JP4256482B2 - Apparatus and method for transferring heat from a hot electrostatic chuck to a lower cold body - Google Patents

Apparatus and method for transferring heat from a hot electrostatic chuck to a lower cold body Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4256482B2
JP4256482B2 JP3926397A JP3926397A JP4256482B2 JP 4256482 B2 JP4256482 B2 JP 4256482B2 JP 3926397 A JP3926397 A JP 3926397A JP 3926397 A JP3926397 A JP 3926397A JP 4256482 B2 JP4256482 B2 JP 4256482B2
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Prior art keywords
heat transfer
surface
electrostatic chuck
thermal
body
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JPH09326431A (en
Inventor
シュムニス グレゴリー
タオカ ジェイムス
ステガー ロバート
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アプライド マテリアルズ インコーポレイテッドApplied Materials,Incorporated
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Priority to US08/605,823 priority Critical patent/US5730803A/en
Priority to US08/605823 priority
Application filed by アプライド マテリアルズ インコーポレイテッドApplied Materials,Incorporated filed Critical アプライド マテリアルズ インコーポレイテッドApplied Materials,Incorporated
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C16/00Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes
    • C23C16/44Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the method of coating
    • C23C16/46Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the method of coating characterised by the method used for heating the substrate
    • C23C16/463Cooling of the substrate
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C16/00Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes
    • C23C16/44Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the method of coating
    • C23C16/458Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the method of coating characterised by the method used for supporting substrates in the reaction chamber
    • C23C16/4582Rigid and flat substrates, e.g. plates or discs
    • C23C16/4583Rigid and flat substrates, e.g. plates or discs the substrate being supported substantially horizontally
    • C23C16/4586Elements in the interior of the support, e.g. electrodes, heating or cooling devices
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C16/00Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes
    • C23C16/44Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the method of coating
    • C23C16/46Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the method of coating characterised by the method used for heating the substrate
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C16/00Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes
    • C23C16/44Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the method of coating
    • C23C16/46Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the method of coating characterised by the method used for heating the substrate
    • C23C16/463Cooling of the substrate
    • C23C16/466Cooling of the substrate using thermal contact gas
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/67005Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/67011Apparatus for manufacture or treatment
    • H01L21/67098Apparatus for thermal treatment
    • H01L21/67109Apparatus for thermal treatment mainly by convection
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/683Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping
    • H01L21/6831Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using electrostatic chucks
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/683Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping
    • H01L21/6831Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using electrostatic chucks
    • H01L21/6833Details of electrostatic chucks

Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to an apparatus and method for transferring heat from a hot pedestal of an electrostatic chuck to a lower cold plate. More particularly, the overall structure of the electrostatic chuck of the present invention thermally isolates the hot vacuum processing chamber from the cold and atmospheric portion of the apparatus including the electrical connector and several heat transfer elements. can do.
[0002]
[Prior art]
In plasma processing of articles such as semiconductor wafers, a common problem is the heat generated by the physical vapor deposition mechanism that allows energy to be transferred to the object. In high electron density plasma (HDP), RF energy is electromagnetically coupled to the “source” region of the plasma chamber to generate and maintain a high electron density plasma. In addition, the RF “bias” energy is generally capacitively coupled in the plasma while the object is being processed, leading the ion field toward the object (typically a semiconductor substrate).
[0003]
The preferred processing method used in semiconductor processing today is the “HDP / CVD” process, in which a high density plasma is used in combination with an RF bias, while sputtering and chemical vapor deposition dielectric layers. To deposit. This processing method enables the deposition of a dielectric film over the entire metal line without forming voids. The bias energy is typically 2.5 KW or more through the semiconductor substrate supported on the electromagnetic chuck. As a result of the conduction of energy to the object that occurs in such a high density plasma, a typical processing temperature of a semiconductor substrate is, for example, about 350 ° C. Heat transfer away from the semiconductor substrate (typically a silicon wafer) is a serious problem. Furthermore, the temperature difference between the semiconductor substrate and the underlying electrostatic chuck may reach several hundred degrees Celsius. When the semiconductor substrate is a silicon wafer, the temperature difference between the wafer and the lower electrostatic chuck increases in the radial direction from the center of the wafer toward its outer edge. As heat is conducted from the wafer to the underlying electrostatic chuck, a radial temperature difference occurs on the surface of the wafer itself. This temperature difference on the wafer surface can cause inhomogeneities in processes performed on the wafer surface.
[0004]
U.S. Pat. No. 5,350,497 issued to Collins et al. On Sep. 27, 1994 and Collins et al. European Patent Application No. 93099608.3 published Jun. 14, 1994. Discloses an electrostatic chuck for holding an object to be processed in a plasma reaction chamber. The electrostatic chuck comprises a metal pedestal coated with a layer of dielectric material, which circulates a cooling gas between the top surface of the electrostatic chuck and the object supported on the top surface. A cooling gas distribution system for distribution to Typically, the dielectric material is alumina, which is obtained by a thermal spray process to form a layer having a thickness exceeding the final desired thickness, for example, 15-20 mils (380-508 microns). To be attached. After the dielectric material is deposited, it is ground to a final desired thickness, eg, 7 mils (180 microns) layer. The top surface of the dielectric layer is then formed over the entire surface of the layer to form a pattern of cooling gas distribution grooves and small holes that penetrate the dielectric layer connecting with the cooling gas distribution cavities in the lower aluminum pedestal. It is processed.
