JP4273911B2 - Vehicle exhaust purification system - Google Patents

Vehicle exhaust purification system Download PDF

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JP4273911B2
JP4273911B2 JP2003347770A JP2003347770A JP4273911B2 JP 4273911 B2 JP4273911 B2 JP 4273911B2 JP 2003347770 A JP2003347770 A JP 2003347770A JP 2003347770 A JP2003347770 A JP 2003347770A JP 4273911 B2 JP4273911 B2 JP 4273911B2
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forced regeneration
filter
particulate matter
accumulation amount
vehicle
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JP2005113752A (en
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嘉則 ▲高▼橋
健司 児玉
聖 川谷
智 平沼
真一 斎藤
好央 武田
礼子 百目木
律子 篠▲崎▼
晋 纐纈
久夫 羽賀
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三菱ふそうトラック・バス株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/40Engine management systems

Description

  The present invention relates to an exhaust emission control device for a vehicle that collects particulate matter such as carbon fine particles contained in exhaust gas of an engine with a filter.

  Particulate matter (PM: Particulate Material) whose core is carbon particulates is mixed in the exhaust gas of engines, especially diesel engines, and diesel engines to collect PM without releasing it into the atmosphere A diesel particulate filter (DPF) system has been studied to be installed in the exhaust system, and some of the exhaust systems have been put into practical use.

  This DPF system has a PM purification rate of about 90%, and is an aftertreatment technology that is indispensable for complying with PM regulations that will become stricter in the future. However, PM collected by the filter is deposited on the filter. Since the amount increases, it is necessary to incinerate this to regenerate the DPF. In particular, when the PM deposition amount reaches the PM deposition limit, if PM combustion is started, a large amount of PM is excessively combusted, so the DPF may be damaged at an abnormally high temperature. It is necessary to ensure that the PM is removed from the filter so that the PM deposition amount does not reach the PM deposition limit.

For this reason, in recent years, a system called a continuous regeneration type DPF using an oxidation catalyst has been proposed. This continuous regeneration type DPF is a system that performs continuous regeneration of a filter by continuously oxidizing (burning) PM accumulated on the filter from a low exhaust gas temperature using NO 2 generated by an oxidation catalyst. However, under operating conditions where the exhaust gas temperature is low, such as in urban areas, sufficient PM combustion (oxidation) cannot be obtained with the continuous regeneration DPF using this oxidation catalyst, and the filter is continuously regenerated. Therefore, forced regeneration control for forcibly removing (combusting) PM is necessary.

  In this forced regeneration control, fuel is deposited on the filter by increasing the filter temperature to a temperature at which PM is oxidized (combusted) by performing post injection of fuel or heating by a burner or an electric heater during traveling. This is control for regenerating the filter by oxidizing (burning) and removing PM. For example, Patent Documents 1 and 2 disclose an example of an exhaust purification device that performs forced regeneration control during traveling by heating a burner or an electric heater according to the amount of accumulated PM.

Japanese Patent Publication No. 3-9285 JP-A-8-284463

  However, such a forced regeneration control during traveling may not be established when the exhaust gas temperature is significantly low, such as extremely low load operation, and when such operating conditions are continued, the PM to the filter is further increased. The amount of deposition increases, and the PM deposition limit may be exceeded, leading to filter failure.

  Therefore, in view of the above problems, an object of the present invention is to provide an exhaust emission control device for a vehicle that does not cause filter damage due to excessive PM deposition under any operating condition.

  An exhaust emission control device for a vehicle according to a first aspect of the present invention that solves the above problem includes a filter that collects particulate matter contained in engine exhaust gas, and a particulate matter that detects the amount of particulate matter deposited on the filter. Substance accumulation amount detection means, warning means for issuing a warning when the particulate matter accumulation quantity reaches a predetermined amount, and forced regeneration forcibly removing the particulate matter deposited on the filter by forcible regeneration And forced regeneration control means for performing forced regeneration control of the filter based on the particulate matter accumulation amount detection value of the particulate matter accumulation amount detection means. In the forced regeneration control means, the particulate matter When the accumulation amount increases and the particulate matter accumulation amount detection value reaches the first state where the first set value is reached, the filter is forcibly activated by operating the forced regeneration means when the vehicle is traveling. In the second state, the generated particulate matter accumulation amount is further increased, and the particulate matter accumulation amount detection value reaches a second set value higher than the first set value. When the vehicle is stopped, the forced regeneration means is operated to forcibly regenerate the filter so that the filter is forcibly regenerated. The particulate matter accumulation amount further increases, and the particulate matter accumulation amount detection value When the third state reaches a third set value higher than the second set value, the warning means is activated to issue a warning.

  The exhaust emission control device for a vehicle according to a second aspect of the present invention is the exhaust purification device for a vehicle according to the first aspect, wherein the forced regeneration control means prevents the exhaust gas temperature from exceeding a predetermined temperature when the third state is reached. Further, by limiting the travel of the vehicle, the temperature of the filter is prevented from being raised above the predetermined temperature.

  According to a third aspect of the present invention, there is provided an exhaust emission control apparatus for a vehicle according to the first or second aspect of the present invention, comprising forced regeneration notification means, wherein the forced regeneration control means is in the first state. The forced regeneration notification means is operated to notify that the forced regeneration during traveling is being executed, and when the second state is reached, the forced regeneration notification means is operated to perform forced regeneration when the vehicle is stopped. It is characterized by notifying that it is necessary.

