JP4279703B2 - Autonomous mobile robot system - Google Patents

Autonomous mobile robot system Download PDF

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JP4279703B2
JP4279703B2 JP2004047294A JP2004047294A JP4279703B2 JP 4279703 B2 JP4279703 B2 JP 4279703B2 JP 2004047294 A JP2004047294 A JP 2004047294A JP 2004047294 A JP2004047294 A JP 2004047294A JP 4279703 B2 JP4279703 B2 JP 4279703B2
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sign
position
self
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JP2005242409A (en
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弘幸 上松
久人 中嶋
剛志 山根
龍雄 酒井
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パナソニック電工株式会社
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  The present invention relates to an autonomous mobile robot system, and more particularly to an autonomous mobile robot system that moves while avoiding a dangerous place in a building such as a hospital, office, or public facility and used by ordinary people.

2. Description of the Related Art Conventionally, there is an autonomous mobile robot system in which a robot that autonomously moves within a predetermined movement area is incorporated in a work system such as article transportation and cleaning. In such a system, when the robot autonomously moves to the destination, an unsafe situation such as falling out of an unintended area and falling from the stairs is assumed. Therefore, when the sign (bar code) installed in the dangerous area is recognized and the sign indicating the work area boundary is identified, the operation is temporarily stopped or the traveling control is performed in the work area inside direction. There has been proposed one that performs work while keeping it out of the area (see, for example, Patent Document 1).
JP 2002-323925 A

  However, the robot system as shown in Patent Document 1 described above does not particularly require self-position recognition in a moving environment. For example, the cleaning operation is performed using a movement method such as movement along a wall or intermediate coating while obtaining environmental information such as a wall position. On the other hand, an autonomous mobile robot or the like that transports an article to a destination needs to move along a previously generated movement route while always estimating its own position and avoiding an unsafe situation.

  An object of the present invention is to solve the above-described problems, and to provide an autonomous mobile robot system that prevents a risk of causing an unsafe situation and moves to a destination while avoiding a dangerous place. .

In order to achieve the above object, the invention according to claim 1 is directed to a sign detecting means for detecting a sign provided in a moving environment, a distance measuring means for measuring a distance to a surrounding object, and a robot body. Driving means for steering, steering means for steering the moving direction of the robot body, map storage means for storing information on the map of the moving environment, distance information obtained by the distance measuring means, and storage by the map storage means Self-location calculation means for collating the map information obtained to estimate the self-position, and route generation means for generating a movement route from the current position to the destination based on signals from the sign detection means and the self-position calculation means. An autonomous mobile robot system in which the robot body moves along the movement path generated by the path generation means while estimating the self position by the self position calculation means. , When the label is placed in advance hazardous location detected by said label detecting means comprises a determining means and the self-position is incorrect obtained by the self-position calculating means, the self by the determination unit When it is determined that the position is wrong, the movement of the robot body is temporarily stopped.

According to a second aspect of the present invention, in the autonomous mobile robot system according to the first aspect, the sign detection means performs a self-diagnosis for detecting a failure of the sign detection means. Further, the invention of claim 3, in the autonomous mobile robot system according to claim 1, wherein the label has a unique information, and is stored as map information on the information that the map storage means, said determination The means determines that the self-position is wrong based on the unique information of the sign detected by the sign detection means, the stored map information, and the self-position estimated by the self-position calculation means. is there.

According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, in the autonomous mobile robot system according to the first aspect, an image sensor comprising a CCD and / or a CMOS sensor is provided as the sign detection means.

According to a fifth aspect of the present invention, in the autonomous mobile robot system according to the fourth aspect of the present invention, the sign is a mark in which different colors are combined in the vicinity of each other, and the position / direction of the robot body in the moving environment is determined. It is shown.

According to a sixth aspect of the present invention, in the autonomous mobile robot system according to the fourth aspect , the sign has a plurality of marks of the same color arranged in a pattern, and indicates the position and direction of the robot body in the moving environment.

According to a seventh aspect of the present invention, in the autonomous mobile robot system according to the fourth aspect of the present invention, the signs are arranged with marks having different shapes, and indicate the position and direction of the robot body in the moving environment.

The invention according to claim 8 is the autonomous mobile robot system according to claim 4, wherein the sign is installed on the ceiling of the mobile environment and indicates the absolute direction of the robot body in the mobile environment.