[0005]
The electrostatic chuck of the type disclosed in the aforementioned US Pat. No. 5,350,497 and European Patent Application No. 93099608.3 is from a semiconductor substrate to be processed to an underlying electrostatic chuck. Enables heat conduction. In that case, temperature control of the electrostatic chuck becomes a problem. A heating element is embedded in the electrostatic chuck for the purpose of increasing the temperature of the chuck platen. The electrostatic chuck pedestal also includes a cooling fluid channel to reduce the temperature of the electrostatic chuck pedestal. By using such heating means and cooling means together with a thermocouple, the electrostatic chuck pedestal can be controlled. If the semiconductor substrate is about 350 ° C. and the underlying pedestal is about 250 ° C., it is necessary to find a cooling fluid that functions at this high temperature. Water is a suitable cooling fluid, but water will boil at 100 ° C. under atmospheric pressure.
[0006]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
Here, the challenge is to find a way to extract heat from the surface at a temperature of 250 ° C. or higher without the need for special cooling fluids or high pressure fluid systems.
[0007]
[Means for Solving the Problems and Effects of the Invention]
The present invention describes an apparatus and method for transferring heat from a hot electrostatic chuck to a lower cold plate. Furthermore, the overall structure of the electrostatic chuck according to the present invention provides a portion for the high temperature vacuum process on the upper surface of the electrostatic chuck for a low temperature atmospheric pressure heat transfer process on the lower surface of the electrostatic chuck below it. It can be thermally and pressure isolated from this part.
[0008]
The heat transfer device according to the present invention comprises:
(A) at least one heat transfer thermal well having a first surface in thermal contact with the surface of the main body of the electrostatic chuck and a second surface in thermal contact with the low temperature body; as well as,
(B) a lubricant between the second surface of the heat reservoir and the cold body;
It has.
[0009]
A typical thermal well is a thin cylinder with one end open and the other closed. This cylindrical body is in contact with the surface of the main body of the electrostatic chuck at its open end. Also, the closed end of the cylinder is typically a flat surface designed to transfer heat to the lower cold plate.
[0010]
In a more preferred embodiment of the heat transfer device, at least one thermal well is in thermal contact with the electrostatic chuck body via an electrostatic chuck body and a heat transfer plate in thermal contact with the thermal well. The heat transfer plate has a heat transfer fluid conduit or a conduction path, and functions as a manifold for guiding the heat transfer fluid toward the upper surface of the electrostatic chuck.
[0011]
If contact between the thermal well and the electrostatic chuck body is obtained by welding or brazing the open end of the thermal well to the electrostatic chuck surface or heat transfer plate, atmospheric pressure is reliably established in the thermal well. It is desirable that an opening be formed at the closed end of the thermal well so that it can be maintained.
[0012]
The preferred lubricant used in the atmospheric pressure heat transfer process is thermal grease. Suitable thermal greases include a thermally conductive material, typically particulates such as boron nitride particles or aluminum particles.
[0013]
The present invention also provides:
(A) An electrostatic chuck body in which electrodes for high-voltage direct current and high-frequency electrical input are embedded, in which a heating element that can be used to heat the electrostatic chuck is embedded The main body of the electric chuck,
(B) a controlled heat transfer device including a heat transfer plate having a first surface in thermal contact with the body of the electrostatic chuck and a second surface in contact with at least one heat transfer thermal well. ,
(C) a low temperature body in contact with the at least one heat transfer thermal well,
Including a device used for semiconductor processing.
[0014]
A preferred embodiment of the thermal transfer thermal well is a thin-walled cylinder made of a thermally conductive material that is thermally end-equipped on the surface of a heat transfer plate that is used to transfer heat from an electrostatic chuck. In contact with, preferably attached. The other end of the thin cylindrical body is mainly attached to the heat transfer surface of the base. Thermal grease is attached to the heat transfer surface of the base of the thermal well. With this thermal grease, the heat transfer surface can slide on the low-temperature body with which it contacts. When heated, the electrostatic chuck expands and moves the thermal well in the radial direction. The cold body (eg, a cold plate) is preferably maintained at room temperature (about 20-25 ° C.). If the heat transfer surface of the base of the thermal well cannot slide freely on the surface of the cold plate, excessive thermal stress is generated and the electrostatic chuck cracks. The low-temperature body is preferably a flat surface so as to be in close contact with the heat transfer surface of the base of the thermal well, and the heat transfer surface of the base is also preferably flat. Better heat transfer between the heat transfer surface of the base of the thermal well and the cold body is achieved when the thermal grease between them contains an additive that improves thermal conductivity, such as metal particulates.
[0015]
Isolate the electrostatic chuck body (electrostatic chuck body located in the part of the semiconductor processing chamber exposed to the plasma / vacuum environment) from any heat transfer plate, thermal well and cold body thermally and pressurely. This is made possible by housing elements such as heat transfer plates, thermal wells, and cold bodies in an enclosure that is sealed against the portion of the electrostatic chuck that is exposed to the plasma and vacuum environment. The Note that the heat transfer plate is optional if it is not necessary as a heat transfer fluid manifold.