  According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a vehicle exhaust gas purification apparatus according to the first, second or third aspect of the present invention, wherein the particulate matter accumulation amount detecting means is based on a filter differential pressure. The particulate matter deposition amount by a simple calculation based on a first detection means for detecting a deposition amount, an air excess rate frequency at which the excess air ratio is equal to or lower than a predetermined threshold, and a filter temperature frequency at which the filter temperature is equal to or higher than a predetermined threshold. The forced regeneration control means, wherein the forced regeneration control means detects the first particulate matter accumulation amount detected by the first detection means and the second particulate matter deposition detected by the second detection means. The larger amount is selected as the particulate matter deposition amount detection value.

  According to a fifth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a vehicle exhaust gas purification apparatus according to the fourth aspect of the invention, wherein the particulate matter accumulation amount detection means includes a third detection means for detecting a travel distance of the vehicle, The forced regeneration control means is characterized in that the forced regeneration control means is operated to perform forced regeneration of the filter every time the travel distance detected by the third detection means reaches a predetermined travel distance.

  According to the exhaust emission control device for a vehicle of the first aspect of the present invention, when the particulate matter deposition amount increases and the particulate matter deposition amount detection value reaches the first set value that reaches the first set value, the vehicle travels when the vehicle travels. By operating the forced regeneration means (post injection, etc.), the filter is forcibly regenerated during running, the particulate matter deposition amount further increases, and the particulate matter deposition amount detection value is set to the first value. When the second state reaches a second set value higher than the value, the forced regeneration means is operated at the time of stopping (post injection, etc.) to perform forced regeneration at the time of stopping to forcibly regenerate the filter. When the particulate matter deposition amount further increases and the particulate matter deposition amount detection value reaches the third set value that is higher than the second set value, the warning means is activated to activate the particulate matter deposition. Warning of abnormal amount To, to suppress deterioration of the operating performance of the engine, and, in any operating condition, it is possible to prevent generation of filter damage due to excessive deposition of the particulate matter. That is, when continuous regeneration is established, fuel consumption can be ensured without performing forced regeneration control, and the forced regeneration control in two stages of forced regeneration during driving and forced regeneration when stopped improves the feasibility of forced regeneration. In addition, if any forced regeneration is not established, in order to promote filter maintenance at the dealer by an abnormal warning of the amount of accumulated particulate matter, filter damage due to excessive accumulation of particulate matter can be promoted. It can be surely prevented.

  According to the exhaust emission control device for a vehicle of the second aspect of the invention, when the vehicle enters the third state, the vehicle temperature is restricted so that the exhaust gas temperature does not exceed a predetermined temperature, whereby the temperature of the filter is set to the predetermined temperature. In order not to raise it more than this, it is possible to prevent the filter from being deteriorated or broken due to abnormal combustion of particulate matter before the filter maintenance by the dealer.

  Further, according to the exhaust emission control device for a vehicle of the third invention, when the first state is reached, the forced regeneration notification means is operated to notify that the forced regeneration during traveling is being executed, and the second state When it becomes, the driver can easily know the driving state (forced regeneration state when traveling) and the forced regeneration time when the vehicle is stopped in order to notify that it is necessary to perform the forced regeneration when stopping. be able to.

  According to the exhaust emission control device for a vehicle of the fourth aspect of the invention, as the particulate matter accumulation amount detection means, the first detection means for detecting the particulate matter accumulation amount based on the filter differential pressure, and the excess air ratio is predetermined. And a second detection means for detecting the particulate matter accumulation amount by a simple calculation based on the frequency of excess air ratio below the threshold and the filter temperature frequency at which the filter temperature is above the predetermined threshold, and is detected by the first detection means. Since the larger of the first particulate matter accumulation amount and the second particulate matter accumulation amount detected by the second detection means is selected and used as the particulate matter accumulation amount detection value, the forced regeneration timing is detected more reliably. can do.

  According to the exhaust emission control device for a vehicle of the fifth aspect of the invention, the particulate matter accumulation amount detection means has the third detection means for detecting the travel distance of the vehicle, and the travel distance detected by the third detection means is predetermined. Each time the value is reached, the forced regeneration control means is operated to perform forced regeneration of the filter, so that forced regeneration can be performed more reliably.

  Embodiments of the present invention will be described below in detail with reference to the drawings.

  FIG. 1 is a configuration diagram of an exhaust emission control device for a vehicle according to an embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 2 is an explanatory diagram of forced regeneration control in the exhaust purification device, and FIG. 3 is a travel restriction in a fail mode in the forced regeneration control. FIG. 4 is an explanatory diagram showing a procedure for determining the forced regeneration start time in the forced regeneration control. 5, FIG. 6 and FIG. 7 are diagrams for explaining a simple calculation method of the PM accumulation amount used in the forced regeneration control, FIG. 8 is a diagram for explaining forced regeneration control during travel, and FIG. 9 is a diagram for explaining forced regeneration control during stoppage. FIG.

  A diesel engine 1 of a vehicle such as a truck or a bus illustrated in FIG. 1 is an in-line four-cylinder engine, and an injector 2 for injecting fuel into a combustion chamber is provided in each cylinder. The fuel injection timing and fuel injection amount from the injector 2 are controlled by an engine ECU (Electronic Controlled Unit). That is, the high-pressure fuel discharged from the engine-driven high-pressure pump 4 is stabilized by the fuel pressure adjusting unit 5 controlled by the engine ECU 3, then led to the common rail 6, and through each fuel pipe 7 branched from the common rail 6. Are supplied to each injector 2. And the opening timing and opening time of an electromagnetic valve (not shown) provided in each injector 2 are controlled based on the fuel injection timing and the fuel injection amount calculated by the engine ECU 3, so that each injector 2 moves to each combustion chamber. The fuel injection timing and the fuel injection amount are controlled.

  In the engine ECU 3, the fuel injection amount and the fuel injection are based on the rotational speed of the diesel engine 1 obtained from the crank angle detection value of the diesel engine 1 by the crank angle sensor 8 and the accelerator pedal depression amount detection value by the accelerator pedal depression amount sensor 9. Ask for time.