According to a ninth aspect of the present invention, in the autonomous mobile robot system according to the first aspect, the self-position calculating means recognizes the self-position including the output of the sign detection means.

According to a tenth aspect of the present invention, in the autonomous mobile robot system according to the first aspect, the sign detecting means includes one or more laser light receiving elements, and the sign is one or more laser light emitting devices provided on a moving environment side.

  According to the first aspect of the present invention, when the self-position is determined to be wrong by the determining means, the movement of the robot main body is temporarily stopped. You can move to your destination while avoiding it.

According to the second aspect of the present invention, the necessity of adjusting the focus of the image sensor having the lens mechanism is diagnosed before the start of movement of the robot body so that it can cope with the detection of the signs provided on the ceilings having different heights. When it is dark and the sign cannot be detected, the staff is instructed to adjust the lighting so that the sign can be seen, or the image information from the image sensor is always checked to see if the image information is obtained normally. The movement of the robot body can be stopped. In addition, according to the invention of claim 3 , since the correctness of the self-position is determined using the information unique to the sign stored as the map information, the determination can be made surely and easily. For example, by the sign installed in the dangerous place , Risk avoidance and self-position correction can be performed simultaneously.

According to the invention of claim 4, an inexpensive detection means can be constituted by the image sensor.

According to the invention of claim 5 , the position and direction can be displayed with a small number of patterns. Even if the image sensor is not in focus, the position and direction can be detected stably by color detection.

According to invention of Claim 6 or Claim 7, a position and direction can be displayed by a single color mark.

According to the invention of claim 8 , since the sign is installed on the ceiling, the absolute direction in the moving plane can be displayed unlike the case of displaying on the wall. Further, compared to the case where the sign is displayed on the floor or wall surface, there is no obstructive obstacle for the sign detection on the ceiling and the lighting conditions are good, so that stable sign detection can be performed.

According to the ninth aspect of the present invention, since the self position is recognized including the output of the sign detection means, the self position can be correctly recognized.

According to the tenth aspect of the present invention, no illumination is required for the sign detection, and the sign can be installed in the dangerous place to detect the self-position estimation error and avoid the danger.

  Hereinafter, an autonomous mobile robot system according to an embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. FIG. 1 shows an autonomous mobile robot system, and FIG. 2 shows its control block. As shown in FIG. 1, the autonomous mobile robot system includes a sign detection unit 10 that detects a sign 2 provided in a moving environment, a distance measurement unit 12 that measures a distance to an object existing around, and a robot body 1. Driving means 13 for moving the vehicle, steering means 14 for steering the moving direction of the robot body 1, map storage means 15 for storing information on the map of the moving environment, and distance information obtained by the distance measuring means 12. Based on the signals from the sign detection means 10 and the self-position calculation means 16, the travel route to the destination is generated based on the self-position calculation means 16 that collates the map information stored in the map storage means 15 and estimates the self-position. Route generating means 17, and moves along the movement route generated by the route generating means 17 while estimating the self position by the self position calculating means 16.

  The sign 2 is a mark installed in a moving environment. As will be described later, a mark or pattern, an ultrasonic transmitter that emits an ultrasonic signal, a laser light emitting device that emits laser light, or the like is used. The sign detection means 10 includes an image sensor composed of a CCD and / or a CMOS sensor, and an ultrasonic receiver or a laser light receiving element according to the type of the corresponding sign. The distance measuring unit 12 measures a distance distribution (distance information) from an own position of an object existing in the forward direction A in which the robot body 1 moves, and includes a plurality of laser distance sensors, a laser radar, and a plurality of ultrasonic waves. It is composed of a sensor, an ultrasonic array sensor, and the like. In the mobile environment, there is environmental information that originally exists in the mobile environment, such as a pillar and a wall, and is effective for specifying the position in the mobile environment. The distance information obtained by the distance measuring means 12 gives these environmental information.

  The drive means 13 includes a drive source such as a motor that is operated by a battery (not shown), left and right drive wheels that are independently rotationally controlled, and front and rear auxiliary wheels. The steering means 14 steers the robot body 1 by independent control of the number of rotations of the left and right drive wheels. The map storage means 15 stores environmental information indicating the positions of pillars and walls in the moving environment, and map information of a range that moves autonomously necessary for moving the robot body.