[0016]
In a preferred embodiment of the isolation feature of the present invention, the enclosure is formed using a thin cylindrical body, the first end of the thin cylindrical body being the surface of the electrostatic chuck that is not the workpiece processing surface. And the second end of the thin cylindrical body is sealed against the wall of the semiconductor processing chamber in which the electrostatic chuck is operated. The coefficient of linear expansion of the material of the thin cylindrical body should be very close to the material constituting the body of the electrostatic chuck. The portion surrounded by the thin cylindrical body can be maintained at ambient atmospheric pressure when the electrostatic chuck is operated in a plasma / vacuum environment. The use of an atmospheric pressure environment within the enclosure surrounding the heat transfer plate offers numerous advantages. For example, since thermal grease cannot be used in a vacuum system (evaporates and contaminates surfaces in the system), it allows the use of a heat transfer device. Generally speaking, high voltages can cause discharge breakdown in a vacuum, so use a solid dielectric without the vacuum gap surrounding the lead, or feed through at atmospheric pressure. Need to form. The same applies to the AC wire used as a power source for the heating element. In addition, the use of an atmospheric environment reduces the possibility of corrosion of components such as wiring. Furthermore, there is no possibility of sputter contamination of the exposed material by Ni, Fe, or other processing materials that can contaminate the semiconductor substrate or workpiece after processing in the apparatus. Depending on the shape of the semiconductor processing chamber forming the enclosure, at least a portion of the apparatus of the present invention can remain open to the atmosphere, facilitating maintenance of the heat transfer connection. And if the wire is placed in the part of the device that is open to the environment, the risk of arcing is greatly reduced and maintenance of such electrical connections is facilitated.
[0017]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
In the following, an apparatus and method according to the present invention for transferring heat from a hot electrostatic chuck to a lower cold plate thereunder will be described. More particularly, the overall structure of the electrostatic chuck combined with the heat transfer device of the present invention is to insulate the hot vacuum process chamber from the cold atmospheric part of the device containing the heat transfer device (thermal Can be isolated).
[0018]
Referring to FIG. 1, a conventional plasma processing chamber 100 is shown which electrostatically clamps a workpiece 104 (typically a semiconductor wafer) in place inside the chamber 100 during processing. An electrostatic chuck 102 is provided. The electrostatic chuck 102 includes a lift finger opening 106 that accommodates the lift finger 107. The lift finger 107 can lift the semiconductor wafer from the upper surface of the electrostatic chuck 102 after the power is turned off and the clamping force is lost. it can.
[0019]
2A is a plan view of the electrostatic chuck 102. The electrostatic chuck 102 has an annular metal insert 110 disposed in the vicinity of the peripheral edge thereof. The insert 110 sits in a groove or channel 116 machined in the surface 201 of the pedestal 118 of the electrostatic chuck 102. The insert 110 cooperates with the channel 116 of the pedestal 118 (see FIG. 2B) and provides a flow channel 112 for heat transfer fluid (typically cooling gas) around the entire circumference of the electrostatic chuck 102. . The upper surface 201 of the electrostatic chuck pedestal 118 is covered with a dielectric layer 114. FIG. 2C is a partially cutaway enlarged perspective view of the metal insert 110. In order to allow the heat transfer fluid to flow from the flow channel 112 through the dielectric layer 114, an opening 115 is formed through the thin metal layer 113 covering the flow channel 112. Further, as shown in FIG. 2B, the opening 202 penetrates the dielectric layer 114 so as to connect to the opening 115 passing through the metal insert 110 and the flow channel 112 in the metal insert 110. Is formed.
[0020]
An electrostatic chuck of the type shown in FIGS. 1 and 2A to 2C is typically used at a temperature lower than about 100 ° C. A heat transfer fluid such as a cooling gas circulating through the flow channel described above helps heat transfer from the workpiece 104 to the electrostatic chuck 102 and this heat needs to be removed from the electrostatic chuck 102. . Furthermore, the temperature of the electrostatic chuck 102 rises due to the application of the bias RF (high frequency) and the chuck HVDC (high voltage direct current) to the electrostatic chuck 102. This heat is removed using cooling water and the temperature of the electrostatic chuck 102 is controlled to operate at about 65 ° C. (same temperature as the processing chamber walls). The maximum temperature at which the electrostatic chuck 102 can operate is about 100 ° C. based on the use of cooling water, between the workpiece at about 350 ° C. and the electrostatic chuck operated over the range of about 65 ° C. to 100 ° C. Is essentially the same (about 270 ° C.). This large temperature difference becomes a considerable driving force for transferring heat from the wafer to the electrostatic chuck below it. It is the heat loss from the outer edge of the electrostatic chuck and from the outer edge of the wafer that further removes heat from the wafer. Under such circumstances, it is not uncommon to find a temperature difference from the center of the wafer to the edge direction (radial direction) of about 75 ° C. In a high density plasma chemical vapor deposition process, a 75 ° C. variation in temperature across the workpiece surface has a significant impact on the processing and quality control of devices formed on the workpiece 104. For example, the thickness of the coating or coating deposited on the wafer surface depends on the temperature of the deposition surface, and the coating thickness affects the performance characteristics of the device.
[0021]
It has become apparent that it is desirable to operate the electrostatic chuck at a temperature close to the workpiece temperature in order to further improve the temperature uniformity of the workpiece surface. For example, experimental data has shown that during high density plasma chemical vapor deposition, operating the electrostatic chuck at a temperature within about 100 ° C. (or less than 100 ° C.) of the workpiece allows for the formation of a uniform film thickness. I know. However, in order to allow control of the electrostatic chuck temperature, in order to reduce variations in the electrostatic chuck temperature, heat can be ensured quickly when needed while maintaining fine control over the overall heat removal rate. Means that can be removed must be found.
