of the substrate. In general, the pattern imparted to the projection beam will correspond to a particular functional layer in a device such as an integrated circuit being created in the target portion.

  The pattern forming structure can be transmissive or reflective. Examples of patterning structures include masks, programmable mirror arrays, and programmable LCD panels. Masks are well known in lithography and include binary, alternating phase shift, attenuated phase shift and other mask types, as well as various hybrid mask types. One example of a programmable mirror array uses a matrix arrangement of small mirrors that can be individually tilted to reflect the incoming radiation beam in various directions. In this way, a pattern is given to the reflected beam. In each example of the patterning structure, the support structure can be fixed or movable, for example, as required, and a frame that can ensure that the patterning structure is in a desired position, for example with respect to the projection system. Or it can be a table. Any use of the terms “reticle” or “mask” herein may be considered synonymous with the more general term “patterning structure.”

  As used herein, the term “projection system” refers to refractive optics, reflective optics, and reflective, as appropriate for other factors such as, for example, the exposure radiation used, or the use of immersion fluid, the use of a vacuum It should be broadly interpreted as encompassing various types of projection systems, including refractive optics. Any use of the term “lens” herein may be considered as synonymous with the more general term “projection system”.

  The illumination system can also include various types of optical components, including refractive, reflective and catadioptric optical components that direct, shape and control the radiation projection beam. Sometimes referred to collectively or alone as a “lens”.

  The lithographic apparatus may be of a type having two (dual stage) or more substrate tables (and / or two or more mask tables). In such a “multi-stage” machine, these additional tables can be used concurrently in parallel, or one or more other tables while using one or more tables for exposure. Preparatory steps can be performed on the table.

  The lithographic apparatus may also be of a type that fills the space between the last element of the projection system and the substrate by immersing the substrate in a liquid having a relatively high refractive index, for example water. An immersion liquid may also be applied to other spaces in the lithographic apparatus, for example, between the mask and the first element of the projection system. Immersion techniques for increasing the numerical aperture of projection systems are well known in the art.

For example, to ensure accurate projection of functional features, it is desirable to accurately align the substrate before exposing the substrate. In the prior art, this is achieved using the apparatus shown in FIG. Complementary alignment marks M 1 and M 2 and substrate marks P 1 and P 2 exist on the mask and the substrate, respectively, and alignment is detected using an alignment system. Examples of alignment systems are the conventional through-the-lens alignment system and the alignment methods and apparatus described in co-pending European patent applications 0251440 and 02250235. The mark is generally on the front side of the substrate, but can also be placed on the back side of the substrate. The mark on the back surface of the substrate is used, for example, when performing exposure on both surfaces of the substrate. This is specifically carried out in the manufacture of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) or micro optoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS). When the substrate marks P 1 and P 2 are on the back side of the substrate, the substrate marks are re-imaged on the side of the substrate W by the front-to-back side alignment optics 22 and are shown in the accompanying drawings. 2 forms the image P i shown for P 2 (P 1 is re-imaged by another branch of this front-back alignment optic). This front-back alignment optical component is used with the alignment system AS to determine the relative position of the mark on the front surface of the substrate with respect to the mark on the back surface of the substrate. This allows the functional features exposed on the front surface of the substrate to be accurately aligned with the functional features exposed on the back surface of the substrate.

When conventional front-back alignment optical components are used, a mirror image of the substrate mark is projected onto the image window of the front-back alignment optical component. This mirror image is the image used for the alignment described above, so the relative position of the image with respect to the actual position of the substrate mark must be known accurately. Specifically, the optical axis of the front-back alignment optical component on which the image is reversed with respect to the axis must be accurately known. The error in the optical axis doubles the measurement error of the substrate position.
Further, due to the reflection by the optical component, the rotation of the mark image on the back surface of the substrate is opposite to the rotation of the surface of the substrate. If this is not taken into account, problems may arise during fine alignment.

  The present invention aims to provide an alignment apparatus and method that solves the above problems, and is characterized by the following configuration.

  An alignment method according to an embodiment includes the steps of providing a substrate having a substrate mark on a back surface, forming an image of the substrate mark, and aligning an alignment between a reference mark and the image of the substrate mark. Providing an alignment system for detection using a beam, wherein the image of the mark is a translational replica of the substrate mark.