  As shown in FIG. 2, the self-position calculation means 16 includes the distance information obtained by the distance measurement means 12, the map information stored in the map storage means 15, and the output from the sign detection means 10. The self position is estimated by collating these pieces of information. Self-position estimation can also be performed by collating distance information with map information. The route generation unit 17 generates a movement route based on signals from the sign detection unit 10 and the self-position calculation unit 16. That is, the movement path is corrected and updated based on the signal while the robot body 1 is moving. The steering means 14 controls the drive means 13 along the generated movement path to move the robot body 1 to the destination.

Further, the autonomous mobile robot system includes a determination unit 18 that determines whether the self position obtained by the self position calculation unit 16 is correct. The determination means 18 determines that the self-position obtained by the self-position calculation means 16 is wrong when the sign detection means 10 detects the sign 2 that is installed in a dangerous place in advance. In addition, when determining whether the self-position is correct or not, the determination unit 18 may also refer to the specific information of the sign stored in advance as map information by the map storage unit 15 in addition to the specific information of the sign detected by the sign detection unit 10. it can. The determination result by the determination unit 18 is transferred to the self-position calculation unit 16 and further transmitted to the steering unit 14, and processing such as temporary stop of the robot body 1 is performed according to the content of the determination result.

  In addition, the autonomous mobile robot system inputs and operates the destination information and the wireless communication means 31 that communicates the movement status and the self-position of the robot body 1 such as once stopped to the remote monitoring device 32 by radio. And a human interface 33 for displaying. The determination result by the determination means 18 is transmitted to the wireless communication means 31 and the human interface 33 via the self-position calculating means 16, and wireless communication and screen display processing are performed respectively.

  Next, an operation flow of autonomous movement in the autonomous mobile robot system will be described with reference to FIG. In the following description, FIGS. 1 and 2 are referred to as appropriate. The robot body 1 moves toward the destination (S11), and the self position calculation means 16 estimates the self position during the movement (S12). If the robot body 1 has arrived at the destination, the autonomous movement ends (Yes in S13). If the robot body 1 has not arrived at the destination (No in S13), the output of the sign detection means 10 is inspected. If no sign is detected (No in S14), the process returns to Step S11.

If the label is only to be detected (Yes in S14), the determination unit 18, the installation was labeled in advance dangerous place when the label detecting means 10 is detecting, the estimated self-position and error and determine the constant ( The autonomous movement is stopped (S16). When it is determined that the estimated self-position is not an error (No in S15), the process returns to step S11, and the above steps are repeated according to a predetermined control interval in the system.

  As described above, in the autonomous mobile robot system, “the danger of moving along a route deviating from the route set to the destination while transporting the object to the destination and not moving normally” If the robot body 1 temporarily stops moving, it is possible to avoid the danger. Further, when the robot main body 1 has lost its own position, it can be detected that the robot body 1 is in a dangerous place by detecting the sign by the sign detection means 10, and the danger can be avoided.

  Next, self-position recognition using a sign will be described with reference to FIG. In the autonomous mobile robot system, the signs detected by the sign detection means 10 have unique information, and the information is stored as map information in the map storage means 15. It is determined that the self-position is wrong based on the unique information of the sign detected by the above, the stored map information, and the self-position estimated by the self-position calculating means 16.

  For example, a sign having a different color depending on the place is installed. As shown in FIG. 4, a red mark is used as the sign 21 indicating the position of the stairs 41, and a yellow mark is used as the sign 22 indicating the position of the step 42. By detecting this sign, the robot body 1 can avoid the danger and at the same time obtain its own position on the map. That is, by detecting the sign 21 at the estimated self-position P0 where no sign should be detected, it is possible to determine that the estimated self-position P0 is erroneous, avoid danger, and obtain the correct self-position P1. You can correct your position. In addition, if it is a range which can detect a label | marker with the label | marker detection means 10, danger prediction is possible because the label | marker was detected, and the determination means 18 is combined with the information from the distance measurement means 12, and self-location It is possible to determine whether the error is correct.

  FIG. 5 shows an operation flow of the robot body in this case. Steps S21 to S25 are the same as steps S11 to S15 in the flowchart shown in FIG. When the determination means 18 determines in step S25 that the estimated self-position is an error (Yes in S25), the determination means 18 stores the unique information of the sign detected by the sign detection means 10 and the stored information. The self position is recognized based on the map information (S26), and then the autonomous movement is stopped (S26).

