JP4145360B2 - Especially the stand for surgical microscope - Google Patents

Especially the stand for surgical microscope Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4145360B2
JP4145360B2 JP54993698A JP54993698A JP4145360B2 JP 4145360 B2 JP4145360 B2 JP 4145360B2 JP 54993698 A JP54993698 A JP 54993698A JP 54993698 A JP54993698 A JP 54993698A JP 4145360 B2 JP4145360 B2 JP 4145360B2
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JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
lever
shaft
support
holder
upper
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
JP54993698A
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Japanese (ja)
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JP2000516126A (en
Inventor
シュープバッハ、ロルフ
Original Assignee
ライカ ミクロスコピー ズュステーメ アーゲー
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to CH116297 priority Critical
Priority to CH1162/97 priority
Application filed by ライカ ミクロスコピー ズュステーメ アーゲー filed Critical ライカ ミクロスコピー ズュステーメ アーゲー
Priority to PCT/EP1998/002909 priority patent/WO1998052484A1/en
Publication of JP2000516126A publication Critical patent/JP2000516126A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of JP4145360B2 publication Critical patent/JP4145360B2/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16MFRAMES, CASINGS, OR BEDS OF ENGINES OR OTHER MACHINES OR APPARATUS NOT SPECIFIC TO AN ENGINE, MACHINE, OR APPARATUS PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE; STANDS OR SUPPORTS
    • F16M11/00Stands or trestles as supports for apparatus or articles placed thereon Stands for scientific apparatus such as gravitational force meters
    • F16M11/02Heads
    • F16M11/18Heads with mechanism for moving the apparatus relatively to the stand
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/20Surgical microscopes characterised by non-optical aspects
    • A61B90/25Supports therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/50Supports for surgical instruments, e.g. articulated arms
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16MFRAMES, CASINGS, OR BEDS OF ENGINES OR OTHER MACHINES OR APPARATUS NOT SPECIFIC TO AN ENGINE, MACHINE, OR APPARATUS PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE; STANDS OR SUPPORTS
    • F16M11/00Stands or trestles as supports for apparatus or articles placed thereon Stands for scientific apparatus such as gravitational force meters
    • F16M11/02Heads
    • F16M11/04Means for attachment of apparatus; Means allowing adjustment of the apparatus relatively to the stand
    • F16M11/06Means for attachment of apparatus; Means allowing adjustment of the apparatus relatively to the stand allowing pivoting
    • F16M11/10Means for attachment of apparatus; Means allowing adjustment of the apparatus relatively to the stand allowing pivoting around a horizontal axis
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16MFRAMES, CASINGS, OR BEDS OF ENGINES OR OTHER MACHINES OR APPARATUS NOT SPECIFIC TO AN ENGINE, MACHINE, OR APPARATUS PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE; STANDS OR SUPPORTS
    • F16M11/00Stands or trestles as supports for apparatus or articles placed thereon Stands for scientific apparatus such as gravitational force meters
    • F16M11/20Undercarriages with or without wheels
    • F16M11/2007Undercarriages with or without wheels comprising means allowing pivoting adjustment
    • F16M11/2021Undercarriages with or without wheels comprising means allowing pivoting adjustment around a horizontal axis
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16MFRAMES, CASINGS, OR BEDS OF ENGINES OR OTHER MACHINES OR APPARATUS NOT SPECIFIC TO AN ENGINE, MACHINE, OR APPARATUS PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE; STANDS OR SUPPORTS
    • F16M11/00Stands or trestles as supports for apparatus or articles placed thereon Stands for scientific apparatus such as gravitational force meters
    • F16M11/20Undercarriages with or without wheels
    • F16M11/2092Undercarriages with or without wheels comprising means allowing depth adjustment, i.e. forward-backward translation of the head relatively to the undercarriage
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16MFRAMES, CASINGS, OR BEDS OF ENGINES OR OTHER MACHINES OR APPARATUS NOT SPECIFIC TO AN ENGINE, MACHINE, OR APPARATUS PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE; STANDS OR SUPPORTS
    • F16M11/00Stands or trestles as supports for apparatus or articles placed thereon Stands for scientific apparatus such as gravitational force meters
    • F16M11/20Undercarriages with or without wheels
    • F16M11/24Undercarriages with or without wheels changeable in height or length of legs, also for transport only, e.g. by means of tubes screwed into each other
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16MFRAMES, CASINGS, OR BEDS OF ENGINES OR OTHER MACHINES OR APPARATUS NOT SPECIFIC TO AN ENGINE, MACHINE, OR APPARATUS PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE; STANDS OR SUPPORTS
    • F16M13/00Other supports for positioning apparatus or articles; Means for steadying hand-held apparatus or articles
    • F16M13/02Other supports for positioning apparatus or articles; Means for steadying hand-held apparatus or articles for supporting on, or attaching to, an object, e.g. tree, gate, window-frame, cycle
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B7/00Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements
    • G02B7/001Counterbalanced structures, e.g. surgical microscopes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/20Surgical microscopes characterised by non-optical aspects
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16MFRAMES, CASINGS, OR BEDS OF ENGINES OR OTHER MACHINES OR APPARATUS NOT SPECIFIC TO AN ENGINE, MACHINE, OR APPARATUS PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE; STANDS OR SUPPORTS
    • F16M2200/00Details of stands or supports
    • F16M2200/06Arms
    • F16M2200/063Parallelogram arms