  The engine ECU 3 performs the forced regeneration control during travel and the forced regeneration control during stop of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) 10 in addition to the fuel main injection control, and the expansion after the main injection is performed. Control of additional fuel injection (post-injection) in which additional fuel is injected from the injector 2 in the stroke or exhaust stroke is also performed. That is, the engine ECU 3 also functions as a forced regeneration control unit.

  The exhaust system of the diesel engine 1 includes an exhaust manifold 12, an exhaust gas turbine 16 of a turbocharger, an exhaust pipe 13 connected to the exhaust manifold 12 through the exhaust gas turbine 16, and a DPF provided in the middle of the exhaust pipe 13. An exhaust aftertreatment device 11 as a system is provided. Therefore, the exhaust gas discharged from the combustion chamber of the diesel engine 1 flows in order through the exhaust manifold 12, the exhaust gas turbine 16, the exhaust pipe 13, and the exhaust aftertreatment device 11 and is released into the atmosphere.

  The exhaust aftertreatment device 11 includes a filter 10, a pre-stage catalyst 14 disposed at the front stage (upstream side) of the filter 10, and a post-stage catalyst 15 disposed at the rear stage (downstream side) of the filter 10. is there.

  The filter 10 is made of ceramics such as SiC and cordierite, and has a honeycomb structure in which a large number of exhaust gas passages are stacked in parallel. Either the upstream side or the downstream side of each exhaust gas passage adjacent to each other. One end is closed and the other end is open. Therefore, after the exhaust gas flows into the exhaust gas flow channel whose upstream end is opened and the downstream end is closed, the exhaust gas passes through the side walls forming these exhaust gas flow channels and is adjacent to the exhaust gas flow channel (upstream). Into the exhaust gas passages whose side end portions are closed and the downstream end portions are opened, and discharged from the downstream end portions of these exhaust gas passages. At this time, particulate matter (PM) such as carbon particles contained in the exhaust gas is collected at the side wall portion.

The pre-stage catalyst 14 is supported on a catalyst carrier 21, and the catalyst carrier 21 has a structure in which both ends are opened so that exhaust gas can easily pass from the upstream side to the downstream side. Precatalyst 14 is an oxidation catalyst such as Pt, to produce a highly active NO 2 by oxidizing NO in the exhaust gas O 2. With this NO 2 , PM deposited on the filter 10 can be oxidized and removed from a low exhaust gas temperature (for example, about 250 ° C.), and the filter 10 can be continuously regenerated. Note that the present invention is not necessarily limited to the case where the front stage catalyst 14 is provided. The case where the front stage catalyst 14 is not provided and the filter 10 carries the oxidation catalyst, or the front stage catalyst 14 and the filter 10 which carries the oxidation catalyst are used. Even when combined, the filter 10 can be continuously regenerated.

  The post-stage catalyst 15 is also an oxidation catalyst such as Pt, and is supported on the catalyst carrier 22, and the catalyst carrier 22 is also open at both ends so that the exhaust gas can easily pass from the upstream side to the downstream side. It has become. The post-stage catalyst 15 is for oxidizing the CO generated during forced regeneration and preventing the CO from being released into the atmosphere.

  Further, the exhaust aftertreatment device 11 is provided with a differential pressure sensor 23, a pressure sensor 24, and temperature sensors 25 and 26. The differential pressure sensor 23 detects the differential pressure of the exhaust gas before and after the filter 10 (upstream side and downstream side) and outputs a detection signal to the engine ECU 3. The pressure sensor 24 detects the exhaust gas pressure upstream of the filter 10. Then, a detection signal is output to the engine ECU 3, and the temperature sensors 25 and 26 detect the exhaust gas temperature upstream of the filter 10 (downstream of the front catalyst 14) and the downstream side of the filter 10 (upstream of the rear catalyst 15). The exhaust gas temperature is detected and a detection signal is output to the engine ECU 3.

  An exhaust valve (exhaust throttle valve) 27 for an exhaust brake is provided in the middle of the exhaust pipe 13 on the upstream side of the exhaust aftertreatment device 11, and a drive device 28 for the exhaust valve 27 is based on a control signal from the engine ECU 3. When the exhaust valve 27 is closed and the exhaust valve 27 is closed, the exhaust brake is activated.

  A turbocharger wastegate valve 29 is provided at the outlet of the exhaust manifold 12, and the drive device 30 of the wastegate valve 29 is activated based on a control signal from the engine ECU 3 to open the wastegate valve 29. Thus, the exhaust gas can be escaped from the exhaust manifold 12 to the exhaust pipe 13 by bypassing the exhaust gas turbine 16.

Further, the diesel engine 12, an exhaust gas recirculation device (EGR) 31 is provided for the purpose of reducing the NO X. The EGR 31 includes a recirculation pipe 32 leading from the exhaust manifold 12 to the intake manifold 17, an exhaust gas cooler 33 provided in the middle of the recirculation pipe 32, and an EGR valve 34 provided at the exhaust gas inlet of the recirculation pipe 32. Based on the control signal from the engine ECU 3, the drive device 35 of the EGR valve 34 is operated to open and close the EGR valve 34, thereby adjusting the recirculation amount of the exhaust gas.

  On the other hand, the intake system of the diesel engine 1 is provided with an intake manifold 17, an intake pipe 18 connected to the intake manifold 17, an intercooler 20 provided in the middle of the intake pipe 18, and in the middle of the intake pipe 18. A turbocharger compressor 19 that is rotationally driven by the exhaust gas turbine 16 is provided. Therefore, intake air flows in the intake pipe 18, the intercooler 20, and the intake manifold 17 in order, and is sucked into the combustion chamber of the diesel engine 1.