  Next, the label detection means 10 will be described. As the sign detection means 10, an image sensor composed of a CCD and / or a CMOS sensor can be used. The image sensor may be color-compatible or shade-sensitive. Whether a large number of image sensors having narrow-angle lenses or a small number of image sensors having wide-angle lenses is used, a wide field of view can be observed, and a sign can be detected more reliably.

  Next, according to FIG. 6, the signs detected by the sign detection means 10 are marks in which different colors are combined and arranged in the vicinity of each other, and the position and direction of the robot body 1 in the moving environment by the signs. The example which shows is demonstrated. For example, a combination of a round red mark 21a and a round green mark 21b is used as the sign 21 indicating the position of the staircase 41, and a round pink mark 22a and a round blue mark 22b are used as the sign 22 indicating the position of the step 42. Use a combination. A round shape is simple and preferable as the shape of the mark, but is not particularly limited, and a square or a triangle can be appropriately selected and used. Thereby, the self position can be recognized by simple image processing. Moreover, although it is expected that a green warning at the emergency exit and a red signboard at the fire extinguisher are present in the environment, erroneous detection can be prevented by combining different colors. For example, even if a green mark or a simple red mark is detected, it can be determined that these are not signs for indicating a dangerous place, and the possibility of erroneous detection can be reduced.

  Next, referring to FIG. 7, the sign detected by the sign detection means 10 is a pattern in which a plurality of marks of the same color are arranged, and an example in which the sign indicates the position / direction of the robot body 1 in the moving environment will be described. To do. For example, as the sign 21 indicating the position of the stairs 41, four round red marks are arranged in a convex shape, and as the sign 22 indicating the position of the step 42, four round red marks are arranged in an L shape. Use. The shape and color of the mark are not particularly limited. Accordingly, the sign can be detected even in grayscale image processing, and the self position can be recognized.

  As the label described with reference to FIGS. 6 and 7 described above, a combination of light-emitting elements having different emission colors or a combination of light-emitting elements of the same color with different arrangement patterns can be used. This makes it possible to detect the sign without being affected by illumination.

  Next, referring to FIG. 8, an example will be described in which the signs detected by the sign detection means 10 are marks having different shapes, and the signs indicate the position / direction of the robot body 1 in the moving environment. . For example, a round mark is used as the sign 21 indicating the position of the stairs 41, and an arrow is used as the sign 22 indicating the position of the step 42. The shape and color of the mark are not particularly limited. Marks having different shapes can detect the sign and recognize the self position even in grayscale image processing.

  Next, referring to FIGS. 9 and 10, an example in which a sign detected by the sign detection unit 10 is installed on the ceiling of the moving environment and the sign indicates the absolute direction of the robot body 1 in the moving environment will be described. To do. For example, as shown in FIG. 9, a sign 21 indicating the position of the stairs 41 is arranged on the ceiling in front of the stairs. The round red mark 21a is arranged on the staircase side, and the round green mark 21b is arranged in front of the mark 21a, and the direction of the staircase can be indicated by the arrangement direction of the marks. When a sign is installed on the ceiling, there are few shields, and stable sign detection is possible.

  Further, even when the robot body 1 moves up and down in a multi-story building, the moving environment is basically a combination of two-dimensional planes, and the ceiling surface is usually one-to-one with the floor surface. Since it corresponds, as shown in FIG. 10, the absolute position and direction in a moving environment can be represented by the sign provided on the ceiling. The map storage unit 15 can store, as map information, unique information including the absolute position (Xi, Yi) in the moving environment of the sign 21 on the ceiling and the danger direction D (angle θ) indicated by the position. . If a sign is placed on the wall, it can only indicate relative directions, such as right, left, and straight.

  As described above, when the robot body 1 detects the sign by the sign detection means 10 and recognizes the position by the sign, the path generation means 17 is based on the output from the self-position calculation means 16, A new movement route from the current position to the destination is generated. Thereafter, the robot body 1 automatically resumes movement and moves toward the destination along the newly generated movement route. As a result, the robot body 1 that once lost sight of its own position and headed for the dangerous place can automatically go to the destination.