Description

[Technical field]
The present invention relates to a rotating holder for a surgical microscope having a vertical holder including a suspension and a horizontal holder having a horizontal holder.
[Background technology]
In surgery, the use of a surgical microscope that needs to be supported by a stand is increasing due to its large intrinsic weight. A series of prominent manufacturers market a platform that responds well to the demands of surgical microscopes for load acceptance from a mechanical and static point of view. The present applicant sells, for example, a stand of model number OH manufactured by Mitaka.
An example of such a platform is described in European patent EP-A-628290.
An example of the development of this platform is described in the applicant's WO-A-97 / 13997.
Swiss patent CH-A-3467 / 95 and a patent application filed on the same day as this application (reference number: RAP-3779-CH) show examples of developments relating to material use and vibration damping.
Most modern platforms use parallelogram holders that can support the load of the surgical microscope without bending and twisting over the largest possible range so that the freedom of movement and working radius of the microscope are as large as possible.
European patent EP-A-628290 shows, for example, a structure in which a parallelogram holder is provided for a pivoting holder, i.e. a structural member to which a surgical microscope is pivotally mounted directly. In this case, the role of the parallelogram holder is to introduce a load, that is, a holding force of the surgical microscope, into the gantry so that the position of the microscope on the gantry is stably held when the brake is blocked.
[Disclosure of the Invention]
The object of the present invention is to improve this known swivel holder. In particular, it is intended to abandon the parallelogram holder and to support the surgical microscope without twisting. In this case, the working radius should not be limited, the structure should be stable, easy to use and have as little play as possible.
In order to solve the above problems, according to one aspect of the present invention, in a turning holder for a surgical microscope having a vertical holder and a horizontal holder including a suspension,
The swivel holder has a V-shaped support lever having two equal-length arm portions, and a V-shaped operation lever having two equal-length arm portions, and the bent portion of the support lever includes: Pivoting the bending portion of the actuating lever, and thus the resulting turning moment is transmitted in a 1: 1 ratio from one end of the actuating lever to the other end of the actuating lever;
The upper end and the lower end of the support lever support the upper shaft and the lower shaft, respectively, and the upper end and the lower end of the operation lever support the upper shaft and the lower shaft, respectively. The lower shaft of the actuator lever and the lower shaft of the actuating lever are coupled to each other so as not to slip through the lower toggle lever, and the upper shaft of the support lever and the upper shaft of the actuating lever are prevented from idling via the upper toggle lever. Thus, when the actuating lever is turned, the upper shaft and the lower shaft of the support lever are rotated (mode 1 / basic configuration).
Hereinafter, preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described. Forms 2 to 10 are also the subject of the dependent claims.
(Mode 1) See basic configuration above.
(Mode 2) In the above-mentioned turning holder, it is preferable that the support lever is supported with respect to the suspension by a parallel guide.
(Embodiment 3) In the swivel holder, it is preferable that the parallel guide has two parallel slider guides that are arranged at right angles to each other and enable the arcuate movement of the support lever in a vertical plane.
(Mode 4) In the above-mentioned turning holder, it is preferable that the lower shaft of the support lever carries a microscope interface including a tilting shaft and a brake of the tilting shaft.
(Embodiment 5) In the swing holder, the tilting shaft is coupled to the sector gear, the tilting motion of the sector gear is limited by the stopper neck shaft, and / or the brake is connected to the sector gear via the gear. It is preferable to act.
(Mode 6) In the swing holder, the upper shaft of the support lever is held by a slider guide that allows the upper shaft to be displaced in the yy direction and thus the support lever in the yy direction in the space. It is preferable.
(Mode 7) In the swivel holder, the slider guide has an adjustment knob equipped with a screw spindle and / or an automatic balancing device that automatically shifts the center of gravity of the swivel holder or the microscope below the suspension point of the mount. It is preferable.
(Mode 8) In the above-mentioned turning holder, it is preferable that the movable member is covered with at least one cover.
(Mode 9) In the swivel holder described above, it is preferable that the cover has an integral foam material lining.