  An air flow sensor 36 is provided in the intake pipe 18. The air flow sensor 36 detects the amount of intake air that is sucked and supplied to each combustion chamber of the diesel engine 12 and outputs a detection signal to the engine ECU 3. Further, an intake throttle valve 37 is provided in the middle of the intake pipe 18, and based on a control signal from the engine ECU 3, a drive device 38 of the intake throttle valve 37 is operated to open and close the intake throttle valve 37. The intake air amount can be adjusted.

  In addition, the instrument panel 39 in the passenger compartment has some abnormalities such as a forced regeneration lamp 40 as a forced regeneration notification means for notifying the driver that the forced regeneration during running is being performed, and an abnormal PM accumulation amount. There is provided a fail lamp 41 that warns the driver of this, and a forced regeneration start switch 42 that is manually operated by the driver and instructs the engine ECU 3 to start forced regeneration when the vehicle is stopped. Turning on / off of the forced regeneration lamp 40 and the fail lamp 41 is controlled by a control signal from the engine ECU 3. An operation signal of the forced regeneration switch 42 is output to the engine ECU 3.

  Further, in the engine ECU 3, a detection signal of a vehicle speed sensor 43 that detects a vehicle speed, a detection signal of a brake sensor 44 that detects an ON / OFF state of a parking brake, a detection signal of a gear position sensor 45 that detects a neutral state of a gear, etc. Also, a detection signal of the clutch sensor 46 for detecting the clutch connection state is input.

  Here, the forced regeneration control of the filter 10 will be described with reference to FIGS.

  In the graph shown in FIG. 2, the horizontal axis represents the travel distance or travel time of the vehicle, and the vertical axis represents the PM accumulation amount of the filter 10. In FIG. 2, (1) shows a state in which continuous regeneration of the filter 10 is established because the exhaust gas temperature is high (for example, 250 ° C. or higher) while traveling at a relatively high load. At this time, since the continuous regeneration of the filter 10 by the front catalyst 14 is sufficiently performed, the PM emission amount and the PM combustion amount are balanced, so that the PM accumulation amount does not increase and is substantially constant at a relatively low level. Yes. Therefore, at this time, forced regeneration is unnecessary and normal operation is performed.

  On the other hand, under an operating condition in which the state of the exhaust gas temperature continues at a relatively low load, such as traveling in an urban area, sufficient PM combustion (oxidation) cannot be obtained only by continuous regeneration using an oxidation catalyst, and the filter 10 In some cases, the PM accumulation amount increases as the travel distance (time) increases as shown in (2).

  Therefore, the engine ECU 3 is in a first state in which the PM accumulation amount increases as shown in (2) and the PM accumulation amount detection value by the PM accumulation amount detection means (details will be described later) reaches the first set value A. Sometimes (see A1), the filter 10 is forcibly regenerated by operating a forced regeneration means (described later in detail) when the vehicle is running, that is, by performing fuel post-injection control by the engine ECU 3 (described later in detail). Performs forced regeneration control during driving. As a result, the PM deposition amount decreases as shown in (3). After that, if there is no change in the operating state, the amount of accumulated PM increases again, so that the forced regeneration control during traveling is similarly repeated (see A2 and A3). The traveling time in this case includes not only the case where the engine 1 is in a load state but also the case where the engine 1 is idling (the engine 1 is idling in a no-load state).

  Further, during the forced regeneration during traveling, the engine ECU 3 turns on the forced regeneration lamp 40 when the PM accumulation amount detection value reaches the first set value A (until the forced regeneration during traveling ends). ) To inform the driver that the forced regeneration during driving is in progress.

  Further, when the exhaust gas temperature is significantly low, such as extremely low load operation, forced regeneration during traveling may not be established, and when such operating conditions are continued, as shown in (4), The amount of PM deposited on the filter 10 increases.

  Therefore, in the engine ECU 3, the PM accumulation amount further increases as in (4), and the PM accumulation amount detection value by the PM accumulation amount detection means reaches the second set value B higher than the first set value A. 2 (see B1), the filter 10 is forced by operating the forced regeneration means when the vehicle is stopped, that is, by performing fuel post-injection control by the engine ECU 3 when the vehicle is stopped (details will be described later). To perform forced regeneration control when the vehicle is stopped.

  The forced regeneration at the time of stopping is not started automatically as in the case of forced regeneration at the time of driving, but is started manually. That is, the engine ECU 3 informs the driver that the forced regeneration lamp 40 needs to be performed by stopping the blinking of the forced regeneration lamp 40 when the PM accumulation amount detection value reaches the second set value B. When the driver confirms that the forced regeneration lamp 40 is blinking, the driver stops the vehicle at a safe place (the engine is in an operating state) and manually operates (for example, pushes) the forced regeneration start switch 42.

  As a result, an operation signal is output from the forced regeneration start switch 42 to the engine ECU 3 to instruct the start of forced regeneration at the time of stopping, and the engine ECU 3 performs forced regeneration control at the time of stopping based on this instruction. Due to the forced regeneration at the time of stopping, the PM accumulation amount decreases as shown in (5). After that, if there is no change in the operating state, the amount of accumulated PM increases again, so that the forced regeneration control during stopping is repeated in the same manner.

  In this second state, the engine ECU 3 makes sure that the forced regeneration is performed when the vehicle is stopped, so that the stop judgment condition (the accelerator pedal depression amount detected by the accelerator pedal depression amount sensor 9 is 0, the vehicle speed sensor 43 The vehicle speed detected by the brake sensor 44 is 0, the parking brake state detected by the brake sensor 44 is ON (brake operation state), and the gear state detected by the gear sensor 45 is neutral), and then the forced regeneration start switch When the vehicle is operated, forced regeneration is started when the vehicle is stopped.