  Next, an example in which the sign detected by the sign detection means 10 has a specific mark for preventing erroneous detection will be described with reference to FIG. For example, a combination of a round red mark 21a and a round green mark 21b is used as the indicator 21 indicating the position of the staircase 41, and a round red mark 22a and a round blue mark 22b are used as the indicator 22 indicating the position of the step 42. Use a combination. In this example, a specific round red mark is arranged at the end of the sign (on the stairs or step side). This particular mark arrangement can indicate the direction in which the dangerous location is. Further, it is possible to prevent erroneous detection by detecting a specific sign or mark.

  Next, processing when the robot body 1 stops will be described with reference to FIGS. As described above, when it is determined that the estimated self-position is an error, the robot main body 1 temporarily stops moving according to the determination result, and the display screen of the human interface 33 is displayed as shown in FIG. The sign is detected and stopped.

  Further, for example, when the robot main body 1 is temporarily stopped in front of the stairs 41, as shown in FIG. 13, the robot main body 1 communicates with the monitoring device 32 having a remote communication function by the wireless communication means 31 to indicate that it has stopped. indicate. In the autonomous mobile robot system, when the clerk M can monitor the state of the robot main body 1, the clerk M can know that the robot main body 1 has stopped. Therefore, the clerk M can go to the robot body 1 and use the human interface 33 to input or teach the current position of the robot body 1 to resume the autonomous movement.

  Next, referring to FIG. 14 and FIG. 15, a procedure in which the self-position calculating means 16 recognizes the self-position with reference to the output of the sign detection means 10 will be described. If the sign is provided on the ceiling, the coordinates of the sign can be expressed by a coordinate system of map information representing the moving environment. Therefore, as shown in FIGS. 14 (a) and 14 (b), by using the map information coordinate systems X and Y representing the map information, the information of the sign, for example, the sign type n0 in the 0th sign, the sign Coordinates (X0, Y0) and angle α0 in the direction D of the dangerous place as seen from the sign, and as shown in FIG. 14 (c), all of the information of these signs is stored in the map storage means 15. Store as data.

  The robot body 1 that moves in the actual moving space corresponding to the map information, as shown in FIG. 13 above, uses a camera having an image sensor as the head of the robot body 1 as the sign detection means 10 for detecting the sign on the ceiling. In the department. Therefore, the robot body is positioned at the center position of the image captured by the camera. As shown in FIG. 15, when the sign 2 is imaged by a camera that moves integrally with the robot body 1, the position coordinates (xc, yc) of the sign 2 in the camera coordinate system x, y in the image, the sign The positional relationship between the sign 2 and the robot body 1 can be understood from the angle θ representing the danger direction D of 2 and the image size of the sign 2. This will be explained.

  Since the size of the sign 2 can be set in advance, the distance between the sign 2 on the ceiling and the camera on the head of the robot body 1 is obtained based on the detected size of the sign 2 on the image. Thus, the positional relationship between the robot body 1 and the sign 2 is obtained. If the ceiling height and the camera focal length are given as known values, the positional relationship between the robot body 1 and the marker 2 can be obtained by calculation based on these values.

  In addition, the type of the captured sign 2 is obtained from the image. Therefore, the candidate for the marker 2 detected by the marker detection means 10 can be extracted from the markers registered in the map information. That is, the coordinates of the marker 2 (candidate) in the map information coordinate system X, Y are known. Here, in the map information coordinate system X, Y, the marker 2 has a position coordinate (Xi, Yi) and an angle φ.

  Subsequently, the positional relationship between the marker 2 and the robot body 1 in the camera coordinate system x, y is replaced with the relationship between the extracted marker and the robot body 1 in the map information coordinate system. The self position of the robot body 1 is obtained. The direction of the marker 2 on the image is obtained as θ = atan (yc / R). Here, atan (*) is an inverse function of tan (θ), R = root (xc × xc + yc × yc), and root (*) is the square root of *. R is the distance between the origin O and the marker 2 in the camera coordinate system x, y. The robot body 1 is located at the origin of the camera coordinates x and y.

Further, the distance mc between the robot body 1 (that is, the self position) and the marker 2 is given by mc = K × R. Here, K is a conversion coefficient for converting the image size into the size of the real space (moving environment space). As described above, the position coordinates P and the direction Θ in the map information coordinate system X, Y of the robot body 1, that is, the estimated self-position of the robot body 1 is
P = (Xi−mc × sin (θ), Yi−mc × cos (θ))
Θ = φ−θ
Is required.