[0022]
FIG. 3A shows a cross-section of a preferred embodiment apparatus 300, which includes an electrostatic chuck 301 comprising an upper region 302 and a lower region 308. Alternatively, the electrostatic chuck 301 can be of a constant diameter. Further, the apparatus 300 includes a heat transfer / manifold plate 314 that functions as a manifold for supplying heat transfer gas to the electrostatic chuck 301, and a heat transfer thermal well attached to the heat transfer / manifold plate 314 (heat. transfer thermal wells) 318 and a cooling plate 333 having an upper member 330 brazed to a lower member 332 that includes a cooling channel 334. Heat transfer / manifold plate 314, heat transfer thermal well 318 and cooling plate 333 are housed in a thin heat choke cylinder 336 attached by brazing 340 to the lower region 308 of the electrostatic chuck. ing. A flange 338 extends from (or is attached to) the thin thermal chalk cylinder 336. The flange 338 is sealed against a surface in a process chamber (not shown) in which the electrostatic chuck 301 is operated. Inside the thin thermal choke cylinder 336, the first portion formed between the lower brazing surface 309 of the electrostatic chuck lower region 308 and the surface to which the choke cylinder 336 is attached by the flange 338 is at atmospheric pressure. Can be operated. The second part outside this first part is operated under vacuum. FIG. 3B shows an atmospheric pressure cavity 339 disposed below the heat transfer / manifold plate 314. In applications that did not require the heat transfer / manifold plate 314, the atmospheric pressure cavity of the first portion extends from the lower surface 311 of the electrostatic chuck 301 and the surface to which the flange 338 is attached.
[0023]
The preferred embodiment electrostatic chuck 301 was used at a typical high temperature of about 250 ° C. to about 275 ° C. during processing of silicon wafers. The heat transfer / manifold plate 314 and the thermal well 318 changed from this temperature to about 65 ° C. to about 70 ° C., which is a typical temperature of the low temperature plate 333. The hot choke cylinder 336 was hot (about 250 ° C. to about 275 ° C.) at the top and low temperature (about 65 ° C. to about 70 ° C.) at the bottom.
[0024]
The operation of the heat transfer element at atmospheric pressure provided a specific effect by increasing the heat transfer rate from the heat transfer / manifold plate 314 through the thermal well 318 to the cooling plate 333. In addition, an electrical supply connector (not shown) for the RF / HVDC electrical grid 304 and heating coil 310 near the surface of the electrostatic chuck 301 extends through the heat transfer and manifold plate 314 and the electrostatic chuck 301 as appropriate. And its electrical supply connector was placed in the first part to make it easily accessible for maintenance purposes and reduced the possibility of arcing, as described above. In addition, a connector for the heat transfer fluid conducting paths 316 and 312 can also be accessed in the atmospheric pressure cavity 339, and maintenance of the connector is facilitated.
[0025]
A heat transfer gas, typically helium, was supplied to the heat transfer fluid conduits 316, 312 at a nominal pressure, i.e., about 4-8 Torr. Ceramic pins 306 were attached inside the heat transfer fluid conduit 312 to reduce the possibility of arcing from a silicon wafer (not shown) into the conduit 312. Such arcing may cause decomposition of the heat transfer gas, particularly helium. The heat transfer fluid between the lower surface of the silicon wafer and the upper surface 303 of the electrostatic chuck 301 was relatively stable. The flow rate of helium was in the range of about 0.5 to 1.0 sccm. This range indicates the leakage flow rate of helium from the lower side of the silicon wafer along the peripheral edge of the silicon wafer.
[0026]
3A and 3B, the ceramic pin 306 is shown seated on the top surface of the heat transfer and manifold plate 314 directly above the heat transfer fluid conduit 316. This is the structure used when the heat transfer gas is helium, which was easily circulated between the bottom of the ceramic pin 306 and the top surface of the heat transfer and manifold plate 314 due to the size of the helium molecule. . Alternatively, the ceramic pin 306 may be designed to leave a space between the bottom of the ceramic pin 306 and the top surface of the heat transfer / manifold plate 314, which is the top surface 303 of the electrostatic chuck 301. This is a case where the heat transfer gas is required to flow through. The shape of the heat transfer fluid conducting path 312 and the ceramic pin 306 as shown in FIGS. 3A and 3B is such that the ceramic pin 306 is captured and the internal cavity of the conducting path 312 from the upper surface 303 of the electrostatic chuck 301. Designed to avoid a straight flow path to. This helps to prevent arcing into the high density plasma cavity 312 and to prevent simultaneous decomposition of the heat transfer gas (helium in this example).
[0027]
Contact between the base 320 of the thermal well 318 and the upper member 330 of the cooling plate 333 is preferably made using a lubricant / boundary contact material 322. The base 320 of the thermal well 318 can slide on the upper surface 329 of the upper member 330 of the cooling plate when the electrostatic chuck 301 and the heat transfer / manifold plate 314 expand and contract by the lubricant / boundary contact material 322, The lubricant-boundary contact material 322 fills the gap between the base 320 and the upper surface 329 of the cooling plate upper member 330 so that heat transfer occurs easily at this boundary. In this preferred embodiment, thermal grease was used as the lubricant / boundary contact material 322 because the pressure in the cavity 339 was atmospheric. If the pressure in the cavity 339 is lower than atmospheric pressure, the lubricant-boundary contact material 322 must be a material that does not release gas at the operating pressure. The thermal grease used as the lubricant / boundary contact material 322 in the preferred embodiment was filled with aluminum particles, a heat transfer medium known to provide excellent thermal conductivity.