(Embodiment 10) It is preferable that the platform has any of the turning holders of Embodiments 1 to 9.
The problem is that instead of a parallelogram holder, they are connected to each other in a rotatable manner, have the same lever ratio at both ends, and the center of gravity of the load is equal to that of a parallelogram holder. This is solved by providing a combination of two double-armed angle levers that transmit moments so that they can be held together. More specifically, in a swivel holder for a surgical microscope having a vertical holder including a suspension and a horizontal holder, the swivel holder has a substantially equal-length double-arm angle lever, and one of these angle levers is a support lever. The other angle lever as the actuating lever is pivoted approximately in the center and almost symmetrically with respect to the lever length, so that the resulting turning moment is transmitted 1: 1 from one actuating lever to the other lever It is solved by.
The new angle holder is provided with a parallel slider guide that spatially maintains the angular position of the angle (lever) based on the developed form of the present invention.
Thus, unlike a conventional platform, two adjustable slider guides for both parallel upper holders of a conventional parallel saddle device are also unnecessary. Only one adjustable slider guide is sufficient for the horizontal shift of the load application point.
A self-balancing structure corresponding to the teaching of said WO-A (WO publication), which is incorporated herein by reference and considered to be disclosed, is of course within the scope of the present invention.
The present invention is preferably applied with the platform described in WO-A, but is not limited thereto.
[Brief description of the drawings]
The drawings will be described comprehensively. The drawing descriptions and code lists form units that are complemented by the remainder of this specification (detailed description) and the claims for complete disclosure. The same reference numerals represent the same structural members. The same reference numerals having different indexes represent similar structural members having the same function. The drawings are merely examples and are not necessarily drawn to scale.
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a swivel holder according to the present invention of a stand,
FIG. 2 is a development view of the swivel holder,
FIG. 3 is a drawing of a slider guide for adjusting the horizontal direction (y-y) of the swivel holder;
FIG. 4 is a detailed view of both angle holders,
FIG. 5 is a drawing of the assembled angle holder (with the cover removed),
FIG. 6 is a partial view of FIG.
FIG. 7 is another drawing showing the assembled state of FIG.
FIG. 8 is a partial sectional view of a pivot shaft suspension;
FIG. 9 shows the structure of the tilt axis.
[Best Mode for Carrying Out the Invention]
The suspension 7 uses a platform interface 25 (FIG. 8) for coupling the suspension to the platform. In this case, the structure of the pedestal is preferably a structure based on the WO-A, but is secondary.
A brakeable shaft 22 (FIG. 2) is coupled to a receiver 21 which can be movably adjusted in the yy direction in a slider guide (guide) 12.
On the other hand, the slider guide 12 carries a shaft 3 b that penetrates the support lever 1. The support lever 1 is further coupled to the suspension 7 via parallel slider guides 8a and 8b. The suspension can, on the one hand, realize an arcuate movement of the support lever 1 and on the other hand can be displaced in the yy direction by a slider guide 12. This slider guide uses an adjustment knob 13, an adjustment spindle 14, and a screw member (screw nut) 23 for driving the receiver 21 (FIG. 3).
FIG. 4 shows the cooperative relationship between the support lever 1 and the operation lever 2 pivotally supported (pivotally supported) at the center (or center) of the holder via the pivot (support shaft) 5. The two toggle levers 4a and 4b held by the shafts 3a and 3b on both sides of the operating lever 2 transmit torque to the shafts 3a and 3b. The lower shaft 3a has a connecting member 24 for receiving the microscope interface 9 (FIG. 5).
Microscope interface 9 carries a tilted rotary shaft 10 is braked by the brake 11. In this case, the brake 11 operates on the sector gear 15 that is rigidly coupled to the tilt shaft 10 via the transmission gear 17. The movement of the sector gear 15 is limited by the neck 16.
Thus, the tilting movement of the surgical microscope is limited (FIG. 9).
Other information will be apparent from the code listing and claims.
[Explanation of symbols]
1 Support lever 2 Actuation lever 3 Shaft ad
4 Toggle (vent) lever pair a, b
5 Support shaft (Axis)
6 Parallel guidance (guide)
7 Suspension 8 Slider a, b
9 Microscope interface 10 Tilt shaft 11 Brake 12 Slider guide 13 Adjustment knob 14 Adjustment spindle 15 Sector gear 16 Neck shaft 17 Gear 18 Cover 19 Adapter 20 Shaft 3b receiver 21 Shaft 22 receiver 22 Shaft 23 Screw member (screw nut)
24 connecting member 25 stand interface 26 microscope holder