  Next, the determination of the estimated self position will be described. In the autonomous mobile robot system, after the self-position is estimated, the position measurement result of the environment fixed object such as a wall or a pillar obtained by the means (distance measuring means 12) for obtaining the environment information provided in the robot body 1 is formed. When a significant match is found by comparing the environmental information with the environmental information stored in advance in the map information, the estimated self-position is corrected by collation, and the corrected self-position It concludes that the position was confirmed and the position recognition was successful.

  In the above-mentioned collation, when a significant match is not obtained, the possibility that the candidate of the marker 2 in the above-described map information coordinate system X, Y used for the self-position estimation is erroneous is examined. That is, another marker having the same marker type as the marker 2 detected in the position coordinates (xc, yc) in the camera coordinate system x, y in the image is selected as the second candidate from the map information, The self-position estimated based on the sign is obtained, and the map information and the environment information are collated. Such a procedure is repeated until the environmental information and the map information can be collated for signs of the same kind of sign, that is, until a significant match is obtained. If the collation is unsuccessful after the predetermined number of collations, the fact that the collation could not be performed is displayed on the human interface 33, and the robot body 1 stops moving. As a method for determining the upper limit of the number of times of collation, collation may be performed only for signs within a predetermined distance from the estimated self-position.

  In addition, as described above, if the matching is repeated for the same label type, it is not necessary to make all the labels different in order to recognize the position, and the same label is used in a place where environmental information is different. be able to.

  Next, movement of the robot body 1 when environment information cannot be acquired and self-position recognition cannot be performed will be described with reference to FIG. The robot body 1 shown here is a robot body 1 that moves more autonomously rather than simply continuing the movement stop state in order to avoid danger. When the robot body 1 detects the sign 2 indicating the dangerous place while moving, but the environment information and the self-position recognition are impossible, the dangerous direction indicated by the sign 2 can be resumed without stopping temporarily. Move away from D. That is, the robot body 1 determines that the area D1 ahead of the line formed by the marks 2a and 2b is a dangerous area and moves toward at least the area D2 opposite to the area D1. Then, the robot main body 1 moves until it reaches some kind of obstacle and becomes unable to move, or until environmental information can be acquired, and performs position recognition when the environmental information can be acquired.

  Next, some explanations regarding the label detection means 10 will be given with reference to FIGS. In the autonomous mobile robot system, the robot body 1 performs self-diagnosis for detecting a failure of the sign detection means 10 by testing and detecting a sign set in advance at a predetermined position before the movement starts. For example, the mark has the same shape and arrangement as the marker 21 made up of the marks 21a and 21b provided at the dangerous position as shown in FIG. 17A. However, as shown in FIG. A sign 23 made of is provided at a predetermined position. Because the colors are different, when the sign 23 is detected, the sensor can be diagnosed without being mistaken for the dangerous position.

  Further, at the time of this failure diagnosis, for example, in the case of an image sensor having a lens mechanism, the marker detection unit 10 can diagnose the necessity of focus adjustment using the marker 23. When focus is not achieved, a display for instructing adjustment so that focus is achieved is displayed on the human interface 33 via the self-position calculating means 16, thereby detecting signs provided on ceilings having different heights. It becomes possible to respond.

  In addition, when the sign detection unit 10 is dark and cannot detect the sign, the sign detection unit 10 performs a display instructing the adjustment of the illumination so that the sign can be seen in the same manner as described above, thereby prompting the staff to adjust the brightness, thereby confirming the failure. Can be recognized under stable conditions.

  In addition, when using the image sensor, the sign detection unit 10 always checks whether the image information is normally obtained. If the image information cannot be obtained, the sign detection unit 10 is operated by the steering unit via the self-position calculation unit 16. 14 is controlled to stop the movement of the robot body 1. As shown in FIG. 18A, the output of the image sensor is such that when the sensor has an aperture function, the pixel values are not all zero even when the image is taken in a dark place. Also, FIG. As shown in FIG. 5, when an image cannot be obtained due to a sensor failure, the pixel values are all 0, so that the failure of the image sensor can be detected. As a result, it is possible to clearly distinguish between a dark case and a case where an image cannot be obtained, and prompt the user to exchange the image sensor (camera). In addition, it is possible to prevent the image information from being used without moving and getting lost in a dangerous place.