[0028]
As described above, the lubricant / boundary contact material (preferably thermal grease) 322 allows the base 320 of the thermal well 318 to slide on the upper surface 329 of the upper member 330 of the cooling plate 333. Thus, if the electrostatic chuck 301 shrinks with a different dimension than the cooling plate 333, the lubricant / boundary contact material 322 ensures that the stress produced between the thermal well 318 and the upper surface 329 of the cooling plate 333 is minimized. Can be. Further, intimate heat transfer contact is maintained between the base 320 of the thermal well 318 and the upper surface 329 of the cooling plate 333. If the cooling plate 333 is maintained at a relatively constant temperature between about 65-100 ° C., while the temperature of the electrostatic chuck 301 is changed between about 250-350 ° C. when the process conditions are changed, Differences in relative thermal shrinkage often occurred between the electrostatic chuck 301 and the cooling plate 333.
[0029]
The cooling plate 333 was provided with a conduction path 334 for transferring a cooling fluid, generally water (not shown). During typical operation of an electrostatic chuck in a high density plasma environment, the cooling fluid flows through the cooling plate conduction path 334 at a relatively constant rate, RF or (more generally) heating coil to the electrostatic chuck grid 304. The 310 current was increased in response to a controller receiving input data from thermocouples 326-327. The temperature measurement by the thermocouple 326-327 was within about 5 mm of the upper surface 303 of the electrostatic chuck 301. The controller was a commercially available standard SCR (silicon controlled rectifier) controller with a proportional, integral and derivative (PID) loop. The controller uses the input value of the thermocouple 326-327 to calculate the rate at which the temperature of the electrostatic chuck surface increases or decreases, and generates a signal for increasing or decreasing the power to the heating coil 310 based on this input value. I did it. In this example, the measured temperature used to give an input value to the controller is the temperature of the electrostatic chuck main body 301. In other cases, the temperature of a semiconductor substrate (not shown) in contact with the electrostatic chuck main body 301 is used. Other measured temperatures may be used, such as the temperature of a process variable such as or plasma.
[0030]
Typically, the temperature of the electrostatic chuck is controlled to be close to the plasma processing temperature, and excessive heat storage on the silicon wafer is caused by the helium heat transfer fluid between the silicon wafer and the electrostatic chuck. I was told. Therefore, when the electrostatic chuck starts to increase in temperature, the power to the heating coil 310 is reduced so that cooling is caused by heat transfer from the electrostatic chuck 301 to the cooling plate 333 through the heat transfer / manifold plate 314 and the thermal well 318. It was. When the plasma is stopped at the end of the wafer processing cycle and the electrostatic chuck begins to cool, the power to the heating coil 310 is at a level that reduces the time required between processing wafers with different electrostatic chuck temperatures. (Ie, the electrostatic chuck need not be reheated each time a processed wafer is removed and a new wafer is placed on the electrostatic chuck for processing). As described above, the electrostatic chuck temperature control mechanism of the present invention is not only a technique for improving the quality control of the entire surface of the film deposited on the surface of the workpiece (silicon wafer) during high-density plasma CVD. Reduced cycle time for processing.
[0031]
The cooling plate 333 was held in place in contact with the base 320 of the thermal well 318 by three screws (not shown) extending into the heat transfer plate 314. The three screws were manually tightened to a shim (not shown) that controls the spacing between the base 320 and the cold plate 333, thereby controlling the thickness of the thermal grease 322 at such spacing.
[0032]
Suitable materials for the construction of the apparatus 300 are as follows. The electrostatic chuck 301 is made of a dielectric material, preferably a dielectric ceramic such as silicon nitride or alumina. The thickness of the electrostatic chuck 301 is typically about 17 mm. The electrical grid 304 is made of a conductor, such as molybdenum, tungsten, tungsten-molybdenum alloy, or other material having the same expansion rate as the dielectric used to make the electrostatic chuck 301. The heating coil 310 is mainly made of molybdenum wire. The electrical contacts (not shown) that connect to the electrical grid 304 or the heating coil 310 are preferably made from a conductor such as molybdenum. The heat transfer plate manifold 314 is preferably formed from the same dielectric material as the electrostatic chuck 301, but is made from any material that has a similar coefficient of linear thermal expansion and exhibits sufficient heat transfer capability. be able to. The thermal well 318 is made of a material that provides a good heat transfer coefficient and provides a linear thermal expansion coefficient close to that of the heat transfer plate 314. For example, when the electrostatic chuck 301 is made of silicon nitride, the thermal well 318 is generally made of molybdenum. The thermal well 318 is attached to the heat transfer plate 314 by brazing 324 using a brazing material such as silver / copper / titanium. The brazing material is particularly effective when the electrostatic chuck 301 is silicon nitride and the thermal well 318 is molybdenum. Although not known to be required, to prevent the formation of a vacuum internal space in the thermal well 318 when brazing the thermal well 318 to the heat transfer plate 314, the thermal well 318 is An opening 328 is provided along the base 320. This helps maintain a flat base 320 for the thermal well 318.
[0033]
The thermal grease 322 is mainly made of a material such as silicone filled with boron nitride or aluminum particles, but is not limited thereto.
[0034]
The cooling plate 333 is made of a material that is an excellent heat conductor such as copper or aluminum. The thin-walled (typically about 0.020 in. (0.51 mm) thick) thermal choke cylinder 336 is made of a material having a linear thermal expansion coefficient equivalent to that of the electrostatic chuck 301, for example, electrostatic If the chuck 301 is silicon nitride, it is made from molybdenum. The flange 338 may be an extension from the thin thermal chalk cylinder 336, but a thicker wall (eg, about 0.25 in. (7.3 mm) thick) brazed to the thin cylinder 336. It is preferable that The flange 338 is typically made from the same material as the thin-walled thermal choke cylinder 336, but may be made from a more ductile material, such as stainless steel.