  When any one of these stop determination conditions is satisfied, it may be determined that the vehicle is in a stopped state, and more reliably when a plurality of (including all cases) conditions are satisfied. It may be determined that the vehicle is stopped. Furthermore, it may be added to the determination condition that the clutch state detected by the clutch sensor 4 is a connected state, that is, that the driver has not depressed the clutch pedal. Thereby, it can confirm more reliably that the driver is not going to drive a vehicle.

  Further, when the driver does not operate the forced regeneration start switch 42 and the forced regeneration at the time of stopping is not performed, or when the forced regeneration at the time of stopping is insufficient, the filter 10 is further passed to as shown in (6). In some cases, the amount of accumulated PM increases, resulting in a PM overdeposition state.

  Therefore, in the engine ECU 3, the PM accumulation amount further increases as in (6), and the PM accumulation amount detection value by the PM accumulation amount detection means reaches the third setting value C higher than the second setting value B. When the state 3 is reached (see C1), the fail lamp 41 and the forced regeneration lamp 40 serving as warning means are lit to warn the driver of the PM accumulation amount abnormality.

  When the driver confirms that the fail lamp 41 and the forced regeneration lamp 40 are lit (abnormal warning of the PM accumulation amount), the driver drives the vehicle to the dealer, requests the dealer to maintain the filter, and reliably regenerates the filter 10. Perform the process. In this case, instead of waiting for the regeneration process of the filter on which PM is deposited to be completed, the filter may be replaced with another filter that has already been regenerated.

  Further, when the engine ECU 3 is in the third state, the vehicle is restricted so that the exhaust gas temperature does not exceed a predetermined temperature (for example, 400 ° C.), and the temperature of the filter 10 is not increased above the predetermined temperature. Like that. In the third state, although the PM deposition limit has not been reached, the PM is over-deposited, so when the exhaust gas temperature becomes high and the temperature of the filter 10 increases, the PM deposited on the filter 10 burns at once. This is because the filter 10 may be deteriorated or damaged. As the travel restriction at this time, the fuel injection amount is limited by, for example, providing a filter that restricts the input signal of the accelerator pedal depression amount in the third state, or defining an upper limit value of the fuel injection amount. Thus, as shown in FIG. 3, the load (torque τ) and the engine speed Ne are limited, and the exhaust gas temperature (filter temperature) is limited to the predetermined temperature or less.

  The PM accumulation limit D is a limit amount of PM accumulation that may cause the DPF to become abnormally high temperature due to the combustion of PM, and is determined by the material of the filter 10 and the like.

  Based on FIGS. 4 to 9, the forced regeneration control of this embodiment will be described in more detail.

  First, detection of forced regeneration time will be described with reference to FIG. As shown in FIG. 4, the PM accumulation amount detection means detects the PM accumulation amount by a first detection means for detecting the PM accumulation amount based on the filter differential pressure, and a simple calculation based on the excess air ratio and the filter temperature. There are second detection means and third detection means for detecting the travel distance of the vehicle.

  Specifically, as shown in FIG. 4, the engine ECU 3 first obtains the first PM accumulation amount based on the differential pressure (filter differential pressure) between the upstream side and the downstream side of the filter 10 detected by the differential pressure sensor 23 ( Steps S1 and S2: Details of the calculation method of the PM accumulation amount by the filter differential pressure will be described later), and the excess air frequency at which the excess air ratio is equal to or lower than a predetermined threshold and the filter temperature frequency at which the filter temperature is equal to or higher than the predetermined threshold The second PM deposition amount is obtained by simple calculation based on (Steps S3 and S4: Details of the simple calculation method will be described later).

  Then, the larger one of the first PM deposition amount and the second PM deposition amount is selected (step S5), the selected first PM deposition amount or second PM deposition amount, the first set value A, the second set value B, and the third When it is determined that the first PM deposition amount or the second PM deposition amount has reached the first set value A, the second set value B, or the third set value C by comparing with the set value C (step S6), The forced regeneration during driving is started or forced regeneration when stopped (step S7), and the fail lamp 41 and the forced regeneration lamp 40 are lit to warn of an abnormal PM accumulation amount.

  Although the method for obtaining the PM accumulation amount based on the filter differential pressure is relatively reliable and desirable as a PM accumulation amount detection unit, the oxidation of PM is performed at the central portion and the outer peripheral portion of the filter 10 during continuous regeneration. A difference may occur in the removal state, and the correlation between the PM accumulation amount and the filter differential pressure may deteriorate, and as a result, the detected value of the PM accumulation amount may be smaller than the actual value. For this reason, as described above, the larger one of the first PM accumulation amount by the filter differential pressure and the second PM accumulation amount by the simple calculation is selected.

  Further, as shown in FIG. 4, the engine ECU 3 performs forced regeneration (forced regeneration during traveling or forced regeneration when stopped) every time the travel distance measured by a travel distance measuring means such as a travel distance meter (not shown) reaches a predetermined value. Repeatedly (steps S6 and S7). This forced regeneration is performed separately from the forced regeneration performed based on the comparison result between the first PM deposition amount or the second PM deposition amount and the first set value A and the second set value B as described above.

  Estimating (detecting) the PM accumulation amount based on the travel distance is relatively low in accuracy, but has high reliability. Therefore, it is effective to perform forced regeneration every time the predetermined travel distance is reached. Although it is inevitable that an error occurs in the value of the PM accumulation amount calculated by the first detection unit and the second detection unit by repeatedly performing the forced regeneration of the filter, every time the travel distance reaches a predetermined value. When the forced regeneration is performed, the error can be reset, and an appropriate value of the PM deposition amount can be obtained by the first and second detection means.