  Next, with reference to FIG. 19 and FIG. 20, a label using ultrasonic waves and its detection will be described. As shown in FIG. 19, for example, an ultrasonic transmitter 26 having a transmitting horn downward as a sign is provided on the ceiling, and a superposition having a receiving horn upward on the upper part of the robot body 1 as a sign detecting means. A sonic sensor 60 is provided. Thereby, the sign placed in the dangerous place, that is, the ultrasonic wave from the ultrasonic transmitter 26 is detected by the sign detecting means, that is, the ultrasonic sensor 60, and the estimated self-position correctness determination and the risk avoidance are simultaneously performed. Can do. In addition, since an ultrasonic wave is used, illumination is unnecessary for the label detection.

  In addition, erroneous reception of ultrasonic waves can be prevented as described below. As shown in FIG. 20A, pulse ultrasonic waves having a predetermined cycle T are transmitted from the ultrasonic transmitter 26 serving as a marker, and the ultrasonic waves are received by the ultrasonic sensor 60 on the robot body 1 side. In this case, it is determined whether the intended sign is detected or whether the sign is erroneously detected due to noise or the like by determining whether the period of the received ultrasonic wave coincides with a predetermined period. The example of the reception ultrasonic wave illustrated in FIG. 20B includes a period T2 whose period is different from the predetermined period T, and indicates erroneous detection. In this way, it is possible to simultaneously determine whether the estimated self-position is correct and avoid danger while preventing erroneous detection of the sign.

  Next, referring to FIGS. 21 (a) and 21 (b), a description will be given of a label using laser light and its detection. For example, as shown in FIG. 21 (a), laser light emitting devices 27 are provided as signs on the wall surfaces W1, W2 on both sides in the forward direction A in which the robot body 1 moves, and the left and right sides of the robot body 1 are used as sign detection means. A light receiving element 70 for laser light is provided on the surface. As shown in FIG. 21 (b), one or more are provided, respectively, and the marker is detected by receiving laser light on the robot body 1 side. By installing the laser light emitting device on both sides of the passage, it is possible to reliably detect the sign. In addition, by providing a plurality of positions, position information can be expressed. Accordingly, it is possible to simultaneously determine whether the estimated self-position is correct or not and to avoid danger by using a sign installed in the dangerous place.

  In the case of the above-described labeling using the plurality of laser light emitting devices 27, one set of the laser light emitting device 70 on the side of the robot body 1 and the other set of laser beams of the plurality of sets of laser light emitting devices in one label. Is used to determine whether or not the light is accurately received. As a result, it is possible to detect that the laser beam has been shielded for some reason and that the marker has not been correctly recognized. The present invention is not limited to the above-described configuration, and various modifications can be made.

The schematic diagram of the autonomous mobile robot system of this invention. The control block diagram of an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above. The operation | movement flowchart of an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above. Explanatory drawing of the self-position recognition in an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above. The operation | movement flowchart of an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above. Explanatory drawing of the label | marker used with an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above. Explanatory drawing of the label | marker used with an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above. Explanatory drawing of the label | marker used with an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above. The perspective view of an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above. Explanatory drawing of the map information and a sign used with an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above. Explanatory drawing of the label | marker used with an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above. The figure of the display output in an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above. The perspective view of an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above. (A) (b) is explanatory drawing of map information and a sign used with an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above, (c) is data explanatory drawing of the said map information. Explanatory drawing of the self-position recognition based on the position of the sign in the autonomous mobile robot system same as the above. Explanatory drawing of the dangerous place direction in an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above. (A) (b) is a perspective view of an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above. (A) (b) is a figure of the pixel value of the image sensor used with an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above. The side view explaining the sign detection means in an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above. (A) (b) is a time change figure of the signal strength of the label | marker detection means shown in FIG. (A) is an explanatory top view of the sign detection means in an autonomous mobile robot system same as the above, (b) is the perspective view.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Robot main body 2 Marking 10 Marking detection means 12 Distance measurement means 13 Driving means 14 Steering means 15 Map storage means 16 Self-position calculating means 17 Route generation means 18 Judgment means 26 Ultrasonic transmitter (sign)
27 Laser emission device (sign)
60 Ultrasonic sensor (sign detection means)
70 Light receiving element (marking detection means)

Claims (10)