Claims (9)

  1. In a rotating holder for a surgical microscope having a vertical holder including a suspension and a horizontal holder,
    The swivel holder has a V-shaped support lever (1) having two equal-length arm portions and a V-shaped operation lever (2) having two equal-length arm portions, and the support The bent part of the lever (1) pivotally supports the bent part of the actuating lever (2), and thus the swiveling moment generated is from one end of the actuating lever (2) to the other of the actuating lever (2). Is transmitted to the end of the
    The upper end and the lower end of the support lever (1) respectively support the upper shaft and the lower shaft (3b and 3a), and the upper end and the lower end of the operating lever (2) are respectively the upper shaft. The lower shaft (3d) of the supporting lever (1) and the lower shaft (3c) of the operating lever (2) do not idle via the lower toggle lever (4a). And the upper shaft (3b) of the support lever (1) and the upper shaft (3d) of the actuating lever (2) are coupled to each other so as not to idle via the upper toggle lever (4b). Thus, when the operating lever (2) is turned, the upper shaft and the lower shaft (3b and 3a) of the support lever (1) are rotated.
  2. The swivel holder according to claim 1, wherein the support lever (1) is supported with respect to the suspension (7) by a parallel guide (6).
  3. The parallel guide (6) has two parallel slider guides (8a, 8b) which are arranged at right angles to each other and enable the arcuate movement of the support lever (1) in a vertical plane. The turning holder according to claim 2.
  4. The lower shaft (3a) of the support lever (1) carries a microscope interface (9) including a tilt shaft (10) and a brake (11) of the tilt shaft. The turning holder according to any one of the above.
  5. The tilting shaft (10) is coupled to the sector gear (15), the tilting motion of the sector gear is limited by the stopper neck (16) and / or the brake (11) turns the gear (17). 5. The swivel holder according to claim 4, wherein the swivel holder acts on the sector gear via the via.
  6. The upper shaft (3b) of the support lever (1) is capable of displacing the upper shaft (3b) in the yy direction in the space and thus displacing the support lever (1) in the yy direction. It is hold | maintained by 12), The turning holder as described in any one of Claims 1-5 characterized by the above-mentioned.
  7. The swivel holder according to any one of claims 1 to 6 , wherein the movable member is covered by at least one cover (18).
  8. 8. A swivel holder according to claim 7 , wherein the cover (18) has an integral foam lining.
  9. Tayca with swivel holder according to any one of claims 1-8.
JP54993698A 1997-05-20 1998-05-18 Especially the stand for surgical microscope Expired - Lifetime JP4145360B2 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CH116297 1997-05-20
CH1162/97 1997-05-20
PCT/EP1998/002909 WO1998052484A1 (en) 1997-05-20 1998-05-18 Stand, especially for an operation microscope