  Next, a simple calculation method for the PM deposition amount will be described with reference to FIGS. As shown in FIG. 5 and the following equation, the current (current) PM deposition amount PM2 (g / L) is the PM deposition amount accumulated during the subsequent Δt time on the previously determined PM deposition amount PM1 (g / L). It is determined by adding the quantity ΔPM.

PM2 = PM1 + ΔPM
= PM1 + (PM emission amount-PM combustion amount)
= PM1 + (a · Δt−b · PM1 · Δt)
= PM1 + Δt (ab−PM1)

  The PM deposition amount ΔPM can be obtained from the difference between the PM emission amount and the PM combustion amount during the Δt time (PM emission amount−PM combustion amount) as in the above equation. The PM emission amount is the PM amount discharged from the diesel engine 1, and the PM combustion amount is the PM amount that is oxidized (combusted) and removed from the filter 10 by continuous regeneration or the like.

  The PM emission amount is obtained by multiplying the PM emission rate a (g / h) by Δt as in the above equation. Between the PM emission rate a and the frequency at which the excess air ratio λ becomes equal to or less than the threshold value during the Δt time (the excess air rate frequency: λ frequency), the λ frequency increases as shown in FIG. Accordingly, there is a correlation such that the PM emission rate a also increases.

  The excess air ratio λ is obtained from the following equation based on the intake air amount Qa detected by the air flow sensor 36 and the fuel injection amount Qf obtained from the accelerator pedal depression amount detected by the accelerator pedal depression amount sensor 9.

  λ = Qa / (Qf · 14.7)

  Then, a λ frequency at which the excess air ratio λ is equal to or less than a predetermined threshold value during Δt time is obtained (for example, λ frequency is 3/10 if it is equal to or less than 3 times for 10 times during Δt time), Based on this λ frequency and a correlation map between the λ frequency and the PM discharge rate a as shown in FIG. The rate a is obtained, and the PM emission amount is obtained as described above using the PM emission rate a.

  On the other hand, the PM combustion amount is obtained by multiplying the PM combustion rate coefficient b by the previous PM deposition amount PM1 and Δt as in the above equation. That is, the PM combustion rate (g / h) is obtained by multiplying the PM combustion rate coefficient b and the PM accumulation amount PM1, and the PM combustion amount is obtained by multiplying this PM combustion rate by Δt. Between the PM combustion rate coefficient b and the frequency (filter temperature frequency) at which the temperature of the filter 10 becomes equal to or higher than the threshold value during Δt time, as shown in FIG. There is a correlation such that the PM combustion rate coefficient b also increases.

  Since the exhaust gas temperature can be regarded as the filter temperature, the exhaust gas temperature upstream of the filter 10 detected by the temperature sensor 25 is used as the temperature of the filter 10 here. Then, the filter temperature frequency at which the filter temperature becomes equal to or higher than the threshold value during Δt time is obtained (for example, the filter temperature frequency is 3/10 if the threshold temperature is equal to or higher than 3 times during Δt time). Based on the temperature frequency and the correlation map between the filter temperature frequency and the PM combustion rate coefficient b as shown in FIG. The combustion rate coefficient b is obtained, and the PM combustion amount is obtained as described above using the PM combustion rate coefficient b.

  The PM deposited on the filter 10 can be oxidized (combusted) and removed by oxygen at a high temperature of, for example, about 600 ° C., but in continuous regeneration using an oxidation catalyst such as the pre-stage catalyst 14, for example, about 250 ° C. Even at low temperatures, oxidation (combustion) removal of PM is possible. For this reason, the threshold value with respect to the filter temperature is, for example, 250 ° C. here.

  The simple calculation procedure is as shown in FIG. That is, first, the excess air ratio λ of the diesel engine 1 and the filter temperature Tf of the filter 10 are obtained (steps S11 and S12), and between the excess air ratio λ and the filter temperature Tf and their respective threshold values, Δt time. The λ frequency and the filter temperature frequency are obtained (step S13). Thereafter, the PM emission rate a is obtained from the λ frequency and the correlation map (step S14), and the PM combustion rate coefficient b is obtained from the filter temperature frequency and the correlation map (step S15).

  Subsequently, the PM emission amount during Δt time from the PM emission rate a is obtained (step S16), and the PM combustion amount during Δt time is obtained from the PM combustion rate coefficient b and the previous PM accumulation amount PM1 (step S16). Step S17). Then, a PM deposition amount ΔPM during Δt time is obtained from the difference between the PM emission amount and the PM combustion amount (step S18), and this (current) from this PM deposition amount ΔPM and the previous PM deposition amount PM1. PM accumulation amount PM2 is obtained (step S19). In this case, the initial value of the previous PM deposition amount PM1 is set to 0, for example.

  Next, a method for calculating the PM deposition amount based on the filter differential pressure will be described. Based on the filter differential pressure ΔP, the PM deposition amount PMf can be calculated from the following equation.

ΔP = C ・ μ ・ Q α
= (C 1 · (PMf + a)) · μ · Q α
C 1 · (PMf + a) = ΔP / (μ · Q α )
PMf = (1 / C 1 ) (ΔP / (μ · Q α )) − a

Here, a filter differential pressure detection value obtained by the differential pressure sensor 23 is used as the filter differential pressure ΔP. μ is a viscosity coefficient and can be obtained as a function of the exhaust gas temperature T (μ = f (T)). Q is the exhaust gas flow rate and is calculated from the following equation. C, C 1 , α, and a are constants obtained by experiments.

Q = MRT / P
Where M: exhaust mass flow rate
R: Gas constant
T: Filter temperature
P: Filter inlet temperature.