[0035]
4A is a plan view of the electrostatic chuck 301, and FIG. 4B is a cross-sectional view more clearly showing the upper region 302, the lower region 308, and the electric contactor 410 of the electrostatic chuck 301. It is. Referring to FIG. 4A, the electrostatic chuck 301 is a lift finger that can move a workpiece (not shown) up and down relative to the electrostatic chuck 301 in order to facilitate handling during processing. A pocket 402 is provided. The heat transfer fluid opening 406 extends to the upper surface 403 of the upper region 302 of the electrostatic chuck 301. The heat transfer fluid opening 406 surrounds the ceramic pin 306 and is adjacent to the heat transfer fluid conducting paths 404 and 406 provided on the upper surface 403 of the upper region 302 of the electrostatic chuck 301. The heat transfer fluid conduction paths 404 and 406 distribute the heat transfer fluid (such as a gas used for heating or cooling) over the entire upper surface 304 of the electrostatic chuck 301. As described above, the heat transfer gas is relatively stable between the upper surface 403 of the electrostatic chuck 301 and the lower surface of the silicon wafer. The flow rate of a heat transfer gas such as helium is typically about 0.5 to 1.0 sccm, which is typically 8 in. At a nominal pressure of about 4 to 8 Torr. It represents gas leaking from the edge of a (200 mm) diameter workpiece (not shown).
[0036]
The electric grid 304 is below the upper surface 403 and the heat transfer fluid conducting paths 404 and 406 milled on the upper surface 403. The thickness of the upper dielectric layer of the electrical grid 304 prevents the generation of an electrical arc between the grid 304 and a workpiece (not shown) placed on the upper surface 304 of the electrostatic chuck 301, and is at least 2 KV. It is sufficient to give the discharge breakdown voltage.
[0037]
FIG. 5 shows the upper surface 503 of the lower region 308 of the electrostatic chuck 301. A heating coil 310 is embedded below the upper surface 503. An electrical contact 508 connected to the heating coil 310 is brazed to the bushing in the dielectric ceramic material of the electrostatic chuck 301. The heating coil 310 is typically embedded in a dielectric ceramic, and X-rays are used to place the end of the heating coil 310 after being embedded. After this, the dielectric ceramic is milled to expose the end of the heating coil 310 and that end is brazed to the bushing that constitutes the electrical contact 508. An electrical connector 506 for an electrical grid 304 (not shown) is provided in a similar manner. As described above, the temperature of the electrostatic chuck 301 within about 5 mm on the upper surface of the electrostatic chuck 301 can be monitored by the thermocouple 327. The thermocouple 327 penetrates the lower region 308 of the electrostatic chuck 301 as shown in FIG. The heat transfer fluid riser pipe 504 that penetrates the lower region 308 of the electrostatic chuck 301 allows the heat transfer fluid to flow through the upper surface (not shown) of the electrostatic chuck 301.
[0038]
6A and 6B show the heat well 318 and the heat transfer plate manifold 314 of the heat transfer device with respect to the electrostatic chuck 301. FIG. 6A is a bottom view of the heat transfer plate manifold 314 extending downward from the lower area 308 of the electrostatic chuck. The base 320 of the heat transfer well 318 is more clearly shown with an opening 328 in the center of the base 320. Also shown is the base 326 and HVDC / RF connector 506 of the thermocouple 326-327. 6B is a schematic cross-sectional view of FIG. 6A, in which an electrostatic chuck 301 including an upper region 302 and a lower region 308, a heat transfer plate manifold 314, a base 320, and a central opening thereof. A thermal well 318 having 328 is also shown. Also shown are thermocouples 326-327, an electrical connector 506 to the grid 304, a thin thermal choke cylinder 336, and a mounting flange 338.
[0039]
The apparatus 300 described above preferably comprises a silicon nitride electrostatic chuck upper member 302 and lower member 308 and a heat transfer plate 314, which are green at about 200 ° C. under a pressure of about 100 atm or higher. They can be sintered together from a green sheet material. However, the members formed under milder conditions may be brazed to each other depending on the configuration of other elements arranged in the structure, the fragility thereof, and the like. Also, those skilled in the art can devise the formation of a single silicon nitride member including an electrical grid, a heating coil, an electrical connector, a heat transfer plate, a heat transfer fluid conduit, and other elements. It is also conceivable to braze the thermal well to the heat transfer plate after the formation of the silicon nitride member. The various layers and elements within a single member are mechanically aligned and held in place during the molding or sintering process for single member preparation. The method of preparing the aforementioned layer structure from ceramic “green sheets” and ceramic powder materials is a well-known technique.
[0040]
The above-described preferred embodiments can be expanded and modified by those skilled in the art from the description in the detailed description of the invention in this specification so that the embodiments can be adapted to the subject matter of the claims. It is not intended to limit the scope of the invention.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 illustrates a conventional electrostatic chuck shown in a typical plasma processing chamber and operated at a temperature in the range of 65 ° C. disposed in place in the chamber.
FIG. 2A is a schematic plan view of an electrostatic chuck of the type shown in FIG. 1, showing heat transfer fluid distribution or distribution holes arranged along the peripheral edge of the electrostatic chuck. is there. (B) is a schematic sectional drawing of the electrostatic chuck of (A). (C) is a partially cutaway schematic perspective view of the gas distribution insert shown in (A).