  A device manufacturing method according to an embodiment includes providing an alignment method as described herein, providing a radiation projection beam using an illumination system, and patterning a cross section of the projection beam using a patterning structure. And projecting the patterned radiation beam onto a target portion of the substrate.

  An alignment tool according to an embodiment includes a substrate table configured to hold a substrate having a substrate mark, and a reference mark and an image of the substrate mark when the substrate mark is on a back surface of the substrate. An alignment system configured to detect alignment between using an alignment radiation beam, and configured to project the translation replica of the substrate mark disposed on the back surface of the substrate to form the image. Optical components.

  A lithographic apparatus according to an embodiment comprises an illumination system configured to provide a radiation projection beam and a support structure configured to support a patterning structure that serves to impart a pattern to a cross section of the projection beam. A substrate table configured to hold a substrate having a substrate mark, a projection system configured to project a patterned beam onto a target portion of the substrate, and the substrate mark is a back surface of the substrate And an optical component configured to project a translational replica of the substrate mark when disposed on the substrate.

  An alignment tool according to another embodiment includes a substrate table configured to hold a substrate having a substrate mark, and alignment between the reference mark and the substrate mark when the substrate mark is on the back side of the substrate. An alignment system configured to detect an alignment radiation beam and an optical system that enables optical communication between the alignment system and the substrate mark, the net reflection effect of the optical system Is zero, so the alignment system detects the substrate mark without a change in orientation.

  An alignment tool according to another embodiment includes a substrate table configured to hold a substrate having a substrate mark, and a reference mark and an image of the substrate mark when the substrate mark is on the back side of the substrate. An alignment system configured to detect alignment between the alignment radiation beam and an optical component configured to project the substrate mark disposed on the back surface of the substrate to form the image And the net reflection effect is zero, so that the alignment system comprises an optical component configured to detect the image of the substrate mark without a change in orientation relative to the substrate mark.

Embodiments of the present invention will now be described by way of example only with reference to the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings, the same reference numerals denote the same parts.

  Embodiments of the present invention include alignment methods in which inaccuracies due to optical axis rotation are minimized.

FIG. 1 schematically depicts a lithographic apparatus according to a particular embodiment of the invention. This device
An illumination system (illuminator) IL configured to provide a radiation projection beam PB (or UV radiation, for example);
A first support structure (eg mask table) MT configured to support a patterning structure (eg mask) MA, configured to accurately position the patterning structure relative to the item PL A first support structure MT connected to the first positioning device PM;
A substrate table (e.g., a wafer table) WT configured to hold a substrate (e.g., a resist coated wafer) W, a second configured to accurately position the substrate relative to the item PL. A substrate table WT connected to the positioning device PW of
A projection system (eg, a refractive projection lens) configured to image the pattern imparted to the projection beam PB by the patterning structure MA onto the surface of the target portion C (eg including one or more dies) of the substrate W ) It is equipped with PL.

  As shown in FIG. 1, this device is a transmissive device (eg, using a transmissive mask). Alternatively, the device can be a reflective device (eg, using a programmable mirror array of the type referred to above).

  The illuminator IL is configured to receive a radiation beam from a radiation source SO. For example, when the source is an excimer laser, the source and the lithographic apparatus can be separate entities. In such a case, the radiation source is not considered to form part of the lithographic apparatus, and the radiation beam is removed from the radiation source SO using, for example, a beam delivery system BD including a suitable guide mirror and / or beam expander. Passed to the illuminator IL. In other cases, for example when the radiation source is a mercury lamp, the radiation source can be an integral part of the device. The radiation source SO, the illuminator IL, and, if necessary, the beam delivery system BD are collectively referred to as a radiation system.

  The illuminator IL may comprise an adjustment structure AM for adjusting the angular intensity distribution of the radiation beam. Generally, at least the radially outward and / or inner extent of the intensity distribution in the pupil plane of the illuminator (commonly referred to as σ outer and σ inner, respectively) can be adjusted. In addition, the illuminator IL typically includes various other components such as an integrator IN, a capacitor CO, and the like. The illuminator provides a conditioned radiation beam called a projection beam PB having the desired cross-sectional uniformity and cross-sectional intensity distribution.