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
JP2000516126A JP2000516126A (en) 2000-12-05
JP4145360B2 true JP4145360B2 (en) 2008-09-03

Family

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
JP54993698A Expired - Lifetime JP4145360B2 (en) 1997-05-20 1998-05-18 Especially the stand for surgical microscope

Country Status (5)

Country Link
US (1) US6199812B1 (en)
EP (1) EP0917451B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4145360B2 (en)
DE (1) DE59804866D1 (en)
WO (1) WO1998052484A1 (en)

Families Citing this family (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1998052484A1 (en) 1997-05-20 1998-11-26 Leica Mikroskopie Systeme Ag Stand, especially for an operation microscope
DE59914333D1 (en) * 1999-03-11 2007-06-21 Moeller Wedel Gmbh Suspension for a surgical microscope
EP1309816B1 (en) * 2000-08-17 2005-11-23 Mavig GmbH Support for medical equipment
DE20015398U1 (en) * 2000-08-17 2001-01-11 Mavig Gmbh Carrier for carrying medical equipment
DE20019109U1 (en) * 2000-11-12 2001-02-22 Leica Microsystems Tripod, especially for surgical microscopes
AT269672T (en) * 2001-11-09 2004-07-15 Brainlab Ag Pivoting arm with passive actuators
US8037884B2 (en) 2006-10-02 2011-10-18 Allen Medical Systems, Inc. Modular system for patient positioning during medical procedures
DE102008011639B4 (en) 2008-02-28 2013-01-03 Leica Instruments (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Tripod, especially for a surgical microscope
US8635725B2 (en) 2008-10-28 2014-01-28 Tony Y. Tannoury Prone and laterally angled surgical device and method
DE102008060725B4 (en) 2008-12-05 2010-11-04 Carl Zeiss Surgical Gmbh Tripod for holding a load and microscopy system
DE102010010133A1 (en) 2010-03-04 2011-09-08 Leica Microsystems (Schweiz) Ag Tripod for a microscope, in particular for a surgical microscope
DE102010010131B4 (en) * 2010-03-04 2017-08-24 Leica Microsystems (Schweiz) Ag Tripod for a microscope, in particular for a surgical microscope, and use of such a tripod
WO2019179402A1 (en) * 2018-03-23 2019-09-26 SZ DJI Technology Co., Ltd. Load-stabilizing apparatus

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US4277044A (en) 1979-09-07 1981-07-07 American Optical Corporation Mechanical counterbalance
US4500251A (en) 1982-02-05 1985-02-19 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Multijoint manipulator
JPH0318891B2 (en) * 1987-05-29 1991-03-13 Mitaka Koki Kk
US5072906A (en) 1988-01-15 1991-12-17 Hill-Rom Company, Inc. Hospital bed with pivoting headboard
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JPH0546441Y2 (en) * 1989-07-04 1993-12-06
US5014693A (en) 1989-10-25 1991-05-14 St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital Ceiling-mounted gas delivering unit for use in a catheter laboratory
JP2825721B2 (en) 1992-12-28 1998-11-18 三鷹光器株式会社 Medical optical instruments of the stand apparatus
JP4041536B2 (en) 1995-10-12 2008-01-30 ライカ ミクロスコピー ズュステーメ アーゲー Stand
WO1998052484A1 (en) 1997-05-20 1998-11-26 Leica Mikroskopie Systeme Ag Stand, especially for an operation microscope

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
DE59804866D1 (en) 2002-08-29
EP0917451B1 (en) 2002-07-24
US6199812B1 (en) 2001-03-13
EP0917451A1 (en) 1999-05-26
WO1998052484A1 (en) 1998-11-26
JP2000516126A (en) 2000-12-05

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