FIG. 3A is a diagram illustrating a preferred embodiment of an electrostatic chuck, a heat transfer device of the present invention used for removing heat from the electrostatic chuck, and the surface of the electrostatic chuck in a vacuum and at a high temperature. FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of an apparatus that can be used and that includes the heat transfer device of the present invention and the vacuum isolation structure of the present invention that can be used at atmospheric pressure and low temperature. (B) is another schematic view of the apparatus shown in (A), showing the part of the apparatus operated at atmospheric pressure.
4A is a plan view of the upper dielectric surface of the electrostatic chuck shown in FIGS. 3A and 3B, showing a heat transfer fluid opening, a flow channel, and a dielectric surface. FIG. FIG. 6 also shows the lower RF / HVDC electrical grid. (B) is a schematic cross-sectional view of the electrostatic chuck of (A), an RF / HVDC electrical grid near the top surface of the electrostatic chuck, and electrical heating used to heat the electrostatic chuck as needed. It is a figure which shows a coil.
FIG. 5 is a plan view of the lower region 308 of the electrostatic chuck shown in FIG. 4B, and applies RF and high-voltage direct current to the heating coil, the heat transfer fluid distribution opening, and the RF / HVDC electric grid. It is a figure which shows the thermocouple used for the electrode for performing, and the feedback for temperature control.
6 (A) is a bottom view showing a part of a heat transfer device according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and is attached to the lower part of the electrostatic chuck shown in FIG. 4 (B). It is a figure which shows a heat | fever plate manifold, and is a thermal well attached to the bottom part of a heat-transfer plate manifold, and conveys heat from a heat-transfer plate manifold to the low-temperature plate which contact | connects this. (B) is a schematic cross-sectional view showing the layers of the electrostatic chuck shown in FIGS. 4 (A) and 5 (A) assembled into a single structure with the heat transfer plate manifold of (A). FIG. 3 is a view showing a heat / vacuum isolation enclosure used for isolating the substrate processing surface of the electrostatic chuck from the heat transfer device according to the present invention.
[Explanation of symbols]
301 ... Electrostatic chuck, 304 ... Electric grid, 310 ... Heating coil, 314 ... Heat transfer / manifold plate, 312, 316 ... Heat transfer fluid conduction path, 318 ... Thermal well, 320 ... Base, 322 ... Lubricant, 326 327 ... Thermocouple, 333 ... Cooling plate, 336 ... Thermal choke cylinder, 338 ... Flange, 339 ... Atmospheric pressure cavity.

Claims (27)

  1. A heat transfer device used for semiconductor processing,
    (A) at least one heat transfer thermal well having a first surface that is in thermal contact with the surface of the main body of the electrostatic chuck and a second surface that is in thermal contact with the surface of the low-temperature body, The first surface is the surface of the first end of the heat transfer thermal well, and the second surface is the surface of the second end of the heat transfer thermal well. A thermal well for heat,
    (B) a lubricant that is a boundary contact material between the second surface of the thermal well for heat transfer and the cold body;
    With
    The lubricant enables the second surface of the at least one heat transfer thermal well to slide along the surface of the cold body, and the second of the at least one heat transfer thermal well. Filling a gap between a surface and the surface of the cold body to promote heat transfer between the second surface of the at least one heat transfer well and the surface of the cold body;
    Heat transfer device.
  2.   The heat transfer device according to claim 1, wherein the lubricant is thermal grease.
  3.   The heat transfer device according to claim 2, wherein the thermal grease includes a heat conductive material.
  4.   The heat transfer device according to claim 3, wherein the heat conductive material is selected from the group consisting of boron nitride particles and aluminum particles.
  5.   The at least one heat transfer thermal well is through a heat transfer plate having a first surface that is in thermal contact with the main body of the electrostatic chuck and a second surface that is in contact with the at least one heat transfer thermal well. The heat transfer device according to claim 1, wherein the heat transfer device is in thermal contact with the main body of the electrostatic chuck.
  6. (A) An electrostatic chuck body in which electrodes that enable high-voltage direct current and high-frequency electrical input are embedded, and in which a heating element that can heat the electrostatic chuck body is embedded The main body of the chuck,
    (B) having a first surface that is in thermal contact with the surface of the main body of the electrostatic chuck and a second surface that is in contact with the first surface of the first end of the at least one heat transfer thermal well. A heat transfer device including a heat transfer plate;
    (C) a low temperature body having a surface in contact with a second surface of the second end of the at least one heat transfer thermal well,
    (D) enabling the second surface of the at least one heat transfer thermal well to slide along the surface of the cold body; and the second surface of the at least one heat transfer thermal well. A lubricant that fills a gap between the surface of the cold body and promotes heat transfer between the second surface of the at least one heat transfer thermal well and the surface of the cold body;
    An apparatus used for semiconductor processing.
  7.   The apparatus of claim 6, comprising a lubricant as an additional element between the at least one heat transfer thermal well and the cold body in thermal contact with the thermal well.
  8.   The apparatus of claim 7, wherein the lubricant is thermal grease.
  9.   The apparatus of claim 8, wherein the thermal grease includes a thermally conductive material.
  10.   10. The apparatus of claim 9, wherein the thermally conductive material is selected from the group consisting of boron nitride particles and aluminum particles.
  11.   The apparatus of claim 6, wherein the electrostatic chuck comprises silicon nitride.
  12.   The apparatus according to claim 6, wherein the heat transfer plate has a disk shape or a plate shape, and the heat transfer plate is brazed to a lower surface of the electrostatic chuck.