  The projection beam PB is incident on the mask MA, which is held on the mask table MT. After traversing the mask MA, the projection beam PB passes through the lens PL. The lens PL focuses the projection beam on the target portion C of the substrate W. Using the second positioning device PW and the position sensor IF (for example an interferometer device), the substrate table WT can be accurately moved, for example so that another target portion C is placed in the path of the beam PB. Similarly, using the first positioning device PM and other position sensors (not explicitly shown in FIG. 1), for example after mechanically removing the mask MA from the mask library or during scanning The MA can be accurately positioned with respect to the path of the beam PB. The movement of the object tables MT and WT is generally realized using a long stroke module (rough positioning) and a short stroke module (fine positioning) which form part of the positioning means PM and PW. However, in the case of a stepper (as opposed to a scanner) the mask table MT can be connected only to a short stroke actuator or the mask table MT can be fixed. Mask MA and substrate W may be aligned using mask alignment marks M1, M2 and substrate alignment marks P1, P2.

  The illustrated apparatus can be used in the following preferred modes:

  In step mode, the mask table MT and the substrate table WT remain essentially stationary and the entire pattern imparted to the projection beam is projected onto the surface of one target portion C at a time (ie, one time Static exposure). The substrate table WT is then moved in the X and / or Y direction so that another target portion C can be exposed. In step mode, the maximum size of the exposure field limits the size of the target portion C imaged in a single static exposure.

  In the scan mode, the mask table MT and the substrate table WT are scanned simultaneously, and the pattern imparted to the projection beam is projected onto the target portion C (ie, one dynamic exposure). The speed and direction of the substrate table WT relative to the mask table MT is determined by the enlargement (reduction) magnification and image reversal characteristics of the projection system PL. In scan mode, the maximum size of the exposure field limits the width (in the non-scan direction) of the target portion in a single dynamic exposure, and the length of the scanning motion determines the height (in the scan direction) of the target portion. To do.

  In another mode, the mask table MT holding the programmable patterning structure is essentially fixed and the substrate table WT is moved or scanned while the pattern imparted to the projection beam is projected onto the target portion C. In this mode, a pulsed radiation source is typically used to update the programmable patterning structure as needed each time the substrate table WT is moved or between scanning radiation pulses. This mode of operation can be readily applied to maskless lithography that utilizes programmable patterning structure, such as a programmable mirror array of a type as referred to above.

  Combinations and / or variations on the above described modes of use or entirely different modes of use may also be employed.

The lithographic apparatus further comprises a front-back alignment optical component 20 shown in FIG. 3a. The front-back alignment optical component includes mirrors 21 and 22 for directing a radiation beam along the front-back alignment optical component, which are arranged at 45 ° with respect to the surface of the substrate. The front-back alignment optical component 20 further includes optical elements 23 and 24, which in this example are lens elements having a combined mirror effect. However, having the ability to project focuses the image of the substrate marks P 1, it is possible to use any optical element having a mirroring effect.

  The front-back alignment optical component 20 further includes a prism 25. As can be seen from FIG. 3b, the alignment beam is incident on the prism at an angle of about 45 °. The alignment beam is then reflected off another surface and exits prism 25 at an angle of about 45 °. As can be seen from FIG. 3b, the surface from which the alignment beam is reflected is perpendicular to the substrate table and is substantially parallel to the overall propagation direction of the alignment beam. Accordingly, the prism 25 has a mirroring effect, and a translational replica image 27 is formed near the substrate W. Again, other optical elements with a mirror effect can be used, but prisms have proven particularly suitable.

  The substrate W has a mark 26 having mirror symmetry. The substrate W is initially arranged so that the substrate mark 26 is on the surface, that is, the substrate mark 26 faces the projection system PL. The alignment device 28 is then used to detect the exact position of the substrate W (eg, within measurement error), and then the surface of the substrate W is exposed. Next, the substrate W is turned over, and the substrate is arranged so that the substrate mark 26 is contained in the object window of the front-back alignment optical component. An image of the substrate mark 26 is projected through the front-back alignment optical component and onto the image window of the front-back alignment optical component. The alignment system 28 detects the image of the substrate mark 26. Since the image-to-object vector is known, the position of the substrate mark is known, and the exposure of the other surface of the substrate (ie, the front surface of the substrate facing the projection system PL at this point) is performed. carry out. In this way, the functional features exposed on one side of the substrate W can be accurately aligned with the functional features on the other side of the substrate.