  Next, the forced regeneration control during traveling will be described based on FIG. In FIG. 8, the horizontal axis represents time, and the vertical axis represents the upstream catalyst outlet temperature (filter inlet temperature), which is assumed to be during low-speed running. Note that the outlet temperature of the upstream catalyst 14 (the inlet temperature of the filter 10) is detected by a temperature sensor 25.

  As shown in FIG. 8, in the present embodiment, the post-catalyst is not simply injected at the time of forced regeneration during travel, but the exhaust gas temperature is raised by the exhaust gas temperature raising means such as the intake throttle to activate the front catalyst. Do.

  More specifically, when the detection value of the PM accumulation amount reaches the first set value A at the time of (1) in FIG. 8 and the time of forced regeneration during traveling is detected, the post injection is relatively early. Start early post injection. In the region of the engine condition A from the time point (1) to the time point (2), the intake air amount is reduced by closing the intake throttle valve 37 and performing the intake air throttle (except during idling), The temperature of the exhaust gas passing through the front catalyst 14 is increased by opening the waste gate valve 29 to reduce the intake air amount, increasing the fuel injection amount of the main injection to increase the engine speed during idling (idling speed), etc. To raise the pre-stage catalyst 14 to the catalyst activation temperature (for example, 250 ° C.).

  After confirming from the detection value of the temperature sensor 25 at the time of (2) that the pre-catalyst outlet temperature has reached 250 ° C., switch the post map in which the post injection timing is set and compare it from the early post injection. The post-injection is switched to the late post-injection 1 which is a post-injection with a late target injection timing.

  Even in the region of the engine condition B from the time point (2) to the time point (5), the intake throttle valve 37 is closed to perform the intake throttle, the wastegate valve 29 is opened to reduce the intake amount, and the EGR valve 34 The exhaust gas temperature is raised by closing EGR and performing EGR cut (reduction of the exhaust gas recirculation amount).

  When it is confirmed that the upstream catalyst outlet temperature has risen and the upstream catalyst outlet temperature detection value of the temperature sensor 25 has reached a predetermined value (for example, 600 ° C.), the upstream catalyst outlet temperature detection value is fed back and the upstream catalyst outlet temperature detected. Feedback control is performed by controlling the post injection amount so as to maintain the temperature (filter inlet temperature) at the predetermined temperature.

  When it is confirmed that the integrated value of the oxygen supply amount (intake air amount) from the time of reaching 600 ° C. to the time of (5) has reached a predetermined value, the late post injection is terminated, that is, the forced regeneration during traveling is terminated. To do.

  Next, the forced regeneration control during stop will be described based on FIG. In FIG. 9, the horizontal axis represents time, and the vertical axis represents engine speed. The engine speed is obtained based on the detection value of the crank angle sensor 8.

  As shown in FIG. 9, in the present embodiment, the post-injection is not started immediately at the time of forced regeneration at the time of stopping, but the exhaust gas temperature is increased by the exhaust gas temperature raising means such as the intake throttle, etc. Post injection is performed.

  When the detected value of the PM accumulation amount reaches the second set value B at time (1) in FIG. 9 and the forced regeneration start switch 42 is manually operated, the fuel injection amount of the main injection is increased to set the idling rotational speed to a predetermined value. When it is confirmed that the predetermined rotational speed has been reached at the time point (2), the idling rotational speed is maintained until the time point (3) when the preheating is finished. As a result, the temperature of the exhaust gas passing through the front catalyst 14 is increased. Further, in the region of the engine condition A from the time point (1) to the time point (3), the intake air amount is reduced by closing the intake throttle valve 37 and performing the intake air throttle, and the waste gate valve 29 is opened and the intake air is reduced. The temperature of the exhaust gas that passes through the pre-stage catalyst 14 is also increased by reducing the amount and closing the exhaust valve 27 to reduce the amount of exhaust gas.

  Thereby, the pre-stage catalyst 14 is heated (preheated) and activated. When it is confirmed from the detection value of the temperature sensor 25 at the time point (3) that the temperature of the front catalyst 14 (the front catalyst outlet temperature) has risen to the catalyst activation temperature (for example, 250 ° C.), the idling speed is further set to the predetermined speed. Late post-injection is started at the time when the pressure is increased to (time (4)). As a result, in the activated front catalyst 14, the oxidation of unburned fuel supplied to the front catalyst 14 is promoted by post injection, and the PM deposited on the filter 10 is oxidized (burned) by the oxidation heat and removed. Is done. Late post-injection continues until time (5).

  In the region of the engine condition B from the time point (3) to the time point (5), not only the idling speed is kept constant at the high speed as described above, but also the intake throttle valve 37 is closed and the intake throttle is closed. The exhaust gas temperature is also raised by opening the waste gate valve 29 to reduce the intake air amount, and the upstream catalyst outlet temperature (filter inlet temperature) is maintained at a predetermined temperature (for example, 600 ° C.). In this case, the same feedback control as in the case of forced regeneration during traveling may be performed.

  When it is confirmed that the integrated value of the oxygen supply amount (intake air amount) from the time point (4) to the time point (5) has reached a predetermined value, the late post injection is terminated, that is, the forced regeneration at the time of stopping is terminated. . Thereafter, the idling speed is returned to the original low speed.

  As described above, according to the present embodiment, when continuous regeneration is established, fuel consumption can be ensured without performing forced regeneration control, and two-stage forced regeneration control of forced regeneration during traveling and forced regeneration when stopped Therefore, if any forced regeneration is not established, in order to promote filter maintenance at the dealer by an abnormal warning of the PM accumulation amount from the viewpoint of filter protection, Filter damage due to overdeposition can be reliably prevented.