  13. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the heat transfer plate comprises silicon nitride.
  14.   The apparatus of claim 6, wherein the at least one heat transfer well is brazed to the heat transfer plate at the first end.
  15.   The apparatus of claim 14, wherein the heat transfer thermal well includes the second end having a flat heat transfer surface.
  16.   The apparatus of claim 15, wherein the cold body has a flat heat transfer surface.
  17.   17. The lubricant of claim 16, comprising a lubricant as an additional element between the flat heat transfer surface of the at least one heat transfer well and the flat heat transfer surface of the cold body. apparatus.
  18.   The apparatus of claim 17, wherein the lubricant is thermal grease.
  19.   The apparatus of claim 18, wherein the thermal grease comprises a thermally conductive material.
  20.   20. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein the thermally conductive material is selected from the group consisting of boron nitride particles and aluminum particles.
  21. (A) a main body of an electrostatic chuck in which a heating element is embedded, wherein the electric power to the heating element is a temperature measurement value of the main body of the electrostatic chuck, a semiconductor substrate that is in thermal contact with the main body of the electrostatic chuck A body of the electrostatic chuck adapted to be controlled according to a temperature measurement value or a temperature measurement value of a process variable;
    (B) Heat transfer including at least one heat transfer well having a first surface in thermal contact with the surface of the main body of the electrostatic chuck and a second surface in thermal contact with the low temperature body. An apparatus, wherein the first surface is a surface of a first end portion of the heat transfer thermal well, and the second surface is a surface of a second end portion of the heat transfer thermal well. The heat transfer device;
    (C) enabling the second surface of the at least one heat transfer thermal well to slide along the surface of the cold body; and the second surface of the at least one heat transfer thermal well. A lubricant that fills a gap between the surface of the cold body and promotes heat transfer between the second surface of the at least one heat transfer thermal well and the surface of the cold body;
    An apparatus used for semiconductor processing.
  22.   The apparatus of claim 21, wherein power to the heating element is controlled in response to the temperature measurement of the body of the electrostatic chuck.
  23. (A) a high density plasma chemical vapor deposition chamber;
    (B) a main body of the electrostatic chuck in which the heating element is embedded, wherein the electric power to the heating element is a temperature measurement value of the main body of the electrostatic chuck, a semiconductor substrate that is in thermal contact with the main body of the electrostatic chuck A body of the electrostatic chuck adapted to be controlled according to a temperature measurement value or a temperature measurement value of a process variable;
    (C) Heat transfer including at least one heat transfer well having a first surface in thermal contact with the surface of the main body of the electrostatic chuck and a second surface in thermal contact with the low temperature body. An apparatus, wherein the first surface is a surface of a first end portion of the heat transfer thermal well, and the second surface is a surface of a second end portion of the heat transfer thermal well. The heat transfer device;
    (D) enabling the second surface of the at least one heat transfer thermal well to slide along the surface of the cold body; and the second surface of the at least one heat transfer thermal well. A lubricant that fills a gap between the surface of the cold body and promotes heat transfer between the second surface of the at least one heat transfer thermal well and the surface of the cold body;
    An apparatus used for semiconductor processing.
  24. A heat transfer method for transferring heat from an electrostatic chuck,
    (A) preparing a surface of the electrostatic chuck from which heat is to be extracted;
    (B) disposing a first surface of a first end of at least one heat transfer thermal well in thermal contact with the surface of the electrostatic chuck;
    (C) disposing a second surface of the second end of the at least one heat transfer thermal well that is in thermal contact with the cold body;
    (D) enabling the second surface of the at least one heat transfer thermal well to slide along the surface of the cold body; and the second surface of the at least one heat transfer thermal well. Provided is a lubricant that fills a gap between the surface of the cold body and promotes heat transfer between the second surface of the at least one heat transfer thermal well and the surface of the cold body. To
    A heat transfer method comprising:
  25.   The heat transfer method according to claim 24, further comprising a step of arranging a lubricant between the second surface of the at least one heat transfer well and the low temperature body.
  26.   The heat transfer method according to claim 25, wherein the lubricant is a thermal grease.
  27. A heat transfer method for transferring heat from an electrostatic chuck disposed in a semiconductor processing chamber,
    (A) Prepare a main body of the electrostatic chuck in which the heating element is embedded,
    (B) A temperature measurement value of the electrostatic chuck body, a temperature measurement value of a semiconductor substrate in thermal contact with the electrostatic chuck body, or a temperature measurement value of a process variable in the processing chamber. Control power,
    (C) disposing a first surface of a first end of at least one heat transfer thermal well that is in thermal contact with the surface of the main body of the electrostatic chuck;
    (D) disposing a second surface of the second end of the at least one heat transfer thermal well that is in thermal contact with the cold body;
    (E) enabling the second surface of the at least one heat transfer thermal well to slide along the surface of the cold body; and the second surface of the at least one heat transfer thermal well. Provided is a lubricant that fills a gap between the surface of the cold body and promotes heat transfer between the second surface of the at least one heat transfer thermal well and the surface of the cold body. To
    A heat transfer method comprising:
JP3926397A 1996-02-23 1997-02-24 Apparatus and method for transferring heat from a hot electrostatic chuck to a lower cold body Expired - Fee Related JP4256482B2 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

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US08/605,823 US5730803A (en) 1996-02-23 1996-02-23 Apparatus and method for transferring heat from a hot electrostatic chuck to an underlying cold body
US08/605823 1996-02-23

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