  In the particular embodiment described above, the same alignment system 28 is used to detect the position of the same substrate mark when the substrate mark is on the front surface and the back surface. However, the image of the substrate mark 26 displayed in the image window of the front-back alignment optical component 20 is a mirror image of the substrate mark when the substrate mark is on the surface of the substrate (this mirror symmetry is a result of turning the substrate over. Therefore, if the substrate mark 26 does not have mirror symmetry, the alignment system 28 may not be able to detect the substrate mark 26 both when the substrate mark is on the front surface and when it is on the back surface. There is sex.

  Therefore, the second substrate mark can be arranged at a known displacement from the first substrate mark 26. This second substrate mark will be a mirror image of the first substrate mark. Thus, one substrate mark is used when aligning with the front surface of the substrate and the other substrate mark is used when aligning with the back surface of the substrate. Alternatively, different alignment systems can be used for the two alignments, or the same alignment system can be used, but different reticles can be used for the two alignments. However, such a solution can be cumbersome and can introduce additional errors.

  The embodiment used here is an example of the separation type alignment system 28, but the alignment system can be a through-the-lens type alignment system, and therefore the alignment system constitutes a part of the projection system PL. can do.

  One embodiment described herein can be implemented such that the accuracy of the alignment does not depend on the accuracy with which the position of the optical axis is determined. Such an embodiment can further improve substrate throughput by avoiding the need to align the substrate table to a reticle containing fiducial marks, for example, to determine the exact position of the optical axis. The reticle can simply be aligned to the substrate. However, it is desirable or necessary to know the approximate position of this optical component used to project the translation image, for example to achieve any correction factor There is.

  The term translation replica does not imply that the image of the substrate mark has the same size as the substrate mark, since image enlargement or reduction can be performed. The term translational replica should be understood to mean that the spatial information making up the mark (ie the relative position of the different parts of the mark) does not change substantially in the image. Another way to understand the term translation replica is that when the substrate mark is moved in a particular direction, the image of the substrate mark moves in the same direction.

  Therefore, the translation image is not inverted and is not a mirror image. Alternatively, the image can be inverted twice (or even times) so that the final image does not become a mirror image.

  One embodiment described herein can be implemented such that the rotation of the image of the substrate mark is equal to the rotation of the substrate. A potential advantage of such an embodiment is that problems encountered during fine alignment are avoided.

  For simplicity, a translation replica image can be placed near the substrate. For example, the image of the substrate mark is preferably provided by projecting the image of the substrate mark through front-back alignment optics. This front-back alignment optical component generally has no mirror effect.

  In some embodiments, the substrate mark image is a translational replica of the substrate mark when the substrate mark is on the back side of the substrate, so that the substrate mark image is on the substrate surface such that the substrate mark is on the surface of the substrate. This is a mirror image of the substrate mark when. It may be impossible for the alignment system to align with both the mark and the mirror image of the mark. Therefore, the second substrate mark which is a mirror image of the first substrate mark can be arranged on the substrate. The displacement between the first substrate mark and the second substrate mark is known. The second substrate mark can be used to detect the position of the substrate when the substrate is positioned such that the mark is on the surface of the substrate, and the first substrate mark is a mark of the substrate. Used to detect the position of the substrate when the substrate is placed on the back side. The first substrate mark and the second substrate mark are preferably provided on the same surface of the substrate. Alternatively, or in addition, the first substrate mark may have mirror symmetry so that the first substrate mark can be detected, for example, both on the front surface and on the back surface of the substrate. it can.

  It may be desirable for this optical component to project a translation replica image near the substrate. The lithographic apparatus preferably further comprises an alignment system for detecting alignment between the reference mark and the translational replica of the substrate mark using an alignment radiation beam.

  Another embodiment is the same as the above-described embodiment except for the details described below and shown in FIG. The arrangement shown in FIG. 4 does not form an image of the substrate mark 26, but instead relies on an alignment system 28 having a sufficient depth of focus that can detect the substrate mark through the optical system 31. The optical system 31 includes mirrors 21 and 22 corresponding to the mirrors of the embodiments described above, and a glass rod 32 having a silver-plated top surface 33. In this example, the cross section of the glass rod is rectangular.