  Further, according to the present embodiment, when the third state is reached, the temperature of the filter 10 is not raised above the predetermined temperature by restricting the running of the vehicle so that the exhaust gas temperature does not exceed the predetermined temperature. Therefore, it is possible to prevent the PM 10 from being deteriorated or damaged due to abnormal combustion of PM before the filter maintenance by the dealer.

The present invention relates to an exhaust emission control device for a vehicle that collects particulate matter such as carbon fine particles contained in engine exhaust gas with a filter, and in particular, the particulate matter collected and deposited on the filter by an oxidation catalyst. The present invention is useful when applied to an exhaust gas purification apparatus for a vehicle that performs continuous regeneration of a filter by oxidizing and removing the generated NO 2 .

1 is a configuration diagram of an exhaust emission control device for a vehicle according to an embodiment of the present invention. It is explanatory drawing of the forced regeneration control in the said exhaust gas purification apparatus. It is explanatory drawing of the driving | running | working restrictions at the time of the fail mode in the said forced regeneration control. It is explanatory drawing which shows the judgment procedure of the forced regeneration start time in the said forced regeneration control. It is explanatory drawing of the simple calculation method of PM deposition amount used by the said forced regeneration control. It is explanatory drawing of the simple calculation method of PM deposition amount used by the said forced regeneration control. It is explanatory drawing of the simple calculation method of PM deposition amount used by the said forced regeneration control. It is explanatory drawing of the forced regeneration control at the time of driving | running | working. It is explanatory drawing of the forced regeneration control at the time of a stop.

Explanation of symbols

1 Diesel engine 2 Injector 3 Engine ECU
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 4 High pressure pump 5 Fuel pressure adjustment part 6 Common rail 7 Fuel line 8 Crank angle sensor 9 Accelerator pedal depression amount sensor 10 Diesel engine particulate filter 11 Exhaust aftertreatment device 12 Exhaust manifold 13 Exhaust pipe 14 Pre-stage catalyst 15 Post-stage catalyst 16 Exhaust turbine 17 Intake manifold 18 Intake pipe 19 Compressor 20 Intercooler 21, 22 Catalyst carrier 23 Differential pressure sensor 24 Pressure sensor 25, 26 Temperature sensor 27 Exhaust valve 28 Drive device 29 Wastegate valve 30 Drive device 31 EGR
32 Recirculation piping 33 Exhaust gas cooler 34 EGR valve 35 Drive device 36 Air flow sensor 37 Intake valve 38 Drive device 39 Instrument panel 40 Forced regeneration lamp 41 Fail lamp 42 Forced regeneration start switch 43 Vehicle speed sensor 44 Brake sensor 45 Gear sensor 46 Clutch sensor

Claims (5)

  1. A filter for collecting particulate matter contained in the exhaust gas of the engine;
    Particulate matter accumulation amount detection means for detecting the accumulation amount of the particulate matter on the filter;
    Warning means for issuing a warning when the particulate matter accumulation amount reaches a predetermined amount;
    Forced regeneration means forcibly regenerating by forcibly removing the particulate matter deposited on the filter;
    Forced regeneration control means for performing forced regeneration control of the filter based on the particulate matter accumulation amount detection value of the particulate matter accumulation amount detection means;
    In this forced regeneration control means,
    When the particulate matter accumulation amount increases and the particulate matter accumulation amount detection value reaches the first state where the first set value is reached, the forced regeneration means is operated during vehicle travel, thereby the filter Forcibly regenerate when driving,
    When the particulate matter accumulation amount further increases and the particulate matter accumulation amount detection value reaches a second state where the second set value is higher than the first set value, the forced regeneration means is stopped when the vehicle is stopped. By performing the operation, forced regeneration at the time of stopping to forcibly regenerate the filter,
    When the particulate matter accumulation amount further increases and the particulate matter accumulation amount detection value reaches a third state in which the third set value is higher than the second set value, the warning means is activated. An exhaust emission control device for a vehicle characterized by issuing a warning.
  2. The exhaust emission control device for a vehicle according to claim 1,
    The forced regeneration control means prevents the temperature of the filter from rising above the predetermined temperature by restricting the vehicle so that the exhaust gas temperature does not exceed the predetermined temperature when the third state is reached. An exhaust emission control device for a vehicle.
  3. The exhaust emission control device for a vehicle according to claim 1 or 2,
    Having forced regeneration notification means,
    In the forced regeneration control means, when the first state is reached, the forced regeneration notification means is operated to inform that the forced regeneration during running is being executed, and when the second state is reached, An exhaust emission control device for a vehicle, wherein the forced regeneration notification means is operated to notify that it is necessary to perform forced regeneration when the vehicle is stopped.
  4. The exhaust emission control device for a vehicle according to claim 1, 2, or 3,
    As the particulate matter accumulation amount detection means, a first detection means for detecting the particulate matter accumulation amount based on a filter differential pressure, an air excess rate frequency at which the excess air ratio is equal to or less than a predetermined threshold, and a filter temperature are predetermined. A second detection means for detecting the particulate matter deposition amount by simple calculation based on a filter temperature frequency that is equal to or higher than a threshold of
    The forced regeneration control means selects the larger one of the first particulate matter accumulation amount detected by the first detection means and the second particulate matter accumulation amount detected by the second detection means, and selects the particulate matter. An exhaust emission control device for a vehicle, characterized in that the accumulated amount detection value is used.
  5. The exhaust emission control device for a vehicle according to claim 4,
    As the particulate matter accumulation amount detection means, it has a third detection means for detecting the travel distance of the vehicle,
    The forced exhaust control means performs forced regeneration of the filter by operating the forced regeneration control means every time the travel distance detected by the third detection means reaches a predetermined travel distance. Purification equipment.
JP2003347770A 2003-10-07 2003-10-07 Vehicle exhaust purification system Active JP4273911B2 (en)

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