  1. A sign detecting means for detecting a sign provided in the moving environment, a distance measuring means for measuring a distance to an object existing around, a driving means for moving the robot body, and a moving direction of the robot body are steered. Steering means, map storage means storing map information of moving environment, distance information obtained by distance measuring means and self-position for estimating self-position by comparing map information stored in map storage means Computation means, and route generation means for generating a movement route from the current position to the destination based on signals from the sign detection means and the self-position calculation means, and the robot body estimates the self-position by the self-position calculation means An autonomous mobile robot system that moves along the movement route generated by the route generation means,
    When a sign placed in a dangerous place in advance is detected by the sign detection means, it is provided with a determination means for determining that the self-position obtained by the self-position calculation means is wrong, and the self-position is determined by the determination means. An autonomous mobile robot system characterized by temporarily stopping the movement of the robot body when it is determined that is wrong.
  2.   The autonomous mobile robot system according to claim 1, wherein the sign detection means performs self-diagnosis for detecting a failure of the sign detection means.
  3. The sign has unique information, and the information is stored as map information in the map storage means,
    The determining means determines that the self-position is wrong based on the unique information of the sign detected by the sign detecting means, the stored map information, and the self-position estimated by the self-position calculating means. The autonomous mobile robot system according to claim 1.
  4.   2. The autonomous mobile robot system according to claim 1, further comprising an image sensor comprising a CCD and / or a CMOS sensor as the sign detection means.
  5.   5. The autonomous mobile robot system according to claim 4, wherein the sign is a mark in which different colors are combined and arranged in the vicinity of each other, and indicates the position and direction of the robot body in the movement environment.
  6.   5. The autonomous mobile robot system according to claim 4, wherein the sign is a pattern in which a plurality of marks of the same color are arranged, and indicates a position and direction of the robot body in a moving environment.
  7.   5. The autonomous mobile robot system according to claim 4, wherein the sign is a mark in which a mark having a different shape is arranged, and indicates a position / direction of the robot body in the movement environment.
  8.   The autonomous mobile robot system according to claim 4, wherein the sign is installed on a ceiling of the mobile environment and indicates an absolute direction in the mobile environment of the robot body.
  9.   The autonomous mobile robot system according to claim 1, wherein the self-position calculating means recognizes the self-position including the output of the sign detection means.
  10.   The autonomous mobile robot system according to claim 1, wherein the sign detection means includes a light receiving element for laser light, and the sign is one or more laser light emitting devices provided on a moving environment side.
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JP4984650B2 (en) * 2006-05-30 2012-07-25 トヨタ自動車株式会社 Mobile device and self-position estimation method of mobile device
KR100785784B1 (en) * 2006-07-27 2007-12-13 한국전자통신연구원 System and method for calculating locations by landmark and odometry
JP5069439B2 (en) * 2006-09-21 2012-11-07 パナソニック株式会社 Self-position recognition system
JP4840162B2 (en) * 2007-01-26 2011-12-21 パナソニック電工株式会社 Autonomous mobile system
JP2009217330A (en) * 2008-03-07 2009-09-24 Toyota Motor Corp Mobile robot system and its control method
JP5276931B2 (en) * 2008-09-05 2013-08-28 株式会社日立産機システム Method for recovering from moving object and position estimation error state of moving object
JP5546214B2 (en) * 2009-11-19 2014-07-09 株式会社日立産機システム mobile robot
JP5916011B2 (en) * 2012-04-27 2016-05-11 株式会社日立製作所 Automated guided vehicle
JP6052045B2 (en) * 2013-05-01 2016-12-27 村田機械株式会社 Autonomous mobile
JP6412352B2 (en) * 2014-07-01 2018-10-24 株式会社豊田自動織機 Automatic mobile vehicle and automatic mobile vehicle control system
CN105518560B (en) 2014-10-31 2018-02-02 深圳市大疆创新科技有限公司 A kind of location-based control method, device, removable movement machine and robot
JP6569342B2 (en) * 2015-07-10 2019-09-04 日本精工株式会社 Mobile robot
CN107028558A (en) * 2016-02-03 2017-08-11 原相科技股份有限公司 Computer-readable medium storing and automatic sweeping machine
CN105919517B (en) * 2016-06-15 2019-04-23 上海未来伙伴机器人有限公司 Automatic cleaning machine people's device

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