  Since there is no lens in this embodiment, this optical system does not produce a mirror around the Y axis. However, the mirrors 21 and 22 are mirrored around the X axis. This reflection is reversed by the silvered top surface 33 of the glass rod 32 acting as an additional mirror. As a result, the alignment system can detect the substrate mark 26 without changing its orientation. In other words, the net reflection effect of the optical system 31 is zero.

  It should be understood that it is not necessary to provide a glass rod 32 having a silver-plated top surface because total reflection at the boundary between the glass rod 32 and its environment can be used. In an alternative configuration, a suitably arranged mirror (not shown) can be used in place of the glass rod 32.

  The optical component may comprise a reflective prism having a reflective surface parallel to the overall direction of the alignment beam and perpendicular to the substrate table. In one embodiment, a reflective prism is added to conventional front-to-back alignment optics. Therefore, this reflecting prism is often used with a mirror imaging system. In other embodiments, additional mirrors are introduced into the optical component. This mirror is preferably parallel to the substrate table. Such an arrangement can be used in particular with a non-mirror imaging system.

  In another embodiment, there are additional front-back alignment optical branches perpendicular to the front-back alignment optical branch shown in FIG. In this embodiment, conventional front-back alignment optics can be used, ie, front-back alignment optics without the additional prism 25 or mirror 32 described in previous embodiments. A front-back alignment optic 45 having a vertical axis in the y direction provides an accurate measurement of the position of the substrate in the y direction, but may have errors in the x direction due to inaccuracies in the optical axis position. . A front-back alignment optic 40 having a vertical axis in the x-direction provides an accurate measurement of the position of the substrate in the x-direction, but may have an error in the y-direction. By combining the exact position in the x direction and the exact position in the y direction, the exact position of the substrate can be calculated.

  Although the embodiment shown in FIG. 5 has four front-back optical branches, in some applications a smaller number of branches (eg two, ie one branch having a longitudinal axis in the x direction) One branch with a longitudinal axis in the y direction) is sufficient.

  While specific embodiments have been described above, it should be understood that the invention may be practiced otherwise than as described. Embodiments further include a computer program (eg, one or more instruction sets or instruction sequences) for controlling the lithographic apparatus to perform the methods described herein, and one or more such programs The storage medium (for example, a disk, a semiconductor memory) which memorize | stored in the form which a machine can read is also contained. The above description is not intended to limit the invention.

1 depicts a lithographic apparatus according to one embodiment of the invention. It is a figure which shows a surface-back surface alignment apparatus. It is a figure which shows the 1st Example shown by the YZ plane. It is a figure which shows the 1st Example shown by XY plane. It is a figure which shows the 2nd Example shown by the YZ plane. It is a figure which shows the 2nd Example shown by XY plane. It is a figure which shows the 3rd Example.

Explanation of symbols

SO radiation source BD beam delivery system IL illumination system (illuminator)
AM adjustment structure IN integrator CO capacitor PB radiation projection beam MA pattern formation structure (mask)
M1 Mask alignment mark M2 Mask alignment mark MT First support structure (mask table)
PM 1st positioning device PL Projection system (lens)
W substrate (wafer)
P1 Substrate alignment mark P2 Substrate alignment mark C Target part WT Substrate table (wafer table)
PW Second positioning device IF Position sensor AS Alignment system 20 Front-back alignment optical component 21 Mirror 22 Mirror 23 Lens element 24 Lens element 25 Prism 26 Substrate mark 27 Translation replica image 28 Alignment system 31 Optical system 32 Glass rod 33 Silver-plated top surface 40 Front-back alignment optical component 45 Front-back alignment optical component

Claims (16)

  1. For a substrate having a first substrate mark and a second substrate mark that is a mirror image of the first substrate mark on the same surface, the substrate is placed in a first direction where the first substrate mark is on the back surface of the substrate. Placing step;
    Projecting a translation replica image that is a similarity of the translated image of the first substrate mark without being inverted through the front- back alignment optics while the substrate is in the first orientation;
    Including alignment method and detecting using the alignment beam alignment between the translational replica image and the reference mark on the reticle.
  2.   The alignment method of claim 1, wherein the image is near the substrate.
  3.   Placing the substrate in a second orientation in which the second substrate mark is on the surface of the substrate, and aligning the substrate using the second substrate mark while in the second orientation The alignment method of Claim 1 including a step.
  4.   The alignment method according to claim 1, wherein, in the first direction, a radiation sensitive layer is provided on the surface of the substrate opposite to the back surface.
  5. For a substrate having a first substrate mark and a second substrate mark that is a mirror image of the first substrate mark on the same surface, the substrate is placed in a first direction where the first substrate mark is on the back surface of the substrate. Placing step;
    Projecting a translation replica image that is a similarity of the translated image of the first substrate mark without being inverted through the front- back alignment optics while the substrate is in the first orientation;
    Detecting an alignment between a reference mark on a reticle and the translation replica image using an alignment beam;
    The Following detection step, using said reticle, radial section a pattern imparted to the beam, the step and the including device manufacturing method for projecting the patterned beam is applied to the target portion of the substrate.
  6. A substrate table configured to hold a substrate having a first substrate mark and a second substrate mark that is a mirror image of the first substrate mark on the same surface;
    When the first substrate mark is disposed on the back surface of the substrate , the first substrate mark is configured to project a translation replica image that is similar to an image translated without being inverted. Front-back alignment optics and
    An alignment system configured to detect alignment between a reference mark on a reticle and the translation replica image of the first substrate mark using an alignment radiation beam;
    Alignment tool with
  7. The alignment tool according to claim 6 , wherein the front- back alignment optical component is configured to project the translation replica image close to the substrate.
  8. The alignment tool according to claim 6 , wherein the front-back alignment optical component includes a reflective prism.
  9. The alignment tool according to claim 8 , wherein the front- back alignment optic includes a mirrored imaging system.
  10. The alignment tool of claim 6 , wherein the front-back alignment optic includes a mirror.
  11. The alignment tool of claim 10 , wherein the front- back alignment optic includes a non-mirror imaging system.
  12. An illumination system configured to provide a radiation beam;
    A support structure configured to support a reticle that serves to impart a pattern to a cross-section of the radiation beam;
    A substrate table configured to hold a substrate having a first substrate mark and a second substrate mark that is a mirror image of the first substrate mark on the same surface;
    A projection system configured to project the patterned beam onto a target portion of the substrate;
    When the first substrate mark is disposed on the back surface of the substrate , the first substrate mark is configured to project a translation replica image that is similar to an image translated without being inverted. Front-back alignment optical components ,
    A lithographic apparatus comprising: an alignment system configured to detect alignment between a reference mark on the reticle and the translation replica of the first substrate mark using an alignment radiation beam .
  13. A substrate table configured to hold a substrate having a first substrate mark and a second substrate mark that is a mirror image of the first substrate mark on the same surface;
    An alignment system configured to detect alignment between a reference mark on a reticle and the first substrate mark using an alignment radiation beam when the first substrate mark is on a back surface of the substrate; ,
    An optical system configured to enable optical communication between the alignment system and the first substrate mark;
    An alignment tool, wherein an image of the first substrate mark received by the alignment system has substantially the same orientation as the first substrate mark.
  14. The alignment tool of claim 13 , wherein the net reflection effect of the optical system is substantially zero.
  15. The alignment tool of claim 13 , wherein the substrate table is configured to support the substrate on the back surface.
  16. A substrate table configured to hold a substrate having a first substrate mark and a second substrate mark that is a mirror image of the first substrate mark on the same surface;
    An optical component configured to project the first substrate mark disposed on the back surface of the substrate to form the image, the net reflection effect being zero, so that the alignment system is An optical component for detecting the image of the first substrate mark without a change in orientation with respect to the first substrate mark ; and a reference mark on a reticle when the first substrate mark is on the back surface of the substrate; An alignment system configured to detect alignment with an image of the first substrate mark using an alignment radiation beam;
    Alignment tool with
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TWI267939B (en) 2006-12-01
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KR20060049974A (en) 2006-05-19
EP1615077A3 (en) 2006-01-25
EP1615077A2 (en) 2006-01-11
US7292339B2 (en) 2007-11-06
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CN1725112A (en) 2006-01-25
SG119276A1 (en) 2006-02-28

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